You are on page 1of 376

f RflNKLiN

Institute Library

FHIL/IDELFHI^
Class iS

^-^

Book W..3 S

Accession

4 9 8 QO

TEXT-BOOKS OF TECHNOLOGY
EDITED BY
Prof.

W. GARNETT, D.C.L., and Prof.

Secretary of the Technical Education Board


of the London County Council and formerly Principal of the Durham College
of Science, Newcastle-on-Tyne.

J.

WERTHEIMER,

B.SC, B.A.
^,

F. I.C., F. C.S.,
^

Principal of the Merchant Venturers


lechnical College, Bristol.

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

TEXT-BOOKS OF TECHNOLOGY
Edited by Prof.

W. Garnett, D.C.L.

Secretary of the

Technical Education Board of the London County Council,

and Prof.

Wertheimer, B.Sc,

J.

B.A., F.I.C., F.C.S.,

Principal of the Merchant Venturers' Technical College,


Bristol.

Messrs. Methuen and Co. announce the issue of a series


of elementary books under the above Title.
They will be
specially adapted to the needs of Technical Schools and
Colleges, and will fulfil the requirements of Students preparing for the Examinations of the City and Guilds of

London Institute.
The prices will vary according
which

will

be suitably

to the size of the

PRELIMINARY
1.

2.

LIST.

HOW
at

Volumes,

illustrated.

TO MAKE A DRESS. By Miss Wood,


the Goldsmith's Institute, New Cross. Crown

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY.

By

F. C.

Chief Instructress
8vo.

is.

6d.

Webber, Chief Lecturer

to the Building Trades' Department of the Merchant Venturers'


Technical College, Bristol. Crown 8vo. 3s. 6d.
3.

PRACTICAL CHEMISTRY. By

S.

G.

Rawson, D.Sc,

Principal

of the Huddersfield Technical College.


4.

DESIGNING AND WEAVING. By


of the Textile

5.

Department

A. F. Barker, Head Master


of the Bradford Technical College.

THE GEOLOGY OF COAL.


Professor of Geology in the
castle-on-Tyne.

6.

By G. A. Lebour, M.A., F.G.S.,


Durham College of Science, New-

PRACTICAL MECHANICS. By

S.

H. Wells, Principal of the

Battersea Polytechnic Institute.


7.

PRACTICAL PHYSICS. By
of Physics in the

8.

Durham

H. Stroud, D.Sc, M.A., Professor


College of Science, Newcastle-on-Tyne.

BOOT AND SHOE MANUFACTURE. By


Instructor in

E. Swaysland, Chief
Boot and Shoe Manufacture to the Northampton

County and Borough Councils.


9.

WORKSHOP ARITHMETIC AND MENSURATION.

By

C.

T. MiLLis, M.I.M.E., Principal of the Borough Polytechnic Institute,

N.B.

London.

Nos.

well-equipped

3, 6,

and

7 will be suitable for use in the Laboratories of

Organized Science Schools.

CARPENTRY & JOINERY

BY

FREDERICK

C.

WEBBER

CHIEF LECTURER TO THE BUILDING TRADES DEPARTMENT OF THE


MERCHANT VENTURERS' TECHNICAL COLLEGE, BRISTOL

WITH

176

ILLUSTRATIONS

METHUEN &
36

CO.

ESSEX STREET,
LONDON
1898

W. C

TH
I8J8

PREFACE
The

substance of the present volume was primarity

compiled for the use of students attending the evening


classes in

Carpentry and Joinery at the Merchant

Venturers' Technical College, Bristol.

The Drawings, which have been

specially

pre-

pared by the author for this work, are intended to


serve not only as illustrations to the text, but as
examples for reproduction by the student, so that

he

may

work

be in a position both to execute a piece of

himself, and, as foreman or leading hand, to

convey readily

his idea of the

work to others.
The author has ventured
its

form or outline of such


to

place

the

work

in

present form in the hands of the public, with

a hope that

it

may

be found useful not only to

students preparing for the examinations of the City

and Guilds of London Institute and other similar


bodies, but as a

work

of reference for the apprentice

and craftsman generally.

FREDERICK
Merchant Venturers'
Technical College
Bristol

C.

WEBBER

Digitized by the Internet Archive


in

2015

https://archive.org/details/carpentryjoineryOOwebb

CONTENTS
CHAPTER

I.

PAGE

Introduction,

CHAPTER

II.

Geometry and Projection,

10

CHAPTER

III.

Joints used in Carpentry and Joinery,

CHAPTER

IV.

Floors,

74

CHAPTER
Partitions,

38

V.
89

CHAPTER

VI.

Doors, Door Frames, and Jamb Linings,

97

CHAPTER VIL
Sashes and Sash Frames, Lantern Lights and Skylights,

114

CONTENTS

viii

CHAPTEE

VIII.
PAGE

EooFS,

138

CHAPTER

IX.

Fishing, Scarfing, and Timber Trussing,

CHAPTER

172

179

X.

Centres, Shoring, and Temporary

Work,

CHAPTER XL
Mouldings and Circular Work,

CHAPTER

195

XII.

Timber,

211

CHAPTER

XIII.

Mechanics of Carpentry,

236

CHAPTER

XIV.

Staircasing and Hand-railing,

APPENDIX

266

A.

Syllabus (from Programme of City and Guilds of

London

Institute),

APPENDIX
Examination Questions
London Institute,

of

City

295

B.

and

Guilds

of
301

CHAPTER

I.

INTRODUCTION.
Drawing Instruments.

It

is

advisable that

the

student should obtain at least the following instru-

ments and material of moderately good quality.


Drawing Paper. For students' work a fairly good
cartridge paper at about 2d. per imperial sheet is as
good as will be required, but where the paper is to be
subjected to hard wear, as in the workshop, a good
hand-made paper should be used.
The cost of the

latter will be

about three times that of the former.

The following

is

list

names and

of

sizes usually

placed upon the market

Name of
Demy,
Medium,

Paper.

Size.
-

Eoyal,
Imperial,
Atlas,

Double Elephant,
Antiquarian,
Cartridge

obtained in

paper
rolls.

20
22
24
30
34
40
52

in.
in.

in.
in.

in.
in.

in.

by
by
by
by
by
by
by

15
17
19
22
26
27
31

in.
in.

in.

in.
in.
in.
in.

and tracing paper may also be


The most convenient form for the
A

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

present

work

will be the imperial

sheet cut in two,

22 in. by 15 in.
Whatever the size of paper used,

so that its dimensions are

Drawing-Boards.
the

drawing-board

should

be

in

its

dimen-

linear

sions one inch larger, the half-imperial board

would

then measure 23 in. by 16 in.


It should be true in
plane and free from knots and shakes, and should be
so constructed as to be free to

expand and shrink with

the changes of the atmosphere without buckling or

Drawing-boards usually sold are of lime


be found to be
the most serviceable, as the drawing-pin is more easily
twisting.

or

yellow pine, but the latter will

pressed into

its surface.

rig./

<g)

(S)

(S>

(3)

//"

The best boards are made of well-seasoned material,


The ledges on the back of
and as shown in Fig. 1.
the board are fastened by means of rose-headed screws,
provided with brass washers which, with the exception
of the centre one, are slotted, as

shown

at Fig.

By

INTRODUCTION
this

arrangement the plane of the board

is

kept true,

whilst the expansion and contraction of the material


is

not hindered.

back, as

shown

If the

board

is

grooved upon

its

the previous sketch, not only

in

is

the weight reduced, but the bulk of the material being


lessened,
is

the tendency to

expansion and contraction

These grooves

also reduced.

may

made about

be

2 in. apart, I in. wide, and to a depth equal to half


the thickness of the board.
The thick black line at

represents a tongue of hard

left-hand edge of board, so


slide easily

wood glued

into the

that the tee-square

upon that edge.

This tongue

is

may

also cut

through at intervals to allow for the changes due to


the alteration

in

the

amount

of moisture

contained

in the atmosphere.

Tee-Squares.

Of

these,

there

are

two

forms

one having a parallel blade, whilst that of the other


tapers from the stock, and, being lighter to handle,

is

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

4
to

be

preferred

such a one,
with

two

its

hard-wood

The blade

is

the

to

former.

fiducial

slips

Fig.

edges

illustrates

being protected

towards

bevelled

the

paper.

fastened to the stock by means of five

two small
hard-wood plugs are driven through the blade and
screws, and, in order to secure

its rigidity,

into the stock.

The tee-square should only be applied to the lefthand edge of the board, and all horizontal lines should
be drawn from its top edge.
Perpendicular lines are
drawn by the aid of the set-squares applied to the
top edge of the blade of the square, as shown at
Fig. 2.

if

Two of these, at least, should be


one 30 and 60, and the other 45 and,

Set-Squares.
obtained

of wood, should

They

be of the framed variety.

should be of such a size that the longest edge

at

is

least eight or nine inches long.

Scale-Rules.
career
scales,

it

will

such as

In the
be

earlier stages of the student's

advisable

^, ^, ^,

and

large to be plotted full size.

to

adopt

when the

the

simpler

detail

is

too

In each of these cases

the ordinary joiners' rule will be found to be sufficient,

but as he progresses other scales are necessary, and for


these the

Architects'

Scale Eule "

may

be used

it

of box-wood and 12 in. long, segmental in section,


and with its edges parallel, sixteen scales are marked
upon its surfaces, and, with a slight exception, the
divisions are brought out to the keen edge, so that
dimensions may be plotted directly upon the paper
is

without liability to
Parallel Rules.
of the kind

error.

These are usually

known

as

perpetual."

unreliable, unless

The student

will

INTRODUCTION

drawn by the

aid of set-squares,

find that parallel lines

as

shown

at Fig. 3, will be the

most accurate.

Fig.
Pencils.

The

best

pencils for

work

of this kind

found to be those marked


or HH, sharpened
form of a wedge or chisel-point.
When a
drawing is to be finished in pencil it will be advisable
will be

in

the

to

take a finely-pointed

lines

HB

which border surfaces

right, as

shown

Compasses.

and "line over" those


at the bottom and to the

at Fig. 4.

set of

in.

or

4|

in.

with round or needle points, lengthening

compasses
bar,

and

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

with pen, pencil, and divider points, should be procured,

and

it

will be

pair of dividers,

if

found convenient to have a spare


possible,

with screw adjustment

known as " hair dividers/'


Drawing Pen. If it is intended

ings in ink, a drawing pen with

to finish the

draw-

hinged nib will be

required
this pen should always be put away clean
and dry, and the filling should be accomplished with
a small brush
a small camel hair will suffice. On no
account should a drawing pen be dipped into the ink
the habit is likely to lead to smeared lines and dirty
;

work.

Spring Bows.

These

will

be found necessary for

the construction of small circles, but this


to

is

only likely

occur in the advanced portions of the work.

Sectioning.
tional

Figs.

to

11

illustrate

the conven-

methods of hatching or sectioning the surface

vu<v/^rr<'^^^^

cv?vr/Vir/r/i

yvbod.

fbross

INTRODUCTION

It is not advisable to grain

of material cut through.

In coloured draw-

surfaces other than cross sections.

ings the sections are

shown

of a darker tint, and, as

a rule, the smaller the section the darker should the


tint be

made.

Dimensions to Working Drawings. These should


be placed upon the work as shown at Fig. 1, and great

make

care should be taken to

the arrow points touch

the lines from which the dimensions are taken, and


to

mark the

carefully

correcj

The above

sizes.

rendered the more important from the fact that

it

is

is

usual to insert in specifications the following clause


"

Where any discrepancy

between a scale draw-

exists

ing and a figured dimension, the latter


to be correct."

dash in the top right-hand corner

dash

is

to be taken

Inches should be denoted by a double


feet

no odd inches exist

by a single

).
should be indi'
cated by placing a cipher in position, as 3' 0''.

If

Datum

Lines.

In

it

commencing a drawing

it

is

advisable to start upon a line which passes in a right


direction across the paper,

from it.
taken at

This
"

Lettering.
"

writing up

may

to build

termed a datum

line,

line," " floor line,

good

drawing

" or lettering badly.

block capitals
italics

is

ground

and

may

sill line," etc.

often spoilt by
Upright or inclined

is

be used for headings, whilst small

be used for remarks.

examples of lettering that

may

The following

be used

A B G D E F
A B C D E F
a h c d e f

12

up the work
and is usually

4567890

are

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

The student should avoid all unnecessary ornamentation, and bear in mind that although good lettering is
essential, it is the

drawing that should be the promi-

nent feature.

Work.

Pencil

When a drawing

is

to be finished in

pencil, care should be exercised to avoid all superfluous


lines, as in erasing

the same, lines that should remain

Careful attention at the earlier

are often obliterated.

stages would enable the student to avoid such errors.

Inking In. Acid ink should not be used with


drawing instruments or they will be liable to corroIndian ink in bottle will suftice where no colour
sion
In order to insure good work with
is to be used.
coloured drawings, the ink should be rubbed from the
;

cake or

stick.

Colouring.

The

following

is

list

of conventional

colours used for the representation of various materials:

Material.

Colour.

Fir (in the rough),

Eaw

(wrought),

Burnt Sienna.
Sepia.

Oak,

Sienna.

Mahogany,

Lake and

Wrought

Prussian Blue.

Payne's Grey or Neutral Tint.

Iron,

Cast Iron,

Sepia.

Gamboge.

Indigo.

Hooker's Green.

interior,

Cobalt.

exterior,

Indigo.

Sepia.

Brass,

Lead or Zinc,
Glass in section,

Earth,

Brickwork

Slates,

(in section),

Lake.

(in elevation),

Indian or Venetian Red.

Neutral Tint.

INTRODUCTION

In colouring, the paper should be glued at


gin to the extent of |
first

damping

stretched.

to

in.

and made

its

mar-

fast to the board,

secure the paper being thoroughly

Sufficient colour

should

be taken up by

the brush to complete a wash, and starting from the

top the colour should be worked from right to

left,

and vice versd until the lower lines are reached,


always sloping the board towards the draughtsman, in
order to secure a perfect flow of the colour.

Small washes require to be made darker than the


larger,

the

and no second colour should be applied until

first

has thoroughly dried.

become perfectly

When

the colour has

and the drawing completed, a


sharp pocket knife should be passed round the paper
inside the glued margin and the paper lifted.
The
superfluous paper left upon the board may then be
removed by a sponge and warm water.
dry,

CHAPTER

II.

GEOMETRY AND PROJECTION.


Fig.

To

12.

bisect the

ABC

lines.

Let

centre,

and any

be

angle

the

between two straight

given angle.

radius, describe

With

an arc cutting

as

AB

and BC in points D and E respectively.


With points
D and E as centres, and with any radius, describe arcs

7i

c
cutting each other in point F.
the angle

ABC,

Ftp. J3
Join BF,

BE bisects

GEOMETRY AND PROJECTION


To

Fig. 13.

ing lines

when

bisect the angle

ii

between two converg-

the point of intersection

is

inaccessible.

AB

and DC be the converging straight lines.


Draw two lines GF and EF parallel to and at a convenient distance from AB and CD respectively, to
intersect in point F,
Bisect the angle GFE by the
preceding problem.
bisects the angle between
the converging lines AB and DC.
Fig. 14. Through a given point to draw a straight
line which shall converge to the same point as two
convergent straight lines would if produced.
Let

HF

Let

and

BC

and

DE

be the convergent straight

lines,

the given point.

With

any triangle with base


and DE in points C and

as apex, construct

terminating on lines

BC

Take any point, J in ^(7 preferably


remote from G and draw JK parallel to GH, and
terminating on DE in point K,
Draw JF and KF
parallel to GA and HA respectively, and join A and
F.
The line AF converges towards the same point as
respectively.

BC

and DE.

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

12

Fig 15. To draw a circle which shall pass through

any three

given

not

points,

in

the

same straight

line.

B and C be the three given points. Join


and BU.
With points B and C as centres, and
with any radius, draw arcs cutting in points D and E,
DE then bisects BC at right
Join DE and produce
angles, it therefore contains the centre.
Eepeat the
process with points B and A, allowing the bisecting
line to intersect DE produced in 0.
0 is then the
centre of the circle which passes through the three
Let A,

AB

given points.
Fig.

16.

through

To draw an

any

three

given

arc

of

points

circle

not

in

to

the

pass

same

straight line, the centre not being accessible (Builders'

Method).
Let A,

C and B

Join points
strips

is

slide

of wood, as

now

fixed.

be the three given points.

AC and

OB, and construct a template of

shown

By

in the figure.

allowing the laths

around in contact with points

The angle

at

AG and CB

to

and

0,

and by

GEOMETRY AND PROJECTION

applying a pencil to the point

13

the arc

ACB

is

traced.^
Fig. 17.

To

inscribe a regular polygon, of

ber of sides, in a given

any num-

circle.

/7

This problem is based on a very important principle of the


the angles in the same segment of a circle are equal
to one another.
Prop. xxi. Book iii. Euclid. The angle contained between the laths in the case being fixed, it necessarily
follows that the point of the pencil placed in the angle at C
traces the part of a circle.
1

circle, viz.,

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY


Let

ABC

Draw
number

the diagonal

circle.

AB, and

divide

it

With

and

as centres,

and
and with radius
Join

describe arcs cutting at point D.

point

into such a

of equal parts as the polygon has sides,

number.

AB,

be the given

with

cut the

upon the diagonal and produce


Join A with C\ AC will then be
to

circle at point C,

one side of the polygon.


proceed to mark

off

With

AC m

by joining the points complete the


Fig. 18.

Upon

the compasses,

equal distances on the

circle,

and

figure.

a given line to construct a regular

polygon of any number of sides (up to twelve).

rt^.

Let

/8.

AB be the given line.


AB in C and erect a

Bisect
centre.

With

as centre,

and

perpendicular from the

AB

an arc intersecting perpendicular in

65

into six equal parts.

With

as radius, describe
6.

Divide the arc

point 6 as centre, and

with each of the divisions taken consecutively from

6,

GEOMETRY AND PROJECTION

15

describe arcs cutting perpendicular in points 7, 8, 9,

These points are the centres


of polygons, having sides cor-

10, 11, 12 respectively.

of circumscribing circles
responding to the number of their centres.
Fig. 19. To draw a tangent to a given circle from

a point outside the same.

Let the given circle be about the point

C,

and the

given point A.

Join

CA

With

and

AB

about

DC or DA

and produce.

J5

is

as radius, describe

about

in point B,

a tangent to the circle

C.

N.B.
it

and

cutting the circle

a semicircle

Join

bisect in point D.

as centre,

tangent to a circle

a line which touches

is

and in such a way that

in a point,

it

is

at right

angles to the radius at that point.


Fig. 20.

To

find the geometric

mean between two

lines.

Let

Draw

and

be the given

the line

making

DE

circle.

At

CD

equal to B.

lines.

equal to

and produce

Upon CE

to

construct a semi-

erect a perpendicular cutting the semi-

circle in point F,

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

i6

/
/

Fug.

DF is

20

then the geometric mean between

In other words,

CD

The importance

to

is

DF as DF is

CD

and B.

DE.

problem will be seen from

of this

the fact that the square on

contained by

to

DF is

equal to the rectangle

and DE,

GD'.DF'.'.DF'.DE

DFx DF^CDx DE
DF^ =CDx DE.
N.B.

The

area of any rectangular figure

to the product of its

Fig. 21.

To

two adjacent

is

equal

sides.

find a square equal in area to a given

triangle.

Ftg.

GEOMETRY AND PROJECTION


Let

ABC

N.B.

17

be the given triangle.

The

of a rectangle

area of a

triangle

upon the same

equal to the area

is

base,

and having half

its

height.

From
it

drop a perpendicular

Draw
DFCB. Obtain

in point E.

rectangle

to the base,

DF through E and
the

mean

and

bisect

complete the

proportional

JC

BC

and CF, as in previous problem.


The square LCJK, being constructed on JC, is equal

between the sides

in area to the triangle


Fig. 22.

ABC.

To reduce an

irregular quadrilateral figure

to a square of equal area.

Let

ABCD

be

the

given

irregular

quadrilateral

figure.

Draw

the diagonal

AC\

this reduces the figure to

The two triangles should now be retwo triangles.


of the same area, having their
rectangles
two
duced to
The rectangle
sides AC common to one another.
FEGH may now, by preceding problem, be reduced
to a square of equal area.

The square on the

line

HK

irregular quadrilateral figure

is

equal in area to the

ABCD.


CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

i8

To reduce

Fig. 23.

circle

a parallelogram of

to

equal area.

N.B.

This

depends for
taken

method

its

is

the greater the

more correct
Divide

but an approximate one, and

accuracy upon the number of sectors

number

of sectors adopted the

will be the result.

the

circle

into

sectors

(see

note above).

These sectors may, for the purposes of approximation,


be considered as triangles, and, being placed as

ADCE,

with their apices reversed and their sides coincident,


they then form the required parallelogram.
Fig.

24.

To construct an

ellipse

the

major and

minor axes being given (string method).


N.B.
is

This

method

strictly

mathematical one

based upon the fact that, in the

the focal distances

is

ellipse, the

sum

of

constant and equal to the major

GEOMETRY AND PROJECTION


Set out

axis.

AB and CD the

perpendicular
the

common

to,

major and minor axes


and intersecting each other at E,

With C
mark

points of bisection.

and the semi-major axis as


and
the focal points.

radius,

as centre,
off

points

Insert pins at F^ and

Fig. 2^.
I!)

F^,

and

fix

one end of a thread at F^

thread to pass to point


it

and back

one or two turns to secure

it.

Allow the

to point F^, giving

Apply the point

of

the pencil to point A, and, keeping the thread uni-

formly stretched, proceed to draw the curve.

In this example, only one half of the curve has

been traced.
Fig. 25.

Let

In a given rectangle to draw an

ABGl)

be the given rectangle.

Bisect the rect-

angle in two directions by lines parallel to

BF

ellipse.

its

sides.

and the semi-major axis into


any number of equal parts, and from points Gr and E
Through the points of interdraw lines 1, 2, 3, etc.
Divide half the side

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

20

section
in

draw a

fair curve.

If this operation be repeated

each quarter of the rectangle, an

ellipse

will

be

traced.

/I

'

7h

/I
^

^' 3/

c
Fig. 26.

To draw an

ellipse

by

points, the

major

and minor axes being given.


Ftp. 96,

Draw

the axes

at right angles to each other,

and

GEOMETRY AND PROJECTION


with their centres

With

coincident.

21

these lines

as

draw two circles.


Draw any number of
diagonals, and through the points where they intersect
the circles, draw lines parallel to the major and minor
axes.
Through the points of intersection draw a fair

diagonals

curve

Fig.

normal

this will be the required ellipse.

27.

To draw a tangent
curve at the same

to the

to

an

ellipse,

also a

point.

/7|

^^^^
Fig. Qy:
Find the

focal points as in the figure,

point I) draw the focal lines

them, by the line

normal

ED

produced

ED

will

then be a

Through
draw the line

to the elliptic curve at the point D.

the point D, and at right angles to

GH,

and through
between

bisect the angle

GH will

Fig. 28.

it,

be the required tangent.

To draw the curve

of a parabola, the base

and altitude being given.


Let

AB

be the base and

plete the rectangle

ABEF.

any number of equal

parts.

CD

Com-

the altitude.

Divide

BC

and

Through points

BE
1,

into
2,

3,

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

22
4,

5 on

BG

erect lines parallel to

similar points on

BE draw

The parabola

D,

CD, and through

lines radiating to the point

will be represented b)^ a fair curve

traced through the points of intersection.

7d

2
/

C ^

/J

N.B.

The

parabola

is

^ 3 2

the curve represented in the

outline of a section through a cone, taken parallel to


its slant side.

29.

Fig.

To draw the hyperbolic curve from the

cone.

N.B.

The hyperbola

is

the curve represented in the

outline of a section of a cone

by a plane which

is

of

steeper inclination than the slant side, and which does

not contain the axis.

The curve

is

here drawn directly from the cone, the

elevation and half-plan of which are given.

Draw

in

elevation

and

plan

series

passing around the cone and nearing

they approach the apex.

These

of

circles

each other as

circles will, in plan,

GEOMETRY AND PROJECTION


cut the line
the

points,

EF the

elevations

of the

n.T.

which

of

23

section plane

will

in

be found upon

their respective circles,

the hyperbola may


Fig. 30.

and through them a


be drawn.

curve

fair

To draw the hyperbolic curve by mechanical


OA and focal points
and F^^

means, the abscissa

being given (string method).

N.B.

This

method

is

based upon a very important

principle of the hyperbola,

viz.,

that the curve

that the difference in the distances of

curve from points

F-^

and F^ (the

any point

is

such

in the

focal points) is con-

stant.

Take a lath of convenient length,


and fasten a convenient length

at F^,

end

making

Pass the thread to point


it fast.

By

as F^E, pivot

it

of thread to the

C and back

applying a pencil to point

to F^,
C,

and

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

24

keeping a uniform tension upon the thread, the


quired curve

may

re-

be traced.

/7

Ftp.

3a

\
^0

To construct the parabolic curve by mechthe directrix CD and focal point


means

Fig. 31.

anical

being given.

GEOMETRY AND PROJECTION


N.B.

One very important principle of

25

the parabola

is, that any point in the curve is at the same distance


from both the directrix and focal point.
Through
draw AB perpendicular to CD, terminating on it in point A,
Bisect F^A in E\ E will then
Take a lath of convenient
be a point on the curve.
length, as JK, and at
attach the thread.
Place the
fiducial edge of the lath on AB and pass the thread to
point E and back to the pin at i^^, giving it a turn or
two for the purpose of securing it.
By sliding the
end J along DC, always keeping JK at right angles to
it, and, by keeping the thread stretched, the point of

the pencil will trace the parabola

HEG,

Given two points on the elliptic curve, the


direction of the major axis, and one of the focal points,
to draw the curve.
Fig. 32.

Let

and

be the two points through which the

curve has to pass, CF^ the direction of the major axis,


and F^ the focal point.
Join

AF^ and BF^ and produce

exterior angle

AF^J,

The chord

to J.

line

BA

Bisect the
will, if pro-

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

26

duced, intersect the bisecting line of the exterior angle


in

the directrix of the

marked D.

Through

Select one

CF^,

from

draw BF^

it

ellipse

draw

of the

this

GE

points

a focal line.

point

is

here

at right angles to

here

point

Draw F^H

B and
at right

angles to BF^, meeting the directrix in the point H.

Through

H draw

HBJ, and construct the


HBF^ and intersecting the major

the tangent

axis

JBF^ equal
in F^.
The

least

one point upon the curve, the ellipse can be com-

angle

to

focal

points being obtained, and at

pleted by a previous problem.

OKTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION.
This
faces,
is

the method of projecting points, lines, sur-

is

and

It
upon planes not containing them.
"
use at least two planes, called the planes

solids

usual to

co-ordinate planes," and sometimes


and horizontal planes, because they are conFig. 33 is a sketch
sidered to occupy these positions.
of

projection,"

vertical

GEOMETRY AND PROJECTION


of

two such planes.

For the purposes of

27

this repre-

sentation the planes are bounded by lines, but in reality

they are unlimited, and the only character by which

they

may

be represented in orthographic projection

by the ground line or

XY.

is

For the convenience of


drawing, these planes are rotated into one plane the
plane of the paper.
Perpendiculars let fall upon the
planes from points in space are termed " projectors,"
and their intersections upon the planes, projections."
Drawings made upon the v.p. are known as eleva-

upon the h.p. as " plans." In order to


distinguish between plans and elevations, letters denoting the latter have a small dash placed above them,
those

tions,"

as a\
Fig. 34.

clinations

To
(p

the true length, traces, and in-

find

and

of

line

given

in

and

plan

elevation.

rep 3^.
Let

ci!V

N.B.
is

represent the elevation, and ah the plan.

The angle

of inclination to the vertical plane

denoted by the Greek letter

(phi),

whilst

that

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

28

to

the

horizontal

plane

marked by the

is

letter

(theta).

From

the preceding figure

the line forms

angled

part

triangles,

and

by

elevation and plan they


V.P.,

or

length

down

may

into

it

will

be found that

of the hypotenuse of

hinging

may

the h.p.

be obtained

it

two

right-

them about the

be turned back into the

By

this

also

means

its

follows that

if

true

the

measured by
the angle contained between the line itself and its projection upon that plane, the angle contained between
A^B^ and a^b^ (Fig. 34) represents the angle to the
v.p. (<p), whilst the angle contained between A and
angle of inclination of a line to a plane

ah represents the angle to the

Fig.

35

is

h.p. (0).

a sketch representation of a rectangular

slab standing out in space, its plan

given in Fig. 36.


is lettered.

is

The top

and elevation being

surface only of this solid


GEOMETRY AND PROJECTION

Ktg.
Fig. 37.

circle

he

plan.

its

Through
plan

of

draw a
gonals

the

apex

the
series

of dia-

cutting

the

circumference in equal

These lines in

parts.

plan divide the surface


into a series of sectors,

the true length of the


sides of

which are

re-

presented in the eleva-

by

tion

With

aV

or

as centre,

a^b\

and

aV

as radius, describe

an

arc

of

36

To develop the surface

and elevation of which


Let a'6V be the
and
elevation,
the

sufficient

is

29

given.

of a cone, the plan

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

30

length to pass around the base of the cone

this

may

be determined by taking the true distances cl and 12,


etc., from the plan and marking off a like number

upon the larger arc c^l2.


The sector of the larger
contained between the radii ac and a 12, represents the development of the surface of the cone.
Fig. 38. To find the plan and true form of section
circle,

of a given right hexagonal

The plane

SN

pyramid cut by the plane

passes perpendicular to the vertical,

and intersects the slant edges in points 1\ 2\ o\ 4',


and 5'.
By projecting them down to their respective
plans, the outline in plan
its

To obtain

be obtained.

true form of section,

that the outline


1,

may

4,

it will be necessary to see


symmetrical about its axis be or

and that the distances

parallel

length.

is

to

the

H.P.,

their

2,

6,

and

3,

5,

being

plans represent their true

Set off projectors from points

1,

2,

3, 4,

5,

GEOMETRY AND PROJECTION


and

right angles to SJV,

6, at

and

parallel to

31

it

draw

the axis of the section 1,4, at such a distance as to be


clear

of

35.

the

Set

elevation.

Join the points

form of section

is

62 and
and the true

distances

off

1-2, 23,

etc.,

complete.

ISOMETRIC PROJECTION.
The representation
jection
of

the

enables

which

in isometric pro-

convey a true idea


of such object by means of

The method

advantage

distinct

method,

of an object

student to

shape and sizes

one drawing.
a

the

over

requires

at

has,

the

for

simple

objects,

and elevation
two projections

plan

least

same time a regularly graduated rule


may be employed for the purposes of taking off dimensions.
Fig. 39 represents a small block in isometric
whilst

at the

projection,

its

represented

length,

breadth,

by the three axial

and thickness being


lines A, i>, and 0

respectively.

There are two kinds of isometric projection, the


and simplest of which is called " Conventional

first

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

32

Isometric Projection/' from the fact of its being


adapted for use with the ordinary rule.
The second

requires an ''isometric scale," illustrated in Fig.

and

is

known

as

40,

Pure Isometric Projection/'

CONVENTIONAL ISOMETRIC PROJECTION.


If

wood

the student will take a piece of

that

to

illustrated in Fig. 39, he

similar

will see that

the

bounded by straight lines.


These lines
by which the surfaces of the
block are represented
he will further notice, upon
placing the block upon the bench or table before
him, that the lines bounding the surfaces are either
surfaces are

are

the

characters

In order to represent these

vertical

or

lines in

isometric projection

horizontal.

remember two rules


They are as follows:

it

First
(Fig.

draw

the

to

(1) Vertical

vertical; (2) Horizontal lines are

horizontal, either to

will be necessary to

(applicable

lines

drawn

the right or

small

either

at

method).

are

drawn

30 to the

left.

vertical

line

marked

39), of a length equal to the thickness of the

GEOMETRY AND PROJECTION


and from

block,

either side, each

Cut

line.

off

the width

to

equal

the

to

its

extremities

at

30 to an

33

draw two

the lines to the left equal


of the

block,

length

of

and those

the

lines

on

imaginary horizontal
tlie

Now

block.

length

in

to

right

join

the

lines at the right and left by


These should be of a length equal
to the vertical line at C,
Now by drawing lines
from the tops of the vertical lines last drawn, and in

extremities
vertical

of

the

lines.

the direction indicated in the sketch, taking care that


the
to

EAH

lines

one

What

another,

DBJ

and
the

are

drawing

respectively

be

will

has been said with regard

to

the rectangular

may be applied to more complicated


On examining Fig. 41 he will now see

block

moulding shown in that figure

similar

having

piece

of

material

partially

to

curved
c

is

parallel

completed.

work.
that

the

formed out of a

that
outline

of

Fig.
it

39,

appears

but
to

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

34

some

present

difficulty.

The curved
be traced by

mould may be said to


moving between the outline
moulding at
be done is

ends,

its

a straight line

of the

that

of the

section

that remains

all

upon the ends

trace

to

so

surface of the

to

block

the

of

outline in isometric projection.


This may be
done by constructing an auxiliary elevation of the
end view as at Fig. 41, supplying ordinates to the
curve, running up perpendicular to the line BC.
this

BC

But

already drawn

is

real length,

its

this

line

that

so

may now

be

in

the isometric view in

the position of points upon

conveyed

to

that

and

line,

the perpendiculars corresponding in length to those


in the auxiliary elevation

may now

be drawn, remem-

be drawn
and not perpendicular to BC,
A fair
curve around the topmost extremities of these lines
should now be drawn and the isometric projection
of the section of the moulding is complete.
It
now remains to repeat the operation at the other end
and draw the necessary lines parallel to the long edges
bering

perpendicular

that

should

lines

vertically

to complete the figure.

In order to show how plain surfaces, other than


those mutually perpendicular,

may

be represented, the

corner joint of the Oxford frame has been


(Fig.

42).

The student

of the dotted

that
it

is

figure,

not

lines

and
the

it

angle

how

will readily see

the points are obtained

should
at

selected

by the aid

be carefully noted

which

the

" stop "

is

in

that
cut,

and across the


thickness and breadth of the material that guide him
in placing that stop in position.
Other exercises may
be found in the chapter bearing upon joints, which
but

the distances

along the length

GEOMETRY AND PROJECTION


the student

is

recommended

35

to reproduce, not only for

the purpose of committing to

memory

the form of con-

struction, but to acquire the ability to rapidly portray

the form upon paper.

Fig. 42.

Pure Isometric Projection.


by

this

method,

will be necessary to use

plotted

an isometric

with respect to horizontal and vertical

scale, the rules

lines

it

With drawings

remaining as in the case of conventional isometric


This scale will not be so difficult as at first

projection.

sight

it

appears,

the student will follow the reasoning

if

here laid down.

In drawing a
usual to

and then

first

circle

plot

in

isometric projection,

to trace the circle

in Fig. 41.

On examining

it

which is to contain
by means of ordinates

the square

is
it,

as

the representation of the

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

36

when

circle

complete,

it

will

be found that neither

the major nor the minor axis truthfully represents

Apart from

diameter.

much

square will be
error, the

suggested

43

Fig.

this,

extended.

isometric scale
;

shown

To counteract this
40 has been

in Fig.

brought about in the following manner.

it is

represents

square

ADBC

ordinary manner and with one diagonal

The square may now be imagined


until

its

appear

sides

horizontal axis

its

the horizontal axis of the

in

at

angles

plotted

AB

of

said to be represented in

an

horizontal.

to rotate about

AB

30 with the

position the square

this

in

may

be

pure isometric projection

"

by the parallelogram AFBE the length of the horithe sides


zontal diameter or axis being kept constant
of
\/2

which now bear the


is

to \/3.

ratio to those of the square as

In Fig. 43 the circle has also

been

GEOMETRY AND PROJECTION

37

represented in pure isometric projection by an ellipse

major

the

method

which represents truthfully the


The author has adopted this

of

axis

diameter of the

circle.

of explaining the construction of the isometric

more generally made use

scale in preference to the one


of,

and which is next described.


has been explained that the

isometric

It

bears a ratio

to

In Fig. 40

to J\i.

BG

length and
to

AB.

as

AC

Join

At D
AE.

the

this

arc

and

natural

erect
If

DE

the line

AC represents the
AE the square root

scale

is

of

is

any

may now be

constructed.

as radius

and

AB

parallel

AB

square

\)Q

and equal
taken as

root

of

of three (\/3).

constructed

by dropping perpendiculars upon


scale

J2

intersecting

line

CD

then

unity,

down

has been laid

and with

centre, describe

BC, and join

(v/2)

AB

scale

erected at B, equal and perpendicular

produced in D.
to

that of the natural scale as

AD

two

The

on AE, and
the isometric

CHAPTER

III.

AND

JOINTS USED IN CARPENTRY


The work
up

of the carpenter and joiner

may

JOINERY.
be

summed

up of a series of timbers to the form


or plan of a design laid down, and such is the nature
of the material with which he is called upon to work
as the building

that

requires the greatest care, in the formation of

it

the joints, in order to maintain, as far as possible, the

strength of the material employed, and, at the same

and contraction without


warping or twisting.
In all cases those timbers upon
which the strength of a piece of work may depend
should not have their sectional area destroyed any
more than is absolutely necessary. More especially is
this the case where the work is to be subjected to great
time, to allow for its expansion

stress, as in partitions,

bridge or roof structures.

timber used in construction

is

known by

The

a variety of

names according to its size or form the following is


an explanation of some of the terms employed.
Log. The trunk of a tree previous to being
:

squared.

Balk.

The log roughly

Half-timbers.

The

centre, along its length

squared.

balk split or sawn through


;

in half-timbers the heart

its
is

AND JOINERY

JOINTS USED IN CARPENTRY


The term

usually exposed.

timbers

to

Oak

sawn

timbers

" flitch "

longitudinally
in

split

this

manner

applied

also

is

through

39

the

heart.

known

are

as

wainscotted.
are
Sawn timbers, such
Plank. Sawn timbers, of any length,
wards from 11
wide and from 2
Deal. Sawn timbers ranging from 9
11
by 4
Board. Any timbers between 7

Spar.

for

suitable

as

roofing work.

in.

to

ranging up-

to

in.

in. thick.

in.

by 2

in.

in.

in.

in.

wide and

less

than 2

and 11 in

in. thick.

Sawn

timbers of any length and


by 2 in. to 4 in. by 3 in.
Batten. This term is applied to any small timbers,
not coming under the head of " quartering," and which

Quartering.

ranging from 3

in.

is less

than 7

Scantling.

in.

wide.

This

is

term

often

applied

collection of a variety of small timbers, but

to

more

is

properly applied to the tabulated or specified sizes of


the several parts of a piece of framing.
Stuff.

This

is

the

term usually applied

to

the

material during the process of working.

Sawn timbers are said to be " in the rough.'' The


members of roofing trusses or partitions are ofttimes
from the saw, and as such are specified as being
the rough."
When woodwork has one surface
only planed, it is said to be "single wrought"; this
may be illustrated in the case of dado framing
and the backs and elbows of window framing; but
when, as in the case of doors, sashes etc., both the

left as

in

surfaces are planed, the material

wrought."

is

known

as

double

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

40

was at one time the custom to allow the diminution of i in. for each wrought surface, so that a door
specified as 2 in. was supplied at a finished thickness of
1 f in.
This method, although a recognized one, caused
a great deal of dissatisfaction
and to overcome the
It

work

difficulty,

is

now

specified

as

of the required

dimension with the words " finished size " inserted.


Planing is the process of taking off the rough fibre

by the saw upon the surface of the stuff.


the planed surface has been prepared truthfully and with a view to further manipulation, it is
said to be " faced up
and, in order to distinguish it
from sides not so faced up, it is pencil-marked at or
near the face-edge.
This latter surface or edge someleft

When

times requires to be specially prepared and,


prepared,
tion

is

being

when

so

said to be " shot,'' the process of prepara-

termed

"

shooting."

receives a distinguishing

mark

This face-edge

usually

a cross

arms of which should terminate upon the


the face-side.

It

is

to this face-side or

arris

also

the
near

edge that the

stock of the square or fence of the gauge should be

applied in the process of gauging or squaring.

The

face-mark as applied to the surface of the work

is

45 and 46.
The following may be considered as a brief outline
of the more useful of the joints which the carpenter
and joiner may be called upon to make use of in the
process of framing up material.
Lap or Halved Joint. This is formed by the cutting
away of one half from the thickness of each of two
illustrated in Figs.

pieces at their extremities

and

is

it is

illustrated at Fig. 44,

used for the purpose of connecting the ends of

material as in the case of two wall plates.

JOINTS USED IN CARPENTRY

AND JOINERY

Mitred and Halved Angle

at Fig. 45, differs

Joint.

41

This joint, shown

from the preceding one in that the

shoulders of the face-side are mitred this is the usual


form adopted when the face of the work receives a
:

moulding.

Open Mortise and Tenon. This joint, shown


is formed by taking away the two outer

46,

at Fig.

thirds

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

42

from one piece and the middle third from the other,
the shoulders passing in the same direction on both
sides.

rig

Mitred

Joint.

This form

^6,

of joint is required

where

the adjacent surfaces are moulded, as at Fig. 47.

Open Mortise and Tenon with Mitred Shoulders.


48 shows a form of joint having the combined

Fig.

JOINTS USED IN CARPENTRY

AND JOINERY

advantages of those shown in Figs. 46 and 47.

form will readily be seen from the

Notch
away

cut
is

Joint.

When

43
Its

figure.

a part of one piece has been

for the reception of another, as at Fig. 49, it

said to be notched.

Ceiling joists have sometimes

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

44

be notched to binders; but when, as in Fig. 42,

to

Chap.

II.,

both pieces are cut away,

double-notched.

Dovetail
notched

Notch.

joint,

the

of

the

in

the

Tredgold's Notch.

and

the

said to be

form

This

another

is

Fig. 50).

51 represents the form of

Fig.

notch recommended by Tredgold.

it less

is

upper portion being cut

form of a dovetail (see

said in

it

favour of the joint,

labour involved

it

in

adapted to more general

is

its

Whatever may be
weak at the neck,
construction makes

use.

Dovetail Halved Joint. This joint is made use of


in the junction of the end of one piece of material
with another, either at the end or towards the centre,

JOINTS USED IN CARPENTRY

as

shown

at Fig.

52.

AND JOINERY

In the former case, only one

side of the top piece is cut away, the

known

45

as a half dovetail.

remainder being

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

46

Cogged

Joint.

Upon

referring to Fig.

49

it

will

be seen that the ends of the notch fit down over the
edges of the piece below.
If these ends were cut
closer and were allowed to rest in notches cut into the
vertical edges of the other, such joint would be known
as cogged.

It is illustrated at Fig. 4,

page 80.

Tongue and Groove Joint. This is a joint which


is very much used
both in carpentry and joinery.
As will be seen at Fig. 53, it is made by the formation

Fig 63.
,

of a

tongue upon one piece, whilst a groove

the other, into which

the tongue should

is

cut into

tightly

fit.

It is further

secured by glueing and sometimes nailing.

In

of nailing

all cases

it

gives greater security

if

the

an inclined direction, as shown at


Another form of this joint is made use of

nails are driven in

Fig. 53.

between floor boards, as shown at Fig. 2, page 71, the


tongue being formed of either wood or iron, and as


JOINTS USED IN CARPENTRY
it

AND JOINERY

47

termed when thus formed of separate material

is

loose.

Dovetail Tongue and Groove. At Fig. 53a is


in this
shown another form of tongue and groove
:

case the former

dovetailed,

is

without the use of

Tusk Tenon.
use

of

which gives

it

security

nails.

This

which few

is

floors

a form of joint without the


are

made.

It

is

connecting the trimmers with the trimming


again at the ends of trimmed

joists.

It is

used in

and
composed

joists,

and shoulder, and should be


Tredgold recommends
page 75.
Taking the depth of the
the following proportions.
the haunchion should be
D, the tenon
piece as D
1 D, the tusk ^ D, and the shoulder i D.
The
tusk
and haunchion should penedepth at which the
trate the piece mortised is recommended to be -^-^ D.
By this arrangement the mortise is kept in the centre

of haunchion, tenon, tusk,

arranged as at Fig. 5,

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

48

of

the depth of the timbers

being the

this

is

important,

as,

neutral line or axis," the fibres are of least

The tenons

importance at this part.

at the ends of

trimmers usually pass through the trimming

joists

and

project beyond to an extent equal to the width of the

tenon, and

shown in the figure, for


wedge or key, space being allowed
the wedge for the purpose of closing
In special cases, where trimmers meet

are mortised, as

the insertion of a
at

the back of

the shoulders.

the w^ooden girder so as to be in a direct line across


it,

the tenons should not pass through further than

is

necessary for the purpose of pinning.

Scribed Joint. This is shown at Figs. 54 and 55,


and may be described as the butting of one moulded

surface against another at an angle with

purpose the end

it

for this

of one of the pieces has to be cut to

the profile of the other.

mitred joint insomuch as

It has
it

an advantage over the

allows the moulded surface

JOINTS USED IN CARPENTRY

AND JOINERY

49

of the one in shrinking to slide over the surface of the

other without gaping.

In skirtings the internal angles

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY


should

be scribed

one

piece

having

usually fixed

is

been

whilst

the

profile,

is

pressed

fixed.

view of the back of such skirting

other,

tightly

cut

back

to

into

the
its

first,

required

place
is

and
seen

at Fig. 54.

Table or Rule Joint.


" table "

of a

ovolo

type

is

or

"

Back-flap

56

is

a representation

moulding of the

worked upon the edge

of one

piece,

hollowed out to receive


are used for this joint, and,

whilst the adjoining piece


it.

Fig.

rule joint "

hinges

is

are required to move backward and


below it, the knuckles of the hinges are
sunk below the surface with the flanges.
The
advantage of this form of hinged joint is that a
moulded angle is formed when the pieces are turned
at right angles with each other, and the joint has
not the appearance of gaping as in the square or

when brackets

forward

butt joint.

Housed

Joint.

When

the

end of one piece of

material, without being shouldered,

surface of the other,

it

is

is

embedded

said to be housed.

in the

Arris

JOINTS USED IN CARPENTRY


rails

usually

have

their

AND JOINERY

ends embedded

into posts to secure additional strength


is

or

51

housed

but the joint

more commonly used in connecting the ends of


and risers with strings the depth to which they

treads

may

are housed
stances,

and

or f in., according to circumthey have the additional security of glueing,

be ^

in.

wedging, blocking, and screwing.

Joggle Joint.

This

this case represents the

is

shown

at Fig. 57,

and in

lower end of a wooden storey

post joggled to a stone curb which has been tabled

and weathered
the joint

it is

from penetrating
form of a tenon, but

to prevent the water

somewhat

in the

cannot be considered purely as such, as

it

is

only

intended to keep the post from sliding out of position.

Lower ends

of solid door frames are sometimes treated

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

52

in this manner, but unless the stone base can be tabled,


it

form of

a very bad

is

the water

joint, as

being

frequently in contact with the end grain of the wood,


the structure

Dowel

likely to

is

Joints. This

is

become

rotten.

a form of joint which often,

in cabinet work, replaces tenons

small pins or dowels

are driven into the prepared butt ends of a rail and

corresponding holes are formed in the

In another form

reception.

floors.

is

seen at the bottom

where they are

of solid door-frames,

stone

it

stiles for their

in

contact with

square or round plug or dowel

is

driven into the centre of the end of the frame and a


is made in the stonework in which
embedded, the joint being made good in cement.
Where there is a liability of water coming in contact
with the joint, as in work of the warehouse class,

corresponding hole

it

is

advisable

is

it

about 3
side

in.

to

have prepared

this should be fitted

high, provided with a lug

and made

of the frame, painting both the

cast

upon

iron-shoe
its

under

fast to the base

wood and the

inside

of the shoe before fixing.

Bridle Joint.

The

said to be bridled

joint

when one

having a mortise cut into


cut

away, as

shown

remaining intact

abutment

to

it

at
is

it,

between two timbers

is

of its pieces, instead of

has the two outer thirds

Fig.

58,

supposed

its

to

centre

give

third

a greater

the ends of struts so that they

may

be

better able to resist the thrusts along their lengths.

When,

as in

the case of centres, a settlement of the

framing would cause a strut to take up a slightly


different position, the shoulders may be-curved in
outline as

shown

at B, the strength of the joint not

being materially weakened by the motion.

JOINTS USED IN CARPENTRY

Carpenters' Boast.

This

is

AND JOINERY

a form of joint acknow-

ledged more in theory than in practice, although

much
joint

to

recommend

between the

it.

collar

It has

and

53

it

has

been suggested as the

rafter of a roofing truss,

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

54

Ears, in the form of a


and forms a very good tie.
sector, are made upon one or both sides of the tie, the
arc of the sector being struck from the point A, as
shown in Fig. 59.
It will be seen that no point of

the ear

ABj

is

at a greater distance

that all that

so

together

is

collar or

from

than the length

required to place the work

is

to place the rafters at right angles to the

then, after inserting the ears so far as

tie;

and the joint is


means of fastening.
is shown at the junction

possible, close the tops of the rafters,

secure, without bolts or other

Birdsmouth.
of the

common

This joint

(page

rafter

148), the

ends of the

timber being cut in the form of a bird's mouth, hence


its

name

the angle being usually a right angle, the

which they are cut

bevel to

taken from a side

is

elevation of the timbers.

Matched
to

Joint.

This

worked

in the solid

with a bead upon the


joint

name

is

sometimes applied

tongue and grooved joint when the former

is

shown

it

may

face.

or

may

The

is

not be provided

section of a

matched

at Fig. 60.

Flp 60.
y///////////////^^^^<^^^

Forked Heading

Joint.

The

term ''heading"

is

applied to the joint at the ends of flooring timbers, and

known, when square,

as the butt

joint.

When

the

heading joint assumes the form shown in Fig. 61, it


known as forked. It is claimed for this joint that
is

is
it

not so conspicuous as the plain butt joint, but the

JOINTS USED IN CARPENTRY


labour involved

in

AND JOINERY

formation precludes

its

its

55

more

general adoption.

Mortise and Tenon.

Figs.

62 and 63

to 66, page

57, are representations of some of the forms of this joint;

case the tenon

in

each

its

simplest form

it

may

has

been

haunched, but in

be constructed

without

it.

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

56

Tenons should be properly proportioned if constructed


too wide in proportion to their thickness, they are apt
to buckle from the pressure of the wedges, or in the
case of work built up of unseasoned material the tenon
is liable to shrink away from the wedges, thus losing
its support; again, in thin material, if the mortise were
made unduly wide, it would tend to weaken the
framing by partially splitting up the work into
;

laminations.
to

advisable, in proportioning tenons,

It is

keep their width so near as

The thickness

thickness.

their

is

of

possible five times

tenons

largely

is

governed by circumstances, but in the framing of doors,


sashes,

about

There
rule,

etc.,

is

third

are, as

and

known

it

one
Fig.

recognized

rule

thickness

the

them

keep

to

of

framing.

the

has been intimated, departures from this

64

an illustration of such a one

is

it is

as a double tenon, and, in this case, its thickness

governed largely by the plough -groove, the inner


faces of the tenons being kept flush with it whilst the

is

remaining thickness

is

on each side divided in two

The

equal parts, the tenon taking up one of them.

advantage

of

the

preceding

arrangement

is

that

mortise lock can be inserted without greatly diminishing the strength of the joint.

