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LTE FDD and TDD Mode: Radio Channel Types

LTE FDD and TDD Mode: Radio Channel


Types

Contents
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4

Radio Channel Types


Logical Channel Types
Transport Channel Types
Physical Channel Types
Multiplexing of Channels

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2010 Nokia Siemens Networks

3
4
6
8
10

LTE FDD and TDD Mode: Radio Channel Types

TM5117EN02GLA01
2010 Nokia Siemens Networks

LTE FDD and TDD Mode: Radio Channel Types

Radio Channel Types

TM5117 LTE AIR INTERFACE


2010 Nokia Siemens Networks

LTE FDD and TDD Mode: Radio Channel Types

1.1

Logical Channel Types

Logical channels are in a one-to-one fashion associated with radio bearers. Logical
channel types are used to distinguish the type of information transmitted within the
attached radio bearer. The two major groups of logical channel types are therefore
control channels for signaling and traffic channels for IP user data. Currently the
following logical channel types are defined for EUTRAN signaling:

BCCH (Broadcast Control Channel): The BCCH is used to transmit system


information regarding access and non-access stratum. It allows the UE to
retrieve cell and network configuration parameters (e.g. PLMN code, cell identity,
cell re-selection parameters, etc.) required for normal operation within EUTRAN.

PCCH (Paging Control Channel): The PCCH is used to transmit the paging
messages from RRC. Hence it is a downlink point-to-multipoint channel a UE is
using when it is in LTE_IDLE mode.

CCCH (Common Control Channel): The CCCH is an uplink (NOTE: DL is under


investigation.) RRC signaling channel used by UEs to do the initial access
signaling when it is in RRC_IDLE state and wants to enter RRC_CONNECTED
state. The UE will send only one message (RRC CONNECTION REQUEST)
and the rest of the communication takes place on DCCH.

DCCH (Dedicated Control Channel): The DCCH is a bidirectional RRC signaling


channel used for point-to-point (dedicated) RRC and NAS signaling procedures.
It is the main signaling channel to be used by RRC_CONNECTED UEs.

MCCH (Multicast Control Channel): The MCCH is associated with MBMS. It


allows the eNB to inform UEs that want to listen to broadcast or multicast
service traffic about availability of such services and about the associated
MBMS radio bearer (point-to-multipoint) radio bearers.
On the traffic channel side we have currently only two types defined:

DTCH (Dedicated Traffic Channel): The DTCH is used for user radio bearers
carrying IP traffic. The eNB connects DTCHs with their associated S1-U tunnel
to the SAE GW. DTCH can be bidirectional, uplink only or downlink only. DTCH
are of course point-to-point.

MTCH (Multicast Traffic Channel): The MTCH is a point-to-multipoint traffic


channel for MBMS. It carries IP traffic for broadcast or multicast services driven
by the MBMS feature.

TM5117EN02GLA01
2010 Nokia Siemens Networks

LTE FDD and TDD Mode: Radio Channel Types

Logical
Logical Channel
Channel
type
type of
of information;
information;
MAC
MAC priority;
priority;
UE
UE identification;
identification;

Control
Control Channel
Channel

Traffic
Traffic Channel
Channel

signaling
signaling info
info (RRC);
(RRC);

user
user plane
plane data
data (IP)
(IP)

BCCH
BCCH

DCCH
DCCH

broadcast
broadcast control
control ch.;
ch.;
system
system information;
information;
downlink
downlink only;
only;

DTCH
DTCH

dedicated
dedicated control
control ch.;
ch.;
dedicated
dedicated RRC
RRC
signaling
signaling with
with one
one UE;
UE;
bi-directional;
bi-directional;

MTCH
MTCH

dedicated
dedicated traffic
traffic channel;
channel;
IP
IP user
user plane
plane data;
data;
bibi- or
or uni-directional;
uni-directional;

multicast
multicast traffic
traffic ch.;
ch.;
MBMS
MBMS traffic
traffic for
for
broadcast
broadcast or
or multicast
multicast
MBMS
MBMS services;
services;
downlink
downlink only;
only;

PCCH
PCCH
paging
paging control
control ch.;
ch.;
paging
paging message
message for
for
LTE_IDLE
UE;
LTE_IDLE UE;
downlink
only;
downlink only;

CCCH
CCCH
common
common control
control ch.;
ch.;
initial
initial access
access signaling
signaling
for
RRC_IDLE
UE;
for RRC_IDLE UE;

MCCH
MCCH
multicast
multicast control
control ch.;
ch.;
MBMS
MBMS control
control
information
information for
for MTCH;
MTCH;
downlink
downlink only;
only;

Fig. 1 Logical channel types.

