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The Joseph M. Bransten

Coffee and Tea Collection

'

A TREATISE

OJT

ADULTERATIONS OF FOOD,
AND
UotoonOt
EXHIBITING

FRAUDULENT SOPHISTICATIONS
OF

BREAD, BEER, WINE, SPIRITUOUS LIQUORS, TEA, COFFEE,


Cream, Confectionery, Vinegar, Mustard, Pepper, Cheese, Olive

AND OTHER ARTICLES EMPLOYED

Oil, Pickles,

IN DOMESTIC ECONOMV.

of tretetting tfjenu

ERE

IS

DEATH
IN THE
Kin6s C

77/E

IVTT.

SECOND EDITION.

BY FREDRICK ACCUM,
Operative Chemist, Lecturer on Practical Chemistry, Mineralogy, and on Chemistry
applied to the Arts and Manufactures ; Member of the Royal Irish Academy ;
Fellow of the Linnaean Society; Member of the Royal Academy of
Sciences, and of the Royal Society of Arts of Berlin, &c. &c.

31 outs on

OLD BY LONGMAN, HURST, REES, ORME, AND 'BROWN,


PATERNOSTER ROW.

1820.

TO

HIS GRACE
THE DUKE OF NORTHUMBERLAND.

MY LORD

DUKE,

The

interest

all occasions in

your Grace takes-on

promoting the application

of Chemical Philosophy
poses of

life,

to the useful

pur-

has emboldened me to lay

before you the present Treatise, which ori-

ginated in a suggestion of your Grace,


while cultivating the study ofExperimental

Chemistry in

Be

my

Laboratory.,

pleased,

My

Lord Duke,

to

accept this public testimony of profound

DEDICATION.

11

and veneration for your Grace's


exalted moral virtues and high intellectual
respect

endowments.

That

your Grace

through a long and happy

retain 9

may

life, the ardent

attachment to the pursuits of Philosophical


Chemistry, which has so greatly endeared

your renowned name

to the votaries

of that

important and useful branch of knowledge ^


is

the sincere wish oj}

MY LORD DUKE,
Your Grace's most devoted,

Humble

Servant,

FREDRICK
Old Compton Street, Soho.

January

the 19th,

1820.

preface
TO THE FIRST EDITION.

Old Compton

THIS

Treatise, as its title expresses,

to exhibit easy

of food,

classed either

luxuries of the table


their

is

intended

methods of detecting the fraudu-

lent adulterations
cles,

Street, Sola.

among
;

and

to

and of other artithe necessaries

or

put the unwary on

guard against the use of such commodities

as are contaminated with

substances deleterious

to health.

Every person

is

aware that bread, beer, wine,

PREFACE.

lr

and other substances employed in domestic econo-

my, are frequently met with


state

and the

in an adulterated

of numerous in-

late convictions

dividuals for counterfeiting and adulterating tea,


coffee, bread, beer,

pepper, and other articles of

diet, are still fresh in

To

the

memory

of the public.

such perfection of ingenuity has the system

of counterfeiting and adulterating various commodities of

life

arrived in this country, that spu-

rious articles are every

market,

made up

where

to be

found in the

so skilfully, as to elude the dis-

crimination of the most experienced judges.

But of

all

possible nefarious traffic

tion, practised

by mercenary

dealers, that of adul-

terating the articles intended for

human

ingredients deleterious to health,

minal, and, in the

and decep-

is

food with

the most cri-

mind of every honet man, must

excite feelings of regret

and

disgust.

Numerous

PREFACE.

facts are

on record, of human food, contaminated

with poisonous ingredients, having been vended


to the public
tragical

and the annals of medicine record


such

events ensuing from the use of

food.

The eagar and insatiable


against prohibitions and
sible

sacrifice

secondary

thirst for gain, is

penalties

of a fellow-creature's

consideration

proof

and the pos-

among

life,

is

unprincipled

dealers.

However

invidious the office

however painful the duty


the names of individuals,
victed of adulterating food
for the

verification

of

my

may

appear, and

may be of exposing
who have been conyet

it

was necessary,

statement,

should be adduced in their support

that cases

and

carefully avoided citing any, except those

are authenticated in

have

which

Parliamentary documents

and other public records.

PREFACE*

Tl

To

render this Treatise

still

more

useful, I

have also animadverted on certain material errors,


sometimes unconsciously committed through accident or ignorance, in private families, during

the preparation of various articles of food, and of


delicacies for the table.