Double tenons may be applied to quartered framing


where the thickness of the framing is great as
compared to the width of the individual members,
and where a single thick tenon placed in the
centre would have its width largely diminished by
Fig. 63 shows a single tenon with
the rebates.
The width available for the tenon is
haunchion.
equal

to

the

width

depth of plough-groove

of

the

and

rail

less

in.

the

of this a third has been

JOINTS USED IN CARPENTRY

AND JOINERY

57

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

58

taken for the haunchion, leaving two-thirds for the

In the case of the bottom rail (Fig. 65), there


Bottom rails of
two tenons and two haunchions.
doors are seldom less than 9 in. in width, so that
tenon.

are

plough-groove there remains 8^ in.


for division between haunchions and tenons.
If this

deducting ^

in. for

width be divided by
haunchions

and

four,

tenon

we have 2^
this

in.

should

each for both


be

increased

amply strong

proportionately with the wider

rails, but is
enough for the narrower ones.
The available width
for middle rails is necessarily reduced by 1 in., so that
for a 9 in. rail only 8 in. would be available for
division.
It is usual to divide this width by three for

purpose of proportioning the tenon, but

the

result should
five

times

its

if

this

produce a width of tenon greater than


thickness

it

may

be reduced accordingly

and the difference given to the haunchion.


Gun-stock Joint. This is the name given to the
mortise and tenon joint at the middle rail of a
glass
door," the stile of which has been diminished in the
form of a gun-stock.
This diminution of the stile
makes it necessary to adopt an oblique shoulder or
mitre rail
the former method frequently proves a

stumbling block to the uninitiated.

upon the

rail

In placing the lines

whilst in the square, point C, Fig. 62,

being on the edge, and representing the extended length


of

rail,

is

often

taken as

the point from which the

shoulder-line should pass to B, the consequence being


that

when

the tenons and shoulders have been cut and

brought up into position the


at A.

B, and the distance


the

rail is

found to be short

In Fig. 62, JE has been placed square

widths of the

BC

stile

is

with

equal to the difference in

plus the depth of moulding

AND JOINERY

JOINTS USED IN CARPENTRY

59

CA.
If, in striking out, a gauge be kept of the depth
CA, and if, from C, a line be squared over to point A,
then the shoulder-line

A-B

will

corresponding line to this

upon the
that

it is

be the correct one.

may

be directly placed
but in practice the student will find

stile,

best to allow a small portion of

wood

say

to remain upon the shoulder of


might be protected until the mouldings are scribed, and then, having brought the rail
approximately into position, cut the inclined shoulder
of stile parallel to, and at the required distance from

from yV

ii^,

the

stile,

so that

AB,

first

to

in.

it

seeing that the rail

is

at right

angles to the

stile.

Oblique Mortise and Tenon Joints, or Bevelled


Shoulder Joints.
These are represented in most of

the joints of the roof trusses, and in the mortised and


tenoned connection between any two members not at

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

6o

right angles to one another

it

seen dissociated at

is

Fig. 67.

Chase-Mortise. When a tenon cannot be entered


manner, a chase has to be cut at its side
so that the tenon may be passed into its position from

in the usual

The mortise

that side.

chase-mortise.
position

so treated

is

therefore called a

Ceiling joists having to be placed in

between

binders,

and

having

their

ends

tenoned, require the mortises to be chased, as shown


at B, Fig. 3, page 80.

This is a form of
Dovetail Mortise and Tenon.
and tenon joint much used in temporary

mortise

>

1
'

[
,

,
1

work.

It

1
I

has one of

its

edges recessed, so as to

make

and is secured in
form
its position by a pair of folding wedges driven at its
This form of dovetailback it is shown at Fig. 68.
ing a tenon may be applied to those which do not pass
through the material, and in this form is known as a
dovetail stump tenon.
the tenon of the

of a dovetail,

JOINTS USED IN CARPENTRY

Bareface Tenon.
only upon one side of

(Fig. 69).

AND JOINERY

tenon which has a shoulder

it is

known

as a bareface tenon

It is often used in furniture,

and becomes

necessary in the case of apron pieces to skylights,

Stump Mortise and Tenon.


given

to

mortises

and

6i

tenons

This

which

is

do

the

etc.

name

not pass

through the material, either from the fact that they

would otherwise be carried too far, as in the case of


muntins tenoned to wide bottom rails, or from the fact
that the end grain of the tenon would be unsightly if
allowed to appear upon the exposed edge of a piece of
framing.
These may be kept in position by glueing,
pinning, wedging, screwing from the back, or a combination of any two or more of the foregoing.
Beaded Joint. This is the name given to any
form of joint provided with a circular-shaped moulding
known as a bead, the form and utility of which is
described in Chapter xi.


CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

62

Masons' Mitre. This is illustrated at Fig. 70.


The framing is mortised and tenoned with the shoulders in the square, the mouldings being stopped at the
mortises.

After the shoulders have been

the

fitted,

moulding is worked on the solid, the


lines being taken from the adjacent piece.
This is the
method of mitring adopted by masons, hence its name.
return

of the

'f.rr r.Ti

It is said in favour of this joint that the mitres do not

by the carpenter and


joiner shrinks and expands, the line of moulding may
This latter drawback does not occur
therefore be lost.
but for woodin masonry, and may be disregarded
open

but, as the material used

work, the writer's opinion


best at

and

A-B

the

it

certainly

that the shoulder line

is

the shorter of the two

between

junction

made at the
Clamped

is

the

mouldings

is

is

best

mitre.

Joint.

Clamping

is

one of the means

adopted for stiffening wide boards and preventing them


The material should be thoroughly well
from twisting.

JOINTS USED IN CARPENTRY

AND JOINERY

63

be
clamps
Narrow pieces called
found to split in drying.
the ends of a board, as at
to
tenoned
are mortised and
mitred as at B.
Fig. 71, and may be plain as at ^, or
seasoned before putting together, otherwise

it

will

^L9

/
and is necessary in desk tops, etc., where mouldings have to be
returned on the edges, or where the appearance of the
end grain on the material would be objectionable.

The

latter is

known

The tenons may

or

as mitre clamping,

may

not pass through the clamps.

Key

boards not otherwise framed may have dovetail


keys let into the back of the material, as in Fig. 72,

Wide

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

64
to

prevent them from warping, and the key

planed

An

the figure.

shown

with the surface, or

off flush

at

looseness

standing as in

enlarged section of the dovetail key

A, Fig. 72.

It

caused

is

advisable to allow the

is

wide end of the key to remain,

may

left

may be

if

possible, so that

any

by the shrinkage of the material

be met by a blow or two upon that end.

This is the name given to the


Foxtail Wedging.
of wedging stump tenons, as shown in Fig. 73.

method

j
'

rl

The mortises should be made no longer


than

is necessary for the

the ends are sloped


kerfs are then

at

the top

admission of the tenon, whilst

away towards the

made through

interior

saw

the tenon, those towards

the outside being sloped inwards, so that the edges of


the material

may

as

split.

Small wedges are then

saw kerfs, and the tenon driven into


the end of the tenon reaches the base of

inserted in the
position

not be

JOINTS USED IN CARPENTRY


the mortise

AND JOINERY

wedges are pressed into the

the

widening the end of the tenon and preventing

it

65

kerfs,

from

being withdrawn.

Safe Wedging.

With plain wedging, the

material,

upon shrinking, sometimes parts from the tenons; more


especially
of

is this

the case with exterior work, the joints

which have been painted instead of glued.


To
this, saw kerfs should be made through the

prevent

tenons,

as

shown

at

Fig.

74,

allowing the kerf to

recede from the side, as the shoulder

wedges are driven into these


the sides of the tenon, the framing

is

approached.

If the

kerfs, instead

at

is

secure.

Pinning.

This

is

of

rendered more

the process of securing a tenon

by the insertion of a pin through both mortise and


tenon.
The joints of the main timbers of partitions,
and in fact all " quartered " work, should be treated in
this manner, unless secured by bolts, etc.
The pins
used in work of this description are sometimes called
E

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

66
" treenails,"

but the term

building localities.

Drawbore Pinning.

is

This

more common
is

to

ship-

another form of the

mor-

foregoing.

In

tise is first

bored through in a position near the shoulder

keeping

this case the material containing the

the pin-hole at a clear distance from the

shoulder equal to one and a half times the section of


the pin

then, having inserted

the tenon,

mark

the

centre of the hole upon the tenon by the aid of the


" bit/' first seeing

that the shoulders are in position.

withdrawing the tenon a hole may be bored


through it, and nearer the shoulder to the extent of
nearly half the section of the pin.
When framing up
After

work it may be found necessary to use a steel


drawbore pin for the purpose of closing the shoulders,
after which the wooden pins may be inserted, first
the

covering them with paint or glue.

Pins used for this

work should be split, so that the grain may run through


their length and not obliquely across, as is sometimes
the case with those sawn.

Secret

shown

Nailing.

at Fig. 75,

This

may

be

accomplished, as

and may be adopted

in all cases

where the wood is coarse grained or of a porous nature,


In fixing dado framing, etc., it
such as oak or teak.
is sometimes necessary to nail through the framing

AND JOINERY

JOINTS USED IN CARPENTRY


from the face

with a thin ^

beneath

it

a small
in.

or

in.

the material

Another form of secret


face nailing,
this

portion of the grain

is

is

chisel,

and the

is

lifted

nail driven

then glued and replaced.

nailing, as' distinguished

adopted in fastening floor-boards.

case the nail

is

67

from
In

driven through the edge of the

board in an inclined direction, the next board

is

then

brought into position and treated in a similar manner.

The edges

of the boards being matched,

it

only requires

that one shall be fixed to keep both down, whilst the


boards, being fixed at one edge only, are free to shrink
and expand with the changes of temperature.
Fig. 76 represents a method of
Secret Screwing.
further securing the glued joints of work exposed to

/7

^ Z6

i
;

Id

TT

c t

the weather, by embedding screws along the length of

the joint.

The method

of procedure

is

as follows:

boards having been jointed in the usual

way

The

are set

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

68

and parallel lines marked across the


joint in pairs and at intervals of about 2 ft.
The
distance between the parallel lines should be from 1^
in. to 2 in., but must be equal throughout
in order

up

in the

vice,

to take a slip of

to secure this, it is well

parallel edges

wood with

and of the required width, and, having

laid it across the joint in the required position, pass

the pencil along

its

The top

edges.

removed, a stout 1|

piece having been

or 2 in. screw

in.

is

inserted in

shown

the centre of the joint and at the rear line, as

at

in the figure

a hole large enough to receive the

head of the screw is then bored in the centre of the


edge of the top board and at the forward line
from
this hole a slot is cut large enough to receive the
;

shank of the screw, and back to a little beyond the


A view of one of these sockets is shown
at D, Fig. 76, whilst an enlarged elevation of the joint
at the lines is shown at B and C,
Splayed Heading Joint. It is a difficult matter
in laying floor boards to pull up the butt joints, and
the method of closing them more generally adopted is
rear line.

to cut
last

them sloping

board laid being

or splayed, the top edge of the


left long,

cut to the reverse of


the board to slide

this.

down

whilst the

first

board

is

This arrangement allows

into its place, the nailing of

the board completely closing the joint.

Common

Dovetail.

are several kinds


are

the most

Of

the dovetail joints

there

but the three shown on page 6 9

important.

Fig.

represents

an end

elevation of the pins and side elevation of the sockets


of the
is

common

dovetail

pitched at about 80,

the sloping side of the pin

and should be from one-sixth

to one-eighth the thickness of the material at its thin

JOINTS USED IN CARPENTRY

AND JOINERY

69

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

70

Pins should not be placed nearer the edge than

edge.

half the thickness of the material, although this

may

culty

be overcome, should the necessity

placing the half pin at the extreme edge.


idea

the form of the joint

of

Fig. lA.

Lap

Dovetail.

may

side.

For

this reason

it

from

and 2a (page 69) represent

Figs. 2

that the end-grain

is

by

better

be gained

the lap dovetail; the advantage gained over the


dovetail

diffi-

arise,

common

appears only

on one

used at drawer fronts and

is

in similar positions.

Secret, or Mitre Dovetail.


3

and 3a (page 69);

strong

as

is

it

the foregoing,

as

This
a

is

shown

at Figs.

form of joint not so

the

dovetailing

extends

only to a portion of the thickness of the material.

advantage

Its

that the end-grain of the dovetails do not

is

appear upon the face of the work, a mitre line being


all

that

is visible,

hence

Flooring Joints.

its

name.

Figs.

to 8,

various sections of floor boards.


tation

page 71, illustrate

Fig. 1 is a represen-

dowelled joint, the boards being secret

of a

nailed through

its vertical

edges, the fastening of one

being sufficient to secure the other.

through ploughed and tongued

being in this case of wrought iron

than this

Fig. 2 is a section

the

tongue

a better

method

flooring,
;

to rebate the flooring, placing the

is

tongue

at the bottom, as, in the repair of sections, the tongues

must be

left

out.

Figs.

3,

4,

6, 7,

and 8 are other

forms, but the splayed joints are a disadvantage from

when worn in places they exhibit an


and unsightly line.
Fig. 5 is an illustration of a double dovetail slip
feather more suitable for block flooring than for battened.

the fact that


irregular

JOINTS USED IN CARPENTRY

AND JOINERY

i/oints.

T^ig. 5.

reg.y.

rip. a.

a.

Fog JO.

FcgJ/.

Fcg./2.

71

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

72

Figs. 9 to

12, page 71, and 1 to 12, page 73, are

made up of a combination
and named accordingly.
They are
the vertical angles of dado framing and

illustrations of various joints

of the foregoing

suitable for

casing generally.

JOINTS USED IN CARPENTRY

AND JOINERY

tjbonts.

7=tg. 3.

rig. 6.

Fig. 8.

rip.7.

PepJO.

Hp. a

ng.9.

73

CHAPTER

IV.

FLOORS.

FLOOR may be described as that portion of a building


which separates or divides the structure into stories or

They may be

flats.

and

iron, or, as is

of wood, a combination of

now

wood

often the case, especially with

buildings of the warehouse class, of hard and incom-

and water
would be beyond

bustible material, rendering the floor


proof.

To

discuss the latter class

fire

the scope of the present w^ork.

The term "ground


nearest

to,

or

street level.

floor" is applied to that

which

is

approached directly from, the adjoining

is

The

floors

above this are known as

first,

second, or third floors respectively as they range up-

wards,
floors.

known

below are known as basement


The whole of the series enumerated above are

whilst

those

also as

main

floors,

whilst those not passing

throughout the building, or not upon the same level as


the main

The

floors,

are

known

as ''mezzanine floors."

upon which the


which much
consideration is required, is not by any means the most
important point to consider in building up a system of
flooring.
It is to the design of the framework beneath
floor boarding, or that portion

foot rests, although in itself a subject for

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

76

amount of attention is required.


The timbers which go to make up the supporting
framework are known as naked timbers, both as rethe

that

greatest

garding the timber previous to receiving

covering

its

and in the consideration of the timbers apart from


such covering.

There

three

are

systems

distinct

building up flooring timbers, and

such

and

floor

material

it

economical

the

is

methods

or

disposition

are the primary considerations

that

of

the strength of
of

the

in

the

selection of the particular system to be adopted.

This

Single Flooring.

and

constructed

flooring

spans up to 14 or 16
joists,

and

11

to

in.

at distances

is

the

suitable

is

kind

of

only for small

Horizontal timbers called

feet.

deep, are

in.

simplest

placed parallel to

from each other of about

1 2 in. centre

their extremities upon wall


by 3 in., passing along the entire
It is upon
distance covered by the ends of the joists.

and

to centre,

plates, usually

the

upper

boards

are

ceiling

is

Figs.

rest with

4-|-

edges
fixed,

the

of

whilst

the

to

the

that

joists

flooring

and

2,

page

75, represent two

plans

portions of single floors, the clear span in each

being 16
of floor.

the

edges

lowest

attached.

ft.,

of

case

the largest span advisable with this form

Two rows

of strutting have been placed at

regular intervals along the joists; these stiffen the joists


considerably.

The two plans

are given

to

the method of treatment of the timbers, both


fireplace is parallel with,
to,

the

joists.

surrounded by

Timbers
in.

and

may

also

when

illustrate

when

the

at right angles

not be built into flues

brickwork,

it

therefore becomes

necessary to trim the timbers short of the chimney

FLOORS

77

trimming permits the flooring in and


around the fireplaces to the extent of 18 in. in either
direction to be built of hard and incombustible material,
Trimmer arches,
such as brick, stone, and concrete.
as shown in the sections at Figs. 3 and 4, are built
between the trimmed timbers and upon these hearth
stones are laid, embedded in concrete and cement.
In Fig. 1, page 75, the joists run parallel to the wall
containing the fireplace
a trimming joist is placed
eighteen inches from the chimney breast, and into this
are tusk-tenoned two short trimmers, carrying in their
It is usual to
turn the ends of the trimmed joists.
increase the thickness of trimming joists one-eighth of an
inch for each trimmed joist carried, and to make the
trimmers of the same thickness.
All joists, common
or otherwise, should rest either upon wall plates or
breast.

This

stone templates in pockets

illustrations of the latter

are given on page 84, Figs. 1


Fig. 2,

the

floor,

page 75,

common

is

of the

here running at right angles

breast,

plates,

inches

from

one on either side

with a clear space for a rendering

coat between the timbers and

eighteen

Two trimming

fireplace.

on the ends of wall

chimney

2.

a portion of a plan of a single

joists

to the wall containing the


joists rest

and

the

flue.

At

breast-line

a distance of

trimmer

is

placed in position, being tusk-tenoned at either end to


the

trimming

joists,

whilst to the

intervening joists are trimmed

trimmer

all

the

the latter are therefore

termed "trimmed joists."


As in the previous example,
the trimming joists are increased in thickness to the
extent of ^ in. for each joist carried by it.
In this
case there are two and a half joists carried by each

trimming

joist,

and as 2^

in.

joists

would be

in-

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

78

sufficient, the

next larger

size is

used,

namely

2-^ in.,

and the trimmer made accordingly of 2^ in. material.


Double Floors. Floors, the main timbers of which
are composed of either of the following combinations,
are known as double floors, plans and sections of which
are contained on page 80.

with ceiling

(1) Floor joists

which

is

shown

joists,

section

of

at Fig. 2, page 80.

Common joists

with binder, as shown at Fig. 77.


(3) Floor and ceiling joists with binders, as given in
section at Figs. 1 and 4, page 80.

(2)

F'loor cJoisCs

Double

floors

may

be constructed as such for two

distinct purposes.

(1) For the purpose of preventing the passage of

sound.
(2) For the purpose of economically increasing the

when the span


than would be recommended as a

strength and rigidity of a floor


is

greater

single floor.

FLOORS

79

Prevention of the Passage of Sound. The vibration and noise caused by the passage across floors is
often an objection in a great many cases.
To prevent
this the following schemes have been devised.
Sound Pugging. This is shown at Fig. 78, and

consists

of placing

series

of short

boards

called

across the opening between the joists


sound boarding
and about mid- way between the floor and ceiling
these rest loosely upon battens nailed to the sides of
the joists, and upon it is placed, to the depth of about

in.,

builders'

lime

passage of sound

is

rubble.

bodies

interposing several

It

is

of different

rendered more

found that by
densities,

the

difficult.

Another method of reducing vibration is to make


every fourth or fifth joist deeper by about 2 in. than
the remaining ones; this is shown at Fig. 2, page 80.
Ceiling joists are then added, notching and spiking
them to the deeper joists. This is known as a double
floor, and is designed more for the purpose of preventing the passage of sound than of increasing the
strength
that
or
to

of

floor

fourteen

the

joists

feet

floor.

It

should

not

in

length,

has

been

greatly
or

recommended
exceed

they become

twelve
liable

excessive vibration, causing the plaster ceiling

to

FLOORS
crack

become unsightly;

and

8i

it

becomes

therefore

necessary, in spans greatly exceeding these dimensions,


to

diminish the

" bays,"

is

shown

at Fig.

22

ft.,

whilst in the other direction

it

23

is

It will be seen that the single flooring could not

ft.

7,

In this case the least distance between the

page 80.
walls

by dividing the Hoor into

distance

placing binders between, as

Two 12

applied in this case.

having a clear span of 22

in.

by 7

in.

be

binders,

are placed from wall to

ft.,

on stone templates and in wall


pockets specially constructed.
As in the last example,
wall, resting at their ends

the ends of

timbers are kept clear of the walls, and

all

constantly in contact with a fresh supply of


line parallel to the wall plate at Fig.

cleat fastened to the surface of the wall, to

made

ends of the ceiling

fast the

trimming round the

joists,

air.

which

are

being the same in plan

fireplace

shown

at Figs.

Sections across the binders are


either one being applicable.
detail of Fig.

the cogging at

is

shown

is

the method of

as in the last example, whilst sections through

and

The

7 represents a

AB

and 6 respectively.
at Figs. 1 and 4,
isometric view of the

shown

An

at Fig. 3, giving the detail of

and that of the chase mortice at B,

Double Framed Floors.

When

both the length

and breadth of a floor space are so great that if


binders alone were used they would require to be
of such dimensions as would cause the framing to
be of unnecessary expense, as in the example given on
page 82, girders and binders are rendered necessary.
In that case the larger and more important timbers
are framed together, hence the name " double framed
floor."
The larger span is divided up into two or more
" bays " by placing girders across the shorter span and
F

FLOORS

83

from one another, not less than sixteen


feet,
Into these latter,
but usually about twenty.
binders are framed, at distances from each other ranging from eight to fifteen feet, and upon these the joists
at a distance

little

In the illustration given on page 82, a


more than a third of the plan of a double framed

floor

is

are carried.

given, the clear spans in length and breadth

being 46

ft.

and 34

3 in. respectively.

ft.

The longer

distance has been divided into three smaller spans by

placing two flitch girders across in such a position as


to

divide

it

into

equal

three

"

bays."

Into

these,

binders are framed, dividing the smaller span also into

upon them the flooring and


The flooring joists are shown
resting upon the tops of the

three equal bays, whilst


ceiling joists are carried.

in the

two top

bays

"

binders, whilst on the top of the flitch girder

is

placed

a furring piece, the top edge being in line with that of

the floor
Fig.

joists.

3,

page 84, represents a section through the


in this case the whole of the

girder of such a floor;

floor timbers are hidden between the floor and ceiling,


and greater head-room is given. The girders in Figs. 3
and 4 are sawn into half timbers called flitches, and the
wrought-iron flitch-plate inserted between them, being
bolted, as shown in section, by the dotted lines of Figs.
3 and 4, and in elevation as at Fig. 5.
This gives an

opportunity to reverse the timber, thus equalizing the

throughout its length and minimizing the


weakness caused by the local defects, snch as large
strength

knots, twisted fibre, etc.

Flitch plates should in no case be of the full depth


of the timbers, but should finish J in. within the top
and bottom surfaces otherwise, as the timber shrank,
;

84

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

FLOORS

85

or by the unequal resistance of the material, the


narrow edge of tlie metal plate would form a knifeedge and, bearing alone upon the template, tend
to create

a fracture.

Timber, in being

fixed,

should

have the heart exposed to the air, as it is that part


that is most liable to decay.
In Fig. 3, page 84, the
hearts

are

exposed

and the

outer

rings

placed in

contact with the metal plate.

Large timbers should under no circumstances have


their ends built into walls.

In the case of some of

the softer and more porous bricks, they are

absorb nearly their

damp
damp

houses,

or

own weight

buildings

known

to

This,

in

of water.

erected

without

proper

would be readily taken


up by the absorptive nature of the woodwork, and the
most important part of the timber its bearing surfaces
would at once be liable to decay.
In building
houses of several stories, the walls at the base would

or ventilating courses,

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

86

of necessity be of greater thickness than at the top


this

diminution usually takes place at ceiling

and

in offsets of

4|

The

in.

offsets

may

level,

be utilized

purpose of supporting wall plates (4 J in. by


upon which the ends of joists may rest and the
necessity of building them into walls would be reduced

for the

in.),

(see

Fig. 79).

places, the

Should no

brickwork

may

offsets

occur at convenient

be corbelled out as shown

V////////////X/////A

at Fig. 80.

cases

the

These will not be conspicuous, as in most


Should the former
cover them.

cornices

methods however not be practicable, small

'

pockets

'

should be provided in the walls slightly larger than


the section of the material, so that the air
to

may

be able

pass in and around the ends.

Wall plates, if built into walls, should be looked


upon with suspicion, as they are likely, by shrinking
or rotting, to cause the wall to lose its support and
thus tend to overturn

it.


FLOORS

87

Timbers resting on, or embedded within walls should


be thoroughly dry and have their surfaces coated
with bituminous or other material impervious to
moisture.

When

large

timbers, such

girders, rest within walls,

shown

as

in elevation

'

beams, binders, or

as

pockets

should be provided

'

and section at

Figs.

and

2,

page 84, support being given to the wall above by


means of a 4| in. brick arch, or a stone lintel

Derby

sometimes called a

"

of

to

one or two courses of brickwork and

at

its

extremities to the extent of

Basement

Floors.

The

4|

of

joists

equal

thickness

supported

in.

basement

floors

rest at their extremities upon wall plates, as described

above, and, at intervals along their length, upon plates

by sleeper walls resting

carried

directly

damp

foundations and provided with

upon the

courses

these

timbers and at least 6

latter should be below

all

above the surrounding

soil.

No

in.

trimmers are neces-

sary here, as the hearth stones are carried upon walls


at

least

These

in.

thick and

latter not only

hearth stones

known

carry

^'fender

walls."

extremities

of the

as

the

but also the ends of the

plates being provided as in

Ventilation of Basement Floors.


of basement floors

is

joists,

wall

other cases.

subject to the

The wood-work

damp

arising from

soil, and this, when combined with heat generated


by kitchen ranges, etc., usually located in basements, is
favourable to the growth of fungi which feed upon the
moist wood-work, causing its destruction.
To prevent

the

this,

the air beneath the floors should be subject to

constant change so that


as

it

may

be kept as fresh and cool

the surrounding atmosphere

this

is

best accom-

88

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

plished by perforating all sleeper walls and creating in

the others ventilating courses of vitrified and perforated

These latter not only act as ventilating

brick -work.

courses but, being vitrified, are impervious to moisture,

preventing
work.

it

from rising

to the

main body

of brick-

CHAPTER

V.

PARTITIONS.
Partitions are the constructions by which the various
or

stories

flats

of a building are divided

several compartments.

into

their

Besides those which the main

walls of a building supply, and which range upwards

throughout the entire series of

may

floors,

the following

be considered
(1) Studded Partitions.
(2) Bricknogged Partitions.
(3) Trussed or Quartered Partitions.

The following

is

some

a description of

of the parts

employed.
Studs.

These

and plaster

nailed the laths

When

of a lath

upon the edges

of which are
wide and of a
that of the main timbers, from 4|

they are usually 2

thickness equal to
to 6 in.

members

are the vertical

partition,

in.

the studs are cut short, as over the

heads of doorways, they are termed

"

puncheons."

The assemblage of main timbers upon


Framing.
which the partition depends for its strength.

Wall

Posts.

The

vertical

pieces

joining the wall and passing from


Sill.

sill

of

framing ad-

to head.

The lowest horizontal member of the framing,

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

90

the piece into which the lowest ends of the studs are
fixed.

Head.

The

framing.
Struts.

The

from central
the

that

They

highest

member

horizontal

of

the

inclined pieces which carry the load

lower positions, and in such a manner

to

thrust

first

is

received

by horizontal

ties.

are sometimes termed "braces."

Interties.

These

are

members

horizontal

of the

framing, passing from wall to wall, usually at the head

and providing an extra tie in cases of


Sometimes the door posts pass without
interception from sill to head; in such a case, the door
head is tenoned to the posts at a convenient height.
This method is not recommended for the heavier
of the doorway,

necessity.

classes of work.

Nogging

Pieces.

These

are small horizontal pieces

notched to the studding at vertical distances of about

ft.,

and are intended

to stiffen the studding.

Studded Partitions. These

are

common

partitions

usually erected after a building has been completed;

they are not self-supporting, but usually rest upon the

The head and

floor.

sill

are placed in position,

and

between these are placed studs stump-tenoned to the


head and sill, usually 4 in. or 4| in. by 2 in., provision, of course, being made for doorways, borrowed
No strutting is here employed, but nogging
lights, etc.
pieces should be used at vertical distances of about
4

ft.

some

for

the purpose of stiffening the studding.

classes of

work studded

one or both sides

in place of the lath

Bricknogged Partitions.
41

in.

brick

partitions

In

partitions are boarded on

These

and
are,

strengthened

plaster.

practically,

at

frequent

PARTITIONS
These should

by timber studding.

intervals

91

range

equal to the multiple of half

vertically at distances

a brick, so as to avoid unnecessary cutting and the

Partitions filled in in this manner,


consequent waste.
and plastered, are considered to be warmer than when
the position should be dry and the woodleft hollow
work thoroughly seasoned and coated, otherwise dry
rot will attack the timber-work and render it useless.
These are the
Trussed or Quartered Partitions.
most important of the timber partitions. They may be
;

made not only


to

self-supporting, but

may

be constructed

some

support either the floor or ceiling, and, in

both floor and

cases, to support

tion given

on page 92

ceiling.

The

illustra-

that of a trussed partition,

is

constructed to support both floor and ceiling, and

intended to show

may

how

is

the various parts of the framing

be disposed.

The most important principle that one should bear


in mind in framing trussed partitions, is to economically
dispose the timbers in such a manner that the weight
is brought vertically upon the walls.
In order that
this

may

be properly accomplished, struts or inclined

braces should be connected directly to the horizontal


or intertie, and not to wall posts.

ties,

such as the

The

latter,

ties,

are least capable of withstanding the thrust.

The

sill

being usually only stump tenoned to the


in the illustration given

sill,

on page 92,

lies

floor joists,

and

below the level of the bottom of the

may

be cased similar to a binder.

tionable, the

the flooring

sill

may

this is

are parallel to the


titions

are

If this

is

objec-

be arranged within the level of

more convenient when the

sill.

required in

Where
a

direct

joists

a series of such parline

up through a

PARTITIONS

93

building, they may be arranged so that the head of


one becomes the sill of the next above or the intertie
may, if the rooms are not lofty, supply the place of
;

the head of the lower portion and

of the upper.

sill

In some partitions the doorways are made extremely


wide for the reception of folding doors in this case the
;

door-head should be supported at intervals by means

upwards to the head


The horizontal timbers of framed

of bolts passing

be

let into the walls at either

end

of the partition.
partitions should

additional support

may

be rendered by means of stone corbels, or the


brickwork itself may be corbelled out to receive the
framing, as

81

shown

in Figs.

82

81 and 82.

represent

two other forms of

trussed partitions, the doorways

being in the centre

Figs.

and at the
4 J in. by 6

and
side.
in.,

The heads,

interties,

and

the braces and posts 4 1

in.

sills

being

by 4 1^

in..

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

94

and the straining pieces 2 1^ in. by 4 1 in.


The diagrams represent the principal trussing only, the studding
The position of the necessary bolts and
being left out.

by dotted

straps are indicated


joints are

shown

in

Chapter

lines.

Details of the

ill.

Brandering or Counterlathing. When wide timbers are employed in trussed partitions, their surfaces
should be counterlathed or brandered, as
times called, so that the plaster

Laths are

surfaces.

others nailed

first

upon them

may

is

it

some-

be keyed to their

nailed across their width, and


at right angles, thus permitting

the plaster to pass in behind.

Laths.

The

laths used for plastering purposes are

of three thicknesses, viz.

Lath,

Lath and half,


Double Lath,

T6- i^- thick.

in.

in.

PARTITIONS
The scantling
from the

95

may

of partitions generally

already furnished.

sizes

It

practicable to furnish a table of sizes,


differ materially

able,

the various

statics, to

members

would be imas these would

the student will be


determine the stresses in

with the design

by the aid of

be inferred

of a particular design, the weight

generally being taken as from 13 cwt. to 15 cwt. per

square

when

covered.

83 represents the

Fig.

joints around the door-head

of the partition given in Fig.


dissociated, so

81

that their forms

whilst the strut has been

the joints are here

may

be readily seen,

moved from

its

position for

the same purpose.

84 and 85 represent two forms of nogging


and the mode of fixing besides being notched

Figs.

pieces

96

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY


Sometimes, in

to the studding,

they should be nailed.

common

nogging pieces are cut clear of the

work,

studs, the only fastening they receive being

by

nailing.

CHAPTER
DOORS, DOOR FRAMES,

VI.

AND

LININGS.

The construction of the work described in this chapter


may be considered as forming one of the chief items in
the occupation of the joiner, and, although considered
chiefly
itself,

from a point of

in

some

cases, to

utility,

may

be

made

to lend

elaborate architectural treat-

ment, both with regard to exteriors as well as interiors.

It

is

intended in this work to describe only the

plainer varieties, having in view their construction under

ordinary circumstances.

In this series may be considered


Battened Doors.
Ledge doors ledged and braced framed
and battened and framed, battened, and braced, the
latter being sometimes termed framed and braced.
Ledge Doors. This is the commonest variety of door,
and chiefly used in outhouse work.
It is constructed
by fastening a series of battens (grooved and tongued)
together by means of horizontal ledges nailed, or nailed
and screwed, to them.
In the better class of work
the ledges are fastened to the two outer battens by
means of two screws at each of their ends, whilst the
the following

intermediate battens are simply nailed

the latter should

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

98

be of steel or wrought-iron, and should pass through


both ledge and batten, and have their points turned
at the

back

this process is

their support

known

as clinching.

away from each

the battens shrink

and the

nails not

support them, the door drops at

its

Ledged and Braced Doors.


the ledge door from dropping at

being sufficient to
closing edge.

In
its

As

other, they loose

order to prevent

closing edge, braces

are placed obliquely from ledge to ledge, passing up-

wards from the hanging

to

These

the closing edge.

act as struts, preventing the outer edge of the door from

dropping.

As

the struts or braces are always in com-

pression, all that


is

is

required at the points of support

a plain butt joint, a portion of which should be at

right angles to the direction of the brace.

As with

the ledges, the braces are kept in position by nailing,

Page
99 contains an exterior and interior elevation of a
ledged and braced door.
The hinges and latch have
been placed in position mainly for the purpose of indicating the direction to which the braces should incline.
Framed and Braced Doors. This is the best form
of the battened doors, and when not braced it is usually
termed a " fram.ed and battened door."
The stiles and

the points being clinched as in the former case.

top rail should be of the full thickness of the door,


whilst the middle and bottom rails and the braces are
of the thickness of the door, less the battens.

2 -in. door, the battens would be about

|-

in.

In a
thick,

whilst the braces and middle and bottom rails would be

1^

in.

The middle and bottom

bareface tenons, so that they

rails are

may

provided with

be brought as near

to the centre of the thickness of the stiles as possible.

The top

rail

and

stiles are

ploughed for the reception

DOORS, DOOR FRAMES,

AND LININGS

99

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

lOO

formed upon the top end of all the battens


and the extreme edges of the two outer ones.
The
battens, besides being tongued to the outer framing, are
nailed to the bottom and middle rails, and also to the
of a tongue

braces,

the

nails

The braces

scribed.

position that their

the framing

length

being

is

by

clinched

are

as

previously

usually placed

in

such

de-

centres pass through the angles of

this precaution the thrust along their

equally distributed to the framing.

These act as struts, and should incline upBraces.


The
wards from the hanging to the closing stile.
extremities are sometimes plain-butted against the
framing, and sometimes tongued in the latter case they
must be placed in position previous to wedging up.
Doors of this kind are usually used in external
When
walls, and for warehouse and stable work.
used in positions where both surfaces are exposed to
the wet, the top edge of the middle and bottom rails
The bottom
should be weathered (inclined outwards).
rail should be kept about 1^ in. or 2 in. from the
lowest edge of the door this is done for the purpose
of keeping as much of the material as possible away
from surfaces inclined to be damp.
The exterior and
interior elevation, also the vertical section of a framed
and braced door, are shown on page 99.
A form of this door is used with church work of the
mediaeval type, the battened portion passing over the
whole of the framed portion, whilst upon the outside
or battened surface mouldings are fixed to form panels.
;

Panelled

Doors.

Of

varieties, distinguished

by the

finish given to

these

there

are

several

by the number of panels and


them.

Interior doors are not required to be of such a large

DOORS, DOOR FRAMES, AND LININGS

lOI

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

I02

upon the exterior

size as those

page 101

the elevation given on

of standard size, being of a height of 6

is

ft.

and in width 2 ft. 6 in.


other sizes range
upwards, increasing by inches in both dimensions, so
that a door 6 ft. 9 in. high would be 2 ft. 9 in. wide,
and one 7 ft. high would be 3 ft. wide.
The position of the middle rail is governed largely
by aesthetic principles, but mainly for the purpose of
6

in.,

fixing the lock.

convenient position for handling

may

be considered as 2

this

may

ft.

in.

from the

floor line

also be taken as the height of the centre of

the middle

rail.

It has

been recommended that the

height of the top line of the middle


distance of 3

ft.

1 in.

from the

rail

should be at a

floor line,

alters the height of the centre of the

but this rule

middle

rail as its

width increases or diminishes.

The

elevation given on page

101

is

that of a four-

panelled door, with the positions of tenons and panels


dotted

in.

instructions

These have been arranged according to the


furnished in Chapter ill.
The different

methods of finishing are shown at Figs. 1 to 8. Fig. 1


is a section through what is known as a square framed
door with

flat panels.

Fig. 2 represents a similar door, with drop or

mouldings of the quirked and


Fig.

is

filleted

sunk

ogee type.

a similar section, having

beaded and

quirked ogee moulding, another form of which

is

shown

in Fig. 4.

The

section

shown

at

Fig.

has a filleted ovolo

moulding.

shows a section through the stile of a square


framed door, with flat panel and sunk moulding on one
side, and flush panel on the other.
Fig. 6

DOORS, DOOR FRAMES, AND LININGS

103

In the section at Fig. 7 both moulding and bead


have been worked upon the framing, the external
appearance being somewhat similar to the above.
Fig.

is

or " fielded

provided

"

through the

section

framed door, with

flat

panel

stile

of a square

panel on one side, and a raised

upon the

other,

with bolection mouldings.

the latter being

Mouldings pro-

jecting beyond the face of the work, and being rebated

over

An

the framing, are termed " bolection mouldings."


elevation of two raised or fielded panels provided

with bolection moulding

is

shown on page 107.

Frieze Rails.
These pass across the door between
the middle and top rail, as shown at Fig. 86.
The
panels

above

the

frieze

rail

are

known

as

frieze

panels."

Ftg.86,
The width

muntins and
so wide as the stiles by \
of

Fig. ay.
frieze rails should not
in.,

this

be

portion being

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

104

hidden upon one side by the rebate of the linings.

Sometimes the muntins do not pass beyond the frieze


This
and a long frieze panel is then necessary.
is the method usually adopted in the formation of a
five-panelled door.
Six-panelled doors are sometimes
arranged, as at Fig. 87, with two muntins passing up
through the door.
The advantage of this arrangement
with wide doors being that 1 1 in. stuff, or less, may be
used without the necessity of jointing up, and the
rail,

not so

panels

being of less width, the shrinkage

great.

Folding doors are those which are hung in

pairs,

one from each jamb, as shown in elevation at

They may be made

Fig. 88.

to

swing or

is

to close into

rebates.

When

doors are required exceptionally wide as com-

pared with the height, and where they would otherwise

appear unsightly, they are made to appear as in Fig.


88, but in reality they would open as one.

These are
and are constructed as
follows
The two halves are framed separately, but,
previous to wedging up, the two inner stiles are fitted
with three pairs of dry hard-wood folding wedges. The
top pair should pass through the stiles about 3 in.
The
below the top rail, as shown at A (Fig. 89).
other two pairs pass through the stiles 3 in. above the
bottom and middle rails respectively. The rails of the
two doors are first glued and wedged to the inner
stiles, which have previously been prepared to the
section shown in the figure, and properly jointed.
The
two inner stiles are then glued and wedged together,
the ends of the latter having been cut clear of the
plough groves, the panels are inserted, and the process
of wedging up is then proceeded with in the ordinary
"

termed

double-margin

" doors,

DOORS, DOOR FRAMES, AND LININGS

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

io6

The

between the two halves is provided with a double-quirked bead, either worked upon
the edges of the stiles, or planted on separately, as
manner.

joint

shown in section at Fig. 89.


Page 107 contains an
Sash Doors.
vertical and horizontal sections of what

elevation, with

known

is

as a

''gun-stock sash door."

When

with

constructed

are

poses,

being used for ordinary pur-

doors, besides

purpose of admitting

light,

glazed

panels

the

for

they are said to answer the

double purpose of a sash and door, and are therefore

termed

" sash

doors " or

Sometimes the

glass doors.''

from top to bottom rail, as is the case


fronts, in which case they are

glass extends

with doors for shop

known

as " all-glass doors."

Diminished

Stiles.

Doors

which have the upper

panels glazed should be constructed with diminished


stiles,

stiles

tapering off to a narrow width as they

approach the glazed portion,

much

so

may permit

so that they

light to pass as is possible.

When the diminution takes the


Stiles.
form of a mitre line of 45, passing from the lower
corner of the middle rail back to a point in direct
line with the diminished portion, and takes up a
Mitred

square shoulder line at


a ''mitred

stile."

Gun-Stock
III.,

shoulder

the

across the
is

a "

made

Stiles.

rail,

this

When,

point,

direct

with this

but

line, it

obliquely

of the

stile

known

is

"

as

gun-stock
stile," and the shoulder as a
Gun-stock sash doors are those provided

gun-stock

shoulder."

as

82, Chapter

and when the shoulder

to correspond

known

is

as in Fig.

passes

line

it

with the gun-stock

stiles

described above.

DOORS, DOOR FRAMES, AND LININGS

G un

sfoc/c rSos/? - door.

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

io8

Panels.

forms.

has
that

These

its
it

may

panel,

flat

be

finished

in

speaking,

strictly

variety

of

one that

is

surfaces perfectly plain

and of such a thickness

may

groove without rebating.

be entered into

its

These are illustrated in part section by Figs. 1 to 5


inclusive on p. 101.
A flush panel is one that has its
surface or surfaces finishing flush or level with that of

the framing, and

may

be so upon one or both

Panels flush upon one surface only are

one

side."

tongue

is

known

sides.

as ''flush

formed upon their edges by


it and the framing being

rebating, the joint between

usually provided with a bead.

Bead

Butt.

Flush

panels

having

edges only provided with a bead are


butt

"

or " bead

and

known

vertical

as " bead

butt."

Fig,

Bead Flush.

their

When

four edges of the panel,

89

a.

the bead passes around the


it

is

known

as " bead flush."

In place of working the end bead in the solid, a small


of the material is cut away, and a special

portion

DOORS, DOOR FRAMES, AND LININGS

109

worked bead glued and braded in its place. This


method is objectionable, as the panel is not free to
shrink and expand with the changes of the atmosphere,
A better method is
and often splits in shrinking.
to work the bead upon the framing as shown in the
section of Fig. 7, page 101.

Battened Panels.

Panels

which are made up of

a series of battens, with matched joints, are


as

battened panels

known

they are often arranged so that

the battens are placed diagonally, and, in this way,

may

act as braces or struts.

Raised or Fielded Panels. These are panels which


have had their margins recessed, the recessing usually
Elevations and sections
being inclined to the surface.
of these are shown on page 107.
Draped Panels. These are panels which have been
moulded upon their surface to imitate the folds of
They are
linen, the ends being returned to match.
"
sometimes termed linen panels."
Doors leading to private apartments,
Jib Doors.
and not intended to be conspicuous, are sometimes
They are usually flush with,
constructed in walls.
and take up, the line and character of the surrounding
work, and are termed "jib doors."
In some of the best classes of work, doors are
finished with different woods upon their surfaces.
They are usually constructed in halves, each side
beino^ of the same material as the work surrounding
it.
They are fastened together by means of dovetail

keys driven through the inner surface of the

stiles

the joints at the edges of the door are then covered

with a veneer of like material.

Frames.

In

buildings of the warehouse type, or

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

no

where the walls are left bare, doors are hung to solid
frames, fixed upon the surface of the wall or in rebates.
External doors are also hung to solid frames.
buildings

of

interiors

of

the

dwelling-house

In
type,

around the door-

linings, panelled or plain, are fixed

ways, and the doors hung to these.

Solid Frames. Fig. 1, page 111, is a section


through one jamb of a solid door frame fixed to a

upon the interior. The 4| in.


by 4 in. solid frame is moulded with an ovolo upon
its front edge, the rebated joint between the door and
frame being beaded.
The frame is made fast to the
quoins by boring, plugging, and screwing the heads
of the screws are sunk below the surface, and the
holes plugged.
The jambs upon the interior are
furnished with plain linings, and finished with a
band moulding.
Fig. 2 is a section through one jamb of a solid
frame fixed in a doorway, the brickwork of which is
stone wall, battened

If the door frame

left bare.

being built, the head

and

may

be

is

left

fixed as

the wall

is

long to the extent of

This method

3 in. or

usually

adopted in doorways having segmental arches

in.,

built into the wall.

is

and, consequently, no lintels, the head of the frame

being

made

Jamb

to " take

up

the line of the arch.

Lining's serve the double purpose of covering

and providing
hang the door.

or lining the edges of walls at openings,

framework

of

wood from which

to

Rebates are provided at both edges, although

seldom that both are used.

They are

it

is

in width (rebates

included) equal to the thickness of the wall they cover


plus
"

the rendering on both sides, and

grounds

"

or blocking at the back.

are fixed

to

set of linings

DOORS, DOOR FRAMES, AND LININGS

Soled Jromes

8f

fJamb LCnings.

in

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

112

consists of
or

two jambs or

vertical pieces

and one head

soffit.

Plain Linings. In some cases the linings are so


narrow that they will not allow of being panelled
;

they are consequently

shown

left plain, as

page 111, and the rebates worked on the

in

Fig. 4,

solid.

Panelled Jamb Linings. Fig. 3, page 111, is a


section through one jamb of a set of panelled linings,
with a half-plan of the soffit, looking up. The framing
is taken at 3 in. wide, and the rebates are tongued on.
This

latter

process

is

recommended

as

giving

the

opportunity of covering the ends of the tenons and


providing a more substantial edge for hanging purposes.

Splayed grounds are provided upon either

side, and the


between the plaster and grounds covered by

joints

band mouldins^s or architraves.


The term "architrave" was originally applied of the
lowest member or division of an entablature, and which
rests immediately upon the capital of a column, and is
now applied generally to the moulded margin around

window openings.

the front edges of linings to doors or

not recommended to carry the delicate members

It is

them
upon a

of the architraves to the floor level, but to stop


at about

plinth
Fig.

3,

10

in.

block, as

or

12

shown

in.

at

above, and finish


Fig.

88, and

in

plan at

page 111.

Band Mouldings.

When

the

moulded

margin

around a door or window opening assumes the less


dignified form shown in the upper portion of Fig. 3,
page 111, it is known as a "band moulding," another
section of which

is

shown

at Fig. 1

page.

Double-faced

Architrave.

When

upon the same


an

architrave

DOORS, DOOR FRAMES, AND LININGS


presents two plain

surfaces,

faced."

portion of Fig. 3, page 111,

is

known

is

it

The architrave shown

113

double-

as

in section at the lower

known

as double-faced.

Grounds. The wood foundations upon which architraves and band-mouldings are fixed are termed
Their backs are grooved, rebated, or splayed

grounds.

purpose of forming a key for the plaster, and

for the

are fixed

wood

by means of

plugs,

and, in

bricks,

wood

and
sometimes

pallets or joints,

they

addition,

are

by rails dovetailed between


them.
When mortised and tenoned together, they are
known as " framed grounds."
Plugs are small pieces of tapered wood driven
framed from back

into a wall after

winding,

so

to front

it

that

has been built

they

they should be cut

may have an

opportunity of

holding to the wall, even after shrinking.


Pallets or

Wood

Joints.

These

length and width as a brick (9

in.

same
and of

are of the

by

4-i-

in.),

a thickness equal to the mortar joints (about ^ in.).


They are built in with the work as it proceeds, at

distances of about 18

found

to

in.

from each other.

These are

be by far the best means of fastening,

being thin, the liability to shrinkage

is

as,

reduced, whilst

no necessity of raking out the joints of brick-

there

is

work

so soon after being built.

Wood

Bricks are sometimes used for fixing, but


liable in dry walls to shrink away and
become loose, whilst in wet walls they are liable to rot.
These are made of a composition
Fixing Blocks.
of coke-breeze and cement.
They are of such a nature
that a nail may be driven into them, and at the same
time they are not subject, as is the case with wood, to
dry rot.
they

are

CHAPTER VIL
SASHES AND SASH FRAMES, LANTERN LIGHTS,
SKYLIGHTS,
The

Etc.

construction of sashes, sash frames, and skylights

forms another important section of the work that may


be said to come strictly under the category of joiners'

may

Perhaps the most useful and convenient

work.

be considered as

being

the sliding

sashes in cased

frames.
Figs.

1,

elevation,

spectively

and

2,

with

3,

page 115, represent the interior

vertical

and

horizontal

a pair of vertical

of

sections

sliding sashes,

known
With the

re-

with

cased frame, and sometimes

as

sashes with cased frame."

half plan or hori-

zontal section,

is

the top of the


practice to
trate

show

shown

a half plan looking

head.
this, it

Although

casing

is

down upon

not usual in
illus-

the head of the sash.

be seen on looking at the sections that the


is

simply nailed together without

this being the

of work.

tonguemg,
method adopted in the commonest class

The following

various parts
Sill.

it

has been done here to

the method of blocking

It will

"double-hung

This

is

a brief description of the

is

the lowest

member

of the framing

it

SASH AND SASH FRAMES, ETC.

Fig

3.

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

ii6

should at least have

top surface weathered, so that

its

may not lodge upon it but it is far better


have at least one sinkage upon its surface, and if
this is throated the water will be prevented from being
driven back to the interior.
Fig. 3, page 117, represents a part section through such a sill provided with
the water

to

The

a ventilating bead.

section has been taken with

the sash lifted to a height equal to the thickness of


the meeting

This allows a current of air to enter

rail.

the room through the open joint between the meeting


rails.

The splayed

baffler,

sending the fresh air back to the glass, and

dispersing

it

joint of the meeting rails acts as a

about the room without creating direct

currents of cold
satisfactorily.

It is

air.

found to act in every way

should be constructed of hard and

Sills

durable wood, such as oak or teak, as they are fixed in


positions

which render them

liable to

dry

rot.

These are the vertical side pieces


Pulley Stiles.
against which the sashes slide, the parting bead being
tongued along the centre.
Pulley stiles are fixed by
being sunk into the
thickness

of the

spiked (nailed).
stile

when
stiles

shall

about half the

they are also wedged and

most important that the pulley

take up the irregularities.