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TM5117 LTE AIR INTERFACE


2010 Nokia Siemens Networks

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LTE FDD and TDD Mode: Radio Channel Types

1.2

Transport Channel Types

Transport channels are used as the basic transmission service offered by layer 1 to
MAC. MAC will use transport channels to multiplex and demultiplex logical channels
onto and from them. In contrast to logical channel types, referring to the type of
information transmitted, transport channel types are used to indicate the transport
characteristics. This means that certain transport channel type is associated with
certain bit rates (transport block sizes, number of blocks), a transmission time interval
(the time it takes to send one transport block set), delay, support for HARQ, support
for beam-forming, support for DRX/DTX, and so on.
Transport channels are always unidirectional, in the downlink we have the following:

BCH (Broadcast Channel): The BCH is a transport channel with fixed transport
format. It is used to transmit the BCCH in the entire cell. It will only support
QPSK modulation and no HARQ or beam-forming is allowed.

PCH (Paging Channel): The PCH is used to carry the PCCH. In contrast to BCH
there might be beam-forming applied to PCH, but still no HARQ is available.
Also the channel supports at least QPSK and 16QAM as modulation scheme
and DRX.

DL-SCH (DL Shared Channel): This is the major transport channel in the
downlink direction. It is used to carry mainly DCCH and DTCH. But also BCCH,
MCCH and if required MTCH can be sent on it. The channel supports HARQ,
beam-forming and all modulation schemes QPSK, 16QAM and 64QAM. The
DL-SCH will support DRX and DTX on UE side to reduce power consumption of
end terminals.

MCH (Multicast Channel): The MCH is used for broadcast and multicast MBMS
services. It thus carries MTCH and MCCH. It will allow at least QPSK and
16QAM as modulation scheme, 64QAM is under investigation. Obviously HARQ
cannot be supported as MTCH/MCCH are point-to-multipoint channels. This
channel has a unique special property, as UEs are able to combine MCH
signals from different cells using the same frequency (MBSFN= Multicast
Broadcast Single Frequency Networks). In this case all MBSFN cells must
use the same MCH configuration and must be synchronized with each other.
In the uplink there are only two transport channel defined:

RACH (Random Access Channel): The RACH is used as initial access request
by the UE to the network. Currently it does not contain logical information, rather
the RACH is formed by a special layer 1 preamble that acts as a channel
request message. It is under investigation whether the RACH should be able to
carry logical channel information.

UL-SCH (UL Shared Channel): The UL-SCH is the only uplink transport channel
able to carry logical channel data. Thus CCCH, DTCH and DCCH run over this
channel. It supports HARQ and at least QPKS and 16QAM.

TM5117EN02GLA01
2010 Nokia Siemens Networks

LTE FDD and TDD Mode: Radio Channel Types

Transport
Transport Channel
Channel (TrCH)
(TrCH)
transfer
transfer characteristics:
characteristics:
delay,
delay, collision
collision risk;
risk;
supported
supported block
block sizes
sizes and
and number
number of
of blocks;
blocks;
support
support for
for HARQ;
HARQ;
support
support for
for beam-forming;
beam-forming;
support
support for
for DRX/DTX;
DRX/DTX;
coding
coding (reliability);
(reliability);
static
static || dynamic
dynamic resource
resource allocation;
allocation;
support
support for
for QPSK,
QPSK, 16QAM,
16QAM, 64QAM;
64QAM;

Downlink
Downlink TrCH
TrCH

Uplink
Uplink TrCH
TrCH

BCH
BCH

RACH
RACH
random
random access
access channel;
channel;
carries
carries no
no logical
logical channel;
channel;
only
only for
for initial
initial L1
L1 access
access
request;
request;

broadcast
broadcast channel;
channel;
carries
carries BCCH;
BCCH;

PCH
PCH

UL-SCH
UL-SCH

paging
paging channel;
channel;
carries
carries PCCH;
PCCH;

uplink
uplink shared
shared channel;
channel;
carries
carries CCCH,
CCCH, DCCH,
DCCH,
DTCH;
DTCH;
supports
supports HARQ;
HARQ;

MCH
MCH
multicast
multicast channel;
channel;
carries
carries MTCH,
MTCH, MCCH;
MCCH;

DL-SCH
DL-SCH
downlink
downlink shared
shared channel;
channel;
carries
carries DCCH,
DCCH, DTCH,
DTCH,
BCCH,
BCCH, MTCH,
MTCH, MCCH;
MCCH;
supports
supports HARQ;
HARQ;

Fig. 2 Transport channel types.