In stating the experimental proceedings necesary for the detection of the frauds which

been my object to expose,

it

has

have confined myself

to the task of pointing out such operations only

may be performed by

as

with

chemical

persons unacquainted

science; and

it

has been

purpose to express all necessary rules

my

and instruc-

tions in the plainest language, divested of those

recondite terms of science, which

would be out

of place in a work intended for general perusal.

The
swered,

design of the Treatise will be fully anif

the views here given should induce a

PREFACE.

Vll

single reader to pursue the object for


is

published ; or if

the

mind of

which, in
alarming,

it

which

it

should tend to impress on

the Public the magnitude of an evil,

many cases,
that we may

prevails to an extent so

exclaim, with the sons of

the Prophet,

"

TO&m

to Heat?)

m t&* pot/'

For the abolition of such nefarious


is

the interest of

all classes

practices,

it

of the community to

co-operate.

FREDRICK ACCUM.

LONDON,
1820.

ADVERTISEMENT
TO
ISttitfoiu

THE

thousand copies of the

sale of one

Treatise on the Adulterations of Food, within

one month after


sufficient

publication, has been a

inducement

Several
the edition

additions

milk

to reprint the

will

work.

have been made

now presented

among which
tion of

its

to the

to

reader;

be noticed, the adultera-

of cinnamon

of isinglass

of

Spanish liquorice juice, and of several other


articles

employed

in

housekeeping, with the

A 5

ADVERTISEMENT.

methods of detecting the

frauds.

Some

animadversions have also been made on the


disgusting practice

meat and

fish

of inflating butchers'

and on the frauds committed

in the coal trade.

embrace

this opportunity of offering

my

public expression of thanks for the flattering

compliments which

have received from

numerous individuals of high rank and dignified station, and from other distinguished
persons,

whose opinion and judgment

spect.

To

mously

to

I re-

who have chosen anonytransmit to me their opinion


those

concerning this book, together with their


maledictions, I have

may rest
in

little to

say

but they

assured, that their menaces will

no way prevent

me

from endeavour-

ing to put the unwary on their guard against


Ihe frauds of dishonest

men, wherever they

ADVERTISEMENT.

may

originate

XI

and those assailants

bush are hereby informed,

that, in

in

am-

every

succeeding edition of the work, I shall continue to

hand down

to posterity the

which justly attaches


dishonest dealers,

to

infamy

the knaves and

who have been

convicted

at the

bar of Public Justice of rendering

human

food deleterious to health.

FREDRICK ACCUM,

Compton-streetj Soho,
April 1820.

CONTENTS.

PRELIMINARY REMARKS ON
THE ADULTERATIONS OF
FOOD
and method

15

of detecting them
Adulteration of Peruvian

Adulteration

DRUGS

ADULTERATIONS OF

AND MEDICINES,

Page

Bark

....

16

of Rhubard Powder,
17

Ipecacuanha, $c
Adulteration of Spirit of Hartshorn,

and method of detecting

it

19

Adulteration of Magnesia, and me*

thod of detecting

20

it

Adulteration of Calcined Magnesia,

and method of detecting

it

21

CONTENTS.

XIV

Adulteration of Calomel, and method

of detecting

it

22

Adulteration of Syrup of Buckthorn,

Worm-Seed, and Arrow Root Powder

ib.

Adulteration of Essential Oils, and

methods of detecting

it

ADULTERATION OF PAINTERS'
COLOURS, and methods of detecting

26

it

Adulteration

of Ultramarine, and

method of detecting

27

it

Adulteration of Carmine, and method

of detecting

it

ib.

Adulteration of Madder and Carmine

Lake, and method of detecting

it

..

ib.

Adulteration of Antwerp Blue, and

method of detecting

it

ib.

XV

CONTENTS.

Page

Adulteration of Chrome Yellow, and

method of detecting

ib.

it

Adulteration of White Lead,

method of detecting

and
ib.

it

Adulteration of Vermillion, and me-

thod of detecting

ib.

it

ADULTERATION OF VARIOUS
ARTICLES USED IN HOUSEKEEPING

29

Adulteration of Soap, $c

ib.

FRAUDS PRACTISED
COAL TRADE

IN

THE

DISGUSTING PRACTICE OF
RENDERING BUTCHERS'
MEAT, FISH, AND POULTRY,
UNWHOLESOME

31

36

General Remarks on the Adulteration

of Food

41

CONTENTS*

XVI

Page

IMPORTANCE OF THE PURITY


OF WATER EMPLOYED IN
DOMESTIC ECONOMY

43

Characters of Good Water

49

Easy method of curing Hard Water

5"2

Chemical Constitution of the Waters


used in Domestic Econony and the

53

Arts

Rain Water

ib.

Snow

54

Water..