Pulley

be either plain or tongued at the edges

exposed situations

They

It is

be faced up perfectly true, or the casing

fixed will

may

to the extent of

sill

latter

it is

are usually constructed in

class of work,

mahogany

in

necessary to have them tongued.


or teak

fir,

is

but in the better

used.

Heads. These connect the tops of the


pulley stiles, and are either housed or tongued, and
grooved at the joint.
They are, with the exception of
the centre groove, usually of the same section as the
Pulley

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

ii8

pulley stile

not usual to provide a parting bead

it is

head except in exposed situations.


These are nailed to the inner edge
Inner Casings.
of the pulley stile, to the sill and head, and in the
better class of work are of the same material as the
interior fittings of the compartment, and are of a thickness ranging from f in. in common work to 1 in. in
the better class, and of a width varying with the
at the

surrounding circumstances.

Outer Casings.
fixed

to

the

These

outside

are the casings which are

edge of

the

pulley

extreme edge projecting to the extent of f


beyond the face of the pulley stile.

Parting Beads.
centre of the pulley

These

beads

fixed

the

or f in.
to

the

and which form the partitions


which the sashes slide.
They

stiles,

between the channels in


are usually of the

are

stile,

in.

same material

as the pulley stiles,

are f in. in thickness, and should project beyond the


face of the pulley stile to the same extent as the outer

They are tightly fitted to the groove of the


pulley stile, and by this means only should they be
casing.

held in position.

Stop Beads.

These

are the movable beads, nailed

or screwed to the edge of the inner casings.

They

should be of such a thickness that the inner surface

is

crown of the parting bead and


They are sometimes of
the edge of the outer casing.
such a width that they pass over the joint between
the casing and pulley stile, and in the better class of
work are sometimes fixed in rebates by means of brass
" cups and screws."
Parting Laths or Slips. These are contained
inside the casing, and are hung loosely from the centre

in direct line with the

SASH AND SASH FRAMES, ETC.


of the

ends of the pulley

stiles

they prevent the

In ordinary work

weights from striking each other.

they are of

work they are

Back

and about ^

fir,

in.

119

thick

but in the best

often of stout zinc.

Linings.

These are usually of f

in.

material,

tongued to the inner casing, and nailed upon the back

They complete the boxing

edge of the outer casing.

of the weights, and prevent the latter

being caught

upon the rough surface of the brick rebates.


The sashes slide in vertical grooves formed by the
casing, and are balanced by lead or cast-iron weights
attached

cords

to

being fixed about


stiles.

over

passing
3

in.

pulleys,

the

latter

from the top of the pulley

The joints between the meeting rails


Brackets.
and stiles of sashes are sometimes dovetailed, but if
the ends of the stiles were allowed to project, the
ordinary form of tenon would suffice, and is calculated
to

make

the stronger joint

the ends of the stiles in

this case

should then be moulded in the form of a

bracket.

This method

2,

and in practice

run

is

shown on

115, Figs. 1 and


found to cause wide sashes to
is

p.

" freely.

Window

Boards.

sometimes only 1|
surface of the

sill,

Narrow

in.

"

boards

"

or

battens,

wide, are tongued to the inner

to create a finish

and

"

break

"

the

and the plaster below.


They have
their front edges moulded (usually a half-round) and
returned," and are convenient for butting
the ends
the ends of the band moulding upon.
Page 120 contains an interior elevation of a pair of
2 in. double hung sashes and cased frame, fixed in a
two-and-half brick wall, with splayed boxed shutters

joint

between

it

I20

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

Arclntrn,-f.

INTERiOR

f.LEVAT/Oif

SASH AND SASH FRAMES, ETC.

121

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

122

and with window back and elbows complete, enlarged


details of which will be seen on pp. 117 and 121.
Boxed Shutters. These are shutters which fold
back in "leaves" into boxings as shown on pp. 117, 120,
Page 121 contains an example of
121, and 123.
splayed boxed shutters in a 22| in. brick wall. The
wall, in this case, being thick enough to receive the
whole of the shutters without the necessity of the

boxing standing out into the room.

Square Boxed Shutters

may

be arranged within

in the section

may

stand

taken in
seat

on

p.

its

which

those

are

stand

In thick walls, they

out at right angles to the wall.

thickness

123, the wall

is

but when, as

thin, the boxings

Advantage may be

out into the room.

such an arrangement to create a window

whilst the only objection

is

that the boxing

is

apt to block the light from parts of the room.

This latter objection

may

be obviated by allowing

the shutters to close back in narrow recesses asjainst


o
the face of the wall.
The first panelled leaf is then

provided with a plain return piece, wide enough to


allow the shutter to close back into

having at the angle a rule


Vertical Sliding

its

boxing and

joint.

Shutters.

Another

method

disposing of shutters, especially where the wall


a thick one,

is

to

slide

behind the window breast

them

vertically

is

of

not

downwards

a vertical and horizontal


shown on p. 124. They are balanced in the
same manner as sliding sashes, casings being required
as for the latter.
The window board is here made to
answer the purpose of a cover or flap which, when open,
section

reveals the shutters.


to

is

close

against

the

Similar flaps
vertical

may

portion

be provided

of the

casing.

SASH AND SASH FRAMES, ETC.

ffji^oug^

123

one scde of a

window fof^Q 3 6 opening

Stone CtU
(weotljereci)

Oafslde

lininj)

OoA CiU
-

Pa//ey stilt'

'

efs^5

f/^"

Stop Bead

Window Tdoord

Square

Strutters

124

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

Verftcaf Sliding S/jutfers

SASH AND SASH FRAMES, ETC.


Advantage

is

taken of the depth behind the joist and

wall plate to allow the shutters to pass

The shutters

them.

125

are usually

made

down behind

for this purpose

two leaves, and, in the case of lofty windows, require


even more depth than has already been suggested for
this purpose the brickwork may be recessed to the
extent of two or three courses behind the wall plate.

in

Kings are provided in the top edge of the shutters for

and are so constructed that, when not


in use, they fall below the surface of the top plate.
French Casements. This is another form of sash
door, but in this case the sash, which was primarily
constructed for the purpose of light, has been made to
take the form of a door for the convenient approach to
a veranda or balcony. Page 127 contains half elevations
that to the left of the centre line
of such a casement
represents a half elevation of the exterior, whilst on the
lifting purposes,

right

shown a

is

stiles,

in

this

The

half elevation of the interior.

case, are

made

so

advisable to sink the lock below

frail

that

its surface.

is

not

For

this

it

and bolts are provided the latter


are known as espagnolette bolts
they are screwed upon
the surface of the stile, and are constructed in such a
manner that by turning a small handle, placed in a
reason, special locks

convenient position along

it,

the lengthened bolt en-

gages with the sockets both at the top and bottom.


Sections of the above casement are given on page 128.

Sashes of this kind are

made

to

open outwards as well

as inwards, special advantages being claimed for each.

In exposed situations,
results

are

it

is

suggested that

obtained by hanging

the

the best

doors to

open

towards the outside, as when the force of the wind


presses against them, they are closed into the rebates.

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

126

When hung
liable

that

it

may

the

sill.

In

the

fasten

to

When

not slam.

the interior there


at

open, they are

left

be caught by the wind, and great care has

to

be exercised

to

manner, and

in this

is

when

door

open,

so

the doors open towards

a difficulty in closing the joint

order

to

overcome

this

difficulty

several patent water-bars have been introduced with

The section given on page


or less success.
128 has been provided with an ordinary wrought-iron

greater

tongue against which the door

closes,

jecting weather-board has been fixed

whilst a pro-

upon the outer

edge.
The frame has here been provided with a transome and transome-light for ventilating purposes.
As
will be seen from the section, the light has been hung
from the transome
this arrangement prevents down
draughts, and disperses the air along the ceiling, where
it mixes with and dilutes the vitiated atmosphere of
;

the interior, purifying

it,

and rendering

it

less objec-

In the horizontal section two methods of


closing the joint at the stile are shown
tlie lower one
tionable.

is

considered to render the joint more secure in exposed

situations.

The frames
but
rail

may

for

French casements are always

shown on page 127.

Casement sashes with

frames are sometimes used in work

bethan

solid,

be constructed with or without the transome

"
;

known

solid

as " Eliza-

they are somewhat similar in detail to the

They are
French casement, but are not used as doors.
sometimes constructed in sets with solid mullions
dividing them into double, treble, or quadruple lights,
and are known as two-light or three-light casements,
according to the number of divisions contained by
These are also constructed with or without
the frame.

SASH AND SASH FRAMES, ETC.


member known

the horizontal

top

surfaces

framing

the

of

as the transome.

exposed

off.

It

is

that the water


section of a

advisable

may

wood

to

throat

may

them

not be driven back.


sill

All

the

to

should be weathered so that the .water

run

129

Fig.

rain
easily
so

also,

90

is

weathered and throated.

rig
Capillary

Attraction.

When

two

surfaces

are

placed so that only a small space exists between them,

and when placed with

their

with water, the latter will

lower edges in contact


rise vertically

to a

con-

siderable extent above the normal surface of the liquid,

not by absorption alone, but by capillary attraction,

and the height

to

which the water may

as the space diminishes.


I

rise increases

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

I30

Throating. Water has also the power of adhering to


the under side of horizontal surfaces, and, if allowed to
do so, will travel some distance in this manner, and often

To avoid this, grooves wide


find its way to interiors.
enough to prevent capillary attraction are sunk into
the under surface of projecting wood-work
this is
Another form of throating is
termed " throating."
adopted on the vertical edges of sinkages on wood sills,
to prevent the wind from driving the water from the
lower to the higher surfaces the force of the wind is
checked by the throating, and the water thrown back
upon the lower surface.
It will be seen from Fig. 90 that all these points
have been considered in the design of the joint not
only that, but the joint between the bead of the sill
and the bottom rail has been prepared in a manner
somewhat similar to that of the meeting rails. It
;

requires but

and
all

is

additional labour in its preparation,

cold currents of

once clears
is

little

the means, in exposed situations, of keeping out

itself,

air.

The

sash, as it is lifted, at

and no loose joint or other clearance

required.

The approximate area of window surface for the


room may be found by extracting the
square root of the number of cubic feet obtained by
lighting of a

multiplying together the length, breadth, and height as


follows

Area in

sq.

ft.

= \/Length x

Borrowed Lights.

These

Breadth x Height.
are small sashes placed

in partitions for the purpose of giving light to inner

rooms or staircases not


sources.

They

sufficiently lighted

from other

are fixed in framing, formed of a set of

SASH AND SASH FRAMES, ETC.

131

with window-board, the latter usually extend-

linings,

ing beyond the surface of the wall, and having

The

edges rounded.

its

band
and butting upon

linings are provided with

moulding, mitred at the top angles,


the window-board at the bottom.

Horizontal

outhouses

sliding

hinged

ordinary

They

results.

when one

sashes

they are more

casements,
peculiar

are

sash (the outside)

frame, the other sliding

known

they are
joint

is

sometimes used in
to construct than
and do not give good
are

difficult

some

to

localities,

and

constructed with the

is

upon a tongue

or in rebates,

as " Yorkshire lights.''

The

closing

provided with beads projecting from the face

of the sashes

and forming

Pivoted Sashes.
page 132

warehouse

rebates.

This

form of sash

is

shown on

they are used principally in buildings of the


class,

and

in

stables,

and the method

is

often adopted for the opening of the ventilating sashes


in lantern lights.

position

is

The advantage gained

in the latter

obvious from the fact that the sash, always

balanced upon the centre pin, requires

little

power

to

open it.
The position to which the sash may be
opened may vary from the horizontal to the position

Some

indicated in the illustration.

architects prefer

the former, whilst others are of the opinion that the

The

sash should incline as indicated.


centre

pin

should be a

little

above

gravity, so that the preponderance

of the closing of the sash.

is

position of the

the

centre

good rule to adopt

to place the pivot in the centre of the clear line

between the

" squares."

of

always in favour
is

midway

It will be seen that certain

parts of the beads are fixed to the frame, whilst the

others are fixed to the sash.

The exact

position of the

132

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

Pivoted Sqs/^ ond Solid JT^ome.


V/////////

Mortar Screed p
to closeJoint

Segmental

Sqs// oper2ed
cutting
of ^heQois

to s/^eM/

iiull-nose
7?>ricks

SASH AND SASH FRAMES, ETC.

may

joint

133

be determined by placing lines across the

side of the frame in the direction and position occupied


by the crowns of the beads when the sash is open.
These lines will mark the extreme points of the joints,
and, if from the centre of the position of the pivot, a
circle

drawn, having for

be

between

radius the distance

its

and the extreme points alluded

this point

to

above, then tangents to this circle will represent the


line of junction

The ''centres"

between the beads.

for

the above are sold in pairs, one having a pivot upon

the plate, whilst the other has a corresponding socket

grooved from the side for the convenience of hanging.

The pivot may be attached


socket to the frame

in

this

the sash, and the

to

case the groove of the

socket has to be carried to the edge

This method has

the

objection

groove, appearing upon the surface,

avoid

may

the pin

this,

socket to the sash

the

of the

frame.

that the end of the

To

unsightly.

is

be attached to the frame, and


in

this

case

the groove

is

carried to the splayed butt-end of the bead, and, in that


position,
this

case,

not so conspicuous.

is

be

made

Allowance must, in
by

in the joint of the outer bead

raising the joint to the extent of half the thickness of

the sash, so

that

the

position.

Dormer
in

Lights.

the sloping

sash

These

surfaces

of

may

be

passed into

its

windows constructed
roofs.
They are distinare

guished from skylights by standing vertically, whilst


the latter

lie

in a surface parallel to the plane of the

They are often constructed as casements, but


may be of any of the forms previously described.
roof.

Skylights.

These

are

sashes of a

peculiar

con-

struction lying in the plane, or parallel to the surface

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

134

of

the

They

roof.

are

fixed to, or

upper portion of a curb or


of fixing skylights, the

lining.

common

hung from, the


For the purpose
are cut and

rafters

trimmed in a manner somewhat similar to the trimming of joists, and a curb or lining is fixed as shown
on page 135.
The bottom rail of a skylight is known
as an apron piece, and is thinner than the light by the
depth of the rebate and plus a small amount usually
allowed for the escape of the moisture which conin some
denses upon the cold surface of the glass
;

cases channels are cut in the top surface of the apron

piece for the


of the joint

the latter

is

same purpose. Two methods are shown


between the bars and apron piece, whilst
joined to the stiles of the light by means

of bareface tenons.

Lantern Lights.

These

are glazed enclosures con-

upon lead
and ventilation to rooms
They are a decided improvement
or staircases below.
upon skylights, but are more expensive to construct.
The roofing timbers are trimmed around in the usual
way, and curbs are made to stand at least 6 in. higher
These are
than the highest part of the roof adjoining.
firmly secured at the angles, by dovetailing or other
means equally secure, and with the trimmings cased by
Solid frames
plain or match boarding or by panelling.
with projecting sills of hard wood rest on, and are
secured to, the curbing, the whole being crowned with

structed
flats,

at the

ridges of sloping roofs or

for the purposes of light

a lead

flat or

glazed top lights, as

shown

in the part

and elevation contained on page 136. Between


the glazed side lights and the panelling or " combing,"
as it is sometimes called, a gutter should be fixed so
that the condensed vapour may pass away to the
section

SASH AND SASH FRAMES, ETC.


The

exterior.

may

details of construction

on examination of section on page 136.

best be seen

The top

lights

the horizontal width of the margin

obtained by developing the angle, as seen at Fig.

1,

are nere hipped


is

137

page 136, 0 being the angle of inclination of the top


lights.
Fig. 2, page 136, represents the method of
obtaining the bevel of the joint at the hip, and which

may be described as follows


ABC, representing the plan

Draw

Construct the

the plan of the hip.

the single lines

BD
BAD
equal
angle

of the angle, with

as
to

Draw FB equal to BB,


(0).
BB. Join F with B. Draw
BB, and intersecting it in G.

the pitch of the top lights

and at right angles

AC

to

at right angles to

From G

construct

tersecting

it

GH

in point

H,

FB, and incentre, and GH

at right angles to

With G

as

RI, intersecting BB in /.
and IC
AIC is the angle between the
For the
the top lights, and AIG its mitre.

as radius, construct the arc

Join

AI

planes of

purpose of covering the angles, ridge


these

are

page 136.

shown

in

position

upon

rolls are

the

required

illustration,

CHAPTER

VIIL

EOOFS.
In our consideration of
so

much

of its

span,

roofs, attention will

not be paid

means
They vary in outline according to
character of work it is intended to cover, and
to the actual covering itself as to the

support.

also to climatic conditions.

Pitch,

In some parts

are favoured with

tendency

is

much

of the continent,

sunshine and

to construct flat roofs

eaves, so as to produce as

where they

little rain,

the

with wide overhanging

much shade

as

is

possible

whilst towards the north, where heavy rains and snows


prevail, the

custom

is

to

make

the roofs steeply pitched.

Again, the character of the building to be covered in-

In classic build-

fluences the pitch to a great extent.

ings the roofs are usually pitched at about 25, as were


also those of the late Gothic, whilst those of the

German

renaissance and early Gothic were steeply pitched, even


to the extent of

about 60.

Page 140 contains a


method of
45 ft. and above.

of single line diagrams illustrating the

ment

of spans

from 8

Lean-to Roof.

ft.

to

This roof

is

intended for small out-

buildings constructed against the walls of


ings.

Common

rafters

only

series
treat-

are

main

build-

used in spans up

ROOFS
10

to

ft.

spiked

are notched or

these

wall

the

to

attached.

The

upon the

fixing

139

stability of

the

at

and

plates,

birdsmouthed and
the

roof

covering

such a roof depends greatly

tops of the rafters

unless

thoroughly well supported here, the thrust along the


rafters has a

tendency to overturn the lower walL

Couple Roofs.

In

this

case

common

rafters are

used in pairs or couples, one from either wall.

They

by spiking to the ridge piece, the lower


ends being notched or birdsmouthed to the wall plates.
In this case the weight of the roof and its covering is
thrown obliquely upon the wall, but the tendency to

are secured

overturn

is

lessened as the pitch of the

It is not

creased.

recommended

roof

is

in-

to adopt the couple

roof in spans exceeding 12

Collar Roof.

ft.
See Fig. 2, page 140.
diagram furnished by Fig. 3,

The

page 140, shows this roof in its simplest form. When


the span is greater than 12 ft., the timbers need tying

The

together.

up the

tie

An

" collar."

in

this

and in

rafters,

this

case

is

placed half-way

position

is

known

as a

elaborate form of this roof with trusses

sometimes used in Gothic structures, and the increased span is provided for by means of brackets or
is

See page 159.

ribs.

Couple Close.

When

the feet of the rafters are

page 140, they


and the arrangement of the

tied together horizontally, as in Fig. 4,

are

said to be closed

roofing timbers in this


close."

manner

is

known

as a " couple

In the smaller spans the wall plates are tied

at. intervals of

every 3 or 4 feet;

but

if ceilings

are

attached, then each closing piece forms a ceiling joist,

and needs

12 inches apart.
In
and where ceilings are

to be spaced at about

long spans, from 16 to 18

feet,

I40

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

ROOFS
attached, the ceiling joists

141

need to be supported at

by iron rods.
King-post Truss. In the foregoing examples common rafters only were used, but in spans from 18 ft.
that at
upwards trusses or principals are necessary
their centres

Fig. 6

is

known

as a " king-post truss/' suitable for

18 to 30 ft.
A full elevation of this
shown on page 142, with common rafters, ridge
piece, purlins, and pole plates added.
It will be seen that the king-post truss is composed of
principal rafters, tie-beam, king-post, and struts. These,
spans

truss

from

is

when framed together, complete


The advantage of trussing is

the truss or principal.

by its means, the


weight of the roof is carried vertically upon the walls.
The trusses should be arranged to span the building
at intervals of from 8 to 10 feet, and between

them

that,

are carried the ridge piece,

plate; to these are fixed the

common

their turn, carry the roof covering.


is

carried,

piece,

purlins,
rafters,

and pole
which, in

Thus the weight

by the common rafters to the ridge


and pole plate, and, by them, concen-

first,

purlins,

trated at their junction with the principals.

The detail of the joint at the head of the king-post


shown by the enlarged sketch at Fig. 1, whilst the
joint at the purlin is shown at Fig. 2.
To prevent
is

the purlin from being turned over, short pieces, called


cleats, are

sunk into the top or back of the


and spiked or bolted.

partially

principal rafter,

In order that the nature of the stresses in the various

members may be understood, we


truss in sections.
in position

First, place the

upon the

been placed at

will

build

two principal

up the
rafters

and consider that a load has


the apex or head.
The load has a
wall,

ROOFS

143

tendency to push the walls out; to prevent this, place


the tie-beam in position, making good the joint between
it

if

It will now be seen that,


and the principal rafter.
the tie-beam and its joints are strong enough, the

feet

of the

rafters

We may

kept in position.

are

infer from this that the principal rafters are in comNow, place
pression, and the tie-beam is in tension.
the loads at points half-way up the principal rafters

(the

position

of

purlins), and,

the

heavy enough, the rafters will


sag, and approach a point near
beam. To prevent this, place
struts in position, passing from
beam up to the centres of the

the

if

loads are

be seen to bend or
the centre of the
the

tie-

two supports or

the centre of the

tie-

principal rafters.

It

now be seen that the weights at the purlins are


conveyed across the principal rafter and down the
will

and the principal

strut to the tie-beam,

only as the tie-beam


post

in

position,

is

bent.

supported

Now,

head

the

at

rafter

bends

place the king-

between

the rafters, and allow the struts to rest against the

enlargement at the base.

If the king-post is strong

enough, and the joints are properly constructed,

it

will

be found capable, not only of holding in suspension


the weight carried along the struts, but also of assisting to carry the tie-beam with

If the king-

its load.

post were constructed of material sufficiently elastic,

should find
in tension.

stretched by the weight


The following is a summary

it

Member.
Principal Eafters,
Struts,

it is

we

therefore

of the results

Nature of

Stress.

Compression.

Compression.

Tie-Beam,

Tension.

King-post,

Tension.

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

144

Camber.

may

they

Horizontal

timbers,

however

straight

be previous to being placed in position, have

a tendency to deflect or sag in the centre, even from

own

their

weight.

This

is

very noticeable, and gives

Even a small deflection


be much more than is actually

the impression of weakness.

appears to the eye to


the

To counteract

case.

joists, etc.,

beams, bressummers,

this,

should be placed with their rounded edges

uppermost, and in framed timbers an allowance,


as "

known

cambering," should be created.

Arching or cambering the timbers was


considered to give increased strength

one time

at

this

may have

been so at a time when walls were built stout enough


to

withstand the oblique thrusts, but in modern con-

struction

is far

it

or cambered

from being the

beam assumes the

tendency to thrust outwards

its

case.

As an arched

straight line,

it

has a

supports, so that care

must be exercised that the camber is not too great.


Cambering the tie-beams of wood trusses has the
effect

subsequent settlement of the

of reducing the

The king-

structure.

or queen-posts are, for this pur-

pose, cut short to the extent of 1

every 20
effect,

ft.

when

tightening

all

1^

or

in.

for

This has the

have been drawn up, of


the joints throughout the truss, so that

the shoulders

any subsequent settlement due


vented.

in.

in the length of the span.

to this cause is pre-

When the span exceeds 30 ft.,


Queen-post Truss.
two vertical posts are used instead of one these are
known as "queens," and the truss is called a " queen
Page 145 contains a part elevation of a queenpost."
post truss for a span of 37 ft., whilst enlarged details
are shown on pages 146, 148, 149, and 151.
;

ROOFS

145

ROOFS
The

147

around the head and foot of the queenpost are shown on page 146, with the necessary
joints

ironwork,

that

at

the

being

foot

known

as

the gib

and cotter joint.


The method of using the gib and cotter strap
best be seen in the section, page 146.

underneath the
mortise

is

tie

and up the

The

will

strap passes

sides of the posts.

cut in the latter in a position slightly above

the holes provided in the enlarged ends of the strap.

Iron gibs of the form shown in the figure are then


inserted, the ears keeping the strap in position whilst

the iron wedges or cotters are driven.

It will be seen

that the gibs are in contact with the iron strap at the
top,

and with the wood post underneath.

The driving

of the cotters has the effect of opening out the gibs

these in their turn press against the strap at the top,

and bringing up the tie-beam with it, whilst


the cotter below presses against the post, keeping it
down and consequently closing the joint. The gib and
cotter strap may be applied in the same way to kingposts, and to the support of sills in the framing of
lifting

it,

partitions.

Eoof trusses are placed


surrounding

Where

this

at

circumstances

dimension

is

distances governed

usually

or

10

by
feet.

exceeded, the purlins require

to be greatly strengthened either in their scantling, or

by trussing or strutting.
The section given on page 148
Parapet Gutters.
shows the method of treatment of the timbers at the

foot of the principal rafters

when

be formed against a parapet.

a flat gutter has to


In this case the gutter

bearers are notched over and spiked to the


rafters, the latter resting

upon a wall

plate.

common
Pockets

ROOFS

TdlocHirzQ

9dox Guttler

149

Course Finish

and

Cess/dool

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

ISO

have here been provided for the reception of the end


of the truss, and provision made for the ventilation of
the

timbers, by placing

roofing

The

above the cornice.

flov7 is

an

air

grating just

given to the gutter in

by varying the height of the gutter bearers


necessarily makes the gutter wider as the height

this case

this

of the bearer increases.

Box
method

Gutters.

The

section on page

of forming a box gutter.

The

149

gives the

pole-plate

is

made

use of here, for the purpose of carrying the ends of the

common

rafters, instead of the wall plate, the essential

between the two being that the wall plate


rests throughout its length upon the wall, whilst the
pole plate rests only at intervals upon the ends of the
The full depth of the pole plate is here
roof trusses.
difference

taken advantage of for the varying height of the gutter

which are tenoned into

bearer, the ends of

its

sides,

The cessforming an approximately parallel gutter.


pool is a form of tank or cistern for the purpose of
collecting or receiving the rain-water previous to its

being emptied into the down-pipe

it

may

be formed

within the depth of the tie-beam, where the position of


the latter does not prevent

it.

Eaves Gutters.
The roofing timbers

are illustrated on page 151.

These

wall at least

1.8

are carried over the edge of the

ins.,

the

common

rafters being sup-

ported either by jack rafters or by a pole plate.


bearers are carried out from the wall, and

the ends of the


or covered

by a

that the gutter

common

fascia board.
is fixed,

ing the gutter to

The

soffit

is

rafters, the

made

Soffit

fast to

ends being closed

It is to the fascia board

the depth of the former allow-

be fixed with the necessary flow.

covered either by boarding or lath and

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

152

plaster

whilst at intervals air gratings

may

be fixed

for the purpose of ventilating the roof timbers.

Abutments.
thickness

by increasing the

are formed

immediately

of walls

when

timbers,

These

increased support

underneath
required

is

or brackets of stone are also used for the


pose.

By

alteration

slight

of

the

bearing
;

corbels

same pur-

scantling,

details at the foot of the principal rafter, as given

pages 148, 149, and 151,

and queen-post roof

may

the

on

be adapted both for king-

trusses.

On page 1 5 3 is shown a complete


mansard roof truss, with common rafters,
purlins, curbs, and pole plates added.
It is a combination of king- and queen-post trusses, with two
roof planes on either side.
The advantage of this
form of roof is that increased accommodation may be
Mansard

Roofs.

elevation of a

obtained without the expensive construction of walls.


It is a

common

several

tiers

occurrence on the Continent to find


rooms within the roof itself.
The
section given on page 154 shows how a similar form of
roof may be constructed upon purlins without the use
of a truss.
It is intended here to finish with parapet
wall at the front, and with overhanging eaves gutter at
of

the back.

The truss shown on


Philibert-de-Lorme Truss.
page 156 is an illustration of what is known as a
Philibert-de-Lorme " truss.
The main rib is formed
up

of a series of short lengths of boards in three thick-

These
and with butt joints.
by being fastened with radiating pieces
to a blade of 11 in. by 4 in. material and to the
uprights.
The radiating pieces are made slightly orna-

nesses, placed vertically,

are stiffened

mental in character, whilst the top

five are

made

to

ROOFS
The

support the skylight and ventilators.


here constructed,

The strength

truss,

as

intended for temporary use only.

is

of curved ribs of this kind, as

to a solid rib, is equal to

thickness, less one rib.

compared

one of the same breadth and

Another form of truss with


Colonel Emy Truss.
In this
laminated ribs is that shown on page 157.
the

case

boards

cylindrical,

or

well

laminations

bolted

are

concentric

These

together.

are

and
built

upon a rough platform or "centre," the boards being


forced to " take up " the curve by means of cramps.
It

is,

however, found that

when

the laminations are

thoroughly jointed at the butts, and kept well together

by
is

tendency to spring, on being released,

bolting, the

but

And

little.

this is entirely counteracted

by the

subsequent external bracing and strutting.


This method of building
adapts

itself

up

ribs

by laminations

to

the

construction of

admirably well

bridges and large roofs, where

economy and strength

are the chief considerations.

Gothic Roofs. The truss illustrated on page 159 is


an adaptation of the collar beam mentioned in the
previous part of the chapter.

The

collar is secured to

by a stump mortise and tenon,


and by means of a collar strap with bolts.
The tendency of roofs of this description is to push the walls

the

principal

blade

outward, the angle at the collar opening, whilst that


at the foot of the rafter closes.

The
up
and

ribs,

for the sake of economy are built


made fast to the blades and collar
by means of small purpose-made oak

which

in sections, are
to each other

tenons about 8

in.

bore-pinned with f

long and 4
in.

in.

wide, firmly draw-

or i in. oak pins or tree-nails,

ROOFS

Colonel

SmoU po/^tcori

^;72(/

77"c/ss.

s/^owinc? draccrrg

of

S^_nrig^cnp_Z.cne^
f^cds

senile I rct/lor

//y oift/u?e

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

158

The

between the

joints

ribs are spliced,

and

their joints with the blades, are tongued, as

the enlarged section.

11

in.

by

in.,

The blades

in this

whilst the ribs are 2^

these,

and

shown

in

example are

in. thick.

It is

desirous, in roofs of this kind, to carry the timbers to

as low a point in the wall as is possible.


In this case
an upright plate has been attached to the lower end of
the blade, and this, with the rib, has been carried down
to a stone corbel,

upon which

Hammer-Beam

Truss.

it rests.

This

truss

is

illustrated

upon page 160, the short horizontal hammer-beam coming out from the foot of the principal rafter giving the
truss its name.

Trusses of this kind lend themselves

to elaborate ornamentation, the

spandrils being filled

with tracery panels, and the ribs and blades moulded


to

such

an extent that the outline of the principal

in some examples, almost lost to view.


is,
The diagram represented at the bottom of the page is
that of the hammer-beam roof over Westminster Hall,

timbers

reputed to be the best example of


country.

its

kind in the

Three main ribs are here made use of on

either side of the centre, one passing directly from the

centre of the collar, whilst the others pass in either

from the end of the hammer-beam.


Wind Braces. In lofty trusses of the foregoing
kinds, it is necessary to afford some additional lateral
support in order to keep them in a vertical plane.
These are usually placed in the plane of the roof, and
pass, in the form of ribs, from one truss to the other.
Turret Roofs. The illustration given on page 1 6 1 is
that of a pyramidal or turret-shaped roof, octagonal in
direction

plan.

points

The
by

principal
strutting,

rafters

two

are

passing

supported at three

from

the

centre

i6o

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

ROOFS

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

i62

up from the foot


are made fast to the

post, whilst the third passes

These

queen-post.

latter

of the

by

ties

may

gib and cotter straps, whilst additional support

given to the struts by fixing short cleats on the

be
off-

side of the queen-posts.

Drips.

made

In arranging

gutters, consideration

must be

If that material be

for the covering material.

then the gutter should be arranged, as nearly as

lead,

possible, in 7

ft.

In practice

lengths.

found more

it is

convenient to work the lead in lengths not exceeding

At

this dimension.

which

these distances drips are arranged

an opportunity of joining the lengths in


such a manner that, although kept in position, they are
free to shrink and expand with the changes of temperature.
Page 163 contains five methods of forming
afford

the drip.

The

drip.

Fig.

lead

what is known as
worked up from the lower

represents

is

higher level, and tacked to a rebate.


end, the other being arranged

move

to

Fig.

is

to the

the fixed

as the top piece of lead

freely with the expansion

without buckling.
the

This

a plain

and contraction,

represents a sloping drip,

advantage of this form being that the lead

more

easily bossed at

the ends.

Fig. 3

is

represents a

rounded drip.
In this case the lead is not so easily
cut through in walking over it, as with the square
edge.
The section given in Fig. 4 has the advantage
of preventing the lead from rising when the gutters
are wide.

The

section of Fig.

5'

has been arranged to

prevent the passage of water through the lead joint

by capillary

attraction, a peculiar property of fluids

explained in the previous chapter.

Sections, with part elevations, are


Side Gutters.
shown on page 164, of the various forms of gutters con-

ROOFS

163

164

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

ROOFS
structed

upon the sloping

165

sides of roofs to

make

water-

tight their junction with rising stacks or gable-ends.

The sections in each case are taken through stacks or


chimney flues, the inside of the 4 J in. being parged,
whilst the outside has been rendered, this latter pre-

caution making

Dragon

it

Ties.

doubly secure against

In

hipped roofs

fire.

often found

is

it

desirable to give additional support to the wall plates,

and

to secure a better seating for the hip rafter

This

the wall plates afford.

is

accomplished by

bracing the wall plates together, as

and then
ing

it

at

to

The arrangement

known

as a "

to

dragon

tie."

Roofing Irregular
sometimes experienced
buildings

timbers

of the

Plans.
in

irregular in plan

such examples.

The

by inclining the

ridges,

its centre,

tops of the wall

the

in

this

Great

arranging
;

first

shown on page 166,

tenon a dragon beam to

the back

than

notchplates.

manner

difficulty

the

roofing

is

is

of

page 169 contains two

sometimes overcome
and sometimes the eaves, or
in some cases the roof plane has been twisted to meet
the irregularity, neither of which is considered to
produce a good effect.
Figs. 1 and 2 represent two
irregular plans.
In the first case two of the walls
difficulty is

are parallel, and, being the long walls, the ridge

be

made

parallel

to

may

them, and the ends hipped to

meet it.
The positions of the trusses are marked
by double dotted lines.
The irregular plan given in Fig. 2, page 169, offers
the greater difficulties of the two.

If the planes of

the roof are to be true, and the ridges and eaves horizontal, the only position

can

occupy

is

parallel

which the plans of the ridges


to

the wall

plates.

If four

ROOFS

167

means

ridges were adopted, then the

portion would be

central

adopted here

make

to

is

intercepted.

between them to
To draw the plans of the

collected

drain to the lower wall.


valleys, consider the

intersect in point

JN,

side ridges produced until they


(at the top of

bisecting the angle at

wall line in N.

of roof, as

is

intersecting the lower

may

be considered as the

By
between the ridges.
inclined valley line with the outliiie

developing this
joint

the page), and draw

J and

This line

of the valley

plan

The method

use of the upper three ridges

the water

only, allowing

of draining the

gutter

shown by the dotted

lines, the intersecting

obtained, its plan being immediately below

Then by joining up the plan

it.

of this point with the inter-

two remaining
The lengths of the hips and the
backing are shown in this example, the

sections of the ridges, the plans of the

valleys are obtained.

bevels of their

methods adopted being explained in the following.


To find the Length of the Hips. The hips may
always be considered as occupying the position of the
hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle, the plan of
the hip being its base, and the difterence in the
altitude of the highest and lowest points of the hip,

the

perpendicular.

If

these

lines

be rotated about

the plan, into the horizontal plane, the length of the

hip

AB

may

readily

represents

difference

be obtained.
the

plan

of

in their altitudes.

at right angles to

length of the hip.

BA, then

In Fig.
the

By

AC

hip,

1,

BC

the

down

BC

and

turning

represents the true

This process has been repeated

with each one of the hips in Figs. 1 and

To

page 169,

2.

Backing of the Hip or the Angle


The dihedral
between the Planes of the Roof
find the

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY


between the two roof planes is measured by
a third plane, mutually perpendicular to the first
angle

pair

between

angle

the

the

horizontal plane
plates,

intersection

of

lines

For

represents the angle required.

this purpose, the

brought up to the level of the wall

is

The plane used

line.

dihedral angle

is

measuring

for

which

the

always triangular, and made up by

the two lines including the required angle


line

by

the plans of the latter being represented

single

and the
Of

the horizontal trace of the plane.

is

this triangle three

elements are sought for the purpose

of its construction,

viz.,

the base, perpendicular, and

Taking the same

the position of that perpendicular.

corner as used in the last case, Fig.

we

1,

will pro-

ceed to find the angle contained between the planes


intersecting in the hip of

which

AB

In

the plan.

is

order that a plane shall be perpendicular to two others,

must be

at right angles to the plan

of the line of intersection.

is
The dotted line
AB, and represents

horizontal trace

its

therefore

drawn

base

the

at right angles to

the

of

AB

alluded

already

triangle

intersection (F) with

is

also

To

foot of the perpendicular.

Its

to.

the position of the

find

length, take

its

a side view of the hip or intersecting line {AC).

If

AC

and

from Fj a
intersecting

line
it

be drawn
in

then

(?,

of the perpendicular.

perpendicular to

FG

With

radius, construct an arc cutting

(the

length

of the

the angle required.

angles will all differ


to

as centre

AB

perpendicular)

position at right angles to


is

represents

H.

in
is

BF, and

the length

and

Then

rotated

the angle

The plan being

FG

as

FG

into

BHF

irregular, the

the operation therefore requires

be repeated at each corner.

ROOFS

J6'0

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

Pur/in^

and

rr^etfyod

of obtocnfrig

/ac/c ffo/Cer's
^/hevclrS

ROOFS

171

To find the Bevels for Purlins. Fig. 1, page 170,


may be considered as a portion of the plan of a
regular-shaped building, and
its

roof planes.

Two

ABC

a section through

enlarged purlins are represented

in section, each placed at different angles to the roof

For the purpose of obtaining a larger diagram,

plane.

the sides of the purlins have been increased to a width

equal to the length of the radii of the

The

circles.

extremities of these radii have been carried back to

the plans of the hips.

The ends

of the surfaces

when

developed represent geometrically the true bevel upon


the ends of the material.

To

irregular
this

the Bevel of the Jack Rafters. The


end of a building has been selected for

find

example, and

is

shown

at Fig. 2, page 170.

The

double lines represent the plans of jack rafters (short-

ened

eaves to
pitch

The perpendicular distance from the


the ridge has been found by developing the

rafters).

GFD, and then


One each

EF.

turning

it

into the horizontal plane

margin lines of the jack


rafters have been produced to meet the hips developed.
The angles between these lines represent those reat

quired.

of the

CHAPTER

IX.

AND TRUSSING

FISHING, SCARFING,

TIMBERS.

In some of the larger varieties of framing which the


carpenter has to construct,

it is

often a difiScult matter

to procure timbers of sufficient length for his require-

He

ments.

has, therefore,

resort to one or other

to

The

of the following means, viz., fishing or scarfing.

between the two being that, in


making a fished joint, the breadth or depth of the

essential

timber

is

difference

increased;

constructed within

Fished Joint.

its

In

length of the timber


for the fact that
it is

own breadth and


these
is

For

lost.

they require

no

joints

is

depth.

this

of

the

reason,

and

part

labour to construct,

little

considered the most economical method of length-

ening timbers.
sion,

whilst in scarfing, the joint

tension,

They may be constructed


and

transverse stress.

for

intended to resist compression

is

it

for

compres-

Fig.

91

is

the neatest of

the fished joints, as the plates do not project

much

Another fished
that shown at
plates have been

beyond the thickness of the material.


joint,

Fig.

used.

designed to resist compression,


92, in which
It

case

wood

fish

is

has been said that the strength of these

joints is equal to the strength of the fish plates; but

FISHING, SCARFING,

AND TRUSSING TIMBERS

173

the fact must not be lost sight of that the plates are

placed in the most effective position, and are, comparing equal sections, far more powerful here than in
the centre of the depth of the timbers.

designed to resist
a tensile joint,

Fig.

93

both compression and tension.

its

strength depends

upon the

is

As

ability

of the material to resist shearing, both with respect


jug

to

the

figure,

wood and
the

butt

iron.
is

On

ao.

XXX

the under

side

of

the

prevented from opening by the

The top plate is said to be


hard-wood keys or cogs.
purpose of resisting transthe
for
joint
A good
tabled.
verse stresses may be constructed by sinking a wood fish
plate a little below the surface of the side in compression,
side,

and by placing an iron fish plate upon the tensile


The bolts
and bolting the whole well together.

should be placed zigzag, to preserve, so far as possible,


the effective area of the material.

The

fish plates are

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

174

'T:

4f

rL-

<*

V
j'

'I

-4^

'-^3-

c?.

'3'

FISHING, SCARFING,

AND TRUSSING TIMBERS

175

of a length equal to six times the depth of the piece

joined.

Scarfing.
of

scarfing

page 174, are representations


compression, and

tension,

transverse

In each of these cases, each piece

stresses.

away

Figs. 1 to 6,

for

is

to the extent of the length of the scarf.

cut

Fig. 1

represents a scarf suitable for compression only.

Fig.

an illustration of an example intended to

resist

is

both compression and transverse stresses.

4 are designed

for a similar purpose.

designed for the purpose of

are

ties,

calculated to resist transverse stresses.


are given to represent the

method

and
5 and 6

Figs. 3

Figs.

and are also


and 8

Figs. 7

of finishing the top

and bottom edges of the foregoing examples when they


are subject to

side

Fig.

thrusts.

7,

of the

two,

is

calculated to be best adapted for compression joints,

the

being

bearing surfaces

right

at

angles

to

the

direction of the thrust.

Strengthening

Horizontal

purpose a series of timbers


of

each other, the

strength

increased directly as the


If bolted

together in a

the flitched

may

Timbers.

For

this

be built up at the side

of

such

timbers

being

number of the pieces used.


manner somewhat similar to

beam (Chapter

iv.),

they are

rendered

considerably stronger, the strength increasing directly

Timbers placed above each other,


if properly designed and secured, are even stronger
than those placed side by side.
This will be
easily understood from the fact that the strength of
as

the

breadth.

rectangular timbers
the depth.

varies

directly

Upon examination

as

the square of

of Fig. 94,

it

will be

seen that the pieces or laminae, of which the whole

beam

is

composed,

is

liable to slide over each other as

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

176

they are deflected or bent down.


vented,

if

This must be pre-

the fullest effect of the increased depth

is

to

r
In Figs. 3 and

be secured.

4, p. 177, sliding is preindenting


the surface of one
vented by cogging or
piece below that of the other, and securing the pieces

by iron

It

straps.

is

estimated that, to

secure

the

from the above, the sum of the indents


should be equal to the total depth of the beam.
Trussing. This may be done within the depth of
best results

the beam, or
iron or cast.
in such a

may

it

extend beyond, and with wrought

If the latter be used,

manner

must be placed
to which it may

it

that the stresses

be subject, produce compression only.


not economically be used

to resist

Cast iron
tension.

may

In the

example given on p. 177, Fig. 2, the beam, which is


composed of two flitches, has been trussed by means
of a tension rod passing
vertical

wooden

down

to the lower

end of a

strut provided with an iron face plate.

The tension rod passes upward between the two


and through cast-iron shoes, specially prepared
and provided with splayed backs, directly at right
flitches

angles to the direction of the tie-rod.

previously

stated,

the

within the depth of the

trussing

beam

may

itself,

As has been
be carried out

and, in that case,

the face plate of the last example would be let into

the under side of the beam, the bar passing under

it.

FISHING, SCARFING,

AND TRUSSING TIMBERS

177

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

178

A
to

beam may be

single

the

down

last,

is

manner

but in such a case the rods would pass

the outer

example

trussed in a similar

faces,

shown on

p.

one on either

side.

Another

194, the beam of the traveller

being provided with two

struts

support to the moving load.

to

afford

additional

In order to receive the

ends of the tension rods, the shoes

are,

upon both

sides,

provided with stout projecting ears, cast in the solid

Timbers may be trussed as shown at Fig. 1,


This is the method usually employed in
page 177.
supporting the upper levels of gallery flooring, and in
metal.

where parallel timbers are required both


at the top and bottom, and where the increased depth
Plain strutting, where possible,
is
an advantage.
should always be preferred to cross bracing, as less
labour is involved, and the full sectional area of the
timber employed is effective.
This is not the case
where timbers cross each other in the same plane, the
positions

cutting or cross bracing reducing the effective area of


the timbers joined by one half.

CHAPTER

X.

TEMPORARY WORK, SHORING, AND CENTERING.


Timbering

Excavations.

excavated

be

for

the

When

has

earth

construction

of

to

foundations,

drainage, and other works, the sides need to be sup-

ported in a manner which will prevent


falling in.

The methods employed

with the character of the

moderately

stiff soil,

excavated

be

only

soil

and

will
its

them from
vary greatly

condition.

In

such as clay, and which has to


the

to

vertical poling boards,

from 8

depth
in.

to

of

or

10

in.

wide, and

ft.,

from 2 in. to 3 in. thick, are placed at intervals of


about three or four feet, and are supported by struts
4 in. by 4 in. or 5 in. by 5 in.
These are kept in
position by being firmly driven from the top and not
from the sides (see Fig. 1, page 180).
In loose, rubbly
soil

it

will be

advisable

to

support the sides with

poling boards, closely placed, and in lengths of about


3

ft.

Waling

pieces

are

placed

across

the

poling

boards near their ends, and these are supported by


the struts.

Waling

pieces require to

be of stouter

material than the poling boards, the thickness being

by the nature of the soil, and also by


The waling used in the excavations

largely controlled

the

spacing.

i8o

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

Timbering

Ejccq vq tions

TEMPORARY WORK, SHORING, CENTERINCx


shown

page 180,

at Fig. 2,

In loose sandy

soil, it

is

of 7 in.

will be

by 3

t8i

material.

in.

found necessary to sup-

port the material by placing horizontal waling pieces


directly against the

soil,

supporting these by vertical

work pro-

poling boards driven downwards, and, as the


ceeds, strutting

waterlogged

soil,

them

In

at regular intervals.

such a& river-bed work,

to use specially prepared sheeting, as

it is

shown

soft or

necessary

in Fig. 95.

This

is

known

of thin material, driven

guide piles."

as

between

The sheeting

is

stiffer

timbers

driven before

excavating, the pointing of the ends of the boards (as

shown

in the figure) assisting to close the joints,

thus prevent, as

The

as possible, the escape of water.

matched in the manner shown, so that


being brought to bear upon any one board,

be distributed over a

Bearing
15

and

joints are

pressure,

may

far

in.

These are of whole timbers 10 or


and of a length varying with the

Piles.

square,

series.

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

l82

requirements.

They are used

for the

purpose of creat-

ing foundations on soft and treacherous ground over-

They are assisted in their


by being pointed at the lower
ends, and protected, as shown in Fig. 96, by cast-iron
The
points, secured by wrought-iron straps and bolts.
heads are protected during the process of driving by

lying a hard substratum.

passage through the

soil

wrought-iron rings.

The

wood-work,
by guy ropes, and having an
engine, by means of which a large weight, called a
" monkey," of from two to three cwt. is raised.
The
" monkey " is allowed to fall from a varying height.
pile driver is a vertical staging of

secured in

its

position

TEMPORARY WORK, SHORING, CENTERING

183

regulated by the set required and by the resistance

The

of the pile.
"

monkey,"

the friction of
a

by repeated blows from the

pile,

driven to such a depth that, either by

is

its sides

against the

harder substance below,

it

is

soil,

or by reaching

capable of affording

the required bearing power.

The

resistance offered

following formula

by

piles

may

be found by the

WH

8i>

L = safe load in cwts. (cut off at the ground),


= set of pile by the last blow in inches,
11= height of the fall in inches,
W = weight of " monkey " in cwts.

When

1)

Shoring. This is the term given to the methods


adopted for temporarily supporting the walls of a building which shows signs of bulging, or of passing out of
the perpendicular, or of supporting the upper portion
of a wall during the process of underpinning, or alter-

ing the character of a portion of the building.

Raking Shores.
pass from

the

Those

ground

position are termed


of

whole timbers,

"

to

props or
the wall

raking shores."

of

width and thickness.

timbers which
in

an

inclined

They should be

the same dimensions, both

When

in

a series of shores pass

same platform

to different points in

the height of a wall, they are

known as double or
number of tim-

directly from the

treble raking shores, according to the

bers so situated.

It is the

custom, under some condi-

support from a point midway up the


and not directly from the ground such support

tions, to start a

shore,
is

known

as a " rider."

TEMPORARY WORK, SHORING, CENTERING

185

Illustrations of three varieties are given on page 184.

In order to
piece

is

fix

a shore, or system of shoring, a wall

fixed

first

the wall, covering the portion

to

inclined to bulge, and having mortised in

enough

for

the

"

needle

"

to

pass

holes large

it

These

through.

wood about 4 in. by


and about 18 in. long, which,

needles are rectangular pieces of

in.

or 5

in.

by 4

in.,

after passing partially into the wall, are allowed to pro-

Against these the head

ject about ten or twelve inches.

of the raking shore


first

is

placed, additional support having

been given by a cleat partially sunk into the

The

wall piece immediately above the needle.

foot of

the raking shore rests upon a platform composed of


short ends of deals, about 3

Upon

crossing each other.

long, crossing

ft.

this

and

re-

a sole piece rests in

a direction at right angles to the wall.

The

sole piece

In this case
sometimes takes the place of a platform.
the material should be of a width and thickness equal
to that of the shore itself.

The raking shore

adjusted by bringing the foot closer to the wall.

is

best

This

should be done with the aid of a handspike or crowbar,

applying

it

as a lever of the second order.

Jarring of

the frame-work should be avoided so far as possible,


in being

communicated

to the brickwork, the

as,

mortar

joints are apt to be destroyed.

Eiders are adjusted at either end by folding wedges,

and are made secure either by a bonding of hoop-iron,


or by planking.
In the latter case the planking may
be extended to the wall piece and made to serve the
purpose of

struts.

Iron

dogs

"

short pieces of |

in.

round or square iron, with the ends pointed and turned


through an angle of 90
are then applied to keep the

several parts in place.

Shores, flying or raking, should

TEMPORARY WORK, SHORING, CENTERING

//on^ontol or I'lytng
TJouble SysCcm.

S/?o/^es.

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

i88

be applied to walls in positions thoroughly well supported, such as the junctions of floors, or against the

edges

Details of raking

of other walls.

shores

are

shown on page 186.

Flying Shores. These are horizontal shores passing


across the space between two houses
and, as is the
case with raking shores, as one, two, or three horizontal
shores are used in the same trussing, so is the system
;

known

as single, double, or treble flying shores.

Wall

and needles are used in this, as in the raking


The shores are cut a little short of the distance between the wall pieces, and rest temporarily
upon cleats. They are then adjusted by means of
folding wedges, additional support being rendered by
strutting.
The illustration given on page 187 is that
pieces

shores.

of a double system of horizontal flying shores.