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TM5117 LTE AIR INTERFACE


2010 Nokia Siemens Networks

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LTE FDD and TDD Mode: Radio Channel Types

1.3

Physical Channel Types

The physical layer uses resource blocks (e.g. 12 subcarriers with 6 or 7 OFDM
symbols) to transmit binary coded information in QPKS, 16QAM or 64QAM or OOK
modulation form. Physical channels determine how data is processed and then
mapped via dynamical scheduling onto resource blocks. Thus physical channels also
in EUTRAN represent the available physical resources. Like transport channels, also
physical channels are unidirectional. There is usually a fixed linkage between
transport channel types and physical channel type used to transmit the transport
blocks. Next to the physical channels that are used to carry transport channels, there
are also physical channels that carry physical layer control data and physical signals
that are mainly used for synchronization and measurement purposes.
On the downlink side we have the following:

PBCH (Physical Broadcast Channel): The PBCH is the physical channel used to
carry BCH (BCCH), in other words on this channel the system information can
be found. It will use a fixed mapping onto resource blocks. There will be one
PBCH per cell.

PDSCH (Physical Downlink Shared Channel): The PDSCH can carry DL-SCH
or PCH. Thus this channel type will allocate most of the capacity in a cell. It is
still under investigation how many PDSCHs a cell can have and how many PCH
and DL-SCH a single PDSCH can carry.

PMCH (Physical Multicast Channel): This channel type is used to carry MCH. It
implements the option of MBSFN where a UE receives the PMCH from several
cells operating in the same area on the same frequency band. All the PMCH will
be jointly decoded by the UE. This would allow a UE to do cell re-selection
without interrupting MBMS services.

PDCCH (Physical Downlink Control Channel): This is a pure physical layer


control channel. It contains the scheduler signaling to inform the UEs about the
coming downlink (and maybe also uplink) resource block assignments to
PDSCH. The PDCCH will be sent in each subframe shortly before PDSCH
starts.

PCFICH (Physical Control Format Indicator Channel): The PCFICH is like the
PDCCH a pure physical layer control channel. It indicates how many OFDM
symbols are used to encode the PDCCH. So the order of decoding for a UE is
to read first the PCFICH to get the PDCCH format. Then the PDCCH is
decoded to find out which resource blocks to the PDSCH of interest for the UE.

DL Synchronization Signal: There are two DL synchronization signals - a


primary and a secondary one. Both consist of predefined code sequence to be
used for cell detection and initial time and frequency synchronization. Both
synchronization sequences are transmitted within slot 0 and slot 10 of each
radio frame (frame type 1). The synchronization signals always use 2 subcarrier
centered around the DC subcarrier. For the primary synchronization signal there
will be three distinct code sequences defined, which one is applicable for a cell
is determined by the cell identity. This can be used as some form of cell color
code to distinguish direct neighbors.

TM5117EN02GLA01
2010 Nokia Siemens Networks

LTE FDD and TDD Mode: Radio Channel Types

Physical
Physical Channels
Channels // Signals
Signals
set
set of
of OFDM/SC-FDMA
OFDM/SC-FDMA resource
resource elements;
elements;
carry
carry higher
higher layer
layer data
data (physical
(physical channel
channel PhyCH)
PhyCH) or
or
used
used internally
internally by
by L1
L1 (physical
(physical channel/signal);
channel/signal);

Downlink
Downlink PhyCH
PhyCH

Downlink
Downlink Signal
Signal

PBCH
PBCH

Uplink
Uplink Signals
Signals

DL
DL reference
reference signal
signal

PDSCH
PDSCH

pre-defined
pre-defined 2-dimensional
2-dimensional
orthogonal/pseudo-noise
orthogonal/pseudo-noise
sequence;
sequence;
used
used for
for DL
DL channel
channel
estimation,
estimation, demodulation;
demodulation;

phys.
phys. DL
DL shared
shared channel;
channel;
carries
carries PCH
PCH and
and DL-SCH;
DL-SCH;

DL
DL synch.
synch. signal
signal

physical
physical broadcast
broadcast ch.;
ch.;
carries
carries BCH
BCH (BCCH);
(BCCH);

Demodulation
Demodulation ref.
ref. signal
signal

phys.
phys. multicast
multicast channel;
channel;
carries
carries MCH;
MCH;

PUSCH
PUSCH

pre-defined
pre-defined sequence
sequence
sent
sent along
along with
with
PUSCH/PUCCH
PUSCH/PUCCH
used
used for
for uplink
uplink channel
channel
estimation,
estimation, demodulation;
demodulation;

phys.
phys. UL
UL shared
shared channel;
channel;
carries
carries UL-SCH;
UL-SCH;

PUCCH
PUCCH
phys.
phys. UL
UL control
control channel;
channel;
L1
L1 information
information