Spring Water

56

River Water

60

Thames Water

62

Substances usually contained in Com-

mon Water, and

Tests by which

they are detected

66

Deleterious Effects of keeping Water

for Domestic Economy,


Reservoirs

r%

Method of detecting Lead

in

Leaden
;

in Water..

74

86

CONTENTS.

XV11
Page

ADULTERATION OF WINE

92

Crusting of Wine Bottles, and other


nefarious Artifices committed by

fraudulent Wine Merchants

96

Dangerous Adulteration of Wine with


102

poisonous Substances

Accidental Impregnation

of Wine

with Lead.
Test for

105

detecting the deleterious

Adulterations of Wine

Method of
lours in

108

detecting extraneous Co-

Red

Ill

Wine....

Specific Differences

offoreign Wines

of various kinds
,

113

Chemical Constitution and Component


Parts of Wine.

115

CONTENTS.

XVJii

Page

Method of ascertaining the Quantity


of Spirit contained in various

sorts

of Wine

117

Per Cent age of Alcohol contained in


various kinds of Wine, and other
120

fermented Liquors
Chemical Constitution of Home-made

Wines

122

ADULTERATION OF BREAD
Adulteration of

125

Bread with Alum.

Adulteration of Bread with Potatoes

Method of detecting

Alum

the presence

127

133

of

in Bread.

139

Method of judging of the Goodness


of Breads-Corn and Bread- Flour.

142

ADULTERATION OF BEER

145

Early practice of adulterating Beer


with Substances noxious
tind rapid Progress

to

of this

Health,

Fraud.

148

CONTENTS.
Page

Druggists

and Grocers prosecuted

and convictedfor supplying illegal


Ingredients to Brewersfor adulterating Beer

158

Remarks on Porter*

161

Strength and Specific Differences of


different kinds

166

of Porter

of Publicans prosecuted and


convicted for adulterating Beer

List

with illegal Ingredients, and for

mixing

Table

Beer

with

their

Strong Beer

171

Fraudulent Practice of adulterating

Beer with substances not

deleteri-

173

ous to health

Illegal Ingredients seized at various

Breweries and Brewers' Druggists

181

Adulteration of Strong Beer with

Small Beer..

185

XX

CONTENTS.
Pagt

List of Brewers prosecuted

and con-

victedfor adulterating Strong Beer

with Table Beer

189

Remarks with regard to

the Origin

of

the Beer catted Porter

Composition of Old or EntireBeer.

191

194

Fraudulent Practice of converting

New Beer into Old or Entire Beer

196

Fraudulent Practice of increasing


the intoxicating quality

of Beer...

199

Brewers prosecuted and convicted

for receiving and using

illegal In-

gredients in their Brewings

201

Method of detecting the Adulteration


207

of Beer

Method of ascertaining
of Spirit contained
or other kinds

the Quantity

in Porter, Ale,

of Malt

Liquors....

209

CONTENTS.

XXi

Per Centage of Alcohol contained


Porter, Ale, and other

in

kinds of

Malt Liquors

211

COUNTERFEIT TEA-LEAVES
List of Grocers prosecuted

...

and con-

victedfor adulterating Tea

Method of
tions

230

detecting the Adultera-

of Tea-Leaves

COUNTERFEIT COFFEE
List of Grocers
Solicitor

213

231

238

prosecuted by the

of the Excise and con-

victed for adulterating Coffee

241

ADULTERATION OF BRANDY,
RUM, AND GIN
Method of
tions

Spirit

249

detecting the Adultera-

of Brandy, Rum, and Malt


261

Method of detecting the Presence of


Lead in Spirituous Liquors
272

CONTENTS.

XXli

Page

Method of ascertaining
of Alcohol

in

the Quantity

different

kinds of

273

Spirituous Liquors

Per Centage of Alcohol contained in


various kinds of Spirituous Liquors

275

POISONOUS CHEESE, and method


of detecting

276

it

COUNTERFEIT PEPPER, and method of detecting

284

it

White Pepper^ and method of manufacturing

290

it

POISONOUS CAYENNE PEPPER,


and method of detecting

292

it

POISONOUS PICKLES, and

me-

thod of detecting them

295

ADULTERATION OF VINEGAR,
and method of detecting
Distilled Vinegar

it....

299
300

CONTENTS.

Page

ADULTERATION OF

CREAM,

and method of detecting

POISONOUS

XXlli

302

it

CONFECTIONERY,

and method of detecting

305

it

POISONOUS CATSUP, and method


of detecting

309

it

ADULTERATION OF LOZENGES,
and method of detecting

POISONOUS OLIVE
thod of detecting

314

it

OIL, and me-

318

it

ADULTERATION

LEMON

OF

ACID, and method of detecting

it

321

POISONOUS SODA WATER, and


method of detecting

it.....