Dead

These

shown on page 189. The


removed for the
insertion of a shop front.
The upper floor windows
are first strutted to prevent settlement, and then holes
are drawn in the solid brickwork for the insertion of
the needles
these must be in positions where they will
Shores.

are

front wall of a ground floor has been

not interfere with the progress of the work.

Brick-

work, to the extent of about 1

ft.,

ft.

in.

or 2

on

either side of the needles, may, with care, be left un-

supported, or may be removed in steps upwards in the


form of a rough arch.
The needles are supported at
either end by upright timbers known as " dead shores,"
resting upon " fenders " or
sleepers," and, as will be
seen in the section on page 189, the shores may be

made

the

intervene.
of

11

in.

means of supporting the floors that may


The floor is here carried upon a long plate
by 3

in.,

supported by the shorter shores,

TEMPORARY WORK, SHORING, CENTERING

lY/^oie 77r/7bers

7)eac/ S/^^ore

/f Tdnch yvol/

It

189

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

190

and adjusted by folding wedges at the base, the difference between the top surface of the floor and the
underside of the needle being taken up with short
cleats or plates resting on at least three or four joists,
and this again adjusted by means of folding wedges.

must be

Sufficient space

left

between the shores and

the wall on either side to carry on the progress of the

The joints are all plain-butted, and are secured


by iron "dogs." Upon removing supports of
kind, it is always advisable to do so by degrees, so
all new work may take up its bearing gradually,

work.

in position
this

that

and without

fracture.

Centering. A ''centre" is a rough, temporary platform of wood, upon which arches are sprung.
It
should, in the outline of its elevation, be of the exact

composed of two or more


firmly secured together, whilst upon

form of the archway.


cheeks or ribs
their

upper edges

It is

pieces, called

laggings," are

fixed,

ranging in size from small battens to heavy planking


according to the nature of the work.

It is

upon the

laggings the voussoirs or arch stones rest during the

building of the arch.


rule

and

straightedge,

laggings a

little

In order to apply the plumbit

is

necessary

to

keep

short of the face of the work, |

the
in.

upon each

As

side being sufficient in small work.


the " centre " takes the weight of the voussoirs

until the keystone has been placed in position

centre

" struck,"

upon the correct

great

care

positions

is

for

required in
the

struts,

and the
deciding

so

as

to

economically carry the superincumbent weight with


safety.

It has

been found by experience and investigation

that arch stones do not begin to slide upon their beds

TEMPORARY WORK, SHORING, CENTERING


until

191

the joints are inclined at angles of about 30^,

varying according to the material, the condition of


surface,

and

also

material employed.

to

the

nature

of

its

cementing

the

It is therefore obvious that centres

are not required to lend support to the voussoirs until

the

have

bed joints of the latter

known

as

the

"

angle

of repose "

what

reached
of

that

is

material.

This tendency goes on increasing with the angle of the

bed joints until a perpendicular line through the centre


of gravity of any voussoir falls without

which case the whole weight


borne by the centre.

its

base, in

of the stone has to be

Fu) 97
Fig.

97

is

an example of centering for a semicircular


which is 18 ft.
Up to this span

arch, the span of

ordinary planking ribs

may

be used.

These

nailed together with butt joints, and in suah a

that they break line with each other.

may

be

manner

192

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

Centres.

Segm ento

I.

TEMPORARY WORK, SHORING, CENTERING


When

arches exceed

the span

given in

the

193
last

example, the centres need to be trussed either with

Two

small king-posts or with queen-posts.

amples are shown on page 192.

Striking or Easing Centres.

After

such ex-

the keystone

has been placed in position, and before the mortar or

cementing material has had time to set, the centre


should be eased, or allowed to drop slightly from its
position, so that the voussoirs

their

own

bearing.

may

be able to take up

This should be accomplished by

degrees and with great care, avoiding

all

jarring or unequal settlement, or fracture

unnecessary

may

occur

and the work be rendered insecure.


For small work the striking is carried out by easing
the folding wedges inserted between the centre and its
supports
but in the larger varieties tapered and
stepped cotters or keys are employed, as shown on
page 192.
These are allowed to project until the arch
is
completed, and then, by driving them back by
degrees, the " centre " drops from its position.
For the purpose of lifting heavy masonry
Gantries.
or other work, a gantry, similar to that shown on
page 194, is constructed, the standards passing down on
either side of the work.
These are usually arranged
with a traveller and hoisting gear, so that material
may be lifted from any position of the work. In some
important work the movement of the traveller and the
hoisting gear is controlled from one point, usually at
ground level.
;

194

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

CHAPTER

XI.

MOULDINGS AND CIRCULAR WORK.


The mouldings which

are used at the present day are

mainly of Grecian and Roman origin. They are shown


separately on page 196, whilst a combination of some
of them will be seen in the cornice, frieze, and archiSpeaking generally, the mouldings
trave on page 199.
of both types will be found to be of the same com-

but with this distinction


the Roman
binations,
morldings are of circular outline, whilst the Grecian

mouldings are
the

other than the circle.


narrow band alike both in

elliptic, or of curves,

This

Fillet.

Roman and

is

flat,

Grecian.

divide the combinations of

cyma

caps the

Torus.
time.

recta

This

It

is

is

It

is

used principally to

the other mouldings, and

and cyma reversa.


the bead as

commonly used

known
as

at the present

plinth

or

base

moulding, and gives the appearance of strength and


support.

Ovolo.

convey

cyma

This

the

reversa

for the

is

another of the mouldings which

impression

and

same purpose

or capping moulds.

of

scotia

support,

other

and

with

the

mouldings designed

are usually placed in cornices

'

196

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

Mouldings.
GrecCon.

f(om on.
]

ratet.

Torus.

Oi/olo.

or
Coi/etto.

Fascia

%eta.

f(et/ersQ.

TT^oc^itus

or

ScotcQ.

MOULDINGS AND CIRCULAR WORK

Hollow or Cavetto.
viz., annulets and cyma

197

two following,
are intended to convey

This, with the

recta,

an impression of shade, whilst the fascia gives the


impression of light.

Astragal.

This

is

projecting

bead-shaped moulding, shown in


Figs.

98

Fig.

to

98

or

103.

is

a representation of the true astragal as a

horizontal band
as Fig. 99,

its

semicircular

various forms at

it is

when
known

situated as a vertical moulding,


as a

cocked bead.

When

sunk

below the surface, as at Fig. 100, it is known as a


Fig. 101 is a representation
double quirked bead.
of

a returned

bead, whilst at

ordinary or single

upon the edge

of

Fig.

quirked bead.

102
The

is

seen the

latter

stuck

matched boards, or boards placed

with their edges in contact with one another, has the


CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

198

shown

effect

and counteracts the unsightly

in Fig. 100,

appearance of an

open

the angle or staff bead.


of a segment

of

Fig.

joint.

It

is

103

in section of the form

than the semicircle.

a circle larger

fixed as a protection at the angle of

It is

walls, the

flattened

plastered

a key for the

affording

surface

represents

plaster.

Hollow and Astragal.


is

This,

as

shown on page 201,

a combination of hollow and round, with a

listel

or

between.

fillet

Enlargement and Diminution of Mouldings.


The example given is that of a combination of cornice,
and architrave

frieze,

quired to reduce
height from

its

GH

first.

its

AB

Draw IJ

It is repage 199).
projection from
to IJ, and
(Fig.

1,

GH

CD,

to

Taking the projection

of the required length parallel to

from GH.
Join HJ and
From all important
GI, producing them to meet in K.
points in the projection of the moulding, drop perpen-

and

at a convenient distance

diculars to

draw

GH,

From

the feet of the perpendiculars

lines converging to

K and

intersecting IJ.

IJ

GH, and

will

will then be divided proportionately to

represent the diminished projection of the moulding.

For the diminished height repeat the process at AB


(Fig. 1), drawing CD of the required height parallel to
and at a convenient distance from AB.
If the height and overhanging projection are to be
reduced in strict proportion, then the triangles
and
must have their perpendicular heights

GHK

ABN

divided

by IJ and

CD

in

the same ratio.

This

is

perhaps best accomplished by making the two triangles

and dividing the similar sides proportionately.


Mouldings may be enlarged by placing the line

similar,

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

200

representing the increased height obliquely across the

EF, the increased heights of each


by that portion of the
oblique line crossing the member.
The increased
overhanging projection is obtained in a similar manner
by placing the line representing that distance obliquely
across the perpendiculars over GH.
The enlargements
may also be found by triangles similar to the method
of diminishing.
In that case, the lines IJ and CD
would be replaced by the increased distances, and the
would
positions of the apices of the triangles
and
be reversed, and placed on the opposite sides of the
bases GH and AB,
The term " similar " has been mentioned with
reference to the triangles used in the enlargement and
moulding, as

at

member being

represented

In order that triangles

diminution of mouldings.
be

similar, it

their

angles

equal

each

to

each,

then

sides about their equal angles are proportional.

page 199,

CBA

Raking Mouldings.
page 199, the sections
the

the

Fig. 2,

a representation of two similar triangles,

is

and EBD.

of the bar

may

only required that they shall have

is

several

B,

method

of

These

and

(7

are

shown

at Fig.

3,

being the raking sections

The student will readily understand


obtaining them from the figure, the

member the same.


Mouldings. The illustraon pages 201 and 202 are given to show

thickness being in each

Intersections of Curved
tions furnished

how

the mitres of curved mouldings of panelled

are

obtained.

single

line

soffits

diagram of a separate

scheme has been shown in each

case, and, to

avoid

needless repetition, a portion only has been enlarged.

The enlarged portion

of each diagram has been repre-

MOULDINGS AND CIRCULAR WORK


sented by the dotted lines at the centre of each

The following

is

summary

of the results obtained

Obtained.

straight mouldings (any position),

Straight.

curved mouldings of equal radii

(internally or externally),

Two

rail.

Mitre

Mouldings Intersecting.

Two
Two

203

Straight.

curved mouldings of equal radii

(internal with external).

Curved.

Curved mouldings with unequal

radii

(internal, external, or combined),

Curved.

Curved mouldings with straight (internally or externally and acute or


obtuse),

-----

Curved.

In mouldings of curved outline and with but few


members, supplementary marginal lines must be adopted,
and through their intersections a fair curve representing the mitre line may be drawn.
These are ventilating
Circular Louvre Frames.
frames fixed in the walls of stables and other buildings
where air is required without light. The fixing of the
louvre boards in the manner shown on page 204 prevents the driving rain from passing to the interior,
whilst currents of fresh air are directed upwards towards the ceiling, and there diffused.
The method of obtaining the outline of the louvres

will readily be seen

when

it

is

understood that they

terminate upon a cylindrical surface, the diameter of

which

is

equal to the distance between the quirks of

By producing these lines,


and by drawing the line ACD parallel to the sloping
sides of the louvres, and intersecting the lines produced
the beads (see page 204).

MOULDINGS AND CIRCULAR WORK

205

and D, the major axis of the elliptical section of


The minor axis HOB is
the cylinder is obtained.

in

made equal

to the

diameter of the cylinder

the axes

bisecting each other at right angles, the outline of the

curve
of

may

any

In order to find the true shape

be drawn.

louvre, project its extremities from the section

of the frame to the major axis.

If,

from these points,

be drawn at right angles to the major axis to

lines

meet the curve, the outline of the surface of the louvre

will be obtained.

may

but both

side,

Pendentives.
that

to

of

"

pattern will be required for each

be obtained by the same process.

The term

spandrel,"

"

and

pendentive
it

will

" is

analogous

be necessary to

thoroughly understand the latter before a proper conception of the former


the

irregular

may be

triangular

obtained.

surface

spandrel

intercepted

is

between

the extrados of an arch and an imaginary rectangle

surrounding

Where two

it.

arches are placed in con-

tinuation, the whole of the triangular surface included

below an imaginary horizontal line joining the crowns


and the outline or extrados of the arch on either side
The term" spandrel" is applied
is termed the "spandrel."
only.
When the surface is curved
and intersected by vertical or horizontal planes, the
portion intercepted between such planes is known as
The figures given on page 206 will
a "pendentive."
serve, not only to illustrate the meaning of the term
" pendentive," but to show how the curves of the ribs
are obtained.
In this case, when the main rib AC or
DB is laid down, all other parallel ribs may be taken
from them.
to plane surfaces

To
plan,

find the

and

laid

Curve of the Ribs. Having drawn the


down the main rib ACDB, with section

2o6

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

MOULDINGS AND CIRCULAR WORK


of octagonal curb, trace the dotted
etc. (Fig.

1),

crossing the diagonal

and intersecting the main


cepted between the dotted

lines

AB

from

for the angle rib

lines

c,

e,

at right angles

from each

represented at

is

a,

The portions

rib.

represent the face-mould of that portion.

mould

207

inter-

rib

will

The face4a, and is

obtained by a fresh development of the upper portion


of the rib

upon the plan


2, 3, and

the points 1,

of the rib at /.
in

4,

the

The heights

sectional

of

elevation,

are also obtained from the development of the large


rib.

Circle on Circle.

Work

has a circular outline

work.

is

that, in plan

known

and

as " circle

elevation,

on

circle

"

In order to describe the methods employed to

obtain the lines, the circular headed door frame has

been selected.

Two examples

will be explained, viz.,

the head divided in two and also in three parts.

The

example given on page 208 is that of the head divided


in two.
Having drawn the plan and elevation, draw
the chord ab in plan, and the tangent xy parallel to
ab.
These lines represent the plans of the back and
front surfaces of the required plank, and their distance
apart, the thickness.

intersecting ab

Draw

and xy

the radiating dotted lines

in points 1, 2, 3, etc.

Project

the points upwards, to the front surface of the frame

and draw the vertical lines 2, 3, 4, 5, etc.


The heights of the upper and lower extremities of these
lines upon the front and back will represent the heights
of similar ordinates upon the face-mould.
Transfer the
lines xy and ab with their numbers to a convenient
position and set up ordinates, cutting them off in

in elevation,

length equal to those in elevation.

Trace a fair curve


through the points on the ordinates, and the face-mould

2o8

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

Circle

on Ccrcie.

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

210
is

obtained.

It

will

be noticed that the line 3x has

been taken perpendicular to the line ab

x tlierefore

represents the internal edge of the plank at the lower

with x, and the edge of the plank is


The other edge of the plank is drawn
tangent to the face-mould and parallel to the first edge,
the bevels at the ends being represented at C and D.
end.

Join

determined.

If the edge of the

plank above

b,y

bevel at that end will be found.

be developed, the
This

is

shown

at

U and

F.
At the other end a square is used. In the
example shown on page 209, the head of the frame is
divided into three, and the method of obtaining the
The student
face-mould is similar in each case.
should remember that the joints between the three are
butted, and are normal to the curve at that point.

The bevel

at

is

applied to the vertical surface of the

top portion, whilst the bevel at If belongs to the top

and bottom edge.

The bevel

at

is

applied to the

ends in a manner somewhat similar to a square.

CH/VPTER XIL
TIMBER: ITS GROWTH, TREATMENT, AND
PRESERVATION; VARIETIES AND THEIR
PECULIARITIES, USES,
Growth.

AND

DEFECTS.

Upon examination of a transverse section

of one of the soft-wood trees, such as the

firs

or pines,

a series of concentric and more or less regular circles


will

be found, composed of light and dark material.

With the exogens


layers are produced

forming what

is

outward growers, these rings or


by the ascending sap in the spring,

or

known

as spring-wood.

After being

exposed upon the leaf to the action of the sun, the sap
is

decomposed, and in

way

altered condition returns

its

of the trunk, depositing another layer,

autumn-wood,

differing

slightly

in

colour,

known

by
as

and thus

between the springand that of the next.


In tropical climates this motion of the sap takes
place in the rainy seasons, and the annual rings
The annual rings are
are not so strongly marked.
composed of a number of small cells, which in some
timbers can only be distinguished by the aid of a
creating

wood

a line of demarkation

of one year's growth

microscope, whilst in the coarser grained timbers, such


as that of the oak, they

may

be seen with the naked

TIMBER

213

Communication of the sap is carried on between


the annual rings by cells, contained in radial planes,
and known as medullary rays. These are found in all
timbers, but are more strongly marked in the oak,
beech, and plane trees, and are known by the joiner
as the felt, silver grain, or clash, and are illustrated by
The formation of
the radial lines in Fig. 3, page 212.
eye.

the growth

externally

causes

the heart of the

each year to become more dense.


notice this for himself;
offers

more

remote.

resistance

Upon

The student

tree
will

wood nearest the heart


the tools than that more

the

to

close examination of a log of timber,

annual rings, two


some cases differing in
colour, and usually separated by one distinct ring.
Two such logs are shown at Figs. 1 and 2, page 212.
These different classes of wood are known by the
names of duramen and alburnum. The former is the
there will

distinct

be found, besides the

classes

of wood, in

heart or perfect wood, whilst the latter

is

the sapwood.

found upon the outside of the


trunk, but upon the growth of new wood exteriorly,
This latter variety

is

the older portion of sapwood becomes indurated and

changes

With

that of

its state to

duramen

or heartwood.

the younger trees the sapwood forms by far

the greater part of the trunk, but as the tree reaches

maturity, the perfect

wood

or

duramen increases and

the sapwood becomes less in proportion.

Fig. 1,

page

212, represents a section of the trunk of a tree of immature growth, with the sapwood forming by far the
greater

portion

representation

of
of

the

the

section,

whilst Fig.

section of a trunk

of

is

mature

growth, the sapwood forming but a small portion of


the section.

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

214

Felling.

This

is

the operation of cutting

tree previous to its conversion into timber.

foregoing remarks

order to be

fit

at maturity,

or,

deficient in

may

if not,

be inferred that a

the

tree, in

should have arrived

builder,
it

the

will be found to contain a

alburnum or sapwood, w^hich is


The matui'e age
strength and durability.

quantity

large

it

for the

down
From

of

of a tree varies considerably, according to the class to

which

it

belongs, but ranges from

60

of foliage at the top.

150

to

tree that has passed maturity will lack a

At the appearance

of such signs,

the tree should be felled in order to save

Another important point


the seasons.

when
is

to consider is

is

at rest

less

wood.

temperate climates,

this, in
;

to be preferred, as at that period

of its juices,

and

is

not

so

For the same reason,

in drying.

its

with regard to

It is advisable that a tree should be felled

the sap

midsummer and midwinter

at

years.

growth

full

but the latter

is

the trunk contains


liable

to

fracture

in tropical climates,

the dry seasons are the best for felling purposes.

Seasoning. This is the process of extracting from


In the resinous
the timber its moisture and sap.
varieties it is

soon as

it

advisable to rouglily square the log as

is felled.

This not only facilitates the dry-

wood from splitting.


from the relative dimensions of the circumference and diameter, how it is that
whole timbers " shake " to such an extent in drying.
In addition to this, it is found that timbers shrink
ing process, but prevents

The student

the

will understand,

considerably more in the direction of the ring than

This is shown at Fig 3, page 224, and, although exaggerated, points out the direction in which
the greatest change takes place,
across.

TIMBER
No

seasoning process

cess of air-drying

natural elasticity,

by

is

215

equal to the natural pro-

the timber not only retains

it

but

the

process

its

desiccation

of

is

brought about without that amount of warping, twist-

and

ing,

common

splitting so

carried on in open sheds

to other

methods.

It

is

by stacking and stripping the

timber upon elevated platforms, so constructed that


they are true in plane, otherwise a permanent twist

may

The

be given to the material so stacked.

strips

used vary from one to three inches in thickness, are


placed

upon the

lines,

material.

to direct sunlight.

exposed positions,

no cross strain is put


Timber should not be subjected
so that

Where timber

sheds are erected in

advisable to cover the sides

is

it

with louvre board ino-

have

along the stack, and in

regular distances

at

strictly vertical

so

free access, the rain

that, whilst the air would


and direct sunlight would be

prevented from striking the

The time

timber.

re-

quired by the process varies with the class of timber,


its

and the condition when received.

sizes,

Fir

may

be instanced, as taking half the time occupied by oak.

Oak, 24

Oak, 7

in. sq.,

in.

occupy about two years.

will

or 8 in.

sq.,

will

occupy about

six

months.

Other scantling in like proportion.

The stacking

builder represents a great expense, and


as so

by the
looked upon

of large quantities of timber

much money

is

lying idle, and can therefore only

be carried out by firms heavily financed.

Water Seasoning
timber

in

"

ponds

"

consists of wholly

convenient

immersing the

places

near

large

timber yards, usually close to the banks of navigable


rivers.

This

process

is

carried

on

for

about

three

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

2i6

which time a large part of the sap is


washed out.
The material is then dried in stacks

weeks,

in

as above.

Hot-Air Process of Seasoning.

This

is

a process

only applicable to small timbers, as wood, being a poor

conductor of heat, a small portion only of


affected

by

It is carried

it.

its

depth

is

on in chambers heated by

steam (usually the spent steam from the engine) passing


through a series of 3 -in. or 4-in. pipes below the floor,
the timber being carefully stacked so as to allow of the

and evaporation of the moisture,


and at the same time to prevent warping and twisting.
Condensing tubes, through which cold water passes,
should be placed at intervals around the chamber, so
that the moisture, as it evaporates from the timber,
may condense upon the surface of the pipes and find
its way by channels to the exterior.
Smoking. This is known as M'Neile's " process,
and is reputed to produce good results. The operafree access of heated air

tion, like the

previous one,

in a brick chamber, but in

combustion

are

allowed

atmosphere of which
of

water

contained

In

all

carried out by stacking

this case the products of

enter

the

chamber, the

kept moist by the evaporation

is

in

timbers but above the

to

is

tank

situated

below

the

fire.

processes of desiccation care should be exer-

cised to apply the heat gently, as

the timber

is

Steaming.

by a rapid process

injured by splitting.

This

is

a process

by which the wood

subjected to the action of steam, and

be effectual with any sized timbers.


the timber

is

is

is

considered to

In this process

stacked in wooden tanks, but stripping

is

necessary only to allow of a free passage of the steam.

TIMBER
as

217

no warping or twisting takes

occupied

The time

places.

calculated at the rate of one hour for every

is

inch in thickness.

PEESERVATION.
In order

to prevent, as far as possible, the

timber, several methods have

decay of

been brought forward,

each tending to a greater or less extent to bring about


the desired result

Painting.

This

they are as follows.


is

a process of covering the surface

with sublimate of lead, or in work subjected to sulphur


fumes, zinc white.

work by means

These are thinly spread over the

of a brush,

the vehicle

used

being

linseed oil with a small addition of driers.

With

all

coating methods the material should be

thoroughly dry before the application of the preservative,

otherwise the moisture within the material would

be prevented from escaping, and dry rot would ensue.

Tarring.
and out of

When

the work

doors, covering

often resorted

is

of a rough character

the work with gas tar

is

to.

In either of the above processes two, three, and four


coats are often applied to

make

it

effectual.

Sanding. This is a process of covering the surface


with sand.
The work is first coated with stiff paint
and the sand sprinkled over it, afterwards dusting off
the superfluous sand and repeating, finally coating the
surface with a paint to produce the desired colour.
This has the effect of making the work appear like
stone.

The sand should be clean and


or earthy matter.

free

from

all

loamy

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

2i8

Charring the ends of posts previous to embedding


them in the ground has been found to have a beneficial
effect, especially in
soils inclined to be wet.
The
effect

of carbonization

render the material so

to

is

treated proof against decomposition, but, like

must be

coating processes, the interior

all

either deprived

of its sap, or have its condition so changed that

not likely to become decomposed.

have been

tried,

decomposable
following

amongst

elements,

Abel's,

it

is

Several methods

render immutable the

order to

in

other

them

Boucherie's,

Bethell's,

being

the

Burnett's,

Gardner's, Kyan's, Margary's, and Payne's.

The process of treatment recommended by Sir F.


Abel is a three-coat one, the first coat of which consists of

a dilute solution of silicate of soda, containing

one of a saturated solution of the same to four of

The second coat

water.
of fat

or pure

lime

consists of a

whilst

similar solution to the

first,

are

applied to

work by means
silicate

the
it

lasting

The

of

to

is

dry before the application

effect of this process is to increase

properties

of

the

wood, and

to

render

uninflammable.
Bethell's process

it

consists

of a brush, care being taken that the

of soda solution

of the lime.

third

diluted to the extent of

These
two of water.
the smooth surface of the

one of the saturated solution


solutions

the

creamy solution

renders

the

is

one of creosoting, and although

timbers

objectionable smell,

now

it is

highly

and of
and popu-

inflammable

the most effective

and is proof against the


The process consists of piling
the timber in wrought-iron tanks, creating a vacuum
within the same, and then subjecting the timber to a

lar

process

attacks of animal

in

use,

life.

TIMBER

219

solution of creosote at a temperature of 120, and at a

150

pressure of about

for creosoting should

per sq.

Specifications

in.

This ranges from 8

be injected.

to

lbs.

state the quantity per cubic foot

12

to

per

lbs.

cubic foot, according to the class of work for which

the material

William

Sir
lar
is

be used.

is to

Burnett's process

The

used.

of zinc

to

somewhat

is

but in this case

the above,

to

solution
or

of the

salt

(1

gallons of water)

simi-

metallic salt

lb.

of chloride

is

forced into

wood under a pressure of 150 lbs.


The advantage of the process is that
material appears to be more thoroughly im-

the pores of the

per sq.
the

in.

pregnated than in the former method.

The material

absence of smell.

is

There

is

an

rendered uninflam-

mable, whilst the poisonous nature of the salts renders


it

proof against the attack of insects.

(chloride of zinc)
a

is

extent at

slight

Experience
quantity

is

has

soluble in water,
least, is

proved,

to be

that

therefore, to

washed
a

out.

sufficient

retained for all practical purposes.

M. Boucherie's process
by

material,

liable

however,

The material

and

is

one of impregnating the

composed
12 gallons of water.

slight pressure, with a solution

of 1 lb. of sulphate of copper to

The newly-cut end


collar or

wood

is

of the timber is provided with a


washer of leather or felt, whilst a disc of

made

of a screw

fast to the

end of the timber by means

through the centre, and in such a way

that the felt washer intervenes, creating a small space

over the end of the timber.

connected

by means

of

This chamber

rubber

tube

to

containing the sulphate of copper solution.


is

placed at a height of about 15 or 20

is

then

tank

The tank

feet, so

tliat

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

220

" is created.

head of pressure

The

solution, enter-

ing the pores of the wood, forces the sap out and takes

process,

and

said the material

it is

The completion

use.

the

but a few hours to complete the

It takes

place.

its

application

of

is

ready for

at once

of the process

indicated by

is

prussiate of potash

the

to

other

end of the material


a complete passage of the salt
is marked by a brown stain.
Margary's is an English process, and appears to be
contemporary with that of the French (M. Boucherie's).
It differs from the latter, both as regards the intensity of the solution and the method of application.
;

Margary recommends

The materials

only

that

added

water should be

or

gallons of

pound of the salt.


a tank, and the timber is
each

to

are placed in

allowed to remain until thoroughly steeped, the time


required being about two days per inch of the thickness of the timber.

Kyan's process consists of steeping the timber in


of mercury (corrosive sublimate), in the
proportion of 1 lb. of the sublimate to 15 gallons of

bi-chloride

water.

the

for

best

under pressure similar


Payne's

than the above

stronger solution

commended

is

effects,

to the

and

is

re-

injection

former processes.

a double process, two

separately applied.

also

partial

chemicals

vacuum

is

being

created by

upon the admission


The latter is said
of a solution of sulphate of iron.
to find its way, even to the heart of heavy timber,
through the pores rendered empty by the extraction
the condensation

of the moisture.

of

steam, and

Sulphate of lime

is

then injected,

and a chemical action takes place between the two,


rendering

the

material

so

treated

not

only

proof

TIMBER

221

and the attack of

against dry rot

but also

insects,

uninflammable.
Gardner's process

that of washing out the sap

is

The process is said


from timber by chemical means.
to occupy from one to two weeks, and is carried on
in

open tanks.

not only to preserve the

said

It is

lasting properties of the timber, but to render

thereby

dense,

increasing

Material so treated

and

insects,

is

is

its

crushing

it

more

resistance.

capable of resisting the attack of

also rendered uninflammable.

The
These

Defects.

following are some of the defects to

be found in timber
Knots,

are the portions

branches

according to whether they have

or dead knots

live

the

of

enveloped by the trunks, and are classed as

of trees

retained or lost their nature

the latter are considered

most objectionable.
Sapwood.
It

This

deficient

is

may

in

is

outer portion

the

strength

and

liable

of

the tree.

decay.

to

It

be distinguished in most timber by being dis-

coloured, and again

by absorbing an abnormal amount

of moisture.

StaV'Shakes

are

small

shakes passing through the

timber in radial planes, and often beginning at the


outer surface; these are illustrated in Figs.

and

5,

1,

2,

4,

page 212.

Cup-shakes are illustrated in Fig. 4, page 212, and


may be described as shakes separating the annual
rings.

wood

In sawn timbers they sometimes sever the


in

two by passing along the entire length of

the material.

Heart-shakes are
heart

of

the

large clefts

timber.

These

passing

should

through the
be

carefully

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

222

observed in balk timbers

if

they are winding in plane

or twist through the length of the material, they are


liable

a great

spoil

to

portion

the

of

heart

of

the

timber.

Twisted fibre

a defect sometimes found in timber

is

growing on the borders of

forests,

and which have been


Timber with

subject to the action of violent winds.


defect

this

is

be

liable to

"

short " in

its

when

grain

converted into plank.

Druxiness

a defect peculiar to special kinds of

is

timber, such as oak and lignum vitae.

It is

seen in

white or yellowish streaks passing with the grain of

A druxy knot is one that has a portion


changed in colour and has become druxy
this

the material.
of

it

usually takes place in sectors.


Docttiness is seen

more particularly

and beech, the former being subject


than the

It is

latter.

the

in the plane tree

to it

name given

even more so
to the

small

elliptical-shaped spots ranging from about i in. to li


length.

in. in

In

its last

stages

it is

of a dry

powdery

nature.
is the term given to the appearance of disupon the surface of the material.
It is the
indication of decay, and is particularly noticeable

Foxiness
coloration
first

in birch.
Upsets,

This

the

is

continuity of the

fibre.

name given
It is

to a

rupture in the

caused by crushing, or

improper treatment in stacking or loading.


Rind-Galls.
These are caused by a local destruction of the liber or rind during the growth of the
timber, from which, either by the accumulation of
foreign matter or other cause, the wound has never

healed.

TIMBER
Waney
been

Edges.

These

upon which have


the rounded surface of the

are edges

small portions of

left

223

and sometimes covered with small portions of the

log

liber or inner bark.

Conversion of Timber.

The

mode

of converting

timber depends largely upon the variety, the purposes


for

which

it is

intended, and upon the market.

In

all

the conifers, and with a large quantity of hard- or leaf-

wood

timbers, the heart should

earliest

This

opportunity.

tendency to

be laid bare at the

will

largely

reduce

the

split.

The Kiga and Memel wainscot oak logs are cleft


when placed upon the market, whilst the more modern
Austrian wainscot logs are sawn longitudinally through
In order to retain the silver grain of oak,

the heart.

logs should be cut as


all
is

shown

at Fig. 1, page

boards are taken from radial planes.

224, so that
This method

considered expensive owing to the constant change

of position in sawing

most

and the waste of material, but

of the small triangular stuff

the construction of mouldings.

shown other methods

At

may

be utilised for

Fig. 2, page,

224

is

of converting oak timbers, so as

to retain as far as possible the silver grain.


Another
method of converting a log of hard-wood timber is
shown at Fig. 5, the heartwood being reserved for

quartering.
Fig. 4,

page 224, illustrates one of the Baltic methods

By sawing through the centre,


good quality deals are obtained
whilst two thin deals are obtained from the sides, each
having a quantity of sapwood at the external edges. In
of converting a log.

two

1 0

in.

by

3 in.

order to get the widest deal from a log, one piece

sometimes cut from the centre, but this

piece, it

is

must

224

IPw.S.

Mg. 3.

TIMBER
be remembered, contains
observation of Fig.
able to see

how

3,

the

From

heart.

close

page 224, the student will be

the form of pieces alter during the

when taken from various parts of


two deals be taken from a log, one from
plane, and another from the outer portion of

process of seasoning,

the

log.

a radial

If

the log, at right angles to a radial plane, then the latter,

upon seasoning,

will be found to

have shrunk in width

considerably more than the former, but, apart from


this

fact,

the latter

is

stronger

when occupying

the

position of joists or bearing timbers.

From

a close acquaintance with the

movements

of

timber during the process of seasoning, the student

upon examination of the end of a board,


determine what the subsequent behaviour of that

will be able,
to

piece of timber

may

be when placed in the work.

Forest

trees are classed by botanists


under two distinct heads, Monocotyledons and Dicoty-

Classification.

ledons, according to the particular organization of the

But it is to the growth of the stem, or the deseed.


velopment of the trunk, that the carpenter or joiner has
According as the tree develops
to turn his attention.
by the formation of the woody tissue upon the interior
upon the exterior of the trunk, so is it known either
by the name of Endogenous, or inward grower, or by
the term Exogenous, or outward grower.
It is from the dicotyledons and conifers that we
obtain our large and ever-increasing supply of timber.
This latter class of timber is again divided by the
Needle-leaf and
forester into two distinct classes
or

broad-leaf trees.

Needle-leaf trees are the cone bearers,

and their timbers are known as

firs

They

or pines.

are also classed under the head of soft


p

woods

whilst

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

226

amongst them may be placed the cedar, larch, cypress,


Broad-leaf or hard-wood trees differ
yew, and cowrie.
from the preceding class in being non-resinous.
Amongst them are the poplar, chestnut, oak, elm, ash,
beech, alder,

etc.

In commerce the terms pine and fir are so loosely


used that one might almost consider them synonymous
but for the following facts

The term "pine"

known

not applicable to the timber

is

as spruce.

Baltic

fir " is

commonly used with

a term

the

all

Baltic conifers in contradistinction to the hard or leaf-

woods of the same

district,

but

it is

more properly used

in connection with the spruce varieties.

The term

" fir "

is

never applied to the American

pitch pine {pinus rigida).

The term

" deal " is the

commercial term sometimes


" white,"
yellow," and

applied to small stuff of the


"

red " varieties other than pitch pine, from the fact

that these varieties

come

to our

markets in the form of

deals.

From the above, the student will be able to underwhy it is that northern pine {pinus sylvestris)
known by such other terms as Scotch fir, red, and

stand
is

yellow deal.

Standards.

120

A Petersburg standard

pieces, each

By

thick.

get the

12

ft.

long,

11

in.

is

equivalent to

wide, and 1^

in.

multiplying these quantities together, we

number

of units of length, breadth,

and thick-

ness contained in the above standard, and which will

be found to be 23,760; and from this number

we may

obtain an equivalent standard of other scantling.

pose

we

require 12

ft.

lengths, 11

in.

Sup-

wide and 2

in.

TIMBER
thick

then, by continued division of the constant

these latter quantities,


of deals

we

we might have
12

are able to obtain the

23760
1980

in. )

2 in.

180
90

Irish standard

by

number

to the standard, as follows

ft. )

11

An

227

is

deals.

similar to the

London standard

and contains 120 pieces, each 12 ft. long by 9 in. wide


and 3 in. thick equivalent to 270 cubic ft. A square
of timber is 100 ft. super; enough to cover a surface
10 ft. by 10 ft.
The quality marks on Baltic deals
are stencilled upon the end of the deal (usually in red),
whilst the Baltic logs are scribed.
American deals are
sometimes marked in red chalk, upon the broad surface

near the end, with one, two, or three


the

quality is " firsts,''

seconds," or

lines,

according as

thirds."

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY


rrj

^5H

>

o ^

c3

--Z^

5-1
,

c3

CO
CO

P
CO

r.

CO
r-l

5-1

(D

-^-3

O ^ O
o.S s O 'TJ
Q,

OJ

CO

G
3
e)

CO ft!

5 2
X H

g g p

=^

5
n^J
CD

{X

{>

CD

CO

<D

5-1

rj
li?

^
5-1

f3

CD

<X)

CD

i-Q

c3

03

^O

<X>

>

P3

42

S<1

<D

<^
CI

VP

'

.1-; ,ni!

tJD CD

O)

CO

CO

^ ^

C3

an
pe erica.

eric

rop ica,

rop

Eu

5-4

Am

t
Sylvati

Excelsior,

Americafi

Glutino^

"axinus

Fraxinus

igus

M
CD

S o
Q, H

C3

^ o

C?

C8

CO

H-i

,-(

54-1

tral

CO

^ - G CD H

b^
03

biD'

1o

5^
CI

.22'^

C3

O ^

CO

o
o O
rH g
^ CO

CO

!3

CO <4H

rii)

"73

TIMBER

229

CO

-73

OS PL,

rH

02

?-i

<xi

Oi

03

cfi

c3

0^

O
c3

I -So
Pi

.+:^

I?
1I

%->

C3

CO

O
c3

!3

,0

3)

?H

o
O S
O

OD
5-1

!3

o G

n3

S S X
O

03

O
o3

rG

Oj

03

J-i

c3

03

g g

fC

CP

T3

o3

5-1

-^J

o P
'

CO

,-1

CO

1^
(X)

ro

Ph

O
;lh

r
^

t^-r?

03

>

cd

<t1
PL,

6
5

f5

H
P
H
!z;

ft

CIS

Ph
^
g i e i
5 w M

<J

no^

^-^

pq

C3

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

230

m 02 w
M o
^
o o
o

5-1

"Ti

^
c3

O)

f-i

+3

itU

S;S g
O S S
o

rG

c3

<D
f_,

a>
5h

c5

c3 .^2

O)

o3 .^2

CO

O o G
0^ ^

g o

jj
.-H
o3

rG

-j^

2 ^
G

O _, _^ efH H
^.2 g o s

c3

O
O ^
CO

G
- G
? P

fH =+H

o3

^^
G
O 02O

(H

CU

03
CO

rG

.rH

tlD CO

=3

CD

C^
17:3

CO

.in

O O

SH

^
S

>

CO

CO

rb G

<^

ce
CO

5^

c3

CO

OS

CP

.G rQ

"X)

'ci

^^

<^

c3

<D

rG

22

G
c3

,0
?2

2^

C3

ft

o
o

'3^

" j5
^ o O G
^ ^ CO

3
G

c3

c5

^CO

^ G

i-S SUSP'S

(T)

(T)

o
o o
G S

rG

rG

.2

5h

C3

CC

.15

:z

^ 'g

a>
<^

CO

Q.

G
<?3

CD

C^

'o

S
G a

CO

cS

CO

5^

CO

-&||

03

O S
CO

a;
<^

"i^

:3

CO

<1
CO

C3

<X>

0,

_^

TIMBER

231

o
n5

^
^

-n

a o s

=^

&

CI
(X)

CD

^^

ri4

!3

+j

03

P^. 03

03

'-^
<^

pi

fH

M P

^
^

O)

<v

o3

?3

P
P

>^

Qj

03
03

cd

.P

P > ^^-s
03
O^ P

o.2<l

Ph

S P

Vr^fq

'P
rO

>

p M M c
^ O ^
03

^^^

CO

03^

rH

bO

cc
"E^

p
O

CD CJD^
03

03

rj

M
O P
03

^ O
^

p
03
^-1

03

o
p

03

^o _9P
03

rP

03

tD

q_)

03

<^

W3

c3

r-H

C3

IS3

p
<1

p
<1

So"

6
P5

P S
f5

CO

CQ

P ^
o s 2^

o
p

q3

CO

"He

2-2
"5

+3 rQ

to

'13

CQ

03

bD

03

c3
p..2^<

p^
bD
-

P^

P O.Sf^

r2

C2

c3

'O
bD

G r

^^^^
-To

5S

Ph

P -

rP

r-

bD-zJ

^ P
P

5-4

n:i

OO

O ^
c3

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

232

riH

so

'

c6

o3

!3

02

<1

c3
CD

rj

s
o3 5
O ^
<^

c3

O ^
+3

en

!:3

CO

v.^

<^

Ph

^ o o

CO
CO

r-l

?3
CO "TJ

C3

IX)

is 4
P d
CO

cc

o o

- a
Q o
g

<V
CO
CO

a;

CO -rl

O
O CO 03 O
5 O
P^^CC P ^ > ^

i^

P^

CO

,0

(D

(X)

r3

>

f-i

CP

CO

PhIT^

^2

"r:

55

-+-5

O M

c-'

(X

=3

a:

O M

n3

^O

03

oJ

a
1

<^

CD

o
I

cS
J-i

a;

a
2
I::

^ s

22

?i

-4)

^3

1^
?2

"I
p
^5"
.

6.

(X)

O<
P
o

TIMBER

233

^53

a
c3

.s

G O

.5

(X)

6^
?2

^
5

<^

OJ

^2

03

Si

>

0.2
-t-s

;h

g 9

CO

CO

M
^
^

&C

2
r-H

CO

CO

to
03

5^

>d'

^ o

a>

CO

o3

Ph

o3
CO

q3

p
2

P
^ ^ o
a>

02

CO rr

++

^ ^ P^ rP

CO

O ^

P
O

03

.5

CD

p
O

o3

a>

o S
02 p

<X)

o3

^
(X)

Ph

^
^

CO
.

J3

5-1

o
(D

>t3

P ^-^ o
=^ P S rH^l!
r

O)

rj

^
^g
~^
-M

-(-=

a)

!-(

=^

lO

CO

ce

.2

c^

^ n3
P^^

P O
X
O .P,

Si
I

CO
CO

<t5

--=

CD

Ph

10

I
eg

^
r

c8

H 0
M
(X)

^:-^.^j^^
p
OJJ'
TO

f-l

O)

(D

CO

o3
CO

r3

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

234

^^
o3

rd

^5

^ O

S3

C
^5
f3

^t;

CC

^ O
o
^3

+3

Q
-

cn

(D

CO

02

bjo

2
.2

<^

2 ^ p
O 11 M

CD

03

(D
O)

CD

^
s
CD

CD

Qj
CC

a)
CD

03^

ct_|

5_i

o3

^ o3

O o
CD

o3
ci

"i^S

03

^
I

P*

Ph.^
c3

1
^

03

5-1

=3

C5

-tT'-m

CD

cd"m
CD

*4-(

o3

.2

^
:

c3
r-i

_^

03

03^
^ c3

> ^

c/j

O)

03

J3

:a

O
5

^ O

'Jii

Si

rd

CD

03
^^ dc3 W W o -(J^
,

&C

qg

03

^ ^>->^
CD

P^

CC

<1
03

^ 2
o3
SO

^
oT

-jf 'ii:

^ 'oO CQ
^-^
ce

03

o
o
PL,

f3

M S

o
o

=3

""d

0^

Ce

TIMBER

a
o

_55

!3
c:

^3

03

r2

;:j

(XI

J3
CC

^ c3

.z;

r^H

a3

o3

>^
.s

CO

a g
g
> g O
s
S3
^
p ^ p _0
''^

CO

-M

o
o

OT

>

<X)

^ .s
^ 'B

>^

-t^

-(J
,

g O

CO

Ph

f-^

03

c3

Ph

n3

ill
5-1

c3
5h

o3

(X)

Jd
CO -fJ

)pe.

)pe.

aah.

rica.

o
O

rica.

CD -r!
Amei

Eurc

Burn

op Amei

Eurc

Ame]

Eur

o
op

o
++
5i

05

^5

P P

SO

CHAPTER XIIL
MECHANICS OF CARPENTRY.
The

effect of force

upon matter

is

tend

to produce, or

an alteration of form, position, or volume.


These alterations of form or volume are called
strains, and the forces which produce them stresses.
to produce,

The following

table gives

some

of the stresses

met

with in carpentry, the strains they produce, and the

mode

of fracture, if

any

Mode

Stresses.

Strains.

Tension.

Elongation.

of Fracture.

Tearing away.

Compression.

Shortening.

Crushing.

Transverse.

Bending.

Breaking

Shearing.

Distortion.

Cutting, as with a pair

across.

of scissors.

For the present purpose

will

it

be convenient to

consider a structure as an erection, consisting of one or

more members
capable of

so

bound

resisting,

or secured together as

any great

without

to

be

amount

of

motion, any external or internal forces.

The

may

forces that a structure

support or resist are as follows

be called upon to

(1) Gravitation, due to

internal or external loads, such as the roof and

its

MECHANICS OF CARPENTRY

snow (2) Wind pressure.


The first,
acts downwards, and in a perpendicular

load, including

gravitation,

This

line.

tained,

is

237

is

met, and,

resisted

if

equilibrium

is

by the reaction of the

to

be main-

The

walls.

second, wind pressure, acts in an inclined direction, but

calculated as normal or at right angles to the surface


upon which it impinges or strikes.
" To
Newton's Third Law of Motion is as follows
every action there is always an equal and opposite
reaction, or action and reaction are always equal but
is

opposite in direction."
walls, or pillars

From

we

this,

see

why

it is

that

supporting a loaded beam, must offer

together a resistance equal to the

These are termed parallel

forces,

beam and
because

its

load.

they act

parallel to each other.

In order to discuss the action of a force,


to

know

we

require

at least the following

magnitude.

(1)

Its

(2)

Its line of action.

(3)

The sense

of the force or the direction in

which

it acts.

(4)

Its point of application.

All these particulars


that

We
as

is,

they

may

may

be represented graphically

be represented by points and

lines.

are accustomed to represent a quantity numerically,

4 inches,

6 tons, 1 0 days, etc.

understanding that a foot

is

but,

the unit,

a yard measure represents three.

by the mutual

we may

say that

Again, by changing

we may say that the same yard


measure represents thirty-six and so on, by a proper
understanding of the unit employed, we may, by a
the unit to an inch,

line of fixed length, represent quantity or magnitude.

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

238

Again, the student will readily


position occupied by

may always

see

that,

by the

a line, the direction of a force

be represented.

FORCES ACTING AT A POINT.


Parallelogram of Forces.

If

two

forces acting at

a point be represented, both in magnitude and direction,

by two straight

lines

drawn from

a point, and

if

parallelogram be constructed having these two lines for


adjacent sides, then that diagonal of the parallelo-

its

gram which passes through the point


the

forces

will

magnitude and

Example

represent

of application of

resultant,

both

in

forces of 5 lbs.

and 7

lbs.

their

direction.

(Fig. 103).

Two

respectively act at a point C, and at an angle equal


to

A.

Find their resultant.

Draw two lines BC and DC equal in length to 5


and 7 units respectively, including an angle equal to A,
and intersecting at point C. Complete the parallelogram

;
:

MECHANICS OF CARPENTRY
CBED.

Then the diagonal

EC

239

passing through the

point of application C
magnitude
The resultant force is
and direction, the resultant.
one that produces a result equal to a combination of
others, and the forces producing it are known as components.
The resultant in the example given will be
found to be 9 lbs. as measured by the number of units
represents, both in

contained in

N.B.

it.

The

equilibrant

resultant.

Triangle of Forces.

is

equal and opposite to the

If three

forces

point be represented in magnitude

acting at a

and direction by

the sides of a triangle taken in order, then the forces


will be in equilibrium.

Example

(Fig.

104). Three

forces

AB, C, and CA

are represented as acting at the point 0.

Find, by the

principle

they are in

of

the

triangle

of

forces,

if

equilibrium.

N.B.
the

In

method

this

case Bow's Notation has been used

may

be

briefly

described

as

follows

Assign a letter to each of the surrounding spaces as

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

240

Then

separated by the lines of force (Fig. 104).

in

the reciprocal figure 105, lines representing the forces


will have, at their extremities, letters corresponding to

those appearing in the spaces of the former figure.

the case before us the triangle closes

we may

In

there-

fore consider the forces are in equilibrium.

Polygon of Forces.
If any number of forces act
and if, starting from any point, a line be
drawn equal to and in the same direction as the
at a point,

representative of one of the forces, and from

its

last

extremity another line be drawn equal to and in the

same direction as the representative of the next force,


and so on until lines have been drawn representing
each force and if from the point so arrived at a
line be drawn to the starting point, then that line
shall represent, both in magnitude and direction, the
;

equilibrant

of

the

forces.

when

If,

all

the

forces

have been represented in the reciprocal figure, the


point commenced with should be found to coincide
with the last one, then the forces will of themselves
be in equilibrium.

Example

(Fig.

CD, DE, and

106).

EA

Let

represent,

the
in

lines

AB,

magnitude,

BC\
forces

acting in the direction of the arrow points through

Find, by a reciprocal figure, whether the

the point 0.

forces produce equilibrium

or not.

Assign letters to each space as separated by a line


of action.
line

AB,

AB

(Fig.

From any

point, as

(Fig. 107),

draw the

equal in magnitude, parallel in direction to


106), and terminating in point B.

BC equal in
to BC (Fig. 106).

draw

From

magnitude and parallel


direction
Eepeat until each force
in
has been represented, then, if the polygon be closed,
point

MECHANICS OF CARPENTRY
the forces represented in Fig.
If

draw a

not,

line

closing

106

241

are in equilibrium.

the polygon

this

line

represents the equilibrant, or force required to produce


equilibrium.

These

principles

applied

to

of

the

parallelogram

the solution of stresses

in

may

be

structures, so

and intensity of the stress in any


framed truss may be readily obtained.

that the nature

member

of a

As an example, take

AD

JC

and

the jib crane represented in

Here we have two members

Fig. 108.

point A.

known and

of the bracket

produced, supporting the load

As the

the magnitude of the one

readily complete

at the

directions of the three forces are

the figure.

Let

AB

(W), we may
represent

the

magnitude of the load IF; then by completing the


parallelogram in BC and CD, the tension of the tierod is measured by the line AD, and CA is the

amount

boom

to

parallelogram

of

of force exerted in the compression

produce equilibrium.

Applied to the couple

roof,

the

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

242

forces
ill

may

be used to determine the stresses set up

the rafters.

The loads upon roof


along

the

may

blade,

be

centrated at the joints, as


that

the

load

(Example, Fig.

is

although distributed

trusses,

passed

considered
it

to

is

the

The load

109).

being con-

as

by way

of the joints

members
here hung

various

is

A, and its magnitude is measured


by AD.
The load is evidently supported by the rafters,
and therefore certain stresses are set up within them,
from

the

apex

due to the load W; these act along the lines AB


and AC, and it is here proposed to find the
amount of such stresses, in order to be able to
correctly

estimate

of the resultant
of the

amount of material
The magnitude and
being known, and the

the

to resist those stresses.

AD

two components

requii'ed

direction
direction

(in this case the rafters)

known, complete the parallelogi'am

AFDE,

FA

being

then

MECHANICS OF CARPENTRY
The

AC.

EA

A, and

represents the internal stress set up in


the internal stress set up in

243

irregular or

unsymmetrical truss has here been selected as affording


a more interesting example than would be afforded by
a symmetrical one.
The student will see that as the
load TV approaches the wall at
so the inclined

rafter

AB

the

will

W,

the load

wall,

then

smaller

than

see

is

steeply

pitched

until

which it acts, touches


become vertical and will

will

of the weight

AC

and

that

in

load borne hj

now

AB

the whole

support

more

become

or the line through

due

as

measured by

AB,

to the fact

As

W.

This

it

AB

the

that the load

much

student
is

the

is,

is

will

nearer to

the point of support at B.