Sounding
Sounding ref.
ref. signal
signal

11 of
of 33 pre-defined
pre-defined
sequences
sequences (Zadoff-Chu);
(Zadoff-Chu);
associated
associated with
with cell-id;
cell-id;
used
used for
for cell
cell detection
detection and
and
initial
initial time/phase
time/phase synch.;
synch.;

PMCH
PMCH

Uplink
Uplink PhyCH
PhyCH

pre-defined
pre-defined (long)
(long)
sequence
sequence sent
sent alone;
alone;
used
used by
by NW
NW to
to optimize
optimize
channel
channel dependent
dependent
scheduling;
scheduling;

PRACH
PRACH
phys.
phys. random
random access
access
(channel);
(channel);
carries
RACH
(access
carries RACH (access
request
request preamble);
preamble);
[in
[in TS
TS 36.211
36.211 referenced
referenced
as
as signal,
signal, not
not as
as channel]
channel]

PDCCH
PDCCH
phys.
phys. DL
DL control
control channel;
channel;
L1
L1 control
control information
information
(scheduling
(scheduling assignments);
assignments);

PCFICH
PCFICH
phys.
phys. control
control format
format
indicator
indicator channel
channel
L1
L1 control
control information
information (no.
(no.
of
of ODFM
ODFM symbols
symbols used
used for
for
PDCCH);
PDCCH);

Fig. 3 Physical channel types.

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TM5117 LTE AIR INTERFACE


2010 Nokia Siemens Networks

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LTE FDD and TDD Mode: Radio Channel Types

DL Reference Signal: Reference signals allow coherent decoding and


permanently repeated channel estimation. Therefore in each slot (and each
resource block) some OFDM symbols are reserved for reference signals and
cannot be used for data transmission. The reference signals itself are created
from an orthogonal and a pseudo-noise sequence. This allows efficient channel
and phase detection at the receiver side.
In the uplink there some less physical channels defined:

PUSCH (Physical Uplink Shared Channel): The PUSCH is the major uplink
channel, because on it we will find the transport blocks of UL-SCH on which all
radio bearers uplink occur. Like PDSCH also the PUSCH is dynamically
assigned to uplink resource blocks. This happens via so called UL Assignments
which are not completely specified yet. The PUSCH supports DTX, HARQ and
at least QPSK and 16QAM. 64QAM is under investigation for this channel.

PUCCH (Physical Uplink Control Channel): This is a pure physical layer control
channel. One idea is to use this channel for UL capacity requests and HARQ
ACK/NACK indications by the UE as well as CQI (Carrier Quality Indication)
feedback information to optimize CDS and MIMO.

PRACH (Physical Random Access Channel): The PRACH carries the RACH.
Currently this means, that the PRACH simply transmits preamble sequences
that act as initial access request for UL and DL resources when the UE is
RRC_IDLE.

Demodulation Reference Signal: Some OFDM symbols of the resource block


assigned to PUCCH/PUSCH are reserved for the demodulation reference signal.
Like in downlink also here the reference signal is a predefined code sequence
that allows the eNB coherent decoding of the transmitted SC-FDMA signal. The
eNB derives from it phase and frequency correction, channel estimation and
time synchronization.

Sounding Reference Signal: The sounding reference signal is a very long


reference sequence that is transmitted by the UE only on explicit request by the
network. It is used for a very detailed channel estimation especially when MIMO
is in use. This information is required for efficient decoding, but also for efficient
channel dependent scheduling (CDS).

1.4

Multiplexing of Channels

The following figure summarizes the logical, transport and physical channels of
EUTRAN and their multiplexing. The multiplexing arrows are shown from point of
view of the UE.

10

TM5117EN02GLA01
2010 Nokia Siemens Networks

LTE FDD and TDD Mode: Radio Channel Types

LogCH

Physical

TrCH

DL
DL synch.
synch.
DL TrCH

DL
DL reference
reference

BCCH
BCCH

BCH
BCH

PBCH
PBCH

PCCH
PCCH

PCH
PCH

PDSCH
PDSCH

DL-SCH
DL-SCH

PDCCH
PDCCH

DCCH
DCCH

PCFICH
PCFICH

CCCH
CCCH
MCH
MCH

DTCH
DTCH

PMCH
PMCH

UL TrCH

MTCH
MTCH

UL-SCH
UL-SCH

MCCH
MCCH

PUSCH
PUSCH
PUCCH
PUCCH
Demod.
Demod. Ref.
Ref.

RACH
RACH

PRACH
PRACH

Sounding
Sounding Ref.
Ref.

Fig. 4 Multiplexing of channels.

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TM5117 LTE AIR INTERFACE


2010 Nokia Siemens Networks

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11

LTE FDD and TDD Mode: Radio Channel Types

12

TM5117EN02GLA01
2010 Nokia Siemens Networks