324

POISONOUS ANCHOVY SAUCE,


and method of detecting

it

POISONOUS CUSTARD..,

325
328

CONTENTS.

xxir

Page

POISONOUS MUSHROOMS

332

Mushroom Catsup

338

ADULTERATION OF MILK,
method of detecting

and
340

it

ADULTERATION OF ISINGLASS,
342

and method of detecting it

ADULTERATION OF CINNAMON,
and method of detecting it

344

ADULTERATION OF MUSTARD

346

ADULTERATION OF SPANISH
LIQUORICE

548

FOOD POISONED BY COPPER


VESSELS, and method of
ing

detect-

350

it

FOOD POISONED BY LEADEN


VESSELS, <ind method of
ing

it

detect-

357

TREATISE
ON

ADULTERATIONS OF FOOD,
AND

PRELIMINARY REMARKS
ox

THE ADULTERATIONS OF FOOD.


OF

all

the frauds practised

dealers, there

and

at the

is

by mercenary

none more reprehensible,

same time more prevalent, than

the sophistication of the various articles of


food.

This unprincipled and nefarious practice,


increasing in degree as

it

has been found

PRELIMINARY REMARKS.

2
difficult

of detection,

is

now

applied to al-

most every commodity which can be classed

among

either the necessaries or the luxu-

ries of life,

and

alarming extent

is

in

carried on to a most

every part of the United

Kingdom.
It

has been pursued by men, who, from

the magnitude and apparent respectability

of their concerns, would be the least ob-

noxious to public suspicion


has

and

called

their suc-

from

cessful

example

among

the retail dealers, a multitude of

forth,

competitors in the same iniquitous course.

To such

perfection of ingenuity has this

system of adulterating food arrived, that


spurious articles of various kinds are every

where

to

be found, made up so

skilfully as

to baffle the discrimination of the

perienced judges

most ex-

PRELIMINARY REMARKS.

Among the number

of substances used in

domestic economy which are

now very ge-

nerally found sophisticated,

may be

coffee, bread, beer,

tea,

tinguished

spirituous liquors, salad

oil,

dis-

wine,

pepper, vine-

gar, mustard, cream, comfitures, catsup,

and

other articles of diet and luxury.

Indeed,

it

would be

difficult to

single article of food which

with in an adulterated state

some

is

mention a

not to be

met

and there are

substances which are scarcely ever to

be procured genuine.

Some

of these spurious

comparatively harmless

and

as in these cases

compounds are

when used

and genuine ingredients, the


it

may

affect

injure our health.

merely substances of

inferior value are substituted for

though

as food

sophistication,

our purse, does not

Of this kind
B 2

more costly

are the

ma-

PRELIMINARY REMARKS.

nufacture of factitious pepper, the adulterations of

mustard,

vinegar,

&c

cream,

Others, however, are highly deleterious

and

belong the adulterations of

to this class

beer, wines, spirituous liquors, pickles, sa-

lad

oil,

and many others.

There are particular chemists who make


it

a regular trade to supply drugs or nefa-

rious preparations to the unprincipled brewer

of porter and ale


office to the

others perform the

wine and

spirit

merchant

same
;

and

others again to the grocer and the oilman.

The

operators

carry

chiefly in secrecy,

on

processes

and under some delusive

firm, with the ostensible


fair

their

denotements of a

and lawful establishment.

These

illicit

pursuits have assumed all

the order and method of a regular trade

thqy may

severally claim to be distinguished

PRELIMINARY REMARKS.

and mystery ; for the workmen


employed in them are often wholly igno-

as an art

which

rant of the nature of the substances

pass through their hands, and of the pur-

poses to which they are ultimately applied.

To elude

the vigilance of the inquisitive,

to defeat the scrutiny of the

and

to

revenue

officer,

ensure the secrecy of these mys-

teries, the

processes are very ingeniously

divided and subdivided


operators,

among

individual

and the manufacture is purposely

carried on in separate establishments.

The

task of proportioning the ingredients for use


is

assigned to one individual, while the com-

position

and preparation of them may be

said to form a distinct part of the business,

and

is

entrusted to another workman.

Most

of the articles are transmitted to the con-

sumer

in a disguised state, or in

such a form

PRELIMINARY REMARKS*

that their real nature

detected

cannot possibly be

by the unwary.