Before passing on to the consideration of the more

complicated structures,
takes

place

within

stresses passing

it

the

down

will be advisable to see


walls,

as

it

is

what

obvious

the

the rafters must be resisted.

been said that for every action there must


The walls in each case must
therefore be capable of offering an oblique resistance
It has

always be a reaction.

equal and opposite to the forces along the rafters.

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

244

In some classes of roofing the walls would require


to

be abnormally

tliiclv

to resist this oblique thrust

what other support


done by resolving
the oblique force along the rafter into its vertical and
horizontal components
this is shown at Fig. 109 as
being equal in magnitude and direction to GA and
FG respectively. It is assumed here, that having
the adjacent sides, the whole of the rectangle upon
FG and GA has been constructed.
These are illustrated by the
Parallel Forces.
vertical loads borne by a structure and the upward
resistance offered by the supporting walls, and, if

it is

therefore desirable to find out

will be equivalent to

it,

and

this is

equilibrium

must be

is

equal.

we

to be maintained, these

With symmetrical

opposing forces

structures uniformly

readily assume that the weight is equally


between
the two walls
half the load to
disposed
It is now proposed to show how unsymmetrical
each.
loads are disposed between two walls.
Fig. 110 represents a beam supported at A and B,
Find,
and loaded unsymnietrically with 4 tons.
graphically, what portion of the load (irrespective of
the weight of the beam) is borne by each of the walls.
From any point A (Fig. 1 1 1) set down a vertical line
AB, representing by scale 4 tons. Select any pole (9,
From the points of support,
and join OA and OB.
and through the load (Fig. 110), let fall perpendicular
From any point D in the vertical line through
lines.
A (Fig. 110) draw UF parallel to AO (Fig. Ill),
intersecting the vertical line through the load at F,
Through F draw FB parallel to BO (Fig. Ill), and
Join DB
intersecting the vertical line through B.
(Fig. 112); this is the closing line of what is known

loaded

MECHANICS OF CARPENTRY
as the funicular^ polygon

(Fig.

BDE.

245

If through the pole

Ill), a Ime be drawn parallel to the closing

and intersecting the


C, then CA and CB
represent graphically the portions of the load carried by
the walls at ^ and ^ respectively.
Line of Loads. If the external forces acting on the
beam of Fig. 110 produce equilibrium, or remain
supported, these forces must, when represented by
of

line

" line

the

funicular

of loads "

{AB)

polygon

in point

equivalent lines, form a closed polygon.

the student will from point

Ill) draw
the line AB equal to the downward load on the beam,
and from the point so arrived at draw BC equal and
parallel to the upward reaction at B, and from the
point C draw CA equal to the upward reaction at A,
If

he

will

find

that

he

has

arrived

(Fig.

at

the

point

commencement, and that he has completed a polygon


^From

the Latin

'a rope or chord,'

of
of

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

246
forces
of

all

is

all

the forces being parallel, the polygon

represented by a straight

represents

line

in

but

forces

the

acting vertically,

external forces
it is

contradistinction

forces, called the

to

name

given the
the

line.

As

this

on the structure
" line of loads,"

polygon of

the

internal

stress diagram."

Polar Diagram.' Attached to the line of loads


Ill) a series of lines are drawn from a pole 0
the line of loads; this is termed the ''polar diagram."

(Fig.

to

Eeciprocal

figures

are

those

figures,

the

lines

of

which bear a corresponding relation one to the other.


Figs. 104 and 105 are reciprocal, as also are Figs. 106
and 107. The funicular polygon and the polar diagram
are reciprocal figures.

ID

Another example of an unsymmetrically loaded beam


is

represented at Fig.

loads

are applied.

113.

In this case a series of

It is proposed,

by means of the

MECHANICS OF CARPENTRY

247

polar diagram and the funicular polygon, to find not

only

the

reactions

the

at

but

walls,

centre

the

of

gravity of the loads, or the line through which their


resultant acts.
First set

sum

down

ADEB

the line of loads

equal to the

and from any point 0 construct the


polar diagram OA, OB, OE, OB.
of the loads,

Construct

example

the

polygon

funicular

the external lines will,

Through

in point G.
line passes

G draw

as

the

in

last

produced, intersect

if

the vertical line, which

through the centre of gravity of the loads.

If through the point 0, in the polar diagram, a line be

drawn

parallel to

the closing

line

the

of

funicular

polygon and intersecting the line of loads in point F,


then

FA

A, whilst

represents that portion of the loads borne at

FB

represents the portion borne at B.

A and
The beam represented

Mathematically, the reactions at the walls

may

be found as follows

Fig.
its

30'^ O'

114 spans an opening


extremities

at

points

concentrated load of 12 tons at


B,

W d^

^0 0

30

of

and

ft.

B]

and B,

and
it

a point

Neglecting the weight of the beam

reactions at

B
in

at

rests

supports

10

ft.

from

itself, find

the

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

248

Eeaction at

_ Weight

GxCB

Sit

12x10

Span
Reaction at

30

Weight
at (7 X

Span

C/^

12x20 =8^

8Jbr^s.

5Jbr2s.

=12

tons.

tons.

6* Tb?^,

Jd

Ttg.

30

Total Reactions

/7

tons.

7i

m.

Taking the example shown at Fig. 115, the reactions


be found by taking each load individually and

may

summing

the result as follows

Reaction at

due to the load

Weight

at

(7

at

8x19

X (75

-AB
Reaction at

due to the load

Weight

~
Reaction at

due to the load


at

at

W tons.

^ X EB _ 6x8

~AB

tons.

at T)

i)xD5 _3xl2 =
"24

AB

_ Weight

at

-61

Total Reaction at

^ = 9|

tons.

tons.

MECHANICS OF CARPENTRY

Reaction at

due to the load

Weight

^tCxCA

at

249

8x5

AB
B

Reaction at

due

_ Weight

Reaction at

to the load at

^tDxDA
AB

due to the load at

WelAtsit

ExEA

3 x 12

_
-l^tons.

6x16

^ = 7i

Total Reaction at

tons.

Tons. Tons. Tons.

= 9| + 7| -

Total Reactions

By

= Total

Load.

a collection of the quantities in the following

form, the sanie end

be obtained

Reaction at

W.

may

at

CxCB^W. RtDxDB + W.
AB

Sit

ExBB

_ 8xl9 + 3xl2 + 6x8


~
24
152

+ 36 + 48

24

Reaction at

W.

236

~2l~^ ^

at

CxCA+W.

at

JxZ)^+W.

E x EA

AB
8x5 + 3x12 + 6x16
24

40

36

+ 96

172
:

24

24

Total Reactions

The former processes

7i tons.
17 tons

= Total

Load.

will be better understood

when

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

250

the student knows what

meant by

is

the

moment

of

a force about a point."

The moment

about a given point is a


measure of the tendency of the

of a force

force to rotate about that point,

and, as both force and distance

enter into

its

consideration,

it is

expressed in terms of the units

employed; thus

)^

of 5 ft. from the point 0.


The
measure of the tendency of the

Fig.
force

116, the

in Fig.

force of 4 tons acts at a distance

AB

rotate

to

about the point

is

therefore

4 tons by 5 ft. or 20 ft.-tons, and is equivalent


to 20 tons acting at the distance of 1 ft. from
the same point, or to 1 ton acting at a distance
of 20 ft.
The student should, by comparing the
above equivalents as illustrated at Fig. 117, see

Fig. J17

iron.

the

advantage

or

arm

At

Fig.

to

those

of

118

gained

the
is

lever,"

extending
it

is

represented

similar

in

by

Fig.

114,

single

lettering being the same.

the

the

distance,

sometimes

as

given

represented

by

set

called.

of forces

beam being here

the distances and


The support given by the
line,

MECHANICS OF CARPENTRY

251

by the little triangle or


fulcrum, the distance CB and load at C being 10
Taking moments about
ft. and 12 tons respectively.
wall

represented

here

is

n ToT^s
m.

fig.

QO'-

"

/O'-O

30-0"

the point B,
if

we extend

between the
shall be able

at

we have a force of 120 ft.-tons. Now,


the arm of the lever to the distance
supports of Fig. 114, viz., 30 ft., we
to

find

what upward

force

to equilibrate the load or force at

A xAB = Force

Force

Force at

Sit

0 x CB

Force or load at

C x CB

or load

is

required

as follows

AB
12 X 10

30

=4

tons.

Theory of Beams. By a sufficient acquaintance


with the foregoing, we are able to investigate the
relative strengths of cantilevers and beams under
varying methods of load and support.

For

this

we

shall require

to

extend the

of the ''moment of a force," and, as it is


measure of the tendency to bend the beam

definition
also

purpose

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

252

or

cantilever,

consider

as

it

we

shall

the

find

more convenient

it

bending moment

of

load,

to

or

bendmg moment." Taking the case


we see that the bending

simply as the

of the cantilever, (Fig. 119),

Fig. IZO.

moment
length

multiplied by the

equal to the weight

is

(expressed as

WL).

Graphically, this

be represented at any position along


scaling ab to represent this quantity

we have a triangle dbc


moment diagram in which

cantilever

Now

is

is

length,

any

vertical

moment)

by

bending
ordinate

of the cantilever

The student should here observe that

at that section.

the B.M.

its

then by joining

representing a

cb

represents the B.M. (bending

may

a varying quantity,
at a

maximum

and

in the case of the

at ab.

the strengths of two beams are in the inverse

ratio of their

maximum B.M.

and taking the canti-

MECHANICS OF CARPENTRY

253

lever as the standard, the equation will be represented


as follows

Strength of beam under consideration


Strength of standard cantilever

WL
Max. B.M. of beam under consideration*
Before

proceeding

obtaining
it

bending moments of

the

be advisable to consider another force acting

will

upon beams,

up

zontally.

of

series

be

beam

of thin separate laminae

hori-

94 represents

Fig.

load

slight

may

This

called the shearing force.

horizontal.

or

vertical
built

method of
beams generally,
the

describe

to

be sufficient to cause

will

the horizontal laminations to slide one over the other.

In the solid beam the cohesion of the material


resists

There

the cohesive strength of the material.


vertical shear to contend with, as

The semi-beam
series

or cantilever

is

also a

is

pressure

laminations

each

other.

of loading;
it

is

With

upon the

may
This
in

here split

up

into a

top,

made

to

in

By

any position,

over

vertically

slide

tendency varies with the manner

constant throughout and equal to the load


cast

the

the case of the cantilever (Fig. 119)

and wrought iron beams or

the sectional area


is

be

120.

at Fig.

kept together for the

laminations,

of vertical

shown

sake of illustration by a strong elastic core.


small

itself

the tendency to a great extent, varying with

is

girders,

W.

where

small, the consideration of shearing

very important; but with rectangular timbers, where

the working section

is

so

much

greater than the effective

sectional area, the consideration of shearing

important, but should


attention.

still

demand the

is

not so

student's careful

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

254
Fig.

along
is

121 represents a

its

cantilever loaded symmetrically

length, the bending

moment diagram

of

which

constructed by superimposing a series of triangles

one on the other, and in such a way that their apices

^
'dee

are each

upon

vertical lines, passing through the loads

they respectively form the diagram

common

for.

Their bases

and are scaled


each to a length equal to the weight multiplied by its
distance from the wall end, the unit employed being in
are in a vertical line

terms of the above

to

all,

factors.

(the full length): the next will be equal to

W Z

W x-A

and so

W x -X.

The base

of the first triangle will be equal to

6
1

on,

until

the

last

is

equal only to

MECHANICS OF CARPENTRY

255

The B.M. diaoram for a distributed load will have a


parabolic curve.
The loads in the diagram of Fig. 121
being concentrated at certain points, the parabolic curve

B.M. diagram is made up of a series of straight


which gradually merge into the true curve as the

of the
lines

The shearing

loads are placed closer to each other.

A is also composed of a series of steps


and would merge into the triangle shown
by the dotted line were the load spread uniformly over
its length.
The bending moment would in that case be
equal to the weight acting through its centre of gravity,
stress

diagram at

in this case,

or

W x-y2 or half that of the

standard cantilever (Fig.

119), and, as their strengths are in the inverse ratio of


Max. B.M., we may consider the former to be

their

In Fig. 122 we have

twice as strong as the latter.

i
V

WL
Fig.

/i>i>.

a rectangular beam, supported at

loaded with a weight {W).

It

is

its

extremities and

here obvious that

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

256

half the weight goes to one

other

the B.M.

multiplied

by

is

abutment and half

the length,

halt

the shearing stress

is

to the

therefore equal to half the load

equal to

whilst

123

shows a rectangular beam loaded unThe Max. B.M. is equal to the reaction
at the wall multiplied by its distance from the centre
Fig.

symmetrically.

of gravity of the load, or

Wx CB xAC.

seen here that the funicular polygon

may

It

may

be

also be the

must be made
B.M. diagram, but the vertical line
stresses are
shearing
The
B.M.
equal to the Max.
found graphically by means of a polar diagram and
the funicular polygon, the dotted line being drawn
parallel to the closing line of the polygon.

MECHANICS OF CARPENTRY
Fig.
its

124

length.

257

beam loaded uniformly along

represents a

The B.M. diagram and

also

of the

that

shearing forces are drawn as in the previous figure.

VV

11111
^

4
,

It will

~3

~5

be seen from the figure that the B.M. diagram

approximates a parabolic curve

the closer the lines of

more truthful will the parabolic curve be


represented.
The Max. B.M. is found as in the figure
loading, the

of 122, with this exception

the

total load

is

divided

from

in two, each half being concentrated at distances

the supports equal to a quarter of the span

WL
:Max. B.M.=

The example shown


fixed

into the

walls

then

in Fig.
at

125

both ends.

is

that of a

This

beam

may seem

anomalous from the fact already related that the ends


of beams should not be built into walls
but when a
;

beam

passes in continuation over a series of supports,

those covering the central spans are considered to have

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

258

and in a manner even more


than actually building them into walls.

their ends fixed,

efficient

The B.M. diagram is here a straight-lined figure,


beam has a tendency to assume the position

and, as the

indicated by the dotted lines, there


trary flexure

may

also

is

a point of con-

a point at which the B.M.

assume that the bending moments

is

nil

we

at the centre

ii

1
-'

t\

8
J-

/i

From

and ends are equal.

these statements

reason that the point of contrary flexure


of

is

we may

at distance

from each end, and hence the Max. B.M. must be

4~~"8

It has been said that the vertical ordinates through

the

diagrams are measures of the intensity of the

stresses at those points,

or length and weight

and any unit of length, weight,


be employed, and it must

may

MECHANICS OF CARPENTRY

259

not be forgotten that the scale used to plot the B.M.

diagram

in.

one of length and weight combined

is

may

made

be

hundredweights,

or

inch-tons,

foot-hundredweights,

thus

represent inch-pounds, inch-

to

or

even

or

foot-tons.

foot-pounds,
will

It

be seen

from the figures that the same scale has not been used
to plot the B.M. diagram as has been used to plot
in fact, it is often conthe shearing stress diagram
venient to plot them by a different scale, care, of
;

course, being taken in reading to use the

that

as

We

same

scale

adopted for plotting.

have seen in Fig. 109

how

it

is

possible

to

obtain the stresses set up within the roof couple.


is

now proposed

to

It

extend the principle to the example

given in Fig. 12 6, namely, that of the kingpost roof


truss.

The

borne by the roof

total load

trated at the joints, and

if

divided by two, the weights


in the frame

diagram

(Fig.

is

concen-

the weight at each bay

may

is

be disposed as shown

126)

one-eighth

of

the

by the wall at either end, and


may not be considered as acting upon the truss the
total load will be carried

other six parts are disposed at the three other joints,

two

to each.

In

Bow's
scribed

order

to

Notation
as

find
will

follows

the stress diagram

be

used,

Assign

and

letter

(Fig.

may
to

be

127),
de-

each space

around the figure as separated by an external force,


also to each space in the figure surrounded by* members.
Now, in the reciprocal figure (Fig. 127), lines having
letters at either end represent corresponding lines in
the frame figure having the same letters at either side.

The external

forces are here parallel, therefore the

polygon representing them will be a closed one, and

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

26o
will be
(Fig.

known

parts,

reactions at the walls.

To Construct the Stress Diagram.


structed the
several parts

line of loads/'

AD, DB,

frame diagram

We

(ADEFGBCA)

Here C divides the loads ^ to ^ into


and BC and OA represent the equal

127).

two equal

as the " line of loads "

etc.,

Having

and divided

commence

it

at point

con-

into

its

in the

(Fig. 126).

have here four forces in equilibrium, namely,

CA, AD, DH, and HC the magnitudes and directions


of the first two are known, also the directions of the
The magnitude of the latter may be found
last two.
if from D (Fig. 127) we draw a line parallel to
(Fig. 126), and if from (7 (Fig. 127) we draw a line CH
parallel to its reciprocal CH
126), and intersecting
\

DH

the line from

in|^.

These lines

DH and HC (Fig.


MECHANICS OF CARPENTRY
127)

261

represent not only the magnitude, but the

will

forces in the corresponding

direction of the

By

of the frame diagram.

taking the

members

known

forces

GA

and AD, and examining the corresponding lines in


Fig. 127, the student will see that CA is an upward reaction ecj^ual to four units, and passing from ^ to D we
have a downward force equal to one

In order to

unit.

Dif

complete the circuit around the point we have

and HC, terminating

DH passes
the wall

downwards

and

passes in

at

is

(7,

the point of starting

towards the point of support

therefore in compression

a direction

but

away from that

HC

whilst

point,

and

is

For every joint in the frame


diagram (Fig. 126) a corresponding polygon will be
found in the stress diagram, which will furnish lines
corresponding in magnitude and direction to those
therefore in tension.

contained in the frame.

Transverse Strength of Rectangular Beams.

we

If

piece of deal 1 in. square, and


and place it between two supports,
we shall find that by bearing upon it, it deflects or is
bent to an appreciable extent but upon removing the
pressure, the piece regains its former position.
By

take

about 4

ft.

small

long,

gradually increasing the pressure

we

be able to

shall

reach such a point that, after removing the load, the


piece fails

termed the

to

recover

elastic

crease of the load

its

former

position.

By an

limit of the material.

or pressure

we

shall

This

is

in-

be able to

arrive at such a point as to produce fracture of the

material
strength,

break

is

Now

such

point

is

known

as

its

ultimate

and the load which caused the specimen

known

to

as its breaking weight.

take a piece

of the

same

class

of material

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

262

in.

wide and

in.

thick (a floor board will do), and

of the same length as in the last example.


We shall,
by placing it upon its flat surface and noting the
weights which produce fracture, find it to be about

seven times as strong as the last example, but


turn a similar piece of 7

in.

we shall find it
than when placed upon

to

its

edge,

times

its

by

we

in.

we

material upon

be seven times stronger


so

flat,

seven as strong as the

the foregoing

if

first

that

it

is

specimen.

seven

From

see that the transverse strength of

rectangular timbers varies directly as the breadth and


as the square of the depth

it

varies also directly as

the strength of the particular material employed, and


inversely as the length of span or distance between

the supports.

This

is

represented by the following formula

When

W = Breaking

weight of a beam, girder, or

bressummer under a central load,


Z = Length of span in feet,

= Breadth in inches,
= Depth in inches,
c = Constant, found by
&

experiment upon
and which may be expressed
or tons, at pleasure, remembering

similar material,
in

lbs., cwts.,

always that the expression

W will

be in like

terms to the constant.


Example. Find the breaking weight of a beam of
red pine, 8 in. deep and 5 in. wide, spanning an opening
The constant for red pine may be taken
16 ft. wide.

as 4 cwts.

MECHANICS OF CARPENTRY
By

263

applying the above formula,


Tir_ bxd'^ X

z
The student

is

5x8x8x4 = 80 cwt.
re

recommended

make

to

a sketch of

each example previous to working.


Cases

may

the quantities
is

unknown

by a change
will

occur to the student in which any one of

upon the right-hand

side of the equation

may be removed to the left


The formulae for these purposes

this quantity

of sign.

then appear as follows

bxd

'^

X c

JVxL
G

The strongest beam

is

obtained

when

the breadth

is

The following example will


serve to illustrate the method of obtaining the correct
breadth and depth of a beam of limited sectional area,
say 150 sq. ins.
Let x = tlie unit of breadth and depth, then 5xx7x
= 150 sq. ins.
to the

depth as 5

is to 7.

150
3^'

and

Then
and

=5
depth = 7

breadth

x 2-07

in.

X 2-07 in.

=
=

10-35

in.,

14 49

in.

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

264

sometimes occurs in practice that the most


economical dimensions are required for a beam of a
particular class of material to cover a known span
and to successfully resist a certain load as follows
It

= 13
therefore constant = 4 cwt.
Concentrated load = 16 cwt.
Factor of safety = 5.
Length of span

Material (red pine),

This latter item


ordinary formula
order

in

is

necessary from the fact that the

supplies

the breaking weight,

beam under

the

that

of

and,

should

consideration

successfully resist the concentrated load


it

ft.

16

cwt.,

should be considerably stronger, in this case 5 times

We

stronger.

must therefore

calculate

loaded to the extent of 5 x 16 cwt.

By

= 80

for

beam

cwt.

usual formula,

fF=j-,
or

JVx L = cxbxd'^

but

breadth

fF

and

= ^d,
L = c X ^d

d'^,

7T5

inches (d being expressed in inches),

|-X(i

=|

X 7-15

= 5-11

inches.

MECHANICS OF CARPENTRY

265

The transverse strength of rectangular tmibers is


greatly mcreased by the addition of wrought-iron
flitch plates, as shown in Chapter iv, firmly secured
by means of bolts.
Flitch plates are sometimes
secured to the sides of timbers and the ultimate
strength of either combination may be found by the
following formula

W=
^

= combined

thickness of wrought-iron

flitch

plates

(taken as about ^^t\\ that of the total thickness of

beam

or

girder)

all

algebraically are of the

formula.

other

quantities

same value

represented

as in the previous

CHAPTER

XIV.

STAIRCASING AND HAND-RAILING.


This

is

a branch of joinery requiring a knowledge of

and unless the apprentice shows


it is seldom that he is brought
in contact with the work.
It is desirable, at an early
stage of the subject, to explain some of the terms
practical geometry,

ability in this direction

employed.
Stairs.

An

assemblage of steps for the easy and

convenient passage from one


Staircase.
is

That

intended to contain the

Tread.

That

floor to another.

compartment which contains or


stairs.

portion of the step upon which the

stairs, and
which should not be less in width than will permit the
foot resting firmly upon the same.
The least width

foot

for

this

the

in

rests

ascending or descending the

purpose has been laid down as 9

greatest

width

approaches

nearly

in.,

double

whilst

that

dimension.

Going.

The

going of a tread

is

the width of the

same, as measured horizontally between the nosing of

one tread and that of the next adjacent to


it

will be seen,

tread.

is

it.

This,

smaller than the full width of the

portion of the

wood used

in the tread passes

STAIRCASING AND HAND-RAILING

267

and is serviceable only for the purpose of making good the joint between tread and riser,
and may not be considered as available for the purpose
beneath the

riser,

of resting the foot.

N.B.
is

made

It is to the

in

going of the tread that reference

determining the proportionate width of

tread and riser (see page

The

The "going"

273).

covered by that

flight is the horizontal distance

of a

flight.

between the top of one


tread and the top of the next one to it.
The vertical piece of timber passing between
Riser.
the treads to which the latter are secured, and which
Rise.

vertical distance

gives solidity to the step.


Flier.

A
A

throughout

its

Flight.

the

step,

tread

of

which

parallel

is

length (page 278).

continuous series of

fliers.

Winders. Those steps, the treads of which taper in


plan and permit the person passing over them to turn
either to the right or

left,

according as the winders

turn in either of these directions (see

278).

That winder which has

Kite.

or near,

to,

winder in the
Fig.

is

3,

The

fact that, whilst

quadrilateral

centre line passing


is

kite-

from an ordinary

both taper in plan, the

and the

latter triangular

The rounded front edge of a

Bottle-nose.

section,

kite differs

page

(see

page 278).

Nosing.
addition

1,

the angle of the staircase, and

shaped in plan.
former

its

Fig.

of

The

a small scotia

page 269).

Bull-nose Step.

tread.

ordinary rounded nosing with the

beneath

step with a

plan, as illustrated at Fig. 3, page

it

(see

enlarged

rounded end in
278.

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

268

Curtail
scroll

the

Step.

The

step

of the hand-rail, from

first

immediately below

which

step of the flight, and one

it

takes

its

which has

the

form;

its

end

shaped in the form of a volute.

Line of Nosing.

An imaginary

line passing

down

the nosings of a flight of steps.

Newel.

The main post

of a series of balustrading

the vertical post from which the hand-rail starts in

dog-legged or open-newelled

Balusters.

The

stairs.

small vertical pillars terminating

with the hand-rail at the top, and which form a guard


at the

open end of the

stairs

they should be spaced

no greater distance from each other than

at

clear.

Hand-rail.

The

in.

capping piece of the balustrading

the rail upon which the hand rests in ascending or

descending the stairs

usually rounded upon

its

upper

surface and fixed at such a height as to be conveniently

grasped by the hand, usually 2

(measured

line of nosing

ft.

vertically),

in.

and

above the

to

which

is

added at the landings half the rise.


An inclined board with its plane vertical,
String.
and to which the ends of the steps are made fast.
Wall-string. That string which is adjacent to the

wall.

Well-string.
string

which

The

outer or

exposed

string; that

carries the ends of the steps opposite to

those near the wall.

Close-string.

has

its

That

string

which from a

side view-

long edges parallel to each other (page 269).

The lowest portion


Cut-string.

cut to the line

termed an apron.
That string which has its upper edge
of the treads and risers.
is

STAIRCASING AND HAND-RAILING

269

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

270

A form of rough carriage used with


Notch-board.
open stairs in buildings of the warehouse class, and
having its upper edge notched to receive the treads,
hence its name (Fig. 4, page 271).
Mitred-string. A form of cut-string not furnished
with brackets, and which needs to have the vertical
edges of the stepping mitred with the risers.
This
term is mostly used in conjunction with that of
cutstring," and then known as cut and mitred string

(page 269).

A form
Wreathed-strings. The
Bracketed-string.

of cut-string provided

with brackets of an ornamental character (page 269).


strings of a

geometrical

which pass uninterruptedly throughout the whole


height of the stairs, and which are therefore of necessity
of a twisted or wreathed character.
Continued wreath or wreathed hand-rail is one

stair

which, like the wreathed-string, passes uninterruptedly

throughout the
its

stairs,

and

curved, bent, or twisted in

is

form.

A ramp
hand-rail
vertical

A
rail,

is

a concave curve of the crown

whilst

the

latter

continues

in

the

of the

same

plane.

knee is a convex curve of the crown of the handsomewhat similar to the above, but opposite in

direction.

Swan-neck.

A combination

of

ramp and knee

(see

page 280).

Rough carriages

are pieces of rough quarterings

placed beneath stairs to give them additional support

they are sometimes called rough strings, as they are


often placed in corresponding positions to the strings.

Spring-trees.

This

is

another

name

for

rough

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

272

carriages, but is

more properly applied

to

the rough

carriages below winders.

Rough brackets
carriages

of

stairs

increase

to

treads and prevent creaking.

271, are illustrations

the

support

to the

to

the

1, 2, and 3, page
of the various methods of rough

bracketing.

Returned Nosings.
strings (page

wood fastened

are blocks of

In

Figs.

the representations of cut-

269), the nosings are

made

to

being returned upon the ends of the treads.

appear as
This

is

accomplished by planting on a piece of the same profile

and with a grooved and tongued joint, forming when


complete an effective finish, and covering the unsightly
appearance of the end grain of the tread.
Landings are resting places, and are either half
space or quarter space, according as they extend the
whole width of the staircase or only the width of the
stair; these are illustrated by Figs. 2 and 3, page 278.
Stairs have been described as
Stair Planning.
being an assemblage of steps for the easy and convenient passage from one floor to another, and to secure

this

end

it

will be necessary to consider the following

In order that

points.

stairs

may

not be the cause of

unnecessarily fatiguing the person passing over them,

they should be provided with sufficient landing-places,

and

the

steps

should

be

properly

proportioned.

Separate flights should not contain more than ten or

twelve steps
vided,

and

it

at these places landings should be prois

advisable to cause the adjacent flights

to pass in different directions.

The stairway should

be broad enough to allow at least two persons passing

each other with ease, and for this purpose steps should

have a length of at

least three feet.

STAIRCASING AND HAND-RAILING

273

Proportion of Treads and Risers. The author


does

not

deem

it

advisable

possession of a tabulated

list

to place at his disposal

put

to

the

student

in

of proportionate sizes, but

means whereby he may

the

obtain the sizes for himself, and to show the method

by which they are obtained.

An
down

easy pace along a horizontal plane has been set


as

direction,

23

in.,

it is

but in passing upward in a vertical

not considered advisable to go beyond

half this distance, namely,


a person passes not only
to

say,

1 1

In ascending

in.

stairs

upward but forward, that

is

he covers a small distance in each direction,

vertically

and horizontally

it

therefore follows that,

the dimensions of steps, twice the rise

in calculating

must equal 23 in. From the above


remarks the following formulae may be deduced, the
number 23 being taken as a "constant."
plus the tread

Going of tread = Constant - Twice the

= 23-2r,
where

rise

(1)

= rise
-r,.

Constant - Tread

= ^^,

(2)

where ^ = the going of the tread.


To apply the formulae given above, the student may
take the following examples
(i.) Having taken the height from floor to floor by
means of a rod (storey rod), and having found that it
contains equal sub-divisions of 5

and adopting
1;he

this as a

in.

convenient

correct tread in this case


s

without a remainder,

rise

what should be

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

274

By formula

we have

(1)

Going of tread = Constant - 2r = 23 - 10

=
(ii.)

What

13 inches.

would be recommended

rise

the tread of which was 12

Using formula
^.
ixise

in.

for a step,

(2),

-if
=
= Constant
T.

= 51

23-12
2

'Z

in.

Numerous other examples may be taken


that the tread

must be

at least

Before commencing the planning of

(1)

mind

wide enough to afford

sufficient support for the foot, viz. not less

found necessary

the

at

student's pleasure, but he should always bear in

than 9

in.

stairs, it will

be

to obtain the following facts

The dimensions

of the staircase

or

compart-

ment which is to contain the stairs.


(2) The heights from floor to floor successively.
(3) The position and dimensions of approaches; size
and position of window openings.
The first item will largely govern us in the particular class of stairs to adopt.
The various kinds are
illustrated on page 278.
Winders should, as far as
possible, be avoided, and should not under any circumThe width of the
stance begin at the top of a flight.
tread of a winder is measured at a distance of 1 5 in.
from the hand-rail this being the position of the path
over winders, the tread should at this line conform
;

as far as possible to the other treads.

The general

surroundings of staircases are usually of such a diverse


character that no definite rules can be laid
the

guidance

of

the

craftsman in

down

determining

for

the

STAIRCASING AND HAND-RAILING


position for the various
in

order

avoid

to

lighting

In

the

stairs

no

others

it

devise

the best possible plan,

require

requirements

all

necessary

with the means

commoner

experienced

be

will

difficulty

will

winders, and landings,

fliers,

interference

approach.

or

his skill

for

275

and

of

of

classes
;

with

but

and ingenuity
so

the

all

fulfil

convenient

and

to

easy

stair.

The construction

of the various forms of steps will

be seen from

readily

pp. 269, 271,

the

furnished on

illustrations

and 276; the tread and

riser

having been

made, and the particular method of breaking the joint


having been decided, the two are carefully glued and

screwed together, and small triangular blocks about


or

2|-

long are glued to the joint at intervals of

in.

about 12 or 15

The

in.

steps thus constructed are

inserted individually into the housings provided in the


string

and there glued, wedged, screwed, and blocked

as

illustrated.

The construction of the


to be more fully

requires

usually
scotia

constructed

curtail

three

in

parts

The tread

board, and riser.

step

is

ordinary one, with the exception that

one that

is

This

described.

namely,

step

is

tread,

similar to the
it

takes

up the

form of scroll of the hand-rail at its extremity.


The
scotia board replaces the small scotia shown in the
other examples, and in this form enables the step
to be constructed expeditiously, and with much greater
strength;

it

is

illustrated at Figs. 3

and

5,

page 276.

It is in the construction of the riser that the greatest

care

is

or

which the greatest amount


up of two
of material, firmly glued and

required, and in

of labour

is

involved.

more thicknesses

It is usually built

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

276

Coristnucfcon

of Cur^tact Step,

FigJ.

SCO tea

fhoQtd

^,_,.LVTT^

'

J'//

w^<^^^^ yve<xges

^^^^

Plg.3.

Scotco.

'

Trrrtrtr

ii'iii

9>lQr^

of Scotco fioord

STAIRCASING AND HAND-RAILING

277

screwed together, and finally covered with a veneer


as

shown

at Fig. 1,

sufficient

page 276.

portion at the end of the front riser

reduced to the thickness of a veneer, or about yV in.


thick
it is then steamed or saturated with hot water,

is

becomes easily pliable, the extreme end is


by means of folding wedges to the
innermost angle of the volute, carefully glued, brought
round to its correct position, and finally tightened by
so that

then

it

held

a second pair of folding wedges.

then

screwed

together

and

The thick ends

cleaned

bracket for the reception of the string


to

the

solid

off.

is

are

short

dovetailed

portion of the riser at right angles

to

and the former are then halved, glued and screwed


convenient positions, the rounded angle
being made good by means of a gusset piece.
These are
Different Forms of Stairs in Plan.
Fig. 1 represents a
278.
illustrated upon page

it,

together at

variety

common

to small

cottage property, consisting

of a straight flight with winders at the bottom.

hand-rail and string are here

by means
Fig.

of

stump

made

fast to the

The
newels

or stub tenons (drawbore pinned).

2 represents a variety

known

as

dog-legged,"

the return flight taking an abrupt turn to a position

and close to the side of the first.


A larger example of the dog-legged variety is
illustrated on page 280, and is here shown in plan
and section with small cupboard behind the spandril
framing, entered by way of the small door at the
side.
The necessary amount of headroom between
parallel flights is here figured, and may be taken as
The storey rod
the smallest dimensions permissible.
also shown on this illustration, the chequered
is
parallel

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

278

StQtrs.

Straight Stair
=0-

Geo/r}atrieat
Stairs.

STAIRCASING AND HAND-RAILING


appearance

the

indicating

279

number and heights

of

the risers.
Fig.

3,

page 278, illustrates an open-newel

stair,

a variety suitable for wide and open staircases, and

capable of being thoroughly well lighted


ant feature of a convenient

An

stair.

an

import-

illustration of

the application of both the quarter-space landing and

winders

is

here afforded, although, where possible, the

latter should be avoided.

and may be
described as a stair in which the continued wreath
is used
other examples of the same variety are turret
or spiral stairs (open or close newel), and stairs having
an elliptical plan.
The steps of the latter, as also
some of the former varieties, are required to be
geometrical stair

is

shown

at Fig. 4,

made

"

balanced " or

particular

dancing

winders,

of

class

"

"

name given

which the

in

nosing do not pass through, or radiate

to,

to a

lines

of

the same

point in plan.

Hand-railing, or that branch of

it

dealing with

continuous wreaths, would not prove such a

difficult

the

student

subject

as

it

would,

in

the

at

sight

first

earlier

ofttimes spent in

which,

after

pressed
its

Much

each

example

time and labour

thinking out abstruse problems


solved,

are

not

upon the student's memory

is

therefore

convenient

recommended

scale,

and

so

im-

sufficiently
to

aid

subsequent application to practical work.

student
to

being

if

model

stages,

of the subject taken in hand.


is

appears,

to construct

obtain

him in
The
models

grasp

of

the subject by means which, in the end, will prove

by far the most economical, both


and material.

as

regards

time

28o

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

STAIRCASING AND HAND-RAILING

281

The author proposes to deal with the subject


purely upon recognized geometrical methods, so that
the student who has done equivalent geometrical work
or has successfully completed the Elementary
to,
Course of Practical Plane and Solid Geometry, as set

down

have but

will

and Art Departments Syllabus,

in the Science

little difficulty

The hand-rail
of the steps,

and

as far as is convenient at a constant

from

vertical distance

therefore,

throughout.

it

ends

the

of

in mastering the subject.

follows a line vertically over the ends

the

of

development,

steps

will

reveal,

as far as the height is concerned, the position of the

For the present, in order to more easily


is asked to disregard
the position of steps, also the fact that the handrail
has substance, and to imagine the hand-rail
as represented only by a line
the centre line of

hand-rail.

grasp the subject, the student

When

rail

centre line of rail " he will, with very

the

struct
little

the student finds himself able to con-

be able to extend his knowledge and

difficulty,

The next step

construct the ''face-mould."

will then

be to apply the face-mould to the plank, and finally


to construct the rail.

One
railer

most important principles the hand-

of the

has

to

remember

craftsman
a

and

to

which

its

in

the well-hole.

over such

as an

rectangular

right

attached

that

oblique

sections

as used

of

by the

a modification of the geometrical cylinder,

is

and may be described


of

is

The cylinder

cylinders are ellipses.

two
plan

The

imaginary solid composed

prism

opposite
is

rail or

of

with

hemi-cylinders

and vertical faces


the same outline as

continued wreath, passing

form in plan, will of necessity be in

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

282

some places straight, whilst in others it will pass


a twisted manner over the segmental ends, and
these positions will take up the elliptic form.

Two systems have been

adopted

for

finding

in
at

the

and now almost extinct


method was by a system of ordinates, and known
The other and more
as the " method by ordinates."
modern method is known by the name of tangent

The

curve.

elliptic

older

system," in which, in order to obtain the curve, the

tangents to

are

it

found and subsequently the

first

elliptic curve.

Upon examination
the curved portions
to

be

either

of

circle

of

I
greater than the quadrant

than the quadrant.

various

rails

2nd,
;

an

forms:
arc

1st,

of

The tangents

2nd, an

(acute angle)

(obtuse

pages
trating

The

the

circle

3rd, an arc of a circle less


to

the

foregoing

will include the following angles, respectively

right angle

plan,

in

be found almost invariably

the following

quadrant

or

the

of
will

angle less than a right

1st, a

angle

3rd, an angle greater than a right angle

Two

angle).

such

284 and 287 and

cases

shown

are

on

serve the purpose of illus-

two out of the three cases

differing in plan.

true tangents stand vertically over their plans,

varying in length with their inclinations, and giving


rise to the following classification

1st

Hand-rails,

Class

one

tangent

of

which

is

horizontal and the other inclined.

2nd Class

Hand-rails, both tangents of which are

equally inclined.

3rd Class

Hand-rails, the tangents of which are

unequally inclined.

The above

classification is

necessary only for the

STAIRCASING AND HAND-RAILING

283

purpose of thoroughly understanding the causes which

one or two

give rise to the necessity of employing

and bring about various changes in the figure.


11.
it was explained that the planes
upon which the plans and elevations are projected
stand at right angles to each other, and are termed the
These planes, for the convenience
co-ordinate planes.
the plane of the
of drawing, are opened out into one
paper but as soon as the drawing is completed they
are supposed to come up again into their proper
For conpositions at right angles to each other.
ventional purposes the line of intersection between
them is known as the ground line or XY. It is by
bevels,

Chapter

In

the use of these co-ordinate planes that the centre line


of

rail

and other requirements of hand-railing are

found.

To
is

find the "centre line of rail."

Fig.

page 284,

a diagramatic representation of the problem

at Fig. 2,

and

will assist the student to

method.

latter geometrical

AC

and

shown

understand the

CD

(Fig. 2,

page

284) are the plans of the tangents of the rail passing


over ABD.
AB is the shank or straight part of the
rail, and BD the curved portion, which, in this case,
passes through an angle of 90, or the fourth part of

the

circle.

also

that

The
of

lieights of points

the

tangents cross).

A,

intermediate

B and D

point

The tangent being

C
in

are

known,

(where the
the

vertical

plane, cd' represents not only its true length, but a

portion of the vertical trace of the plane containing

and the tangent

CB

into the vertical plane,

sented
point

it,

being turned back or developed


its

true length will be repre-

by ch-^.
By producing
A^ and joining it with

d'c

A,

to

the

the

XY

in

horizontal

284

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

Method offrndcng

^/^e

Centre Lcne

STAIRCASING AND HAND-RAILING


and

traces

vertical

tangents

are

tangents

is

found.

of

plane

the

The plane
hinged

conveniently

containing
containing
to

plane about the vertical trace, and thus


as
plane of the paper. With
With c
radius, describe an arc.

285

the

vertical

A^A

as

and with cA^

as radius, describe an arc cutting the first in A^.

A^ with A2 and

the

falls into

centre and with


as centre

the
these

Join

with A2, then the angle d'cA^ repre-

and

sents the real angle between the tangents,

being the tangent points to the elliptic curve.

For the purpose of completing the semi-ellipse, the


centre line of rail " is extended to form
the semi-circle terminating at either end upon the
plan of that steepest line in the plane which will
plan of the

pass through the central axis of the cylinder.


line

marked >S1203, and being the plan

is

steepest

drawn

line

the

in

plane,

it

will

This
of

the

of necessity be

at right angles to the horizontal trace of that

plane.

That steepest
the

axis

of

which passes through


represent the major
and the minor axis will be repre-

line in the plane

the

axis of the ellipse,

cylinder

will

by that horizontal line, lying in the plane,


which passes through the axis of the cylinder and

sented

has

its

plan Oc parallel to the horizontal trace.

Upon

the development of the inclined plane of the

draw the major axis at right angles


development of the horizontal trace {A^A^ 1)
and through the point 1.
Through c draw c 0
representing the position of the minor axis, and therefore at right angles to the major axis.
This line

rail

(centre line)

to the

wdll be

divisions

of

the

may

same length

as its plan CO,

and

be marked off direct from the plan.

its

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

286

By producing

the lower tangent (cB^A^) to S, and

the major axis to S,

when

which,

end

the

at

half

the

of

the half

of

parallel to

0,0

diagonal,

and join

1,2,0 at any angle

point

the half diagonal SO,

major axis of the

will give us the

aS^

we have

divided proportionately to

its

diagonal.

its

plan SO,

ellipse.

From

set

the

off

S,

line

end 0 with the like


Draw 2,2 and 1,1

then 2,0 on the half diagonal will

represent the semi-major axis.

The student, having the major and minor

now

axis, will

be able to complete the elliptic curve, but must

be careful to secure that the tangent points

The

are correct.

real length of the

and

d'

&2

shank or straight

is represented by the line &2^2The bevels required to be applied to the ends of the
rails are represented by the angles contained between
the inclined plane of the centre line of rail and the

portion

tangent planes.

It will

sometimes be found that the

bevels are alike for both ends

on page

290

is

the case represented

an example, only one bevel being

required.

The angle between the two


bevel.
measured by a plane mutually perpendicular
to the first two, and such planes standing at right
angles to two others must have their horizontal

To obtain the

planes

is

traces at right angles to the plan of the line of inter-

In this case (page 284) the plan of the line

section.

of

intersection

angles

to

it.

is

We

in

the

XY, and

therefore

select

c,

this

horizontal trace of the third plane, and set

at

is

line

up cb\

as

right

the

at right

angles to the line of intersection (the vertical trace of


the

plane).

same plane

Now, by bringing down


as cA,

cb/

into

the

and completing the right-angled

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

288

triangle

we have the bevel

angle

or

between

the

purpose,

an-

planes.

To

find the Face-Mould.

For

this

other example has been selected, page 287, a

rail of

the second class, in which the plan of the rail extends

beyond the quadrant of the circle the tangents, therefore, contain an angle less than 90.
The only points of importance in the diagram on
page 287 that differ from that on page 290 is the
fact that the tangents are unequally inclined, and the
horizontal line lying in the plane and passing through
the axis 0 does not pass through the point where the
tangents cross. To the student who is able to successfully master the previous diagram this will not be a
great difficulty, as E will have its elevation e in its
;

tangent immediately above

OE

is

it.

the plan contained in the minor axis, and,

being a horizontal

line,

represents

true

its

length.

"When the major axis is drawn, eo is drawn at right


angle to it, and the points representing the minor axis
taken directly from the plan.
The major axis is
divided similarly to the last example, six focal points

being necessary

instead

When

two.

of

ellipses are found, the butt

ends of the

at right angle to the centre tangent lines,

the

tangent points

d'h.

It

is

most

the

three

drawn

rail are

and through

essential,

when

taking up the face-mould, to take up the tangents to


the

''centre

minor

line

of

rail,"

also

the

position

axis, as the rail at this point will

of

the

be parallel to

the face of the plank.

Two methods

are practised for the cutting of the

from the plank, and are described as follows


This is the most economi''Square Cut" Method.

rail

STAIRCASING AND HAND-RAILING


method

cal

saw passes

right

at

Bevel Cut

method

the

from the plank

of cutting the rail

angles

surface of the plank, hence


"

Method.

of cutting

or square

to,

its

289

name

This

the

is

the rail

(Fig. 3,

with,

the
the

page 290).

name given

obliquely

to

from the

plank (see Fig. 4, page 290).


When the cut passes
at a very acute angle with the face of the plank, a
great waste of material

the result, and although

is

considered to be the most


is

given to the

it is

method, preference

square cut."

page 290,

Fig. 2,

direct

is

given to illustrate the method of

obtaining the face-mould and bevel in a case where


the plan of tangents

is

The

quired).

an acute angle and the

at

tangents equally inclined

(one bevel only being

lettering has, as

far as

possible,

re-

been

kept alike in the two examples, so that this example

may

be the more readily followed.


To decide the thickness of plank required for a
rail
Take the section of a rail and turn it through an
angle represented by the steepest pitched bevel
draw
parallel lines tangential to the curve at the top and
:

bottom

between these parallels


represent the thickness of plank required.
the

distance

will

The face-mould
Application of the Face-Mould.
having been obtained, and the thickness of the plank
decided,

mark

place

butt

tangents
of

face-mould upon the plank, and

the butt ends of the mould, also

the ends are

the

the

the

now ready

joints
;

this is

square

to

should

to be cut.

its

centre lines;

At

this

be truly squared with

point
the

accomplished by placing the stock


the

ends of the material, and so

adjusting the ends until the blade of the square coincides with the tangent lines.

The

ends, which

must

STAIRCASING AND HAND-RAILING

291

must now
planes and

also be squared with the face of the plank,

be

considered

finished

regards their

as

should not be subsequently altered, as the least alteration here

is

likely to lead to greatly increased errors in

the pitch of the

The face-mould more

rail.

belonging to the centre of the


be

strictly

the tangents should

rail,

These

squared over to the centres of the ends.

having been obtained, the bevels are applied

points

and the new positions

The

obtained.

are

moved along

for the top

the

until

and bottom tangents

now

face-mould
tangents

be

requires to

mould

of the

cor-

respond with the new positions of the tangents on the

plank

Diameter
width AB,
fall

may

the outline of the rail

upon the plank.


To Construct
(Fig.

divide

Outline

the

1,
it

page

292).

then be pencilled

of

decided the

into eight equal parts.

a perpendicular equal to one-eighth of

BD^ and from C


in U.
With C

it

Draw

the

AB,

second

quadrant.

F, 0

upon

Join

1,

centre

0,

of

BD

and

CU

and describe

Through D, draw a

IF in point 2,
From F erect
point 0

is

the

the

describe the

produce to
fourth

intersect

quadrant.

and equal

third

perpendicular

D2

From

to

it

quadrant.

311 in

Draw
in length.

to

the

of

the centre of the spiral.

quadrant.

third

parallel

centre

in

4e/

4,

the

Join

2,

centre

perpendicular

With 4

as

the

3,

up

set

perpendicular to i)2, and with 3 as centre and


radius,

cutting

in point 1, the centre of the first

and produce, intersecting


the

it,

as radius, describe

li^ perpendicular to

quadrant BF.
intersecting

At A let
AB. Join

a perpendicular to

as centre

AB

an arc cutting
quadrant.

let fall

any

to

Scroll

Having

3D

a
as

0 and
of the
to

4/f

centre and

STAIRCASING AND HAND-RAILING

293

The
radius, complete the fourth quadrant.
iff
The
remaining centres may be found as follows
diagonals 1, 3 and 2, 4 cut the perpendiculars 4/ and
5K in points 5, 6, 7, etc., but beyond this it is seldom
necessary to go.
The inner margin of the rail is
struck from the same centre as the outer, and at
:

a distance from the latter equal to the width of the


rail.

find the Face-Mould for the Shank (Fig.


page 292).
This rail comes under the first class,

To
2,

The tangents

having one of the tangents horizontal.


to

the centre line of rail are represented in plan at

by the

Fig. 1

ment

lines

to the point

LM

and

being of the same lengths as the corre-

sponding lines of Fig.


"

The shank extends

Fig. 3 represents a develop-

of the lines in order to obtain their true lengths,

MNP
the

and NF.

in plan.

stairs,

similar

1.

in

ENR^^ represent the pitch

shape to

the

outline

of

of

the

In order to obtain the true length of

pitch-board.''

the inclined tangent NP^B^^ set up over the plan the


respective heights of these points as obtained by the
"

pitch-board

"

the hypotenuse

triangle will give

it

its

of

right-angled

the

The

true length.

real angle

between the tangents can here be obtained by inspection,


and, as in all cases of the first class, will be found to
be a right angle.

MN

and

P^^,

being set up in their

correct positions, will represent the

semi-minor and

semi-major axes of the ellipse which

The increased width

may now

be

end is
due to the inclination of the plank, and may be found
by setting the true width of the rail along the
horizontal line NP (Fig. 3), and from the extremities
drawn.

set

of rail at the butt

up the perpendiculars intersecting the inclined

line

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

294

NP.2

the portion intercepted between the tops of the

perpendiculars represents the increased width.

Easing the

It is usual in cases similar

to

the last to allow the shank portion of the scroll

to

Rail.

more gradual change as it joins the scroll


this is accomplished by cutting the scroll out of
material ^ in. thicker than the rail, so that the moulded
take a

scroll

can be formed to

rise to the extent of

approaches the shank

piece.

relative position of the

end of the

to the hand-rail above.

An

is

shown

material
of rail.

at Fig.

may

5,

Fig.

^ in. as it
4 represents the

tread, with respect

enlarged section of the

in order to illustrate

rail

how much

be saved by working close to the section

It is not advisable

that the student should

attempt this in the earlier stages of the work as it is


likely to lead to mistakes, but to work his twisted rail
first
it if

to

the

rectangular

necessary.

section,

and then

to

mould

APPENDIX

A.

SYLLABUS.
(From the Programme of the City and Guilds of

London

Institute.)

The Preliminary Examination


founded on the following subjects
1.

British

will

include

questions

and metric systems of units of length,

area,

and volume.
2.

Division of straight line into parts, and elementary

problems in practical plane geometry.

Construction and

use of scales.
3.

Construction of polygons as used in setting out a

templet or mould for lantern lights and roofs of turrets,

etc.

Area of plane figures. Construction of oblong equal


in area to any irregular figure bounded by straight lines,
and of not more than eight sides. Calculation of area of
floors, walls, gables, and roof surfaces.
4.

5.

Properties of circle as applied to the setting out of

circular

arches and

simple mouldings.

Measurement of

relation of circumference of circle to diameter, arcs, chords,


etc.
6.

The

practical setting out of simple pieces of joinery,

such as door-frames, king-posts, and of simple plane figures,


including circular, elliptic and other curves, showing tangent

and normals of arches and centering.

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

296
7.

Measurement of bulk of simple

solid figures, such as

cube, prism, pyramid, cylinder, cone and sphere, and parts of

the same.
8.

Construction of plan elevation and section of simple

Representation

solids.

jection of solid figures,


as housing, mortise
9.

in

and

oblique and

isometrical

pro-

also of the simple joints, such

and tenon, halving,

etc.

Graphic methods of representing and measuring the

Simple experiments on bending


and testing strength of beams. Principle of parallelogram
and triangle of forces, and simple problems thereof.

stress in a simple truss.

Simple mechanical contrivances, such as

10.

Problems

wedge, and screw.


11. Practical

determination

lever, pulley,

illustrating their uses.

of

of

densities

different

woods.
12.

The

principal tools used in carpentry

and joinery,

their names, shapes, uses, etc.


13.

The more common woods used

in

carpentry and

joinery.

ORDINARY GRADE.
In addition to the foregoing, candidates in the Ordinary

Grade are expected

to

know

the following subjects

Nature and properties of the various kinds of wood


used in carpentry and joinery, with the ports or places
from which they are obtained. Methods of seasoning and
1.

preservation

of timber.

Strength of timber.

Mode

of

planning and converting materials, so as to avoid waste

and shrinkage, and obtain the maximum strength or

stiff-

ness.
2.

Tools, their names, shapes, uses, etc.

Labour-saving

machinery.
3.

Mechanical

joinery.

drawing as

Drawings,

full-size,

carpentry

and

showing shoulder-lines,

etc.,

applied

to

APPENDIX A

297

cut; and the various joints in

on the material before

it is

carpentry and joinery.

Setting out rods.

Working drawings

of panelled and framed and braced doors, door frames and

hung

casings, double

and hanging shutters,

sashes, sliding

French casements, folding shutters, and boxings, rebates or


linings for swing doors, etc.
4.

A general

muntins,

knowledge of the proportions of


in doors

etc.,

stiles, rails,

and windows, heights of

rails

in

doors to suit knobs or latches, the usual sizes of doors,

windows,

and of the kind of material and strength to

etc.,

be used.
5.

Mouldings, their forms and names.

mouldings

and

circular

Enlarging and diminishing mouldings.

Lines

at different angles, also of straight

mouldings.
for

Intersection of

determining the sections of moulded bars and hip-rafters

Method

and lanterns.

in skylights

of determining the true

section of raking mouldings over square or oblique plans,


also
6.

when

Bevels.

purlins,

work

the given moulding

is

Finding bevels for

splayed linings,

generally.

on the rake.
hip-rafters, jack-rafters,

raking mouldings,

and oblique

Also a knowledge of the method employed

to place bevel lines direct

upon the work, without making

a drawing of the same.


7.

Newel and geometrical

and tread.
and other

Method

and

obstacles,

of finding

diminished

stairs.

General planning of

fliers.

obtain

to

Proportion of riser

stairs to clear

windows,

proper head room.

the proper position of winders

and

General construction, and methods of

support.
8.

Mechanical

principles.

framing roof trusses,

The

principles required

timber partitions,

bracing large doors, gates,

etc.

in

trussed girders,

Drawings

to scale of the

same, showing the comparative strain in different parts, by

means of graphic

statics.

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

298

beams and girders by

Methods of strengthening

9.

How wood

"fiitching" and "trussing," etc.

roof trusses

upon by cambering the tie-beam, and the motive

are acted

Different methods of shoring.

for cambering.

Flying and

raking shores.
10.

Joints.

Mortise and tenon, the proportion tenons

The

should bear to the thickness and width of material.


proportion of the parts of the tusk tenon,

the position

of mortises with regard to the neutral axis.

Joints for

oblique timbers, position of the shoulder with regard to


the

direction of the

roofs,

floors,

position,
11.

them.

and kind of

Trimming round voids in


methods of scarfing. Proper
and bolts used to secure joints.

strain.

Difl'erent

etc.

sti'aps

Hinges, various kinds

and modes of applying

of,

Centre-pin joint, back-flap, rule-joints,

drawings, showing the path of

Working
the work

etc.

difl'erent parts of

so as to obtain clearance, etc.


12.

water

general knowledge of the use of Aveather boards,

bars, throating,

etc.,

for external

work.

Particular

attention should be paid to the form of joints and

manner

of hanging French casements and skylights.


13.

Plumbing and

ings, tilting pieces,

for

plumber and

zinc

also

slating.

Preparing and fixing

forming drips,

rolls,

flash-

cistern heads, etc.


for lead

and

preparing and fixing angle beads, grounds,

etc.,

slater,

construction of

flats

for plasterer.

HONOURS GRADE.
For the Honours Examination candidates must have
passed in a previous year in the Ordinary Grade.

The Examination

will be

(1) Written Examination,

of the preceding subjects,


will

be required of

Written and Practical.

Advanced
and

questions on some

in addition

a knowledge


APPENDIX A
1.

The various methods


segmental,

299

constructing

of

parabolic

elliptical,

centres

and other

showing the direction of the joint

for

arches,

lines of the arch.

Fixing and striking large centres.


2.

Different forms of scaffolding,

3.

Circular work.

and

staging,

gantries,

and their construction.

steaming,

grooving,

quired for

soffits

also for ribs

upon
4.

Method employed

bend boards,
by kerfing,
Moulds and bevels reto

or mouldings round circular work,

ribs,

circle,

fliers,

and

straight

circular walls

domes, and niches,

in groins,

The

proper

height

of

hand-rails

Method
The theory and use

winders, and round landings.

of describing hand-rail scrolls.

of tangent planes and tangent lines, as

employed in

Method

system of hand-railing.

tangent

the

circle

etc.

Hand-railing.

over

etc.

in

of

determining the position of the face-mould plane,


to pass
rails
5.

through three points

the central line of

the moulds, bevels, length of balusters,

Construction

of

fitments for

tables,

room,

churches,

for

fittings

domestic work, pews and

(2)

in

stalls,

butler's

shop fronts and

pantry,

etc.

shops

and
cases,

housekeeper's

etc.

Drawing.

Drawing to

scale

from data furnished by

the Examiner.
(3)

Practical

Work.

Each

candidate will be required,

during the year preceding the Examination, to design and


execute in suitable material an original piece of work, and
to forward the

same

to

London

(carriage paid) on or before

April 23rd, together with a certificate signed by his employer, or

by the

class teacher

and

member

of the School

Committee, stating that the work has been wholly executed

by the candidate himself without

assistance.

The specimen

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

300
of

work must be accompanied with

a working drawing,

with particulars of quantity and nature of materials used,

and must be of such dimensions that


not larger than two cubic feet.
Note.
large to

up"

Specimens
show the

will

fit

into a

box

are preferred which are sufficiently

practical

work and

are loosely "

wedged

so that they can be taken to pieces for examination.

Candidates are advised


it

it

must be made

if

they select so large a subject that

a small scale, to

to

make

in

addition

portions to an enlarged scale, showing the construction.

The candidates are advised


they wish to sell

any work he

the

to

Certificate.

full

Technological

Grade, the candidate

be required

to

who

Certificate

Certificate

and

in

the

Ordinary

not otherwise qualified will

is

have passed the Science and Art

Department's Examination in

in

Provisional

granted on the results of the above Examination.

For the

least;

models if

considers of especial merit.

Full Technological
will be

also

to their

Examiner is authorized to recomTForshipfid Company of Carpenters

as the

theiiiy

mend for purchase

a price

to affix

the

Elementary Stage at

for the full Certificate in the

the Advanced Stage at

least,

in

Honours Grade,

two of the following

Science subjects
I.

III.

Practical, Plane,

and SoHd Geometry.

Building Construction.

VI. Theoretical Mechanics.


VII. Applied Mechanics.
Certificates

showing that the candidate has passed the

Elementary Examination of the Science and Art Depart-

ment in Geometrical Drawing, as well


Model Drawing, will be accepted in lieu
Science subjects for the

full

as in

Freehand or

of one of the above

Technological Certificate in

either grade of the Examination.

APPENDIX

B.

QUESTIONS
SET BY THE EXAMINATIONS DEPARTMENT OF THE
CITY AND GUILDS OF LONDON INSTITUTE, 1897.
54.

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY.


(Preliminary Examination.)

Monday,

May

3rd, 7 to 10.

INSTRUCTIONS.
No

Certificates will be given to candidates

on the results of this

Preliminary Examination, but their successes will be notified.

Candidates

may

take the Ordinary Grade without having passed

or both Examinations may be taken


same year.
The number of the question must be placed before the answer
in the worked paper.
Not more than ten questions to be answered.

the Preliminary Examination

in the

Three hours allowed for


1.

What

is

this

Examination.

the difference between the decimal and duo-

decimal systems of measurement

Which

is

use amongst carpenters and joiners in England

7149 from the decimal


2.

to the

duodecimal

Describe the best method you

know

a scale of feet and inches, and illustrate


of

J inches to a foot.
1
3.

It is

scale.

in ordinary
?

Convert
(30 marks)

of constructing

by making a

scale

(32)

proposed to construct a hexagonal lantern-light

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

302

of 5 feet diameter.

Draw an

outline plan of

same on

scale of 1| inches to a foot.


4.

The

hall over

previous question
1

What

2 feet.
5.

full

One

is

is

which

(32)
is

the skylight referred to in

also hexagonal,

and has a diameter of

the area of the floor

(34)

side of this hall has a semicircular bay

window the

Find the area of the floor of the bay. (34)


Show, by sketches, the manner in which the several

width of side.

6.

conic sections are obtained from

approximately setting out an


7.

baulk of timber

is

Give rules

a cone.

ellipse.

for

(34)

20 feet long, 15 inches by 15

inches at one end and 12 inches by 12 inches at the other.

What would be its price at 2s. per foot


8. Make an isometrical drawing of
in diameter
9.

Draw

cube

and 1| inches deep, standing on

its base.

rail

of a 2 inch door,

the parts separated.

Two

(36)

and 63

forces of 16

right angles to each other


11.

(36)

in isometrical projection, quarter full size, the

mortise and tenon to the bottom

10.

(32)

a cylinder 3 inches

lbs.

act

upon a point

find their resultant.

at

(34)

king-post roof truss, 20 feet span and 10 feet in

height, has a purlin on each side resting on the middle of

principal rafters, under which are the struts.

each purlin

is

5 cwt.

part of the truss.

A man

The load

of

Find, graphically, the strain on each


(40)

upon a board suspended from a single


movable pulley pulls downwards at one end of a rope,
which passes under the movable pulley and over a pulley
fixed to a beam overhead, the other end of the rope being
What is the smallest proportion
fixed to the same beam.
of his whole weight with which the man must pull in order
12.

sitting

to raise himself
13.

(30)

If three cubes of

wood, the

first

of

fir

3 inches on

the side, the second of oak 4 inches on the side, and the


APPENDIX B
third of

mahogany

5 inches

on the

how would you determine

you,

woods

the different
14.

303

side, are placed before

the relative densities of


(32)

Give a short description of

six ordinary tools used

by the carpenter and joiner.


(36)
15. What wood do you consider most suitable for (a)
tie-beams,
(e)

floor joists,

(b)

(c)

floor

boards, (d) panelling,

shop fronts, (/) hand-rails.

and a bad

(30)

how you would

16. Explain

distinguish between a good*

deal.

54.

(32)

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY.

Saturday/, April 2Uh, 2.30 to 6.30.

INSTRUCTIONS.
The candidate must confine himself to one grade only, the
Ordinary or Honours, and must state at the top of his paper of
answers which grade he has selected. He must not answer questions
in

more than one grade.

he has already passed in this subject, in the first class of the


Ordinary Grade, he must select his questions from those of the
If

Honours Grade.

The number of the question must be placed before the answer


worked paper.

in the

sheet of drawing paper

is

supplied to each candidate.

Drawing instruments to be used in this Examination.


Not more than nine questions to be answered in either grade.
Foiir hours alloived for this j^cLper.

The maximum number

of

marks obtainable

is

affixed to each

question.

Full Technological Certificate.

Qualifying

See

Subjects.

For Ordinary Grade, two in the Elementary Stage


page 300.
for Honours, two in the Advanced Stage, from the following
:

I.

III.

Practical, Plane,

and Solid Geometry.

Building Construction.

VI. Theoretical Mechanics.


VII. Applied Mechanics.

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

304

Elementary Stage of Geometrical Drawing as well


Freehand or Model Drawing, will serve in lieu of one Science

Certificate in

as in

subject for either grade.

Passing the Preliminary Examination will count as one subject.

ORDINARY GRADE.
Every candidate

required

is

to

attempt question No.

3,

aiid

at

LEAST foiir other questions.


1.

Give sketches to

illustrate

how

the cutting of timber

and state how you would prefer timber to be


cut from the log, and why.
(32 marks)
2. Describe the various processes through which deal
affects its use,

should be passed before

it

can be considered thoroughly

seasoned.
3.

(34)

State for what purposes the following tools are used

Firmer

chisel,

back saw, jack plane, router, side

fillister,

chariot plane.
4.

(36)

Give plan and

section, 1| in. to afoot, of a lead gutter

behind stone parapet, showing feet of

rafters,

outlet of

gutters, etc., complete.


5.

It is

and ^

in one span

would use
6.

(32)

required to cover a building 40


pitch.

ft.

wide with roof

Give elevation of the truss you

to scale 4 feet to an inch.

in isometrical projection,

showing the ironwork you would

use.
7.

(36)

Draw

place on

section to scale, IJ in. to a foot, through a

first floor,

Draw

an angle

(34)

20

ft.

tie

and dragon

piece,

Give sketches of a centre


span,

and elevation of
and show how you would

to a scale, 1| in. to a foot, plan

obtain the bevels of hip-rafter.


9.

fire-

showing the construction and trimming

of the floor.
8.

(34)

Give enlarged details of joints to the foregoing roof

(32)
for semicircular stone arch

and describe the position and use of wedges. (35)

APPENDIX B
10.

What must

305

be the scantling of a

fir

beam

to carry

safely a distributed load of five tons over a span of 10 ftJ (36)


11. Draw plan and elevation to h in. scale of 2J in.
framed, ledged, and braced door, in two heights, with fan-

light over

and

opening 4

in

Draw

12.

2^

in.

solid

ft.

by

fir

wrought, rebated and beaded frame


(34)

ft.

plan and elevation to |

ft.

of a pair of

folding doors, each leaf five-panel bolection

with raised (or fielded) panels.


7

in. scale

moulded

Size of opening 6

by

ft.

6 in.

(34)

Show

the

and

with

details

of

grounds and backings, necessary to the above door

in

13.

a 14

linings

finishings,

in. wall.

Draw

14.

(34)

plan and section to scale, IJ

in.

to a foot, of a

three light casement with solid frame and muUions.


of opening 5

ft.

by 3

6 in.

ft.

Size

Give section through

full size.

Draw

15.

to a scale, | in. to a foot, a

open well-hole 3

Height from

ft.

newel

wide, in a hall

in.

floor to floor 12

ft.

Show

with

staircase,

10

ft.

wide.

enlarged details of

treads and risers.

(36)

Give sketches ^

16.

sill

(36)

size

full

of the following joints:

Secret dovetail, double tenon and mortise, fox wedging,


rule joint,

meeting

rail

of double- hung sash, rebate

tongue.

and
(36)

HONOURS GRADE.
Candidates for Honours must have previously passed in the Ordinary
Grade and must have already forwarded to the Institute the required
f

specimen of their practical work.


Every candidate is required

to

attempt question No.

4,

and at

LEAST three other questions.


1.

Give a short description of the various European soft


and state the purpose for which each is best

woods,

adapted.

(32)

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

3o6
2.

Give some account of dry

which

it is

to be expected.

rot,

What

and the situations

in

would lead you

to

signs

believe that dry rot exists in the timbers of a building

What
3.

is

to be

done when dry rot

discovered

is

(35)

Describe the three best preservative processes (other

than seasoning) with which you are acquainted, and state


their value in increasing the durability of timber.
4.

expense of running one of the following machines


joiner
5.

(30)

Describe the construction, uses, cost of purchase, and

(b)

Draw

planing machine

(a)

General

spindle machine.

(40)

to scale, 1 in. to a foot, the foot of a

hammer-

(c)

beam truss, 40 ft. span and | pitch dot outline of tenons


and show the bolts and straps. The hammer beam, with
all work below it, and the ends of timber framed above,
;

to be shown.
6.

Draw

(36)

to scale,

lating turret, 6

ft.

1 in.

to a foot, section through a venti-

internal diameter, on the roof mentioned

show how you would frame it to the roof. (36)


7. Give elevation to scale, ^ in. to a foot, of a quarter
partition, 18 ft. wide and 24 ft. high, running through two
On
storeys and self-supporting over the ground floor.
the first floor is a central doorway 6 ft. 6 in. wide by
7 ft. 6 in. high
on the second floor is a doorway 3 ft.
wide and 6 ft. 6 in. high, 3 ft. 6 in. from one side wall
and another 4 ft. wide and 6 ft. 6 in. high, 2 ft. from the
other wall.
Give details of joints show all ironwork and
above, and

figure scantlings.

(30)

Draw

elevation and section to scale, J in. to a foot,


showing construction of a gantry over pavement 10 ft. wide
8.

and with staging 12


9.

shop
ment.
13

ft.

ft.

from ground.

Draw

plan and section to

front,

showing arrangement

Frontage,

18

ft.;

(34)

scale, | in. to a foot, of

for giving light to base-

height from floor to ceiling,


(35)

APPENDIX B
Two

10.

houses of 18

frontage each in a terrace have

ft.

been pulled down, and shoring

required for supporting

is

the adjoining houses on each side.


a foot, the shoring

and

307

you would

Sketch to

construct,

and

scale,

giv^e

details of the joints.

(32)

Give a description of not more than

11.

in. to

scantlings

hard woods

six

with which you are acquainted, stating their nature, uses,


cost,

and the

with

first

relative

quality yellow Baltic deal.

Describe fully

12.

of working as compared

difficulty

how you would

(36)

out a moulded

set

hand-rail to a geometrical staircase which has ten winders,

the well-hole being 2

ft.

in the clear

and the

risers

6 in. high.

The

13.

Work

(38)

above mentioned has a veneered

staircase

string.

out to a large scale the development of the veneer

round the well-hole, and show by dotted

lines the

struction.
14.

each

con(36)

niche segmental on plan, and 5

ft.

wide across

the front, has a domical head, semicircular on elevation.

Show by

sketches to scale,

in. to

a foot,

how you would

construct the domical head, and give rules for finding curves
of ribs and bevels of ends.
15.

Give a plan to

in.

to a foot, of a butler's

by 8 ft. and 10 ft. 6 in. high, showing the


necessary, and give details to scale of, 1^ in. to

pantry, 10
fittings

scale,

(32)

ft.

a foot, of one of the fittings.


16.

Draw

elliptical

to scale, of | in.

on plan, 7

ft.

internal dimensions.

long, 4

(34)
to a foot, a lantern light,
ft.

wide, and 3

ft.

Show how you would

bevels of bars at top and bottom.

6 in. high,

get cuts or
(34)

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

3o8

1898.

PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION.
May

Monday^
Is the

1.

method

of measuring in the carpenters' trade

decimal or duodecimal

system to the other

9th, 7 to 10.

How

would you convert from one


(36 marks)

2.

Construct a plain scale to read 2 inches to

3.

Describe the method of inscribing in a circle any

On

regular polygon.

1 foot.

(30)

a given line 2 inches long construct

a pentagon.

(30)

Make an

4.

irregular heptagon, and reduce the

same

to an

oblong of equal area.


5.

The chord

segment

is

(34)

of a circle

feet.

is

12 feet; the rise in the

Find the radius of the

6.

(35)

Set out a circular-headed door frame, inside measure-

ment 4

feet,

the

Transome with

door 2 inches thick.

fanlight over.
7.

What

is

(38)

the cubical contents of half a regular hexa-

gonal pyramid of 2 feet edge and 5 feet high


8.

Draw

(37)

'?

the plan and elevation of a hexagonal prism of

l|-inch edge at ends and 3-inch axis,

when

the axis

horizontal but inclined to the plane of elevation at

Make

the

section of this prism,

when

cut

by a

Make

ing joints,

tenon

and

figure

" grooved

(38)

oblique drawings of the follow-

isometric or

joint,''

dimensions:
"Haunched,"
and tongued," and " common dove-

their

tail."

10.

How

(32)

The handle of a mortising machine


much more pressure would you be

applying the same force,


longer

is

40"".

plane,

parallel to the plane of elevation.


9.

by

circle

figures.

if

is

2 feet long.

able

the handle were

to exert,

made

foot

(38)

APPENDIX B
11.

309

Describe the difference between the teeth of a

{a)

ripping saw and those of a dovetail saw, and give the


reasons for their respective shapes,

you use

(h)

to bore a |-inch hole into the

of timber

What

bit

would

end grain of a piece


(38)

Describe the characteristics and uses of the principal

12.

conifer timbers.

(40)

ORDINARY GRADE.
Not more than nine questions

are required to be answered.

Write a brief description of oak, teak, and yellow deal,


and state the purposes for which they are used. Give the
1.

principal
2.

market firms and ports of shipment.

Why

is

(32 marks)
the iron of a shoulder plane reversed, as

compared with a jack plane

Why

should the pitch of

a moulding-plane iron be greater for hard

wood

soft
3.

Make

(35)

section,

ft.

2 in. high

scale

in.

should be fully dimensioned.

and 3
to

ft.

2 in.

the foot.

Make

wide; and a

All the

Make

(36)

isometric drawings of the joint at the lock-rail

of the door in the preceding question,


at the

parts

to scale | full size a

detailed section through the panel and moulding.


4.

for

the elevation of rather more than half of a six-

panelled door, 7
vertical

wood than

bottom

rail of

and

also of the joint

the door, with double tenons.

(32)

Make sections of the following mouldings Cyma


recta (Roman and Greek), Astragal torus (Roman and
Greek), Cavetto (Roman and Greek), Ovolo (Roman and
5.

Greek).

These drawings must be large enough to show

the geometrical construction, and the working lines should

be

left in.
6.

Make

(38)

a half elevation to a scale of \ in. to the foot

of a truss partition, 20

ft.

wide, 15

ft.

high, with a door-

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY


way near each
joints,

Illustrate by freehand sketches the


end.
and the means you would employ in making and

securing
7.

(40)

it.

Draw

a plan, to a scale of |

staircase, 3

ft.

a hall 9

wide.

stair,

ft.

6 in.

in. to

wide; height,

a foot, of a newel

floor to floor, 12 ft.; in

Explain the method of setting out this

and how you would determine the proper proportion

of treads to risers.
8.

Make

line

(40)

diagrams and write the names of the parts

and show by line


diagrams the form of principal you would use for a 25 ft.,
Show the parts in com35 ft., and a 50 ft. span roof.
pression by single lines, and those in tension by double
of a collar-beam roof of 16

ft.

span,

lines.

(36)

9.

\SECTION

Elevation

APPENDIX B
The foregoing sketch

is the plan and elevation of a moulding


Determine the method of working the two

on the rake.

end pieces to intersect with


for mitreing
10.

it,

and of obtaining the angles


(38)

it.

What do you

understand by strengthening beams

and girders by means of

flitching

and trussing

Give

sketches to illustrate.
11.

and

Show by

which are adapted for the different

state

12.

(32)

sketch the different methods of scarfing,

Describe the following: Back

flap,

strains.

(30)

rule joint,

and

give illustrations of their use.


13.

Make

flat roof,

(30)

drawing of a small skylight, to be fixed

and give

details to

room, 20

ft.

show how the weather

out.
14.

is

in a

kept
(32)

by 15

ft.,

has a bay window, fireplace,

Describe the method of fixing the

and two doorways.

grounds to receive the skirtings, architraves,

etc.

(34)

HONOURS GRADE.
N.B, Candidates for

Honours Grade must have previously


a specimen of their practical work.
Candidates are expected to answer not less than five questions, hut
they may answer more.

forwarded

1.

A centre is

having 25

the

to the Institute

ft.

required for an elliptical arch of stonework,

span and 10

ft.

to the foot, such centering,

rise.

Draw,

to a scale of \ in.

and mark thereon scantlings of

the timber.
2.

Describe and show in detail the

(34)

mode

of taking out

the front wall of a ground storey to insert a shop front,

with needful shoring.

(38)

Give the best methods of seasoning timber, and the


relative time required for the following
Yellow deal.
3.

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

312

mahogany for
meant by second seasoning, and how

pitch pine, oak, black walnut, wainscot, and

What

joinery.

would you
process
4.

is

treat high class joinery in going through the

(32)

niche

is

in shape a quarter of a sphere,

and

it is

to

be boarded so that the joints of the boards are horizontal

when

the boards are bent round.

method
5.

Show

the geometrical

of setting out the boards.

Draw

(36)

half the horizontal section through an internal

doorway, the wall being 18


architraves, frame,

jamb

lining,

in.

Show

thick.

and door 2^

grounds,

in. thick,

with

moulding on the solid and raised panels scale, 2 in. to


1 foot.
Write a brief description of making, fixing, and
;

hanging such
6.

fittings in high-class

window has

6-ft.

opening.

work.

(38)

It is to

be

fitted

with

boxing shutters. The soffit is framed.


Write a brief description of the method of fixing the

splayed folding

various parts.
7.

Make

(32)

sketches of mouldings sufficiently clear to

trate the character of the following: Greek,

illus-

Eoman, Norman

and Decorated periods. Give sections of mouldings commonly used in various forms of joinery.
(40)
8. Show how you would set out a rod for a window-frame
fitted with a pair of French casements.
(30)

INDEX.
A

Beaded

joints, 61.

Abel's process of preservation, 218.

Beads, various forms

Abutments,

Beams, transverse strength

152.

Alder, characteristics

Bearing

of, 228.

Angle between roof planes,

136,

of, 197.

of, 261.

piles, 181-183.

Beech, characteristics

of, 228.

Bending moment diagram, 252.

137, 168, 169.

Angles, to bisect,

10, 11.

Annulets, 196.

Bethell's process of preservation,


218.

Application of face-mould, 289.

Bevel-cut method, 289.

Architraves, 111, 112.

Bevelled shoulder joint, 59.

Area

of

window

space, 130.

Ash, characteristics

of,

226.

Astragal, 197.

Bevels for hand-railing, 286.


Bevels for purlins, 171.
Birch, characteristics

Birdsmouth

B
Back

linings, 119.

of, 229.

joint, 53.

Board, 39.

Borrowed

lights, 130.

Backing of the hip, 167-169.


Balk of timber, 38.
Balsam fir, characteristics of, 229.

Bottle-nose steps, 267, 269.

Balusters, definition of, 268.

Bow's notation, 259.

Band moulding.

Boxed shutters, 122.


Box gutters, 150.

111, 112.

Bareface tenons, 61.

Basement

floors, 87.

Boucherie's process of preservation,


219.

Brackets to sashes, 119.

Battened doors, 97-99.

Bracketted string, 270.


Brandering, 94.

Battened panels, 109.


Bead butt panels, 108.

Breaking weights, to find the, 262.


Bricknogged partitions, 90.

Bead

Bridle joint, 52.

Batten, 39.

flush panels, 108.

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

314

Bull-nose steps, 267, 278.

Curtail step, definition

Burnett's process of preservation,

Curbs to lantern light, 134-136.


Cut string, definition of, 268.

219.

of,

Cypress, characteristics

of,

268.

229.

C
Canary wood, characteristics

of,

Datum

231.

Camber,

Dead

144.

lines, 7.

shore, 188, 189.

Capillary attraction, 129.

Deal, dimensions

Carpenter's boast, 53.

Deal, red, 226.

of, 39.

Cased sash and frame, 115, 117.

Deal, white, 226.

Cedar, characteristics

Deal, yellow, 226.

of, 229.

Development

Centering, 190-193.

Centre line of

rail,

of cone, 29.

Dicotyledons, 225.

283, 284.

Charring the ends of posts, 218.

Dimensions to working drawings, 7.

Chase mortise,

Doatiness, 222.

60, 80.

Chestnut, characteristics

of,

229.

Circle on circle, 207-210.


Circle,

through three points,

wood,

stairs, 277-280.

Doors, double-margined, 104.


12.

characteristics

Doors, framed and battened, 98.

Doors, gunstock, 106, 107.

Circular louvre frame, 203, 204.

Citron

Dog-legged

Doors, battened, 97-100.

Circle, area of, 18.

of,

Doors,

jib, 109.

Doors, ledged, 98.

229.

Clamped

Doors, standard size

joint, 62, 63.

of, 102.

Classification of timber, 225.

Dormer

Close string, definition

of, 268.

Double-faced architraves, 111, 112.

Coke-breeze fixing blocks, 113.

Double floors, 78, 80.


Double-framed floors, 81, 82.
Douglas fir, characteristics of, 229.

Cogged

joint, 46.

Collar-beam truss, 160.


Colonel

Emy

Colouring,

Common

truss, 155, 157.

common,

68.

Dovetail, key, 63.

Dovetail, lap, 70.

5.

Components

Dovetail,

Dovetail, halved joint, 44, 45.

8, 9.

dovetail, 68.

Compasses,

lights, 133.

of a force, 239.

Dovetail, mortise and tenon, 60.

Conifers, 225.

Dovetail, notch, 44.

Conversion of timber, 223, 224.


Co-ordinate planes, 26.

Dovetail, secret, 70.

Corbels, brick, 86.

Dowel joint, 52.


Dragon tie, 165, 166.
Draped panels, 109.
Drawbore pinning, 66,

Counterlathing, 94.

Cups and screws,

Cup

shakes, 221.

118.

Dovetail, tongue and groove, 47.

INDEX

315

Drawing boards, 2.
Drawing pens, 6.

Foxtail wedging, 64.

Drips, 162, 163.

French casements, 125-128.

Druxiness, 222.

Frieze

Druxy

Funicular polygon, 245.

Framed and braced

knots, 222.

doors, 98, 99.

rail, 103.

E
Easing '^centres," 193.

Gantries, 193, 194.

Easing the

Gardner's process of preservation,

rail,

294.

Eaves gutter, 150, 151.


Ebony, characteristics of, 229.
Ellipse, problems relating to, 18-25.
Elm, characteristics of, 230.
Endogenous trees, 225.
Enlargement of mouldings, 198,

221.

Geometric mean,

15, 16.

Going, definition

of,

266, 267.

Gothic roofs, 155, 159, 160.


Graphic methods of representing
quantity, 237.

Greenheart, characteristics

199.

Equilibrant, 239.

Examination papers (1897), 301.


Examination papers (1898), 308.
Exogenous trees, 225.

of, 230.

Ground floor, 64.


Grounds framed and splayed,
Growth of timber, 211.
Gun-stock joint, 55, 58.
Gutter behind blocking course,

113.

149.

F
Facing-up material,

40.

Fielded panels, 107, 109.

Hair dividers, 6.
Half timbers, 38.

Fillet, 195.

Hand-rail, height

Fished

Hand-railing, 279, 294.

Facemould, to find the, 288, 293.

joints, 172, 173.

of, 268.

Fixing blocks, 113.

Hand-railing, classification

Flier, definition of, 267, 278.

Hammer-beam

Flight, definition

of,

Haunched

Flitch, definition

of, 39.

267.

of,

282.

truss, 158.

tenon, 56-58.

Head-room, 280.

Flitch girders, 82, 265.

Heart-shakes, 221.

Flitch plates, 83-85.

Height

Flooring joints, 70.

Hickory, characteristics

Flying shores, 187, 188.

Hips, to find the length

Folding wedges, 104, 105.

Hollow or cavetto, 196-198.

of lock rail, 102.


of, 230.

of,

167-169.

Force, particulars required, 237.

Holly, characteristics

Forces in roof couples, 243.

Hornbeam, characteristics of, 230.


Housed joint, 50.
Hyperbola, to draw the, 22-24,

Forked heading
Foxiness, 222,

joints, 54.

of,

230.

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

3i6

Line of loads, 245.

Inking in drawings,
Inner casings, 118.

Log

8.

of timber, 38.

Louvre frames, 203, 204.

Intersection of mouldings, 200-203.

Interties, 90.

Isometric projection, 31, 32.

Isometric projection of mouldings,


33.

Mahogany, characteristics
Mansard roofs, 152-154.

232.

Margary's process of preservation,

Isometric projection, pure, 35.


Isometric scale, 32, 36.

220.

Masons' mitre,

Matched
J

Jack

of,

Maximum

bending moment, 253.


Mezzanine floors, 74.
Mitre dovetail, 70.

rafters, 151, 170, 171.

Jamb

62.

joint, 54.

linings, 110, 111.

Jarrah, characteristics

231.

of,

Jib crane, forces set up

in, 242.

Mitre, plain, 42.

Jib doors, 109.

Mitred and halved joint, 41.


Mitred string, definition of, 270.

Joggle joint, 51.

Modes

Joints, various, 73.

Moment

of fracture, 236.
of a force, 250, 251.

Monocotyledons, 225.

Mortise and tenon, 55-57.

Kauri, characteristics

231.

of,

King-post, nature of stress


Kite, definition

of,

Knee, definition

267.

of,

Knots, definition

in, 143.

197.

270.

221.

of,

Kyan's process of preservation, 220.

Laggings, 190.

Landings, 272, 278.

Lantern lights, 134,


Lap or halved joint,

40, 41.

231.

of,

vitae,

Needle

leaf trees, 225.

of, 267.

Notched joint, 43.


Notch -board, definition

of, 270.

of, 94.

Ledged and braced doors,


Ledged doors, 97.

Lignum

floor timbers, 76.

Nosing, definition

136.

Larch, characteristics

Lettering drawings,

Naked

Newel, definition of, 268.


Nogging pieces, 90, 96.
Normal to an ellipse, 21.

Laths, various sizes

Mouldings, raking, 199, 200.


Mouldings, various forms of, 195-

7.

characteristics of,

Oak, characteristics of, 232, 233.


Oblique mortise and tenon, 59
Oblique nailing, 46.

Octagonal

231.

Lime, characteristics

98, 99.

of,

231.

roof, 161.

Off'sets, brick, 85.

INDEX
Open mortise and tenon, 41, 42.
Oregon pine, characteristics of, 229.
Orthographic projection,
Outer casings, 118.

26.

317

Q
Quadrilateral figures, 17.

Quality marks, 227.

Quartered partitions, 91.


Quartering, 39.

Ovolo, 195.

Queen-post, details

of, 146.

Queen-post, truss, 140, 144, 145.

Painting timber, 217.

wood, 113.

Pallets,

Raised or fielded panels, 107, 109.

Panelled doors, 100, 101.

Raking

Panelled jamb linings, 111, 112.

Ramp,

Panels, 108, 109.

Reactions, 247-249.

Parabola, to construct the, 21-23.

Red

Parallel forces, 244.

Resultants of a force, 239.

Parallel rules,

Riders, 185, 186.

4.

shores, 183.
definition of, 270.

deal, characteristics of, 234.

Parallelogram of forces, 238.

Rind

Parapet gutters, 148.

Rise of step, 267.

Parting beads, 118.

Riser, definition of, 267.

Parting laths, 118.

Roof, collar, 139, 140.

galls, 222.

Partitions, various forms of, 89.

Roof, couple, 139, 140.

Pencil drawings,

Roof, couple close, 139, 140.

8.

Pendentives, 205, 206.

Roof, king-post, 140, 141.

Philibert-de-Lorme truss, 152, 156.

Roof, lean-to, 138, 140.

Pine, yellow, 233.

Roof, pitches, 138.

Pinning, 65.

Roof, princess-post, 140.

Pinus rigida, 226.

Roof, queen-poiat, 140.

Pinus sylvestris, 226.

Roofing irregular plans, 165.

Pitch pine, 234.

Rosewood, characteristics

Pivoted sashes, 131, 132.

Rough
Rough

Plain jamb linings, 112.

brackets, 271, 272.


carriages, 270, 271.

Planing, 40.

Plank,

39.

Plans of

stairs,

various forms, 278.

Plugs, 113.

Pockets in walls, 86, 87.


Points of contrary flexure, 258.

Safe wedging, 65.

Sanding timber, 217.


Sapwood, 2 J 3, 221.
Sash doors, 106, 107.

Polar diagrams, 246.

Scale rule,

Poling boards, 179, 180.

Scantling, 39.

Polygon

of forces, 240, 241.

Polygons, to construct,

13, 14.

4.

Scarfing timbers, 172-175.

Scribed joints, 48, 49.

of, 234.

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY

3i8

Scroll, to describe the, 291.

Striking centres, 193.

Secret nailing, 66.

Strings, 268, 269.

Secret screwing, 67.

Studded

Sectioning,

Studs, 89.

6.

partitions, 90.

Sections of panelled doors, 101.

Stufi", 39.

Sections of pyramid, 30.

Stump mortise and tenon, 61.


Swan-neck, 270, 280.
Sycamore, characteristics of, 235.
Syllabus of City and Guilds of

Set squares,

5.

Shearing stress diagrams, 252-258.


Sheeting, 181.

London

Shooting, 40.

Institute, 295.

Shoring, 183-189.
Shutters, vertical sliding, 122-124.

Side gutters, 162-164.


Sills, 82,

Silver

fir,

92-94, 114.
characteristics, 229.

Table or rule joint,


Tangents to circles,

50.
15.

Single flooring, 76.

Tangents to

Skylights, 133-135.

Tarring timber, 217.


Teak, characteristics

Smoking timber,

216.

Tee-squares,

Solid frames, 110, 111.

Sound pugging,

Theory

79.

of

235.

of,

3.

beams, 251.

Throating, 130.

Spar, 39.

Splayed heading joint,


Splayed shutters, 121.
Spring bows,

ellipses, 21.

68.

6.

Springtree, 270.

Spruce fir, characteristics of, 234.


Square boxed shutters, 122, 123.
Stair planning, 272.
Staircase, definition of, 266.
Stairs, definition of, 266.
Stairs, various

forms

of, 278.

Tie-beam,

nature

of

Torus, 195.

Transome

light, 127.

Tread, definition

Star-shakes, 212, 221.

Tread, proportion

Steaming timber, 216.

Tredgold's notch, 44.

of,

266.

of, 273.

Tredgold's tusk tenon, 47.

Stiles,

diminished, 106.

Stiles,

gun-stock, 106.

Treenails, 66.

Stiles,

mitred, 106.

Triangle of forces, 239.

Storey rod, 277.

Strengthening timbers, 175.


Stresses in king-post truss, 260.

in,

Timber defects, 221-223.


Timber growth, 211-213.
Timber preservation, 217-221.
Timber seasoning, 214-216.
Timbering excavations, 179-181.
Tongue and groove joint, 46.

Standards, timber, 226, 227.

Stop bead, 118.

stress

143.

Trussed partitions, 91-94.


Trussed timbers, 176-178.
Turret roofs, 158.
Twisted fibre, 222.

INDEX
U

319

Wall-strings, 268.

Walnut, characteristics

Upsets, 222.

Waney

V
Veneering around

of, 235.

timber, 223.

Well-string, 268.
scroll, 277.

Ventilating courses, 87, 88.


Ventilation of roof timbers, 150152.

Window backs, 120.


Window boards, 119.
Window elbows, 120.
Wood bricks, 113.
Wood joints, 113.
Wreathed-strings, 270.

Wainscot, 223.

Waling pieces, 179.


Wall plates, 85.
Wall pockets, 86, 87.
Wall posts, 89.

GLASGOW

Y
Yellow deal, characteristics of, 233.
Yellow pine, characteristics of, 233.

Yew,

characteristics of, 235.

PRINTED AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS BY ROBERT MACLEHOSE AND

CO.

A CATALOGUE OF BOOKS
AND ANNOUNCEMENTS OF
METHUEN AND COMPANY
PUBLISHERS LONDON
:

ESSEX STREET

36

W.C.

CONTENTS

....
......
......II

FORTHCOMING BOOKS,
POETRY,

BELLES LETTRES, ANTHOLOGIES, ETC.,

ILLUSRTATED BOOKS,
HISTORY,

BIOGRAPHY,

TRAVEL, ADVENTURE AND TOPOGRAPHY,

NAVAL AND MILITARY,


GENERAL LITERATURE,

THEOLOGY,
FICTION,

.14
.

15

17

18

.......21
......
....

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY,


PHILOSOPHY,

10

20
20

24

BOOKS FOR BOYS AND GIRLS,

THE PEACOCK LIBRARY,

34

UNIVERSITY EXTENSION SERIES,


SOCIAL QUESTIONS OF TO-DAY

CLASSICAL TRANSLATIONS

EDUCATIONAL BOOKS,

34

35

....

SEPTEMBER

1898

36
37
37

September

1898.

Messrs. Methuen's
ANNOUNCEMENTS
Travel and Adventure
NORTHWARD: OVER THE GREAT ICE.
With over 800

Peary.
Vohwies,

00 pp.

1 1

Illustrations,

De7ny

%vo,

2>'^s,

By

R.

Maps and Diagrams.

E.

Two

net.

In this important work Lieutenant Peary tells the story of his travels and adventures in the Arctic regions. His extraordinary sledge journey and his experiences
among the Eskimos are fully described, and this book is a complete record of his
Arctic work, for which the Royal Geographical Society has this year awarded
him their Gold Medal.
The fact that Lieutenant Peary is about to start on a determined effort to reach the
North Pole lends a special interest to this book.

THROUGH

ASIA. By Sven Hedin. With 250 Illustrations


by the Author and from Photographs, and 10 Maps. Two volumes,
Royal Svo. 36^. nel.

In this book Dr. Sven Hedin, the distinguished Swedish explorer, describes his
four years' experiences and his extraordinary adventures in Central Asia. Dr,
Hedin is an accomplished artist, and his drawings are full of vigour and interest.
In adventurous interest and substantial results in various departments of knowledge, Dr. Hedin's journey will bear comparison with the travels of the great
explorers of the past, from Marco Polo downwards.
The Gold Medals of the Royal Geographical Society and of the Russian Geographical
Society have been conferred upon him for this journey.

THE HIGHEST ANDES.

By E. A. FitzGerald. With
40 Illustrations, 10 of which are Photogravures, and a Large Map.
Royal %vo, 30 j. 7iet.
Also, a Small Edition on Handmade Paper, limited to 50 Copies,

The Illustrations have been


narrative of the highest climb yet accomplished.
reproduced with the greatest care, and the book, in addition to its adventurous
interest, contains appendices of great scientific value.

CHITRAL The
:

son, K. C.S.I.

Story of a Minor Siege.

With Numerous

By Sir

Illustrations

G. S.

and a Map.

RobertDemy %vo,

2\s, net.

George Robertson, who was at the time British Agent at Gilgit, has written
the story of Chitral from the point of view of one actually besieged in the fort.
is of considerable length, and has an Introductory part explaining
the series of events which culminated in the famous siege also an account of
Ross's disaster in the Koragh defile, the heroic defence of Reshun, and Kelly's
great march. It has numerous illustrations plans, pictures and portraits and a
map, and will give a connected narrative of the stirring episodes on the Chitral

Sir

The book

frontier in 1895.

Announcements

Messrs. Methuen's

TWENTY YEARS
Be AM AN.

Deviy

IN
Svo.

THE NEAR

EAST.

By

Hulme

A.

los, 6c/,

A personal narrative of

experiences in Syria, Egypt, Turkey and the Balkan States,


including adventures in the Lebanon, during the bombardment of Alexandra, the
first Egyptian Campaign, the Donogla Expedition, the Cretan Insurrection, etc.
The book also contains several chapters on Turkey, its people and its Sultan.

Theology
DOCTRINE AND DEVELOPMENT. By
DALL, M. A., Fellow and Tutor of

Hastings Rash-

New College, Oxford. Crown

Zvo,

This volume consists of twenty sermons, preached chiefly before the University of
Oxford. They are an attempt to translate into the language of modern thought
some of the leading ideas of Christian theology and ethics.

CLOVELLY SERMONS. By William


Rector of Clovelly.
3i-.

Harrison, M.A.,

With a Preface by Lucas Malet.

Crown

late
Svo.

6^.

volume of Sermons by a son-in-law of Charles Kingsley.

APOSTOLIC CHRISTIANITY As

Illustrated by the Epistles


of S. Paul to the Corinthians.
By H. H. Henson, M.A., Fellow
of All Souls', Oxford.
Crown Svo, 6s,
:

1banM)00ft6 of ZbcolOQ^.
General Editor, A. Robertson, D.D., Principal of King's College,

London.

THE XXXIX. ARTICLES OF THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND. Edited with an Introduction by E. C. S. Gibson, D.D.,
Vicar of Leeds, late Principal of Wells Theological College. Revised
and Cheaper Edition in One Volume, Demy Svo. I2s. 6d.

AN INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORY OF THE


CREEDS.
Lichfield.

By A.

Demy

E.

Svo.

Burn, Examining Chaplain

Zhc Cburcbman'6
Edited by

to the

Bishop of

los, 6d,

J.

3Librar^

H. BURN, B.D.

books by competent scholars on Church History,


and Doctrine, for the use of clerical and lay readers.

series of

tions,

Institu-

THE KINGDOM OF HEAVEN HERE AND HEREAFTER.


Crown

Svo,

By Canon Winterbotham,
^s. 6d,

M.A.,

B.Sc,

LL.B.

Messrs. Methuen's

Announcements

itor& Commentatfc0*

Walter Lock,

General Editor,

Dean

D.D.,

Warden

of Keble College,

Ireland's Professor of Exegesis in the

University of Oxford.
Messrs. Methuen propose to issue a series of Commentaries upon such
Books of the Bible as still seem to need further explanation.

The object of each Commentary is primarily exegetical, to interpret


the author's meaning to the present generation.
The editors will not
deal, except very subordinately, with questions of textual criticism or
philology ; but taking the English text in the Revised Version as their
basis, they will try to combine a hearty acceptance of critical principles
It is hoped that in this way the series
with loyalty to the Catholic Faith.
may be of use both to theological students and to the clergy, and also to
the growing number of educated laymen and laywomen who wish to read
the Bible intelligently and reverently,

THE BOOK OF
by E. C.

S.

JOB. Edited, with Introduction and Notes,


Gibson, D.D., Vicar of Leeds. De7ny Svo. 6s,
^Tbe Xibrarg of Devotion.
Pott Svo,

2s.

leather 2s, 6d. net,

NEW

VOLUMES.

THE IMITATION OF CHRIST. A

Revised Translation with


an Introduction, by C. Bigg, D.D., late Student of Christ Church.
Dr. Bigg has made a practically new translation of this book, which the reader
will have,

almost for the

time, exactly in the shape in which

first

it

left

the

hands of the author.

A BOOK OF DEVOTIONS. By

J. W. Stanbridge, M.A.,
Rector of Bainton, Canon of York, and sometime Fellow of St.
PoU Svo,
John's College, Oxford.
This book contains devotions, Eucharistic, daily and occasional, for the use of members of the English Church, sufficiently diversified for those who possess other

works of the kind. It is intended to be a companion in private and public worship,


and is in harmony with the thoughts of the best Devotional writers.

History
THE LIFE OF ADMIRAL
Admiral P. H. Colomb.

SIR

With a

A.

Portrait.

COOPER KEY.
Demy

Svo,

By

i6s.

This life of a great sailor throws a considerable light on the evolution of the
during the last fifty years.

Navy

THE DECLINE AND FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE.


By Edward Gibbon.
Maps by

Appendices, and
College, Dublin.
each.

Crown

Svo.

A New
J.

B.

Edition,

In Seven Vohimes,
6s. each.

edited

with

Bury, LL.D., Fellow

Vol,

VI,

Demy

Notes,
of Trinity

Svo, gilt top,

Sj".

dd,

Announcements

Messrs. Methuen's

A HISTORY OF EGYPT, from the


THE Present Day.

Edited by

Earliest Times to
W. M. Flinders Petrie, D.C.L.,

LL.D., Professor of Egyptology at University College.


Crown 8vo, 6s, each.
In Six Volumes
Vol. IV. ROMAN EGYPT. J. G. Milne.
Irated,

V.

Vol.

Fully Illus-

THE EGYPT OF THE PTOLEMIES. J. P. Mahaffy.


IN ENGLAND. By F. W. Maitland,

THE CANON LAW

LL.D., Downing Professor of the Laws of England in the University


of Cambridge.
Royal %vo. *]s, 6d,
A volume of Essays on the History of the Canon Law in England. These Essays
deal chiefly with the measure of authority attributed in medieval England to the
papal law-books, and one entitled (i) William Lyndwood, (2) Church, State and
Decretals, (3) William of Drogheda and the Universal Ordinary, (4) Henry II.
and the Criminous Clerks^ (5) Execrabilis in the Common Pleas^ and (6) The
Deacon and the Jewess.

A HISTORY OF SHREWSBURY SCHOOL.

By

With Numerous

Fisher, M.A., Assistant Master.


Dejny Svo. ys. 6d,

A HISTORY OF WESTMINSTER SCHOOL.


geant, M.A., Assistant Master.

Demy

G.

By

With Numerous

W.

Illustrations.

J.

Ser-

Illustrations.

ys. 6d.

Svo,

A HISTORY OF ETON COLLEGE. By W.


With Numerous

Illustrations.

Demy

Svo,

"js.

Sterry, B.A.

6d,

General Literature
THE

PILGRIM^S PROGRESS.

By John Bunyan.

Edited,

with an Introduction, by C. H. Firth, M.A. With 39 Illustrations


by R. Anning Bell. Crown Svo. 6s,
This book contains a long Introduction by Mr. Firth, whose knowledge of the period
and it is lavishly illustrated.
is unrivalled
;

AN OLD ENGLISH HOME. By


Numerous Plans and
This book describes the

life

CAMBRIDGE AND
Thompson.
Leather,
This book

is

With

S.

Baring Gould.

ITS COLLEGES.
Illustrations

by E. H.

By A. Hamilton
New, Pott Svo, 35.

3^. 6d, net.


uniform with Mr. Wells's very successful book, 'Oxford and

its

UNIVERSITY AND SOCIAL SETTLEMENTS.


Reason, M.A,

Crown

DANTE'S GARDEN.
piece

An

Fcap, Svo.

With

Crown

Svo.
6s,
and environment of an old English family.
Illustrations.

3^".

Svo,

2s, 6d,

Colleges.'

By W.

[Social Qtiestion Series,

By Rosamond Cotes.

With a

frontis-

6d.

account of the flowers mentioned by Dante, with their legends.

READING AND READERS.


Fcap, Svo,

By Clifford Harrison.

2s. 6d,

A little book of principles and hints by the most distinguished of living reciters.

Messrs. Methuen's

Announcements

Educational
VOLUMETRIC ANALYSIS.

By

Master at Burnley Grammar SchooL

Russell, Science

B.

J.

Crown

2>vo,

is.

6d,

small Manual, containing all the necessary rules, etc., on a subject which has
hitherto only been treated in expensive volumes.

A KEY TO STEDMAN'S EASY FRENCH EXERCISES.


By G. A. ScHRUMPF.

Crown

Svo,

3^. net,

A SHORTER GREEK PRIMER,


M.A.

Crow7i %vo,

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY.


many

By

A. M. M.

Stedman,

6d,
book which contains the elements of Accidence and Syntax.
ls>

Crown

Illustrations.

By

F. C.

Webber.

With

3^. 6d.

Svo,

\Handbooks of Technology,
Manual

for technical classes

and

self-instruction.

PRACTICAL MECHANICS.
Crown

trated.

By Sidney H. Wells.

Illus-

\_Handbooks of Technology,

^s. 6d,

Svo,

A CLASS-BOOK OF DICTATION PASSAGES. By W.


Williamson, M.A.

Crown

^vo,

is.6d.

The

passages are culled from recognised authors, and a few newspaper passages are
The lists of appended words are drawn up mainly on the principle of
comparison and contrast, and will form a repertoire of over 2000 words, embracing
practically all the difficulties felt by the pupil.
included.

Byzantine Texts
Edited by

J. B.

EVAGRIUS.

Bury, LL.D.,

Professor of
Trinity College, Dublin.

Edited by PROFESSOR

Liege and M, Bidez of Gand.

Modern History

at

Leon Parmentier

of

Tfewy Svo,

Cheaper Editions
BRITISH CENTRAL AFRICA.

By

With nearly Two Hundred


Crowjt
Revised and Cheaper Edition,

K.C.B.
'

Sir

H. H. Johnston,

Illustrations,

and Six Maps.

^to,
21s.net,
The book is crowded with important information, and written in a most attractive
established
reputation.' Standard.
author's
of
the
style ; it is worthy, in short,

VAILIMA LETTERS. By Robert

Louis Stevenson.

an Etched Portrait by William Strang, and other


Crown Svo. Bnckra77i, 6s,
Cheaper Edition,

A BOOK OF CHRISTMAS VERSE.


Illustrated by Walter
Svoj gilt top,
3^. dd,

M.A., and

Crown

A collection

of the best verse inspired


to the present day.

by the

With

Illustrations.

Edited by H.C. Beeching,


Cheaper Edition,
Crane.

birth of Christ from the

Middle Ages

Messrs. Methuen's

LYRA SACRA An

Anthology of Sacred Verse.

'

Announcements

Edited by H.

C. Beeciiing, M. A. Cheaper Edition, Crozu7i^vo. Buckraf/i. ^s.Od,


A charming selection, which maintains a lofty standard of excellence.' Times.

Fiction
THE BATTLE OF THE STRONG.
Author of The Seats of the Mighty.'

By Gilbert Parker,
Crown

Svo,

6s,

A romance of 1798.

THE TOWN TRAVELLER. By George Gissing, Author


Crozvn 8vo, 6s.
of Demos,' In the Year of Jubilee,' etc.
THE COUNTESS TEKLA. By Robert Barr, Author of
*

Crown

'The Mutable Many.'

Zvo,

6s,

romance.

x\ historical

THINGS THAT HAVE HAPPENED.


Gerard, Author

DOMITIA.

By

of imperial

Lady Baby,'

Orthodox,'

By

Svo,

Dorothea

Crown

etc.

Baring Gould, Author

S.

Crown

Squire,' etc.

A romance

of

of

Svo.

6s.

'The Broom

6s,

Rome.

FROM THE EAST UNTO THE WEST. By Jane Barlow,


Author of Irish Idylls,' A Creel of Irish Stories,' etc. Crown Svo.
TO ARMS By Andrew Balfour, Author of 'By Stroke of
'

'

6s.

Sword.'

Illustrated.

romance of

1715.

Crown

Svo,

6s.

THE JOURNALIST. By C. F. Keary. Crown Zvo. 6s.


A story of modern
PEGGY OF THE BARTONS. By B. M. Croker, Author of
Proper Pride.' Crown Svo. 6s.
A VENDETTA OF THE DESERT. By W. C. SCULLY.
literary

life.

35*. 6d.
Crotvn Svo,
South African romance.

CORRAGEEN IN '98. By Mrs.


A romance of the Irish Rebellion.
AN ENEMY TO THE KING.
Svo.

Orpen.

By

Crown

Svo.

R. N. Stephens.

6s,

Crown

6s.

PLUNDERPIT. By J. Keighley Snowden. Crown Svo. 6s.


A romance of adventure.
DEADMAN'S. By Mary Gaunt, Author of Kirkham's Find.'
'

Crown
An

Svo.

6s.

Australian story.

WILLOWBRAKE. By R. Murray Gilchrist.


THE ANGEL OF THE COVENANT. By
Crown Svo. 6s.
romance, of which Montrose

CrownSvo.
J.

6s.

Maclaren

Cobban.

historical

OWD

BOB,

Ollivant.

A story

Crow7i Svo.
of the Cumberland dales.

ANANIAS. By the

ADVENTURES
With

is

the hero.

THE GREY DOG OF KENMUIR.

Hon. Mrs. Alan Brodrick. CrownSvo.

IN

Illustrations

By Alfred

6s.

WALLYPUG LAND.

by

Alan Wright.

Crown

By
Svo,

G. E.

6s,

Farrow.

Gilt top.

^s.

A LIST OF

Methuen's

Messrs.

PUBLICATIONS
Poetry
BARRACK-ROOM

Eudyard Kipling.
RuDYARD Kipling.
'

BALLADS.

By

Crown

Thirteenth Edition,

Svo.
6s,
Unmistakable genius

Mr. Kipling's verse

is strong, vivid, full of character. . . .


rings in every line.'
Times.
The ballads teem with imagination, they palpitate with emotion.
read them
with laughter and^ tears ; the metres throb in our pulses, the cunningly ordered
words tingle with life ; and if this be not poetry, what is?' Patl Mall Gazette.

We

'

THE SEVEN

Eudyard Kipling.
'

decessors.
Patriotism is the solid concrete foundation on which Mr. Kipling has
built the whole of his work.'
Tz'mes.
singer ; it is no depreciation of the songs to say that statesmen may have, one way or other, to take account of them.' Manchester

The Empire has found a

Guardian.
Animated through and through with indubitable genius.

"Q."
'

POEMS AND BALLADS.

This work has just the

" Q."

faint, ineffable

GREEN BAYS

touch and glow that

Second Edition,

A SONG OF THE

Mackay.

E.

Second Edition. Fcap. Svo, ^s.


Everywhere Mr. Mackay displays himself
characteristics of the best rhetoric'

by William Wilson.

make

SEA.

poetry.'

By
Crown

" Q.,

2>s,

6d.

Speaker,

Author
3^. 6d,

Svo,

By Eric Mackay.

the master of a style marked by

all

the

Globe.

BRAND. A Drama

H. Ibsen.

Daily Telegraph.

'

By "Q." CrownZvo.

Verses and Parodies.

of *Dead Man's Rock,' etc.

Rudyard

By

SEAS.

Kipling. Fourth Edition. Crown Svo, Buckram^ gilt top, 6s,


The new poems of Mr. Rudyard Kipling have all the spirit and sv/ing of their pre-

by Henrik Ibsen.
Crown Svo.

Second Edition,

Translated
2s. 6d,

'The

greatest world-poem of the nineteenth century next to "Faust." It is in


the same set with "Agamemnon," with "Lear," with the literature that we now
instinctively regard as high and holy.'
Daily Chronicle.

"A.G."
'

VERSES TO ORDER. By "AG."

net.
capital specimen of light academic poetry.

J. G. Cordery.
tion

by

J.

St.

Cr.Svo,

James's Gazette,

THE ODYSSEY OF HOMER. A

G. Cordery.

Crown

Svo,

*]s,

2s,6d.

6d,

Transla-

Messrs. Methuen's List

Belles Lettres, Anthologies^ etc.


By Robert Louis
L. Stevenson. VAILIMA LETTERS.

R.

Stevenson.

With an Etched

Portrait

Second Edition,

other Illustrations.

by William Strang, and


Buckram, 6j.
%vo.

Crown

fascinating book. 'Stattdard.


Full of charm and brightness.' Spectator,

*
*

Unique

gift

Speaker.
priceless.'
Daily Chronicle.
in literature.'

almost

THE POEMS OF WILLIAM SHAKE-

George Wyndham.

SPEARE. Edited with an Introduction


Wyndham, M. P. Demy^vo, Buckram^

and Notes by George


gilt top.

los. 6d.

Venus,' Lucrece,' and Sonnets, and is prefaced with an


elaborate introduction of over 140 pp.
One of the most serious contributions to Shakespearian criticism that has been pubTimes.
lished for some time.'
'One of the best pieces of editing in the language.' Outlook.
This is a scholarly and interesting contribution to Shakespearian literature.'
Literature.
We have no hesitation in describing Mr. George Wyndham's introduction as a
masterly piece of criticism, and all who love our Elizabethan literature will find a
very garden of delight in it. 'Spectator,
Mr. Wyndham's notes are admirable, even indispensable.' Westminster Gazette.
*The standard edition of Shakespeare's poems.' World.
The book is written with critical insight and literary felicity.' Standard.

This edition contains the

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

R Henley. ENGLISH

W.

LYRICS.

Selected and Edited by

W.
It is

'

Crown Svo. Buckram^ gilt top. ()s.


E. Henley.
a body of choice and lovely poetry.' Birmingham Gazette.

A BOOK OF ENGLISH PROSE.


Henley and Whibley.
Collected by W. E. Henley and Charles Whibley.
Crown Svo.
Buckram^ gilt top. 6s,
Quite delightful. A greater treat for those not well acquainted with pre-Restoration
prose could not be imagined.
A thencBum.

'

'

Beeching. LYRA SACRA An Anthology of Sacred Verse.


Edited by H. C. Beeching, M.A.
Croivn Svo.
Buckram, ds,

H.

C.

A charming selection,

'

"Q."

lofty standard of excellence.'

Arranged by A. T. Quiller Couch. Crown Svo.


A delightful volume a really golden "Pomp." Spectator.

'

W,
*

Lyrics.

Buckram,

ds,

AN ANTHOLOGY OF IRISH VERSE.

B. Yeats.
Crown Svo,
Edited by W. B. Yeats.
An attractive and catholic selection.' Times,

G.

Times.

'

W.
*

which maintains a

THE GOLDEN POMP: A Procession of English

G.
The

Steevens.

W. Steevens.
effect is

3J-.

dd.

MONOLOGUES OF THE DEAD.

By

Foolscap Svo.

3^. 6d.
sometimes splendid, sometimes bizarre, but

always amazingly

clever.'

Pall Mall Gazette.

A PRIMER OF TENNYSON. By
Dixon.
Dixon, M.A., Professor of English Literature at Mason
Crown Svo, 2s. 6d.

W. M.
*

Much sound and well-expressed

criticism.

The bibliography

is

a boon.*

W. M.
College.
Speaker.

A PRIMER OF BURNS. By W.

A. Craigie.
Crown %vo.

2s, 6d.
valuable addition to the literature of the poet.'

A
Magnus.
Magnus.

L.

'A

A. Craigie.

Times.

A PRIMER OF WORDSWORTH. By
Crown

Svo.

Laurie

2s. 6d.

valuable contribution to Wordsworthian literature.'

Sterne.

Literature.

THE LIFE AND OPINIONS OF TRISTRAM

SHANDY. By Lawrence Sterne.


Charles Whibley, and a Portrait. 2
Very dainty volumes are these

'

Messrs. Methuen's List

10

W.

very agreeable to the eye.

With an Introduction by
vols,

the paper, type,


;
Globe,

'

"js.

and light-green binding are

all

Congreve. THE COMEDIES OF WILLIAM CONGREVE.


With an Introduction by G. S. Street, and a Portrait. 2 vols* 'js.
Moricr.

THE ADVENTURES OF

BABA OF

HAJJI

IcA'AHAN. By James Morier. With an


Browne, M.A., and a Portrait. 2 vols, Js,

Introduction by E. G.

THE LIVES OF DONNE, WOTTON, HOOKER,


HERBERT, and SANDERSON. By Izaak Walton. With

Walton.

an Introduction by

Johnson.

Vernon Blackburn, and

Samuel Johnson, LL.D. With an


and a

Burns.

a Portrait.

THE LIVES OF THE ENGLISH


Portrait.

3 vols,

Introduction by

J.

By

H. Millar,

los. 6d,

THE POEMS OF ROBERT BURNS.

Andrew Lang

3^. 6d,

POETS.

Edited by

Demy Svoj
gill top,
6s,
This edition contains a carefully collated Text, numerous Notes, critical and textual,
a critical and biographical Introduction, and a Glossary.
'Among editions in one volume, this will take the place of authority.' Times.
r. Langbridge.

and W. A. Craigie.

With

Portrait.

BALLADS OF THE BRAVE:

Chivalry, Enterj3rise, Courage,


Langbridge. Second Edition,

Poems of
Edited by Rev. F.

and Constancy.

Crown

Svo.

3^. 6d,

School Edition,

IS, 6d.
'

very happy conception happily carried out.


These "Ballads of the Brave" are
intended to suit the real tastes of boys, and will suit the taste of the great majority.'
^Spectator,
The book is full of splendid things.' World,
'

F. D. Bedford.
Pictures.

By

Illustrated Books
NURSERY RHYMES. With many
F. D.

Bedford.

Super Royal

Coloured

Svo,

Ss,
rhymes, with beautifully coloured pictures

excellent selection of the best known


exquisitely printed.' Pali Mall Gazette.

'An

Baring Gould.
Baring Gould.

S.

A BOOK OF FAIRY TALES


With numerous

Arthur J. Gaskin.
'

Mr. Baring Gould

retold

by

S.

illustrations

and

initial letters

by

Crown

Svo,

Buckram,

6s.

Second Edition,

deserving of gratitude, in re-writing in simple style the old


Saturday Review*
stories that delighted our lathers and s^rar.drathcrs.'
is

Messrs. Methuen's List

OLD ENGLISH FAIRY TALES.

Baring Gould.

S.

Col-

With Numerous Illustralected and edited by S. Baring Gould.


tions by F. D. Bedford. Second Edition^ Crown%vo, Buckram, 6s.
*A charming volume. The stories have been selected with great ingenuity from
various old ballads and folk-tales, and now stand forth, clothed in Mr. Baring
Gould's delightful English, to enchant youthful readers.' Guardian.

A BOOK OF NURSERY SONGS AND

Baring Gould.

S.

RHYMES.

Edited by S. Baring Gould, and Illustrated by the


Birmingham Art School. Buckram^ gilt top. Crown Svo, 6s.
The volume is very complete in its way, as it contains nursery songs to the number
To the student we commend the sensible introof 77, game-rhymes, and jingles.

duction,

and the explanatory

notes.'

Birminghavi Gazette.

Beeching. A BOOK OF CHRISTMAS VERSE. Edited


by H. C. Beeching, M.A., and Illustrated by Walter Crane.
Crown SvOy gilt top, ^s.
An anthology which, from its unity of aim and high poetic excellence, has a better

H.

C.

most of its

right to exist than

fellows.'

Guardian,

History
THE DECLINE AND FALL OF THE ROMAN

Gibbon.

EMPIRE. By Edward Gibbon.


New Edition, Edited with
Notes, Appendices, and Maps, by J. B. Bury, LL.D., Fellow of
Trinity College, Dublin.
In Seven Volumes, Deiny %vo. Gilt top,
%s. 6d, each.
Also crow ft ^vo,
6s, each.
Vols, /., //., ///., /K,
and

V,

The time has

certainly arrived for a new edition of Gibbon's great work.


ProBury is the right man to undertake this task. His learning is amazing,
both in extent and accuracy. The book is issued in a handy form, and at a
moderate price, and it is admirably printed.' Titnes.
'This edition, is a marvel of erudition and critical skill, and it is the very minimum
of praise to predict that the seven volumes of it will supersede Dean Milman's as
the standard edition of our great historical classic.' G^/^j-^i^w Herald.
At last there is an adequate modern edition of Gibbon.
The best edition the
nineteenth century could produce.' Manchester Guardian.

'

fessor

Flinders Petrie. A HISTORY OF EGYPT,fromthe Earliest


Times to the Present Day.
Edited by W. M. Flinders
Petrie, D.C.L., LL.D., Professor of Egyptology at University
College. Fully Illustrated, In Six Volumes, Crown %vo, 6s, each.
Vol. L Prehistoric Times to XVIth Dynasty.
W. M. F.
Petrie.
Third Edition,
Vol. II. The XVIIth and XVIIIth Dynasties.
W. M. F.
Seco7id Edition,

Petrie.
'

A history written

in the spirit of scientific precision so worthily represented

by Dr.
and

and his school cannot but promote sound and accurate study,
supply a vacant place in the English literature of Egyptology.' Times.
Petrie

Flinders

Petrie.

RELIGION AND

CONSCIENCE IN

ANCIENT EGYPT.
LL.D.
'

The lectures

Fully

By W. M. Flinders Petrie, D.C.L.,


Illustrated.
Crown Svo. 2s. 6d.

will afford a

fund of valuable information for students of ancient ethics.

Manchester Guardian.

Messrs. Methuen's List

12

SYRIA AND EGYPT, FROM THE TELL


EL AMARNA TABLETS. By W. M. Flinders Petrie,

Flinders Petrie.

Crown %vo. 2s. 6d,


D.C.L., LL.D.
A marvellous record. The addition made to our knowledge

nothing short of

is

Times,

amazing.'

EGYPTIAN TALES. Edited by W. M.


Flinders Petrie.
Flinders Petrie. Illustrated by Tristram Ellis. In Two
Crown Zvo, 3^. 6^/. each,
Volumes,
*

A valuable

'

Invaluable as a picture of

addition to the literature of comparative folk-lore.


really illustrations in the literal sense of the word.'
Globe.
life

in Palestine

The drawings

EGYPTIAN DECORATIVE ART.


Flinders Petrie.
W. M. Flinders Petrie. With 120 Illustrations. Cr, Svo, ^s.
*

Vol.

II.

Illustrated.

The book
will

is

A HISTORY OF THE ART OF WAR.

The Middle Ages, from the Fourth


By C. W. Oman, M.A., Fellow of

Century.

'

By
6d,

In these lectures he displays rare skill in elucidating the development of


decorative art in Egypt, and in tracing its influence on the art of other
Times.
countries.'

W. Oman.

C.

are

Daily News.

and Egypt.'

Demy

Svo.

to the

Fourteenth

All Souls', Oxford.

2is.

based throughout upon a thorough study of the original sources, and

be an indispensable aid to

all

AtheucEUin.

students of mediaeval history.'

'The whole art of war in its historic evolution has never been treated on such an
ample and comprehensive scale, and we question if any recent contribution to the
exact history of the world has possessed greater and more enduring value.' Daily
Chronicle.

Baring Gould.
THE TRAGEDY OF THE C^SARS.
With numerous Illustrations from Busts, Gems, Cameos, etc. By S.
Baring Gould. Fourth Edition, Royal Zvo, i^s,
A most splendid and fascinating book on a subject of undying interest. The great

S.

'

feature of the book is the use the author has made of the existing portraits of the
Caesars, and the admirable critical subtlety he has exhibited in dealing with this
line of research.
It is brilliantly written, and the illustrations are supplied on a
scale cf profuse magnificence.' Daily Chronicle.

H. de B. Gibbins.

INDUSTRY IN ENGLAND

CAL OUTLINES.
5

Maps.

Second Edition.

A
H. E. Egerton.
POLICY. By H.
*

By H. de

Dei7iy Svo,

HISTORI-

M.A., D.Litt.

Egerton, M.A.

Demy

Svo.

12s. 6d.

a good book, distinguished by accuracy in detail, clear arrangement of


Manchester Guardian.
and a broad grasp of principles.
A most valuable volume.' Aihenceuz/i.
Able, impartial, cleai'.
It is

With

los. 6d.

HISTORY OF BRITISH COLONIAL


E.

'

B. Gibbins,

facts,

Messrs. Methuen's List

tj

THE EASTERN QUESTION

Albert Sorel.

THE

IN

EIGHTEENTH CENTURY.

By Albert Sorel, of the French


Academy. Translated by F. C. Bramwell, M.A., with an Introduction by R. C. L. Fletcher, Fellow of Magdalen College,
With a Map. Crown Svo. 4.S. 6d,
Oxford.
'The author's insight into the character and motives of the leading actors in the
drama gives the work an interest uncommon in books based on similar material.'
Scotsman.

A HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHERN

H. Grinling.

C.

RAILWAY,
and

By Charles H. Grinling.

1845-95.

Demy

Illustrations.

Svo.

With Maps

los. 6d.

'Admirably written, and crammed with interesting facts.' Daily Mail.


The only adequate history of a great English railway company that has as yet
*

appeared.'

Tiuies.

Mr. Grinling has done for the history of the Great Northern what Macaulay did for
English History.' The Engineer.

'

THE COLLEGES OF OXFORD

A. Clark.
and

By Members

their Traditions.

Clark, M.A., Fellow and Tutor of Lincoln

A work which will certainly be

the Colleges of Oxford.'

A
J.

Their History

appealed to for

many

College.

Edited by A.
Zvo,

\2s. 6d,

years as the standard book on

Athenaum.

THE HISTORY OF FLORENCE FROM

Perrens.

TO

of the University.

1492.

By

Perrens.

F. T.

?>vo,

1434

12s. ed.

history of Florence under the domination of Cosimo, Piero, and Lorenzo de


Medicis.

A SHORT HISTORY OF ROME. By J.

Wells.

M. A., Fellow and Tutor


Crown Svo. 3^. 6d.

of

Wadham

Coll., Oxford.

Wells,

With 4 Maps.

This book is intended for the Middle and Upper Forms of Public Schools and for
Pass Students at the Universities. It contains copious Tables, etc.
An original work written on an original plan, and with uncommon freshness and
vigour.
Speaker,
*

'

Browning.

0.

A SHORT HISTORY OF MEDIEVAL ITALY,

A.D. 1250-1530.

By Oscar Browning, Fellow and Tutor

of King's

In Two Volumes,

Crown

College, Cambridge.
Svo.

5^.

each.

Vol.
Vol.
'

Second Edition,

I.

II.

Guelphs and Ghibellines.


250- 1 409.
The Age of the Condottieri.
1409- 1 530.

Mr. Browning is to be congratulated on the production of a work of immense


labour and learning.' Westminster Gazette.

THE STORY OF IRELAND.


O'Grady.
O'Grady, Author of Finn and his Companions.'
'

*Most

it

Cr. ^vo.

2s. 6d,

most stimulating. Its racy humour, its original imaginings,


one of the freshest, breeziest volumes.
Methodist Times,

delightful,

make

By Standish

'

Messrs. Methuen's List

14

Biography
THE LIFE
Baring Gould.
PARTE. By S. Baring Gould.

S.

OF NAPOLEON BONAWith over 450

the Text and 12 Photogravure Plates.


'

Illustrations in

Large quarto.

Gilt top,

363-.

The

best biography of Napoleon in our tongue, nor have the French as good a
biographer of their hero.
book very nearly as good as Southey's "Life of

Nelson."
Manchester Guardian.
'The main feature of this gorgeous volume is its great wealth of beautiful photogravures and finely-executed wood engravings, constituting a complete pictorial
chronicle of Napoleon L's personal history from the days of his early childhood
at Ajaccio to the date of his second interment.' Daily Telegraph.
Nearly all the illustrations are real contributions to history.' Westminster Gazette.
'

'

THE LIFE AND WRITINGS OF JOHN

Morris Fuller.

DAVENANT,
Fuller, B.D.

M. Rigg. ST.

J.

an

Demy

Svo.

By Morris

of Salisbury.

los. 6d.

ANSELM OF CANTERBURY A
:

Chapter

THE History of Religion. By J. M. Rigg. Demy Svo.

IN
Tvlr.

D.D. (1571-1641), Bishop

Rigg has

told the story of the life with scholarly ability,


interesting chapter to the history of the Norman period.'

W. Joyce. THE LIFE OF SIR FREDERICK


OUSELEY. By F. W. Joyce, M.A. ^s. 6d.

F.
'

ys, 6d,

and has contributed


Daily Chronicle.

GORE

This book has been undertaken in quite the right spirit, and written with sympathy,
insight, and considerable literary skill.'
Times,

W.

G. Collingwood.

THE LIFE OF JOHN RUSKIN.

By

W.

G. Collingwood, M.A. With Portraits, and 13 Drawings by


Mr. Ruskin.
Second Edition. 2 vols. Svo. ^2s.

No more

'

It is

magnificent volumes have been published for a long time.' Times.


long since we had a biography with such delights of substance and of form.
Such a book is a pleasure for the day, and a joy for ever.' Daily Chronicle.

Waldstein.
M.A. With

C.

'A thoughtful and

JOHN RUSKIN. By Charles


a Photogravure Portrait.

Post Svo.

Waldstein,

^s.

well-written criticism of Ruskin's teaching.*

Daily Chronicle.

A. M. F. Darmesteter. THE LIFE OF ERNEST RENAN, By


Madame Darmesteter. With Portrait. Second Edition. Cr,Svo. ds.
A polished gem of biography, superior in Its kind to any attempt that has been made
*

of recent years in England. Madame Darmesteter has indeed written for English
The Life of Ernest Renan."
readers
A then<zum.
is a fascinating and biographical and critical study, and an admirably finished
work of literary art.' Scotsman.
It is interpenetrated with the dignity and charm, the mild, bright, classical grace of
form and treatment that Renan himself so loved and it fulfils to the uttermost
the delicate and difficult achievement it sets out to accomplish.' Academy.
'

'It
'

W.

H. Hutton.

THE LIFE OF

W. H. Hutton, M.A.
*

With

SIR

Portraits.

The book

THOMAS MORE.
Crown

Svo.

By

^s.

lays good claim to high rank among our biographies.


It is excellently,
Scotsman.
even lovingly, written.
An excellent monograph.' Times.
'

'

Messrs. Methuen's List

15

Travel, Adventure and Topography


H. H. Johnston. BRITISH CENTRAL AFRICA. By Sir
H. II. Johnston, K.C.B. With nearly Two Hundred Illustrations,
and Six Maps. Strand Edition. Crown ^to. 30J. 7iet,
'

fascinating book, written with equal skill and charm the work at once of a
and of a man of action who is singularly wise, brave, and experiIt abounds in admirable sketches from pencil.'
Westminster Gazette.
delightful book . . . collecting within the covers of a single volume all that Is
known of this part of our African domains; The voluminous appendices are of
literary artist

enced.

'

The book

Manchester Gtiardian.
takes front rank as a standard work by the one

extreme value.'

THREE YEARS

Decle.

L.

Lionel Decle.

Demy

Edition*
'
*
'

man competent

to write

Daily Chronicle.

it.'

With 100
Svo,

SAVAGE AFRICA. By

IN

Illustrations

and

Maps.

Second

21s.

A fine,

full book. 'Pall Mall Gazette.


Abounding in thrilling adventures.' Daily Telegraph,
His book is profusely illustrated, and its bright pages give a better general survey
of Africa from the Cape to the Equator than any single volume that has yet been

Times.
published.'
delightful book.' Academy.
Astonishingly frank. Every page deserves close attention.' Literature.
Unquestionably one of the most interesting books of travel which have recently

'A
*
*

Standard.
impressions of a keen-eyed and Intrepid traveller.'
Appealing powerfully to the popular imagination.' Globe.
appeared

*
'

'

The honest

Scotsman.

Henri of Orleans. FROM TONKIN TO INDIA. By Prince


Henri of Orleans. Translated by Hamley Bent, M.A. With
ICQ Illustrations and a Map.
Crown 410, gilt top. 25^*.
'A welcome contribution to our knowledge. The narrative is full and Interesting,
and the appendices give the work a substantial value.' Times.
his services to geography have been
'The Prince's travels are of real importance
considerable.
The volume is beautifully illustrated.' Athenceum.
.

R. S.

S.

Baden-PowelL

THE DOWNFALL OF PREMPEH.

Diary of Life in Ashanti, 1895.


Colonel Baden-Powell.
With 21 Illustrations and a Map. Cheaper Edition. La7'ge Crown
Svo.
*

R.

6s

A compact,
S. S.

faithful,

most readable record of the campaign.'

Baden-PoweU.

Daily Neivs.

THE MATABELE CAMPAIGN,

By Colonel Baden-Powell. With nearly 100 Illustrations.


*

1896.

Cheaper

Large Crown %vo, 6x.


Edition.
As a straightforward account of a great deal of plucky work unpretentiously done,
this

S. L.

book

is

well worth reading.'

Hinde. THE FALL


Hinde. With Plans,

S. L.
'

The book

Times,

OF THE CONGO ARABS. By


etc.

Demy

Sz>o.

12s. 6d.

of good things, and of sustained Interest.' St. James's Gazette.


graphic sketch of one of the most exciting and important episodes in the struggle
for supremacy in Central Africa between the Arabs and their European rivals.'

Times,

Is full

Messrs. Methuen's List

i6

A. St H. Gibbons. EXPLORATION AND HUNTING IN


CENTRAL AFRICA. By Major A, St. H. Gibbons, F.R.G.S.
With 8 full-page Illustrations by C. Whymper, 25 Photographs and

Demy

Maps.

%vo.

\^s.

a grand record of quiet, unassuming, tactful resolution. His adventures were as various as his sporting exploits were exciting.'
Times.

His book

is

WITH THE MASHONALAND FIELD

E. H. Alderson.

FORCE,

Illustrations

*An

By

1896.

Lieut. -Colonel
Demy Svo.

and Plans.

Alderson.

With numerous

los. 6d,

growth.'Daily

interesting contribution to the story of the British Empire's

Ne7us.

A clear,

vigorous,

and

soldier-like narrative.*

Scotsman.

Seymour Vandeleur. CAMPAIGNING ON THE UPPER


NILE AND NIGER. By Lieut. Seymour Vandeleur. With
an Introduction by Sir G. GoLDiE, K.C.M.G.
Large Crown Svo. los.
Illustrations, and Plans.
Upon the African question there is no book procurable which

With 4 Maps,
6d.
contains so

much

of

Guardian.

value as this one.'

A FRONTIER CAMPAIGN. By the Viscoimt


FiNCASTLE, V.C., and Lieut. P. C. Elliott-Lockhart. With a
Map and 16 Illustrations. Second Edition. Crown %vo, 6j.

Lord Fincastle.

*An admirable book, combining

in a volume a piece of pleasant reading for the


general reader, and a really valuable treatise on frontier war.' Aihencnum.

K. Trotter.

J.

THE NIGER SOURCES.

Trotter, R.A.
'A most

With a Map and

interesting as well as a lucidly

By

Illustrations.

Colonel

Crow7i %vo.

and modestly written book.'

J.

K.

^s,

Spectator.

Michael Davitt. LIFE AND PROGRESS IN AUSTRALASIA. By Michael Davitt, M.P, With 2 Maps. Croivn^vo.
ds.
500 pp.
interesting and suggestive work.' Daily Chronicle.
'Contains an astonishing amount of practical information.' Daily Mail.
'One of the most vaKiable contributions to our store of Imperial literature that has
been published for a very long time.' Pall Mall Gazette.

An

W.

Crooke.

INDIA

THE NORTH-WESTERN PROVINCES OF

Their Ethnology and Administration. By W.


Crooke, With Maps and Illustrations. Demy Svo. los. 6d.
A carefully and well-written account of one of the most important provinces of the
:

Empire.
Mr. Crooke deals with the land in its physical aspect, the province
under Hindoo and Mussulman rule, under British rule, its ethnology and sociology,
its religious and social life, the land and its settlement, and the native peasant.
The illustrations are good, and the map is excellent.' Manchester Guardian.

A. Boisragon.
BoiSRAGON.

THE BENIN MASSACRE.

By Captain

't^s. 6d.
CroivnZvo.
Seco7td Edition.
If the story had been written four hundred years ago it would be read to-day as an
English classic' Scotsman.
'If anything could enhance the horror and the pathos of this remarkable book it is
the simple style of the author, who writes as he would talk, unconscious of his
own heroism, with an artlessness which is the highest art.' Pall Mall Gazette.
'

Messrs. Methuen's List

17

H. S. Cowper. THE HILL OF THE GRACES or, the Great


Stone Temples of Tripoli. By H. S. Cowper, F.S.A. With
:

Maps, Plans, and 75 Illustrations. Demy Svo. los. 6d.


Forms a valuable chapter of what has now become quite a large and important
branch of antiquarian research.'

W.

Times.

Kinnaird Rose. WITH THE GREEKS IN THESSALY.


By W. Kinnaird Rose, Reuter's Correspondent. With Plans and
Crown Zvo. 6j".
23 Illustrations.

SOUTH

AFRICA. By W. B. Worsfold,
B. Worsfold.
M.A. With a Map, Second Edition, Crow7i Svo. 6s.
'A monumental work compressed into a very moderate compass,' World.

W.

Naval and Military


W.

a.

NAVAL POLICY

Steevens.

Demy

Svo.

By. G.

W. Steevens.

6s,

This book is a description of the British and other more important navies of the world,
with a sketch of the lines on which our naval policy might possibly be developed.
'An extremely able and interesting work.' Daily Chronicle.

A SHORT HISTORY OF THE ROYAL NAVY,

D. Hannay.

From Early Times to the Present Day.


2 Vols,

DemyZvo,

By David Hannay.

Vol. I., 1200- 1688.


and those who go to it for a lively and
brisk picture of the past, with all its faults and its grandeur, will not be disappointed.
The historian is endowed with literary skill and style.' Standard.
'We can warmly recommend Mr. Hannay's volume to any intelligent student of
naval history. Great as is the merit of Mr. Hannay's historical narrative, the
Illustrated.

We read it from cover

'js,

6d, each.

to cover at a sitting,

merit of his strategic exposition

is

even greater.'

Times.

Cooper King. THE STORY OF THE BRITISH


Colonel Cooper King, Illustrated. De7ny Svo.
ys,

C.
'

An

ARMY. By
6d.

and accurate story of England's military progress.' Daily Mail.


This handy volume contains, in a compendious form, a brief but adequate sketch of
the story of the British army.' Daily News.
authoritative

R. Southey.

ENGLISH SEAMEN (Howard, Clifford, Hawkins,

By Robert Southey.
Edited, with an
Introduction, by David Hannay. Second Edition,
Crown Svo. 6s.
Admirable and well-told stories of our naval history.' Ariny and Navy Gazette.
'A brave, inspiriting book.' Black and White.
Drake,

Cavendish).

W.

LINGWOOD.
'

THE LIFE OF ADMIRAL LORD

Clark RusselL

By W. Clark Russell,

With

COL-

Illustrations

by

Third Edition. C^-own %vo. 6s.


F. Brangwyn.
A book which we should like to see in the hands of every boy in the country.'
St. James s Gazette.
A really good book.' Saturday Review.
*

E. L. S. Horsburgh.

By
*A

E. L. S.

brilliant essay

THE CAMPAIGN OF V^ATERLOO.

Horsburgh, B.A.

With Plans,

simple, sound, and thorough.'


A 3

Crown

Daily Chronicle.

Svo.

5j.

Messrs. Methuen's List

i8

H. B.George. BATTLES OF ENGLISH HISTORY. ByH.B.


George, M.A., Fellow of New College, Oxford. With numerous
Plans.
Third Editio7t, Crown Svo. 6s.

Mr. George has undertaken a very useful task that of making military affairs intelligible and instructive to non-military readers
and has executed it with laudable intelligence and industry, and with a large measure of success.'
Times,

Baring
Gould.

S.

General Literature
Gould. OLD COUNTRY LIFE.
With

By

S.

Baring

Large Crown Zvo,

Sixty- seven Illustrations.

Fifth

Edition,
6s,
**'01d Country Life," as healthy wholesome reading,

full of breezy life and movement, full of quaint stories vigorously told, will not be excelled by any book to be
published throughout the year. Sound, hearty, and English to the core.'
World.

Baring Gould. HISTORIC ODDITIES AND STRANGE


EVENTS. By S. Baring Gould. Fourth Edition, Crown%vo, 6s,
A collection of exciting and entertaining chapters. The whole volume is delightful

S.
*

r ead ing. '

S.
'

Times.

Baring Gould. FREAKS OF FANATICISM. By


Gould. Third Edition, Crown Svo. 6s,
A perfectly fascinating book.' Scottish Leader.
Baring Gould.

S.

S.

Baring

A GARLAND OF COUNTRY SONG

English Folk Songs with their Traditional Melodies. Collected and


arranged by S. Baring Gould and H. F. Sheppard. Demy ^to, 6s.

SONGS OF THE WEST:

Baring Gould.

S.

Traditional

Ballads and Songs of the West of England, with their Melodies.


Collected by S. Baring Gould, M.A., and H. F. Sheppard,
M.A. In 4 Parts. Parts /., //., ///., 3^. each. Part IF., 5^.
In one Vol., French morocco, \<^s,
A rich collection of humour, pathos, grace, and poetic fancy.' Saturday Review.

Baring Gould. YORKSHIRE ODDITIES AND


EVENTS. By S. Baring Gould. Fourth Edition,

S.

STRANGE
Crown

8vo,

6s,

Baring Gould.
STITIONS. By

S.

STRANGE SURVIVALS AND SUPERS.

Baring Gould.

Crown

Svo,

Second Edition,

6s,

THE DESERTS OF SOUTHERN


Baring Gould.
FRANCE. By S. Baring. Gould, 2 vols. Demy Svo, 32s,

S.

Cotton Minchin. OLD


Minchin. Crown Svo
'

This book

is

HARROW

DAYS.

Second Edition,

an admirable record.'

Daily Chronicle.

51.

By

J.

G.

Cotton

Messrs. Methuen's List

W.

THE SPEECHES OF THE

E. Gladstone.

W.

E.

and H.
and X,

19
RT.

HON.

GLADSTONE,

M.P. Edited by A. W. Hutton, M. A.,


Cohen, M.A. With Portraits. Demy Svo. Vols, IX,

J.
125. 6d. each,

E. V. Zenker.

ANARCHISM. By

Demy

E. V. Zenker.

Svo.

7s. 6d.

T/ie Speaker.
Well-written, and full of shrewd comments.'
Herr Zenker has succeeded in producing a careful and critical history of the growth
of Anarchist theory. He is to be congratulated upon a really interesting work.'

'

Literature.

H. G. Hutchinson.
G. Hutchinson.

THE GOLFING PILGRIM.


Crow7t Svo.

By Horace

6s.

Truth.
Full of useful information with plenty of good stories.'
this book the golfer's library will be incomplete.'
Pall Mall Gazette.
recommend few books as better company.' St. Ja7ness Gazette.

'

'Without

We can

It will charm all golfers.'


Times.
Decidedly pleasant reading.' Athenceum.

'

'

Wells.

J.

OXFORD AND OXFORD

LIFE.

By Members

of

the University.
Edited by J. Wells, M.A., Fellow and Tutor of
Wadham College. Crown Svo. 3^. 6d.
We congratulate Mr. Wells on the production of a readable and intelligent account
of Oxford as it is at the present time, written by persons who are possessed of a
close acquaintance with the system and life of the University.' Athenceuni.

J.Wells.

OXFORD AND

ITS COLLEGES. By J. Wells, M. A.,


New.

Fellow and Tutor of Wadham College. Illustrated by E. II.


Leather, '^s. 6d. net.
Second Edition. Fcap. Svo. '^s.
'An admirable and accurate little treatise, attractively illustrated.' World.
*
*

luminous and tasteful little volume.' Daily Chronicle.


Exactly what the intelligent visitor wants.' Glasgow Herald.

VOCES ACADEMICS.

0. G. Robertson.

Robertson, M.A., Fellow of All


'

Grant

C.

With a Frontis-

33*. 6d.
piece.
Pott. Svo.
Decidedly clever and amusing.' Athencsum.
A clever and entertaining little hook.'Pall Mall Gazette.

Whibley.

L.

By

Souls', Oxford.

GREEK OLIGARCHIES THEIR ORGANISA:

TION AND CHARACTER.


of

An

Pembroke College,

exceedingly useful handbook

a careful and well-arranged study.'

ECONOMIC

Times.

AND

SCIENCE
PRACTICE,
Price.
By L. L. Price, M.A., Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford. Crown

L.

L.

Svo.

J.

6j.

Shedlock.

THE PIANOFORTE SONATA:

Its

Origin

CroivnSvo.
55.
J. S. Shedlock.
This work should be in the possession of every musician and amateur.
and lucid history and a very valuable work for reference.' Athenceum.

A concise

S.

and Development.

'

E.

By L. Whibley, M.A., Fellow


Cambridge. Crown Svo. 6j.

M. Bowden.

By

THE EXAMPLE OF BUDDHA

Being Quota-

from Buddhist Literature for each Day in the Year.


by E. M. Bowden. Third Edition. i6?no, 2s, 6d.
tions

Compiled

Messrs. Methuen's List

20

Science and Technology


Freudenreich. DAIRY BACTERIOLOGY. A Short Manual
for the Use of Students.
By Dr. Ed. von Freudenreich.
Translated by J. R. AiNswoRTH Davis, B. A.
Crown 2>vo 2s.6d.

OUTLINES OF BIOLOGY. By P.
Chalmers MitcheU.
Chalmers Mitchell, M.A., Illustrated. Crown Svo. 6s.
A text-book designed to cover the new Schedule issued by the Royal College of
Physicians and Surgeons.

G.Massee. A MONOGRAPH OF THE MYXOGASTRES. By


George Massee. With 12 Coloured Plates. I^o}/al Svo. iSs. net,
*

A work

much

organisms.

in advance of any book in the language treating of this group of


Indispensable to every student of the Myxogastres.
Nature.
'

Stephenson and Suddards. ORNAMENTAL DESIGN FOR


WOVEN FABRICS. By C. Stephenson, of The Technical
College, Bradford, and F. Suddards, of The Yorkshire College,
*

Leeds. With 65 full-page plates.


The book is very ably done, displaying an
taste,

and the faculty of clear

exposition.'

Demy

Svo.

ys. Sd.

intimate knowledge of principles, good


Yorkshire Post.

HANDBOOKS OF TECHNOLOGY.
GARNETT and WERTHEIMER.
TO MAKE A DRESS. By J. A. E. Wood.

Edited by Professors

HOW

Illustrated.
is. 6d.
Crow7i Svo.
text-book for students preparing for the City and Guilds examination, based on
the syllabus. The diagrams are numerous.
Though primarily intended for students, Miss Wood's dainty little manual may be
consulted with advantage by any girls who want to make their own frocks. The
directions are simple and clear, and the diagrams very helpful.' Literature,
'A splendid little book.' Evening News.

A
'

L. T.

Hobhouse.

Philosophy
THE TPIEORY OF KNOWLEDGE.

By

Demy Svo, 21s,


L. T. Hobhouse, Fellow of C.C.C, Oxford.
The most important contribution to English philosophy since the publication of Mr.
Bradley's
Glasgow Herald.
Appearance and Reality."

'

W.
'

brilliantly written volume.'

H. Fairbrother. THE PHILOSOPHY OF T. H.


By W. H. Fairbrother, M.A. Crown Svo. is, 6d,
In every

W.

F.

Times.

way an admirable

BusseU.

book.'

GREEN.

Glasgow Herald.

THE SCHOOL OF PLATO.

BussELL, D.D., Fellow of Brasenose College, Oxford.

By F. W.
Demy Svo,

\os, 6d.
*

A highly valuable contribution to the history of ancient

'A

clever

and stimulating book,

Manchester Guardian.

Glasgow Herald.

Messrs. Methuen's List


P. S. Granger.

21

THE WORSHIP OF THE ROMANS.

By

F. S. Granger, M.A., Litt.D., Professor of Philosophy at Univer6s.


Crow7t Svo.
sity College, Nottingham.
*

scholarly analysis of the religious ceremonies, beliefs, and superstitions of ancient


in the new light of comparative anthropology.' 7"/ww,

Rome, conducted

Theology
1banM)OO?i0 of tCbeolop^*
General Editor, A. Robertson, D.D., Principal of King's College,

London.

THE XXXIX. ARTICLES OF THE CHURCH OF ENG*

LAND. Edited with an Introduction by E. C. S. Gibson, D.D.,


Vicar of Leeds, late Principal of Wells Theological College. Second
and Cheaper Edition in One Voluine, Demy %vo* I2s, dd.
Dr. Gibson is a master of clear and orderly exposition. And he has in a high
degree a quality very necessary, but rarely found, in commentators on this topic,
His book is pre-eminently honest.' Times.
that of absolute fairness.
After a survey of the whole book, we can bear witness to the transparent honesty
of purpose, evident industry, and clearness of style which mark its contents.
They maintain throughout a very high level of doctrine and tone.' Guardian,
The most convenient and most acceptable commentary.' Expository Times.

AN INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORY OF RELIGION.


F. B. Jevons, M.A., Litt.D., Principal of Bishop Hatfield's
los. 6d.
Hall.
De?ny Svo.
*Dr. Jevons has written a notable work, which we can strongly recommend to the
serious attention of theologians and anthropologists.' Manchester Guardian.
The merit of this book lies in the penetration, the singular acuteness and force of the
author's judgment. He is at once critical and luminous, at once just and suggestive.
A comprehensive and thorough book.' Birmingham Post.

By

THE DOCTRINE OF THE INCARNATION.


Ottley, M. a.,

late fellow of Magdalen College,

By R. L.
Oxon., and Principal

of Pusey House. In Two Volumes. Demy Svo. 155.


Learned and reverent lucid and well arranged.' Record.
*A clear and remarkably full account of the main currents of speculation. Scholarly
precision
.
genuine tolerance
intense interest in his subject
are Mr.
Ottley 's merits.' Guardian.
*

JTbe

Cburcbman'6 ILibrar^*
J. H. BURN, B.D.

Edited by

THE BEGINNINGS OF ENGLISH CHRISTIANITY.

By

W.

E. Collins, M.A., Professor of Ecclesiastical History at King's


College, London.
With Map. Crowit Svo. 35. 6d.
An investigation in detail, based upon original authorities, of the beginnings of the

English Church, with a careful account of earlier Celtic Christianity. Some very
full appendices treat of a number of special subjects.
excellent example of thorough and fresh historical work.
G^tardian.

An

SOME NEW

TESTAMENT PROBLEMS.

Wright, Fellow
'

Bold and outspoken

By Arthur

of Queen's College, Cambridge.


Crown Svo.
earnest and reverent.' Glasgow Herald.

6i".

Messrs. Methuen's

22

'^ist

SERMONS ON SUBJECTS CONNECTED


WITH THE OLD TESTAMENT. By S. R. Driver, D.D.,

R. Driver.

S.

Canon of

Christ Church, Regius Professor of

versity of Oxford.

welcome companion

Crown

%vo,

to the author's

Hebrew

the Uni-

in

6^.

famous

'

Introduction.'

Guardian.

K. Oheyne. FOUNDERS OF OLD TESTAMENT CRITICISM. By T. K. Cheyne, D.D., Oriel Professor at Oxford.

T.

Large crown

%vo,

*js.

6d.

historical sketch of O. T. Criticism.


'A very learned and instructive work.'

Times.

H. H. Henson. DISCIPLINE AND LAW. By H. Hensley


Henson, B.D., Fellow of All Souls', Oxford; Incumbent of St.
Mary's Hospital, Ilford ; Chaplain to the Bishop of St. Albans.
Fcap. Svo.
2s. 6d.
An admirable little volume of Lent addresses. We warmly commend the general
Mr.
Henson's
book.' Guardian,
of
drift

'

AND

LEAVEN Historical and


H. H. Henson. LIGHT
Social Sermons. By H. Hensley Henson, M.A. Crown Svo,
:

6s.
'

They

are always reasonable as well as vigorous.

'

Scotsman.

Bennett. A PRIMER OF THE BIBLE.


W. H. Bennett. Second Edition. Crown Svo. 2s. 6d.

W. H.
'

The work

By

of an honest, fearless, and sound critic, and an excellent guide


compass to the books of the Bible.' Manchester Guardian^
primer.' English Churchman.

in

Prof.
a small

'A unique

CAMBRIDGE

SERMONS. Edited by C.H. Prior,


M.A., Fellow and Tutor of Pembroke College. Crown Svo. 6s.

C.H.Prior.

volume of sermons preached before the University of Cambridge by various


preachers, including the late Archbishop of Canterbury and Bishop Westcott.

THE

MINISTRY OF DEACONESSES.
Cecilia Robinson.
By Deaconess Cecilia Robinson. With an Introduction by the
Lord Bishop of Winchester and an Appendix by Professor Armitage
Robinson. Crown Svo. y. 6d.
*A learned and interesting book, combining with no ordinary skill the authority of
learned research with the practical utility of a descriptive manual of parish work.'
Scots7nan.

RELIGION IN BOYHOOD.

E. B. Layard.

Religious Training of Boys.

W.

THE

Yorke
Notes, etc.,

Notes on the
Layard, M.A. iSmo. is.

DE

CATECHIZANDIS
Fausset.
ST. AUGUSTINE. Edited, with Introduction,
by W. Yorke Fausset, M.A. Crown Svo. 35. 6d,

edition of a Treatise on the Essentials of Christian Doctrine, and the best


methods of impressing them on candidates for baptism.

SACRIFICE. By F Weston,

M.A.,
to the

Curate of
small

THE HOLY

Matthew's, Westminster. Pott Svo.


is.
volume of devotions at the Holy Communion, especially adapted

Weston.

E. B.

RUDIBUS OF

An
F.

By

St.

needs of servers and those

who do

not communicate.

Messrs. Methuen's List

A Kempis. THE IMITATION OF

CHRIST.

23

By Thomas a

Kempis. With an Introduction by Dean Farrar. Illustrated by


CM. Gere, and printed in black and red. Second Edition, Fcap,
8vo.
Buckram, 31. 6d, Padded morocco^ ^s.
all the innumerable English editions of the " Imitation," there can have
been few which were prettier than this one, printed in strong and handsome type,
with all the glory of red initials.' Glasgow Herald.

'Amongst

J.

Keble.

'

THE CHRISTIAN YEAR.

By John Keble. With an

Introduction and Notes by W. Lock, D. D. , Warden of Keble College,


Ireland Professor at Oxford.
Illustrated by R. Anning Bell.
Second Edition, Fcap. Sz^o, Buckram, 3^. 6^/. Padded morocco^ 55.
The present edition is annotated with all the care and insighi: to be expected from
Mr. Lock. The progress and circumstances of its composition are detailed in the
Introduction.
There is an interesting Appendix on the mss. of the "Christian
Year," and another giving the order in which the poems were written. A '* Short
Analysis of the Thought " is prefixed to each, and any difficulty in the text is explained in a note.'

Gtuirdian.

^Tbe Xlbrar^ of Devotion*


Pott Svo,

2s.; leather, 2s. 6d, net,

*This series is excellent.' The Bishop of London.


*
A very delightful edition.' The Bishop of Bath and Wells.
Well worth the attention of the Clergy.' The Bishop of Lichfield.
*The new " Library of Devotion " is excellent.' The Bishop of Peterborough.
* Charming.'
Record.
'

Delightful.' C/^r^/i Bells.

THE CONFESSIONS OF

ST.

AUGUSTINE.

Newly

Translated, with an Introduction and Notes, by C. BiGG, D.D.,


late Student of Christ Church.
*The translation is an excellent piece of English, and the introduction is a masterly
exposition. We augur well of a series which begins so satisfactorily.'
Ti7nes.
*No translation has appeared in so convenient a form, and none, we think, evidenc'

ing so true, so delicate, so feeling a touch.' Bir7ninghavi Post.


Dr. Bigg has made a new and vigorous translation, and has enriched the text with
a luminous introduction and pithy notes.' Speaker,

THE CHRISTIAN YEAR.

By John Keble. With Introduction and Notes by Walter Lock, D.D., Warden of Keble
College, Ireland Professor at Oxford.
No prettier book could be desired.' Manchester Guardian.
'The volume is very prettily bound and printed, and may fairly claim to be an
advance on any previous editions.' Guardian.
The introduction is admirable, and admirers of Keble will be greatly interested in
the chronological list of the poems.' Bookman.'

THE IMITATION OF

CHRIST.

Revised Translation,

with an Introduction, by C. Bigg, D.D. late Student of Christ


Church.
Dr. Bigg has made a practically new translation of this book, which the reader will
,

have, almost for the


the author.

first

time, exactly in the shape in

'The text is at once scholarly


Church Latin in which the
simple and

intelligible.'

original

is

Scotsman.

which

it

left

the hands of

reproduction in English of the sonorous


composed, and popular in the sense of being

in its faithful

Messrs. Methuen's List

24

3leatifr0 oC
Edited by H. C.

Eelfgion

BEECHING, M.A.

Portraits, crown Svo. 35. 6d,


short biographies of the most prominent leaders of religious
life and thought of all ages and countries.
The following are ready

A series of

CARDINAL NEWMAN. By R. H. HUTTON.


JOHN WESLEY. By J. H. Overton, M.A.

BISHOP WILBERFORCE. By G. W. Daniel, M.A.


CARDINAL MANNING. By A. W. Hutton, M.A.
CHARLES SIMEON. By H. C. G. Moule, D.D.
JOHN KEBLE. By Walter Lock, D.D.
THOMAS CHALMERS. By Mrs. Oliphant.

LANCELOT ANDREWES. By R. L. Ottley,


AUGUSTINE OF CANTERBURY. By E. L.
WILLIAM LAUD. By W. H. HUTTON, B.D.
JOHN KNOX. By F. M^Cunn.
JOHN HOWE. By R. F. HoRTON, D.D.
BISHOP KEN. By

M.A.
CUTTS, D.D.

Clarke, M.A.

F. A.

GEORGE FOX, THE OUAKER. By T. HODGKIN,


JOHN DONNE. By Augustus Jessopp, D.D.
THOMAS CRANMER. By A. J. Mason.
Other volumes

will

D.C.L.

be announced in due course.

Fiction
SIX SHILLING NOVELS
Marie Corelli's Novels
Crown

A ROMANCE OF

VEN DETTA.

Svo.

6s. each,

TWO WORLDS.

Seventeenth Ediitoit.

Fourteenth Edition,
Eighteenth Edition,
Eleventh Edition,

THELMA.
ARDATH.
THE SOUL OF LILITH

WO RM WO O D.

Ninth Edition.
Eighth Edition.

BARABBAS A DREAM OF THE WORLD'S TRAGEDY.


:

Thirty -second Edition,


The tender reverence of the treatment and

the imaginative beauty of the writing


have reconciled us to the daring of the conception, and the conviction is forced on
us that even so exalted a subject cannot be made too familiar to us, provided it be

presented in the true spirit of Christian faith. The amplifications of the Scripture
narrative are often conceived with high poetic insight, and this "Dream of the
World's Tragedy'* is a lofty and not inadequate paraphrase of the supreme
climax of the inspired narrative.' Dublin Review,

THE SORRO\VS OF SATAN.


*

A very powerful

Thirty-eighth Edition.

The conception is magnificent, and is likely


piece of work.
The author has immense
win an abiding place within the memory of man.
command of language, and a limitless audacity. .
This interesting and remarkable romance will live long after much of the ephemeral literature of the day
is forgotten. ... A literary phenomenon
novel, and even sublime.' W. T.
Stead in the Review of Reviews.
.

to

Messrs. Methuen's List


Anthony Hope's Novels
C7'own Svo.

THE GOD
'

IN

THE

CAR.

6s. each,

Seventh Edition.

very remarkable book, deserving of critical analysis impossible within our limit
constructed
but not superficial ; well considered, but not elaborated
with the proverbial art that conceals, but yet allows itself to be enjoyed by readers
to whom fine literary method is a keen pleasure.* The World.

brilliant,

A CHANGE OF
'A

AIR.

A MAN OF MARK.
'

Fifth Edition.
human nature.

graceful, vivacious comedy, true to


with a masterly hand.' Times.

Of

all Mr. Hope's books,


" The Prisoner of Zenda."

Fourth Edition.
A Man of Mark " is the
'

The

characters are traced

one which best compares with

National Observer.

THE CHRONICLES OF COUNT ANTONIO.

Third Edition.

a perfectly enchanting story of love and chivalry, and pure romance. The
is the most constant, desperate, and modest and tender of lovers, a peerless
gentleman, an intrepid fighter, a faithful friend, and a magnanimous foe.'

'It

is

Count

Guardian.

PHROSq.
'The

Illustrated

by H. R. Millar.

Third Edition.

vitality, stirring the blood, and humorously,


J atnes s Gazette.
story of adventure, every page of which is palpitating with action.' Speaker.
From cover to cover " Phroso " not only engages the attention, but carries the reader
in little whirls of delight from adventure to adventure.'
Academy.

tale is

thoroughly fresh, quick with

diz.^\\m'g\y loXA.'' St.

*
'

SIMON DALE.
*

By Anthony Hope.

Illustrated.

Third

Edition.
Crown Sz>o. 6s.
"Simon Dale" is one of the best

historical romances that have been written for a


long while.' St. Ja7ncss Gazette.
bright and gallant story.' Graphic.
brilliant novel.
The story is rapid and most excellently told. As for the hero,
he is a perfect hero of romance he is brave, witty, adventurous, and a good
lover.
A themeuin.
There is searching analysis of human nature, with a most ingeniously constructed
plot.
Mr. Hope has drawn the contrasts of his women with marvellous subtlety
and delicacy. This love-story of 200 years ago makes the man and the woman
live again,
Times.

'A
'A

'

'

S.

Baring Gould's Novels


Crown Svo. 6s. each.

*To say

that a book is by the author of "Mehalah" is to imply that it contains a


story cast on strong lines, containing dramatic possibilities, vivid and sympathetic
descriptions of Nature, and a wealth of ingenious imagery.' Speaker.
That whatever Mr. Baring Gould writes is well worth reading, is a conclusion that
may be very generally accepted. His views of life are fresh and vigorous, his
language pointed and characteristic, the incidents of which he makes use are
striking and original, his characters are life-like, and though somewhat exceptional people, are drawn and coloured with artistic force.
Add to this that his
descriptions of scenes and scenery are painted with the loving eyes and skilled
hands of a master of his art, that he is always fresh and never dull, and it is
no wonder that readers have gained confidence in his power of amusing and
satisfying them, and that year by year his popularity widens.' Court Circular.

ARM

NELL. Fourth Editio7u


URITH. Fifth Edition.
IN

THE ROAR OF THE SEA. Sixth Edition.


CURGENVEN OF CURGENVEN. Fourth Edition.

MRS.

Messrs. Methuen's List

26

CHEAP JACK

ZITA.

Fourth Edition.

THE QUEEN OF LOVE. Fourth Edition.


MARGERY OF QUETHER. Third Edition.
J

ACOUETTA.

Third Edition.

KITTY ALONE.

Fifth Edition.

NOEML Illustrated by R.
THE BROOM-SQUIRE.

C.

WOODVILLE.

Illustrated

by F

Third Edition.
Dadd. Fourth

Editio7i.

THE PENNYCOMEQUICKS. Third Edition.


DARTMOOR IDYLLS.
GUAVAS THE TINNER. Illustrated by F. Dadd.

Second

Edition.

BLAD YS.

Second Edition.

Illustrated.

Gilbert Parker's Novels


Crown Svo. 6s. each.

PIERRE AND HIS PEOPLE.

Fourth Edition.

and finely executed.


Daily Telegraph.

Stories happily conceived

Parker's style.'

MRS. FALCHION.
'
*

There

is

strength and genius in Mr.

Fourth Edition.

splendid study of character.' Athenceum.


But little behind anything that has been done by any writer of our time.' Pall
*
Mall Gazette.
very striking and admirable novel.' St. James s Gazette.

THE TRANSLATION OF A SAVAGE.


*

The

is original and one difficult to work out ; but Mr. Parker has done it with
The reader who is not interested in this original, fresh,
skill and delicacy.
well-told tale must be a dull person indeed.' Daily Chronicle.

plot

great

and

THE TRAIL OF THE SWORD.


'

A rousing

WHEN VALMOND CAME TO


*

Illustrated.

Sixth Edition.

and dramatic tale.


book like this, in which swords flash, great surprises are undertaken, and daring deeds done, in which men and women live and
love in the old passionate way, is a joy inexpressible .* Daily Chronicle.

PONTIAC

The Story

of

a Lost Napoleon. Fourth Edition.


Here we find romance real, breathing, living romance. The character of Valmond
is drawn unerringly. The book must be read, we may say re-read, for any one
thoroughly to appreciate Mr. Parker's delicate touch and innate sympathy with
humanity.' Pall Mall Gazette.

AN ADVENTURER OF THE NORTH:

The Last Adven-

Pretty Pierre.* Second Edition.


'The present book is full of fine and moving stories of the great North, and it will
Mr.
Parker's already high reputation.' Glasgow Herald.
add to
Illustrated. Ninth Edition.
The best thing he has done one of the best things that any one has done lately.'
tures of

THE SEATS OF THE MIGHTY.


'

St.

James s

Gazette.

*Mr. Parker seems to become stronger and easier with every serious novel that he
attempts. He shows the matured power which his former novels have led us to
expect, and has produced a really fine historical novel.' Athencsum.
* A great book.'
Black and White.
*One of the strongest stories of historical Interest and adventure that we have read
for many a day. ... A notable and successful book.'
Speaker,

Messrs. Methuen's List

THE POMP OF THE LAVILETTES.

27

Second Edition, ^s.^d,

Living, breathing romance, genuine and unforced pathos, and a deeper and more
subtle knowledge of human nature than Mr. Parker has ever displayed before.
Pall Mall Gazette.
It is, in a word, the work of a true artist.'

'

Conan Doyle.

ROUND THE RED LAMP.

By

A.

Conan

Crown Svo, 6s,


Fiflh Edition,
The book is far and away the best view that has been vouchsafed us behind the
Illustrated London News.
scenes of the consulting-room.

Doyle.

'

'

Stanley

UNDER THE RED

Weyman.

Weyman, Author
*

'

of

ROBE. By Stanley

Gentleman of France.'

With

Illustrations

Crown Svo, 6s,


by R. C. Woodville. Fottrteenth Edition.
A book of which we have read every word for the sheer pleasure of reading, and
which we put down with a pang that we cannot forget it all and start again.'
Westminster Gazette.
Every one who reads books at all must read this thrilling romance, from the first
page of which to the last the breathless reader is haled along. An inspiration of
manliness and courage.' Daily Chronicle.

THE WAGES OF
Malet.
Malet. Thirteenth Edition. Crown Svo.

Lucas

Lucas

THE CARISSIMA.

Malet.

Author of The Wages of


*

Sin,' etc.

By

SIN.

Lucas

6s.

By Lucas

Third Edition.

Malet,

Crown Svo,

6s.

LOCH

INVAR. By S. R. Crockett, Author


S. R. Crockett.
of * The Raiders,' etc. Illustrated. Second Edition, Crown Svo. 6s.
Full of gallantry and pathos, of the clash of arms, and brightened by episodes of
Mr. Crockett has never written a stronger or better book.'
humour and love.
Westminster Gazette.
'

THE STANDARD BEARER.

R. Crockett.
Crockett. Crown

S.
'

'
*

Crown

Svo.

Told with consummate art and extraordinary detail.


book lies its justification, the permanence of its

6s,

In the true humanity of the


interest, and its indubitable

A thenceum.
triumph.'
A great book. The author's method

is amazingly effective, and produces a thrilling


sense of reality. The writer lays upon us a master hand. The book is simply
appalling and irresistible in its interest.
It is humorous also ; without humour
it would not make the mark it is certain to m^iV^.'' World.

Morrison.
'

R.

TALES OF MEAN STREETS. By Arthur

Fourth Edition,

Arthur Morrison.
*

S.

delightful tale in his best ztyXe.'Speaker.

Morrison.

'

By

6s,

Mr. Crockett at his best.' Literatiire.


Enjoyable and of absorbing interest.* Scotsman.

Arthur Morrison.
'

Svo,

A CHILD OF THE JAGO. By Arthur

Third Edition,

Crown

Svo,

The book is a masterpiece.' Pall Mall Gazette.


Told with great vigour and powerful simplicity.'

6s.

Athenceum.

Mrs.

Clifford.

A FLASH OF SUMMER. By Mrs. W.

ford, Author of Aunt Anne,'


*

The

story

is

etc.

less, Author of

HURRISH.

Emily Lawless.

Maelcho,'

By

MAELCHO

6s,

Speaker,

'

Emily Law-

the Honble.

Crown

Fifth Edition.

etc.

K. Clif-

Crown Svo,

Second Edition,

a very beautiful one, exquisitely told.

Emily Lawless.

Messrs. Methuen's List

28

'

Svo,

6s,

a Sixteenth Century Romance.

By the Honble. Emily Lawless.


A really great book.' Spectator.

Second Edition,

Crown Svo,

6s,

no keener pleasure in life than the recognition of genius. A piece of work


of the first order, which we do not hesitate to describe as one of the most
remarkable literary achievements of this generation.' Manchester Guardian.

'There

is

Emily Lawless.

TRAITS AND CONFIDENCES. By The

Honble. Emily Lawless.


'

very charming

little

volume.

Crown

8m

6s,

A book which cannot be read without pleasure and

profit, written in excellent English, full of delicate spirit, and a keen appreciation
of nature, human and inanimate.' Pall Mall Gazette.

Jane Barlow. A
Barlow, Author

CREEL OF IRISH STORIES. By


of

'Vivid and singularly real.'

Irish Idylls.

'

Crown

Second Edition.

Jane

Svo.

6s,

Scotsman.

H. Findlater. THE GREEN GRAVES OF BALGOWRIE.


By Jane H. Findlater. Fourth Edition, Crown Svo, 6s,

J.

'

*
'
*

a powerful and vivid story.' Standard.


A beautiful story, sad and strange as truth itself.' Vanity Fair.
A very charming and pathetic tale.' Pall Mall Gazette.
A singularly original, clever, and beautiful story.' Guardian.
Reveals to us a new writer of undoubted faculty and reserve
Black
idyll, delicate, affecting, and beautiful.'

'An exquisite

A DAUGHTER OF
H. Findlater.
Helen Findlater. Crown Svo, 6s,

J.

force.'

Spectator.

and White.

STRIFE.

By Jane

'A story of strong human interest.' Scotsman.


Her thought has solidity and maturity.' Daily Mail.

'

Mary

Findlater.

Second Edition,
'

'

OVER THE
Crown

Svo.

HILLS. By Mary Findlater.


6s.

A strong and fascinating piece of work.' Scotsman.


A charming romance, and full of incident. The book

is fresh and strong.*


Speaker.
Will make the author's name loved in many a household.' Literary World.
strong and wise book of deep insight and unflinching truth.' Birmingham Post.

H. G. Wells. THE STOLEN BACILLUS, and other


By H. G. Wells. Second Edition, Crown Svo, 6s.
'

They

are the impressions of a very striking imagination, which,

a great deal within

its

reach.'

Saturday Review.

it

Stories.

would seem, has

Messrs. Methuen's List

THE PLATTNER STORY

H. G. Wells.
G. Wells.
*
*

Second Edition,

Croivn Svo.

29

and Others. By H.
6s.

Weird and mysterious, they seem to hold the reader as by a magic spell,' Scotsman.
No volume has appeared for a long time so likely to give equal pleasure to the
simplest reader and to the most fastidious critic' Acadauy.

Sara Jeanette Duncan. A VOYAGE


By Sara Jeanette Duncan, Author
London.'

OF CONSOLATION.
*An American

of

Crown

Third Edition.

Illustrated.

^vo,

Girl in

ds,

Humour, pure and spontaneous and irresistible.' Daiiy Mail.


'A most delightfully bright book.' Daily Telegraph,
'Eminently amusing and entertaining.' Outlook.
*

'

The dialogue

Laughter lurks

'
'

Globe.

in every page.'

Daily News,

DODO A DETAIL OF THE

E. F. Benson.

Benson.

of wit.'

is full

DAY. By

Sixteenth Edition,

Crown

E. F.

6s.

Stjo,

A delightfully witty sketch of society.' Spectator.


A perpetual feast of epigram and '^2Sz.Aox.' Speaker,

THE

RUBICON. By E. F.
E. F. Benson.
*Dodo.' Fifth Editio7i, Crown ^vo. 6s,

Benson, Author

THE VINTAGE.

E. F. Benson.
of 'Dodo.'
Crow7i %vo,

Illustrated

By E. F. Benson. Author
by G. P. Jacomb-Hood. Third Edition.

6s,

An excellent

piece of romantic literature ; a very graceful and moving story.


are struck with the close observation of life in Greece.' Saturday Kevieiv,
'
The World.
Full of fire, earnestness, and beauty.*
'An original and vigorous historical romance.' Morning Post.
*

SIR ROBERT'S
Oliphant.
Oliphant. Crown Svo, 6s,

Mrs.
*

Full of her

FORTUNE.

own peculiar charm of styleand character-painting.

THE TWO MARYS.

Mrs. Oliphant.
Second Edition,

Crown

Svo.

By

Second Edition.

'An

W.
*

W.

Fall Mall Gazette.

Mrs. Oliphant.

By

Mrs. Oliphant.

Pall Mall Gazette.

MATTHEW AUSTIN.

Mademoiselle de Mersac,'

intellectually satisfactory

E. Norris.

etc.

By W. E. Norris, Author
Fourth Edition. Crown Svo. 6s.

and morally bracing

HIS GRACE.

Daily Telegraph.

novel.'

By W.

Edition,
Crown Svo, 6s.
Mr. Norris has drawn a really fine character
A thenaum.

in

E.

the

Norris.

Duke

Third

of Hurstbourne.

THE DESPOTIC LADY AND OTHERS.

E. Norris.
E. Norris.

By W.
'

Mrs.

Crown

Svo.
6s,
'A story of exquisite tenderness, of most delicate fancy.'

of

By

We

6s,

THE LADY'S WALK.

Mrs. Oliphant.

W. E. Norris.

of

budget of good

fiction of

Crown

Svo.

which no one

6s,
will tire.'

Scotsman,

Messrs. Methuen's List

30

W.

CLARISSA FURIOSA. By W.

E. Norris.
C?'oiv7i Svo,

it

is

a lay sermon studded

capital, as

The World.

Clark Russell.

MY DANISH SWEETHEART.

Clark Russell.

Illustrated.

W.

Barr.

Crown

Third Edition,

%vo.

Svo.

6s.

By Robert

6s.

book which has abundantly satisfied us by its capital humour.'


Mr. Barr has achieved a triumph.' Pall Mall Gazette.

THE MUTABLE MANY.

Robert Barr.

By W.

Crown

Fourth Edition,

THE MIDST OF ALARMS.

IN

Eobert Barr.
'

E. Norris,

6s.

'As a story it is admirable, as ajeu d esprit


with gems of wit and wisdom it is a model.'

'

Daily Chronicle.

By Robert Barr,

In the Midst of Alarms,' A Woman Intervenes,' etc.


Croivn 8z'o. 6s.
Second Edition.
Very much the best novel that Mr. Barr has 5^et given us. There is much insight
Daily C/u'onicle.
in it, and much excellent humour.'
*An excellent story. It contains several excellently studied characters.' Glasgoiu

Author

of

'

Herald.

THE KING OF ANDAMAN

Maclaren Cobban.

J.

By

Saviour of Society.

An

J.

Maclaren Cobban.

Crown

It contains one character, at


Pall Mall Gazette.

unquestionably interesting book.

in

him the root of immortality.'

8vo.

A
6s.

who has

least,

Maclaren Cobban. WILT THOU HAVE THIS WOMAN ?


By J. M. Cobban, Author of The King of Andaman.' Crown Svo. 6s.

J.

M.

MISS ERIN. By M. E. Francis, Author of


E. Francis.
*
Crown 2>vo, 6s,
In a Northern Village.' Second Edition.
A clever and charming story.'

'

Scotsman.

Perfectly delightful.' Z?^z7^ Mail.


'An excellently fancied love tale.' Athcnceti/Ji.

'

BYE WAYS. By Robert

Eobert Hichens.

'

Flames,'

Author of Mr. Bailey-Martin.'


*

'

A work which it

The

W.

Pett

Ridge.

Fletcher.

of
'

6s.

2>vo.

Pall Mall Gazette.

SECRETARY TO BAYNE,
Crown

Zvo.

By

M.P.

6s,

Sparkling, vivacious, adventurous. St. James's Gazette.


World.
Ingenious, amusing, and especially smart.'

J. S.

'

Crown

not hyperbole to describe as of rare excellence.'


clever book of a shrev/d and clever author.' AtJiencsum.
is

W. Pett Ridge.
*

Author

etc.

A PASSIONATE PILGRIM. By Percy White,

Percy White.

'

Hichens.

Crow7tZvo.
Second Editioii.
6s.
A very high artistic instinct and striking command of language raise Mr. Hichens'
work far above the ruck.' Pall Mall Gazette.
The work is undeniably that of a man of striking imagination.' Daily News.
of

'

'

When

THE BUILDERS.

Charles

I.

was King.'

By J.

S.

Fletcher, Author

Second Edition,

Replete with delightful descriptions.' Vanity Fair.


The background of country life has never been sketched more

Crown

Svo,

realistically.*

6s,

World,

Messrs. Methuen's List

Andrew
%vo,

BY STROKE OF SWORD.

Balfour.

Balfour.

Illustrated

by

6 J".

An

JNIanly, healthy,

THE DAY OF ADVERSITY.


CrownZvo.

Second Edition,

By J. Bloun-

6^.

Unusually interesting and full of highly dramatic situations. Guardian.

DENOUNCED.

B. Burtvr.^
Second Edition,

J.

Croivn Svo

Burton.

Second Edition.

A brave story brave in deed, brave in


A fine, manly, spirited piece of work.'

J.

Bloundelle-Burton.

Crown

Sz'O.

By

J.

Bloundelle-

6s.

word, brave in thought.'

SI.

fames s Gazette.

World.

ACROSS THE SALT SEAS.

B. Burton.

J.

By

6s,

THE CLASH OF ARMS.

B. Burton.

World.

and patriotic.' G'/j'^^7w Herald.

Burton. IN
DELLE-BuRTON.'

'

Globe.

vigour.'

unusually excellent example of a semi-historic romance.'

J. B.

J.

By Andrew

W. Cubitt Cooke. Fourth Edition, Crown

A banquet of good things.' Academy.


A recital of thrilling interest, told with unflagging

'

31

By

Bloun-

J.

Crown Svo. 6s.


The very essence of the true romantic spirit.' Truth.
An ingenious and exciting story.' Manchester Guardian.
Singularly well written.' Athenccuvi.
delle-Burton.

'
*

W.

0.

Scully.

THE WHITE HECATOMB.

Scully, Author of

Kafir Stories.'

Crown

%vo.

Reveals a marvellously intimate understanding of the Kaffir mind.'

'

V/.

Scully.

C.

By

African

BETWEEN SUN AND SAND.

Scully, Author of The White Hecatomb.'

C.

6s.

By

Critic.

\N, C,

Crown

6s.
%vo,
The reader will find the interest of absolute novelty.' The Graphic.
'The reader passes at once into the very atmosphere of the African desert: the
inexpressible space and stillness swallow him up, and there is no world for him
but that immeasurable waste.' Aihenceum.
*

'Strong, simple, direct.' Daily Chronicle.


enthralling tales we have x^2.^.' World.

'One of the most

Victor Waite. CROSS TRAILS,


Crown Svo. 6s,
trated.
'

Every page

'

Full of strength and reality.'

The book

is

is

The

'

M.

By

by W. Cubitt Cooke.

6s,

Crown

Svo.

I.

Hooper.

characters are all picturesque.' Scotsman.


novel as vigorous as it is charming.' Literary World.

It is

THE FALL OF THE SPARROW.

Balfour.

0.

M.
'

Academy.

THE SINGER OF MARLY.

Illustrated
*

Illus-

Athenceuvt.
exceedingly powerful' Glasgow Herald.

Hooper.

I.

enthralling.'

By Victor Waite.

C.

Balfour.

Crown

unusually powerful, and

H. Morrah.

By

Svo.

6s,
the characterization

is

uncommonly good.' World.

A SERIOUS COMEDY. By Herbert Morrah.

Crozvn Svo.

6s,

Messrs. Methuen's List

32

THE FAITHFUL CITY.

H. Morrah.
Author of

Comedy.

Serious

By Herbert Morrah,

Crown

'

Svo,

6s.

THE

SUCCESSORS TO
TITLE. By Mrs.
L. B. Walford.
Walford, Author of Mr. Smith, etc. Second Edition, Crown 2>vo, 6s,
'

'

KIRKHAM'S FIND.

Mary Gaunt.

Author of The Moving Finger.'

Crown

A really charming

The

A Girl in

the Karpathians.

An

clever
excellent story with

fully vf'itiy: Pall

Crown

Svo.

Crown

By

Patton.

J.
6s,

Svo.

delight

A. Barry.

Westminster Gazette.

collection of really admirable short stories of the sea.'

Julian Corbett. A
Julian Corbett.
J. B. Patton.

is

Daily News.

THE GREAT DEEP.

IN

By

6s,

and well-written book.] Daily Telegraph.


shrewd humour and bright writing. The author

Author of Steve Brown's Bunyip.'

'

6s,

Mall Gazette.

Strong, suggestive, and witty.'

A. Barry.
'

Svo,

THE CROOK OF THE BOUGH.

'An exceptionally

J.

Crown

Third Edition.

is

Menie Muriel Dowie.

'

'

generally admirable, the dialogue not seldom brilliant, the situations


surprising in their freshness and originality.' Saturday Review.
style

M. M. Dowie.
'

6s.

Standard.

novel.'

GALLIA. By Menie Muriel Dowie, Author

M. M. Dowie.
of

By Mary Gaunt,
Svo,

BUSINESS IN GREAT WATERS. By


Crown

Second Edition.

Svo.

THE DANCER.

BIJLI,

Crown

Illustrated.

Svo,

6s,

By James Blythe

6s,

Mall Gazette.

Powerful and fascinating.'

'A true and entrancing book.' Country Life


'A remarkable book.' Baok7nan.
A vivid picture of Indian life.' Academy.

Illustrated.

'

Norma

JOSIAH'S WIFE.

Lorimer.

Crown

Second Edition,
'

Written

in

a bright and witty

'

It contains

Crown
many

style.'

By Norma Lorimkr.

6s.

Pall Mall Gazette.

THE PHILANTHROPIST.

Lucy Maynard.
NARD.

Svo,

Svo,

By Lucy May-

6s,

graphic sketches of the private

life

of a charitable institution.'

Glasgow Herald.

Cope Comford. CAPTAIN JACOBUS A ROMANCE OF


THE ROAD. By L. Cope CORNFORD. Illustrated. CrownSvo, 6s,

L.

An

exceptionally good story of adventure and character.'

Cope Cornford.

L.

World.

SONS OF ADVERSITY.

By

L.

Cope

CoRNFORD, Author of Captain Jacobus.' Crown Svo. 6s.


A very stirring and spirited sketch of the spacious times of Queen Elizabeth.'
*

Mall Gazette.
*

Packed with

incident.'

OittlooJc.

Pall

Messrs. Methuen's List


F. Brune.

VAUSSORE.

By Francis Brune.

33

Crown

S-jo.

6s.
'

Pail Mall Gazette.


subtle, complete achievement.'
This story is strangely interesting.' Manchester Guardian,

OTHER

SIX-SHILLING

NOVELS

Crow7i %vo,

THE KING OF ALBERIA. By Laura Daintrey.


THE DAUGHTER OF ALOUETTE. By Mary A.

Owen.

CHILDREN OF THIS WORLD. By Ellen F, Pinsent.


AN ELECTRIC SPARK. By G. Manville Fenn.
UNDER SHADOW OF THE MISSION. By L. S.
McChesney.

THE SPECULATORS. By J. F. Brewer.


THE SPIRIT OF STORM. By Ronald Ross.
THE QUEENSBERRY CUP. By Clive P. WOLLEY.

A HOME IN INVERESK. By T. L. Baton.


MISS ARMSTRONG'S AND OTHER CIRCUMSTANCES.
By John Davidson.
DR. CONGALTON'S LEGACY. By Henry Johnston.
TIME AND THE WOMAN. By Richard Pryce.
THIS MAN'S DOMINION. By the Author of *A High
Little World.'

DIOGENES OF LONDON. By H. B. Marriott Watson.


THE STONE DRAGON. By Murray Gilchrist.
A VICAR'S WIFE. By Evelyn Dickinson.
ELSA.

By

E.

McQueen Gray.

THREE-AND-SIXPENNY NOVELS
Crown 8w.

DERRICK VAUGHAN. NOVELIST. By Edna Lyall.


THE KLOOF BRIDE. By Ernest Glanville.
SUBJECT TO VANITY. By Margaret Benson.
THE SIGN OF THE SPIDER. By Bertram Mitford.
THE MOVING FINGER, By Mary Gaunt.
JACO TRELOAR. By J. H. Pearce.
THE DANCE OF THE HOURS. By 'Vera.'
A WOMAN OF FORTY. By EsM^ Stuart.
A CUMBERER OF THE GROUND. By CONSTANCE SMITH.
THE SIN OF ANGELS. By Evelyn Dickinson.
AUT DIABOLUS AUT NIHIL. By X. L.
THE COMING OF CUCULAIN. By Standish O'Grady.
THE GODS GIVE MY DONKEY WINGS. By Angus Evan
THE STAR GAZERS. By G. Manville Fenn.
THE POISON OF ASPS. By R. Orton Prowse.
THE QUIET MRS. FLEMING. By R. Pryce.
DISENCHANTMENT. By F. Mabel Robinson.

Abbott.

Messrs. Metiiuen's List

34

THE SQUIRE OF WANDALES.


A REVEREND GENTLEMAN.

By A. Shield.
By J. M. Cobban.

A DEPLORABLE AFFAIR. By W. E. NoRRis.


A CAVALIER'S LADYE. By Mrs. Dicker.

THE PRODIGALS. By Mrs. Oliphant.


THE SUPPLANTER. By P. Neumann.
A MAN WITH BLACK EYELASHES. By H. A.
A HANDFUL OF EXOTICS. By S. Gordon.
AN ODD EXPERIMENT. By Hannah Lynch.
SCOTTISH BORDER LIFE. By James

Kennedy.

C. Dibdin.

HALF-CROWN NOVELS
Crown Sw,

HOVENDEN. V.C, By F. Mabel Robinson.


THE PLAN OF CAMPAIGN. By F. Mabel Robinson.
MR. BUTLER'S WARD. By F. Mabel Robinson.
CHILDREN.

By G. Manville Fenn.
By G. Manville Fenn.
DISARMED. By M. Betham Edwards.
A MARRIAGE AT SEA. By W. Clark Russell.
IN TENT AND BUNGALOW. By the Author of Indian
MY STEWARDSHIP. By E. M'Queen Gray.
JACK'S FATHER. By W. E. Norris.
A LOST ILLUSION. By Leslie Keith.
ELI'S

A DOUBLE KNOT.

'

Idylls.'

THE TRUE HISTORY OF JOSHUA DAVIDSON, Christian and Communist.

By

E.

Lynn Lynton.

Books
A

for

Eleventh Edition,

Post 8vo.

is.

Boys and Girls

Series of Booh by well-know7t Authors, well illustrated,

THREE-AND-SIXPENCE EACH

THE ICELANDER'S SWORD. By S. Baring Gould.


TWO LITTLE CHILDREN AND CHING. By Edith E. Cuthell.
TODDLEBEN'S hero. By M. M. Blake.
ONLY A GUARD-ROOM DOG. By Edith E. Cuthell.
THE DOCTOR OF THE JULIET. By Harry Collingwood.

MASTER ROCKAFELLAR'S VOYAGE. By W. Clark Russell.


SYD BELTON Or, The Boy who would not go to Sea. By G. Manville
:

Fenn.

THE WALLYPUG

IN LONDON.

By G.

The Peacock
A

Series of Books

E.

Farrow.

Library

for Girls by well-known Authors, handsomely bound,

and well illustrated,

THREE-AND-SIXPENCE EACH

A PINCH OF EXPERIENCE. By L. B. Walford.


THE RED GRANGE. By Mrs. Molesvvorth.
THE SECRET OF MADAME DE MONLUC. By
'

Mdle Mori.

the

Author of

Messrs. Methuen's List


DUMPS. By

35

Mrs. Parr.

OUT OF THE FASHION, By L. T. MeADE.


A GIRL OF THE PEOPLE. By L. T. Meade.
HEPSY GIPSY. By L. T. Meade, zs. 6d.
THE HONOURABLE MISS. By L. T. Meade.
MY LAND OF BEULAH. By Mrs. Leith Adams.

Extension Series

University
A series

of books on historical, literary, and scientific subjects, suitable

and home-reading circles. Each volume is comand the subjects are treated by competent writers in a

for extension students

plete in

itself,

broad and philosophic

spirit.

Edited by

J.

E.

SYMES, M.A.,

Principal of University College, Nottingham.


Crown Svo, Price {with so??ie exceptions) 2s. 6d,

The following volumes are ready

THE INDUSTRIAL HISTORY OF ENGLAND.

By H. de B. GiBBiNS,
D. Litt. M. A. late Scholar of Wadham College, Oxon., Cobden Prizeman,
With Maps and Plans, 3J.
Fifth diti07i, Revised,
*A compact and clear story of our industrial development. A study of this concise
but luminous book cannot fail to give the reader a clear insight into the principal
phenomena of our industrial history. The editor and publishers are to be congratulated on this first volume of their venture, and we shall look with expectant
University Extension JournaL
interest for the succeeding volumes of the series.'
,

A HISTORY OF ENGLISH POLITICAL ECONOMY.


M. A. Fellow of
,

Oriel College, Oxon.

By

L. L. Price,

Second Edition.

PROBLEMS OF POVERTY An

Inquiry into the Industrial Conditions of


A. Hobson, M.A. Third Edition,
POETS. By A. Sharp.
:

the Poor.

VICTORIAN

By

J.

THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. By E. Symes, M.A.


PSYCHOLOGY. By F. S. Granger, M.A. Second Edition.
THE EVOLUTION OF PLANT LIFE Lower Forms. By G. Massee.
With Illusti'ations.
AIR AND WATER. By V. B. Lewes, M.A. Illustrated.
THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE AND HEALTH. By C. W. Kimmins,
M.A. Illustrated.
THE MECHANICS OF DAILY LIFE. By V. P. Sells, M.A. Illustrated.
ENGLISH SOCIAL REFORMERS. By H. de B. Gibbins, D.Litt., M.A.
ENGLISH TRADE AND FINANCE IN THE SEVENTEENTH
CENTURY. By W. A. S. Hewins, B.A.
THE CHEMISTRY OF FIRE. The Elementary Principles of Chemistry.
By M. M. Pattison Muir, M.A. Illustrated.
A TEXT-BOOK OF AGRICULTURAL BOTANY. By M. C. Potter,
M.A., F.L.S. Illustrated. 3^. 6d.
THE VAULT OF HEAVEN. A Popular Introduction to Astronomy.
J.

By

R. A.

Gregory. With munerous Illustrations.


The Elements of Weather and Climate.

METEOROLOGY.

Dickson, F.R.S.E., F.R. Met. Soc.

A MANUAL OF ELECTRICAL SCIENCE.


M.A,

With numerous Illustrations,

By H. N.

Ilhistrated.
3^.

By George

J.

BuRCH,

Messrs. Methuen's List

36

THE EARTH. An Introduction to Physiography.

By Evan Small, M.A.

Illustrated,

INSECT LIFE.

By

F.

W. Theobald, M.A.

Illustrated.

ENGLISH POETRY FROM BLAKE TO BROWNING. By W. M.


Dixon, M.A.

ENGLISH LOCAL GOVERNMENT.


Law

By

E. Jenks, M.A.. Professor of

at University College, Liverpool.

THE GREEK VIEW OF

LIFE.

By G.

L. Dickinson, Fellow of King's

Second Edition.

College, Cambridge.

Social Questions of
Edited by H.

de

B.

Crown

GIBBINS,
Zvo.

To-day

D.Litt.,

M.A.

is, 6d,

A series of volumes upon those topics of social, economic,


interest that are at the present

Each volume

of the series

is

moment foremost

written by an author

and

industrial

in the public mind.

who

is

an acknow-

ledged authority upon the subject with which he deals.

The following Volumes of the Series are ready

TRADE UNIONISM NEW AND OLD.

By G. Howell.

Second

Edition.

THE CO-OPERATIVE MOVEMENT

TO-DAY.

By G.

J.

Holyoake,

Second Edition.

MUTUAL

THRIFT.

By Rev.

J.

Frome Wilkinson. M.A.

PROBLEMS OF POVERTY. By J. A. Hobson. M.A. Third Edition.


THE COMMERCE OF NATIONS. By C. F. Bastable, M.A., Professor
of Economics at Trinity College, Dublin.

THE ALIEN INVASION. By W. H. Wilkins, B.A.


THE RURAL EXODUS. By P. Anderson Graham.
LAND NATIONALIZATION. By Harold Cox, B.A.
A SHORTER WORKING DAY. By H. de B. Gibbins,
and R. A. Hadfield, of the Hecla Works,

BACK TO THE LAND An Inquiry into the


:

By H.

E.

D.Litt.,

M.A.,

Sheffield.

Cure

for Rural Depopulation.

MooRE.

TRUSTS, POOLS AND CORNERS. By J. Stephen Jeans.


THE FACTORY SYSTEM. By R. W. Cooke-Taylor.
THE STATE AND ITS CHILDREN. By Gertrude Tuckwell.
WOMEN'S WORK. By Lady Dilke, Miss Bulley, and Miss Whitley.
MUNICIPALITIES AT WORK. The Municipal Policy of Six Great
Towns, and its Influence on their Social Welfare. By Frederick Dolman.

AND MODERN THOUGHT. By M. Kaufmann.


THE HOUSING OF THE WORKING CLASSES. By E. Bowmaker.

SOCIALISM

Messrs. Methuen's List

MODERN CIVILIZATION

IN

SOME OF

By W. Cunningham, D.D., Fellow

ITS

37

ECONOMIC ASPECTS.

of Trinity College, Cambridge.

THE PROBLEM OF THE UNEMPLOYED. By J. A. Hobson, B.A.,


LIFE IN WEST LONDON. By Arthur Sherwell, M. A. Second Edition,
RAILWAY NATIONALIZATION.

By Clement Edwards.
By Louisa Twining.

WORKHOUSES AND PAUPERISM.

Classical Translations
FOX, M. A.

Fellow and Tutor of Brasenose College, Oxford.


Eumenides. Translated by Lewis
Campbell, LL.D., late Professor of Greek at St. Andrews, 5^.
CICERO De Oratore I. Translated by E. N. P. Moor, M.A. 35. ^d.
CICERO Select Orations (Pro Milone, Pro Murena, Philippic n., In
Catilinam). Translated by H. E. D. Blakiston, M.A., Fellow and
Tutor of Trinity College, Oxford. 5^.
CICERO De Natura Deorum. Translated by F. Brooks, M.A., late

Editedby H. F.

-^SCHYLUS Agamemnon, Choephoroe,

Scholar of Balliol College, Oxford.

3^.

6d,

HORACE: THE ODES AND EPODES.

Translatedby A. Godley, M.A.,


Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. 2j.
LUCIAN Six Dialogues (Nigrinus, Icaro-Menippus, The Cock, The Ship, The
Parasite, The Lover of Falsehood). Translated by S. T. Irwin, M.A. Assistant Master at Clifton late Scholar of Exeter College, Oxford.
3^. dd.
SOPHOCLES Electra and Ajax. Translated by E. D. A. Morshead,
M.A., Assistant Master at Winchester. <2.s. 6d.
TACITUS Agricola and Germania. Translated by R. B. Townshend,
late Scholar of Trinity College, Cambridge.
2J. 6d,

Educational Books
OLASSICAL

PLAUTI BACCHIDES.
Critical

Notes by

J.

Edited with Introduction, Commentary, and


M'CosH, M.A. Fcap. a^to. lis. 6d.
and contain a great deal of information that is good and

'The notes are copious,


useful.
Classical Review.
'

PASSAGES FOR UNSEEN TRANSLATION.

By

E. C.

Marchant,

M.A., Fellow of Peterhouse, Cambridge; and A. M. CoOK, M.A., late


Scholar of Wadham College, Oxford
Assistant Masters at St. Paul's
;

School,
*

'

Crown

8vo,

3^.

6d,

A capital selection, and of more variety and value than such books usually are.'
A thencEum.
A judiciously compiled book which will be found widely zoxvw^x\\Q:n\.'Schoohnaster.
We know no book of this class better fitted for use in the higher forms of schools.'
Guardian.

TACITI AGRICOLA.

With

Introduction, Notes, Map, etc.


By R. F.
Weymouth College. Crown 8w. is.

Davis, M.A., Assistant Master at

TACITI GERMANIA.

HERODOTUS

By

the

same Editor.

EASY SELECTIONS.

Liddell, M.A.

Fcap. Svo.

is.

6d,

Crown Svo. is,


With Vocabulary.

By A. C.

Messrs. Methuen's List

38

SELECTIONS FROM THE ODYSSEY.


Assistant Master at Eton.

Fcap,

PLAUTUS: THE CAPTIVI.


M.A.,

late

Fellow of

Sijo.

Adapted

St. John's,

By

for

M. A.,

E. D. Stone.

late

6d.

is.

Lower Forms by

Cambridge,

H. Freese,

J.

is. 6d.

DEMOSTHENES AGAINST CONON AND CALLICLES.

Edited with

Notes and Vocabulary, by F. Darwin Swift, M.A., formerly Scholar


of Queen's College, Oxford. Fcap. 8vo, 2s.

EXERCISES IN LATIN ACCIDENCE.

By

S.

E.

Winbolt,

Assistant

Master in Christ's Hospital. Croivn 8vo. is. 6d.


An elementary book adapted for Lower Forms to accompany the shorter Latin
Glasgow Herald.
Skilfully arranged.'

primer.

'

Accurate and well arranged.'

AthencEum.

NOTES ON GREEK AND LATIN SYNTAX.

By

Buckland

G.

Green, M.A.,

Assistant Master at Edinburgh Academy, late Fellow of


Crown 8vo. y. 6d.
St. John's College, Oxon.
Notes and explanations on the chief difficulties of Greek and Latin Syntax, with
numerous passages for exercise,
Supplies a gap in educational literature.' Glasgow Herald.
'

GERMAN
A COMPANION GERMAN GRAMMAR.
M.A., Assistant Master

at

By H. de B. Gibbins, D.Litt..
Nottingham High School. Crown Svo. is. 6d.

GERMAN PASSAGES FOR UNSEEN TRANSLATION.

M 'Queen

Crown

Gray.

8vo.

By E.

2s. 6d.

SCIENCE

THE WORLD OF

SCIENCE.

Including Chemistry, Heat, Light, Sound,


Botany, Zoology, Physiology, Astronomy, and
Geology.
By R. Elliott Steel, M.A., F.C.S.
147 Illustrations.
Second Edition. Croivn 8vo. 2s. 6d.

Magnetism,

Electricity,

ELEMENTARY LIGHT.
Crown

8vo.

By R.

With numerous

E. Steel.

Illustrations.

^s. 6d,

ENGLISH

ENGLISH RECORDS. A
H. E.

Malden, M.A.

Companion to
Crown 8vo. 3^.

the History of England.

By

6d.

book which aims at concentrating information upon dates, genealogy, officials, constitutional documents, etc., which is usually found scattered in different volumes.

THE ENGLISH CITIZEN


Malden, M.A.

is.

HIS RIGHTS

A DIGEST OF DEDUCTIVE LOGIC.


Crowii 8vo.

AND

DUTIES.

By H.

E.

6d.

By Johnson Barker, B.A.

25. 6d.

TEST CARDS IN EUCLID AND ALGEBRA. By


Headmaster of the Normal School, Edinburgh.
with Answers,

D. S. Calderwood,
In three packets of 40,

i-f.

of cards for advanced pupils in elementary schools.


*They bear all the marks of having been prepared by a teacher of experience who
knows the value of careful grading and constant repetition. Sums are specially
inserted to meet all likely difficulties.
The papers set at the various public
examinations have been largely drawn upon in preparing the cards.' Glasgow
Herald,

set

Messrs. Methuen's List

39

METHUEN'S COMMERCIAL SERIES


DE

Edited by H.

GIBBINS,

B.

D.Litt.,

M.A.

BRITISH COMMERCE AND COLONIES FROM ELIZABETH TO


Second Edition,
VICTORIA. By H. de B. Gibbins, D.Litt., M.A.
COMMERCIAL EXAMINATION PAPERS. By H. DE B. Gibbins,
'zs.

D.Litt.,

M.A.,

6d.

Ts.

THE ECONOMICS OF COMMERCE.


M.A.

By H. DE

B. Gibbins, D.Litt.,

6d.

TS.

FRENCH COMMERCIAL CORRESPONDENCE.


Modern Language Master

at

Manchester

the

By

S.

Grammar

E. Bally,
School.
2j.

Second Edition,

GERMAN COMMERCIAL CORRESPONDENCE.

By

S.

A FRENCH COMMERCIAL READER. By S. E. Bally.


COMMERCIAL GEOGRAPHY, with special reference to
Empire.
By L.
Second Edition.

W. Lyde,

E.

Bally,

2s.

the British

M.A., of the Academy, Glasgow.

2s.

A PRIMER OF BUSINESS. By S. Jackson, M.A. is. 6d.


COMMERCIAL ARITHMETIC. By F. G. Taylor, M.A. is. 6d.
PRECIS WRITING AND OFFICE CORRESPONDENCE. By E.
Whitfield, M.A.

E.

2s,

WORKS BY

ST EDMAN,

A. M. M.

M.A.

INITIA LATINA Easy Lessons on Elementary Accidence. Second Edition.


:

Fcap. 8vo.

IS.

FIRST LATIN LESSONS.


FIRST LATIN READER.
Primer and Vocabulary.

Fourth Edition. Crown Bvo. 2s.


With Notes adapted to the Shorter Latin
Fourth Edition revised. i8mo. is. 6d.

EASY SELECTIONS FROM CAESAR.


Second Edition.

iSmo.

EASY SELECTIONS FROM LIVY.


IS.

Part

I.

The

Helvetian War.

is.

Part

The Kings

I.

of

Rome.

iSmo.

6d.

EASY LATIN PASSAGES FOR UNSEEN TRANSLATION.


Edition.

Fcap. Svo.

EXEMPLA LATINA.
Crown

Svo.

is.

First

Fifth

6d.

Lessons

in

Latin Accidence. With Vocabulary.

is.

EASY LATIN EXERCISES ON THE SYNTAX OF THE SHORTER


AND REVISED LATIN PRIMER. With Vocabulary. Seventh a7td
cheaper Edition re-written.
of Dr. Kennedy.

Crown

Svo.

THE LATIN COMPOUND SENTENCE


Svo.

IS.

6d.

With Vocabulary.

NOTANDA QUAEDAM
and Idioms.

is.

6d,

Rules and Exercises.

Crown

2s.

Miscellaneous Latin Exercises on Common Rules


F'cap.Svo. is. td. With Vocabulary. 2s.

Third Edition.

LATIN VOCABULARIES FOR REPETITION:


Subjects.

Issued with the consent

Seventh Edition.

Fcap, Svo.

is.

6d.

Arranged according to

Messrs. Methuen's List

40

A VOCABULARY OF LATIN IDIOMS AND PHRASES.


Editio7i,

Second

iSmo,

IS.

STEPS TO GREEK. iSmo. is.


A SHORTER GREEK PRIMER. Crown Svo. is. 6d.
EASY GREEK PASSAGES FOR UNSEEN TRANSLATION.
Edition Revised.

Fcap. Svo.

is.

GREEK VOCABULARIES FOR REPETITION.


Fcap. Svo,

Second Edition.

Subjects,

GREEK TESTAMENT SELECTIONS.


With

Edition.

T/iird

6d.

Introduction, Notes,

is.

Arranged according

to

6d,

T/tird

For the use of Schools.

and Vocabulary. Fcap,

Svo.

2s. 6d.

STEPS TO FRENCH. Third Edition, iSmo. Sd.


FIRST FRENCH LESSONS. Third Edition Revised, CrozvnSvo, is.
EASY PRENCH PASSAGES FOR UNSEEN TRANSLATION. Third
Fcap, Svo,

Edition revised,

is.

6d.

EASY FRENCH EXERCISES ON ELEMENTARY SYNTAX. With


Key ss,
Vocabulary. Second Edition, Crown Svo. 2S, 6d,
FRENCH VOCABULARIES FOR REPETITION: Arranged according to
Sixth Edition,

Subjects.

Fcap. Svo,

is,

SCHOOL EXAMINATION SERIES

STEDMAN, M.A. Crown Svo. 2s. 6d.


PAPERS IN MISCELLANEOUS GRAMEXAMINATION
FRENCH
Ninth Edition.
Edited by A. M. M.

MAR AND
A

IDIOMS.

By A. M. M. Stedman, M.A.

issued to Tutors and Private Students only, to be


application to the Publishers. Fourth Edition. Crown Svo.

Key,

had on
6s. net.

GRAMLATIN EXAMINATION PAPERS IN MISCELLANEOUS Edition.


Eighth

MAR AND
Key

IDIOMS. By

A.

M. M. Stedman, M.A.

Third Edition) issued as above.

6j. net,

[Second Edition) issued as above.

6s. net,

GRAMGREEK EXAMINATION PAPERS IN MISCELLANEOUS


MAR AND IDIOMS. By A. M. M. Stedman, M.A. Fifth Edition.
Key

GRAMGERMAN EXAMINATION PAPERS IN MISCELLANEOUS


Fifth Edition.
MAR AND IDIOMS. By R. J. Morich, Manchester.
net.
Key {Second Edition) issued

as above.

6s.

HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY EXAMINATION PAPERS. By


Spence, M. a., Clifton College.

SCIENCE EXAMINATION PAPERS. By


Chief Natural Science Master, Bradford
Part I. Chemistry ; Part ii. Physics.

Key

H.

R. E. Steel, M.A. F.C.S


School. In tivo vols.
,

Grammar

GENERAL KNOWLEDGE EXAMINATION PAPERS.


Stedman, M.A.

C.

Second Edition,

Third Edition.

(Second Edition) issued as above,

js. net.

By A. M. M.

J2^f