Thus the poison-

ous extract of cocculus indicus, employed

by fraudulent manufacturers of malt-liquors


to impart an intoxicating quality to porter

or ale,

is

known

in the

of black extract;

market by the name

and another poisonous

substance, technically called multum, com-

posed of extract of gentian


juice,

root, liquorice

and extract of cocculus indicus,

is

used by fraudulent brewers to economise


malt and hops.

The

quantities of cocculus indicus berries,

as well as of black extract, imported into


this

country for adulterating malt liquors,

^re

enormous.

It

branch of commerce

forms a considerable
in the

brokers : yet, singular as

hands of a few
it

may

seem, no

inquiry appears to have been hitherto

made

PRELIMINARY REMARKS.

by the

officers of the

application.

ployed

its

other substances em-

in the adulteration of bread, wine,

and spirituous

beer, ale,
similar

Many

revenue respecting

liquors, are in a

manner intentionally disguised

and

by whom they are purchased,


number are unacquainted with their

of the persons
reat

composition.

act,

said to be innocent, sold at

from half a cwt.

fay at a time than


rt.

name of

no

by brewers' druggists, under the

bittern,

is

composed of calcined

sulphate of iron (copperas), extract of cocculus indicus berries, extract


root,

and Spanish liquorice

called beer heading,

and green
It

is

of gentian

and the

article

composed of alum

vitriol.

would be very easy

to

adduce, in sup-

port of these remarks, the testimony of nu-

PRELIMINARY REMARKS.

merous individuals, by

engaged

professionally

mixtures, said to

which are used


tories of the

be

whom
to

have been

examine certain

perfectly innocent,

manufac-

in very extensive

above description.

Indeed,

during the long period devoted to the practice of

my profession,

I have

had abundant

number

reason to be convinced that a vast

of dealers, of the highest respectability,

have vended

to

their customers articles

absolutely poisonous, which


selves considered as harmless,

they

them-

and which

they would not have offered for

sale,

had

they been apprised of the spurious and pernicious nature of the compounds, and of the

purposes to which they were destined.

For instance, I have known cases

in

which

brandy merchants were not aware that the


substance

which

they

frequently

pur-

PRELIMINARY REMARKS.
chase under the delusie

name

of jtash, for

strengthening and clarifying spirituous


quors, and which

is

li-

held out as consisting

of burnt sugar and isinglass only, in the

form of an extract,

is in

reality a

of sugar with extract of capsicum


to the acrid
is

capsicum

and pungent
to

compound
;

and that

qualities of the

be ascribed the heightened

flavour of brandy

and rum, when coloured

with the above-mentioned matter.

In other cases the ale-brewer has been

supplied with ground coriander-seeds, pre-

mixed with a portion of ground nux

viously

vomica, under the delusive name of Faba


to give a narcotic property to the

amara,

beverage.
It is

a painful reflection, that the division

of labour which has been so instrumental in

bringing the manufactures of this country


to their

present flourishing state, should

PRELIMINARY REMARKS.

10

have also tended

to conceal

and

facilitate

the fraudulent practices in question; and


that

from a correspondent ramification of

commerce

into

multitude

of

distinct

branches, particularly in the metropolis and


the large towns of the empire, the traffic in

adulterated commodities should find

through so

many

defy the most


trace
It

its

way

circuitous channels, as to

scrutinizing

endeavour

to

it

to its source.

is

not less lamentable that the exten-

sive application of chemistry to the useful

purposes of life, should have been perverted


into an auxiliary to this

nefarious

But, happily for the science,

it

traffic.

may, with-

out difficulty, be converted into a means of

detecting the abuse


little

chemical

to effect which, very

skill is

required;

and the

course to be pursued forms the object of the


following pages.

PRELIMINARY REMARKS.

The baker
alum
in

into

he does not put

asserts that

bread

but he

11

is

well aware that,

purchasing a certain quantity of half

must take a sack of sharp

spoiled flour, he
ivhites (a

term given

to flour

contaminated

with a quantity of alum), without which

would be impossible
light, white,

for

him

to

it

produce

and porous bread, from a

half-

spoiled material.

The wholesale mealman frequently purchases

this

commodity, (which

spurious

forms a separate branch of business in the

hands of certain individuals,)


enable himself to

sell his

in order to

decayed

flour.

Other individuals furnish the baker with

alum mixed up with


denomination of

salt,

stuff.

under the obscure

There are wholesale

manufacturing chemists, whose sole business

is

to crystallise

alum, in such a form

as will adapt this salt to the


purpose of be-

B6

12

PRELIMINARY REMARKS.

iug mixed in a crystalline state with the

common

of

crystals

salt,

to

character of the compound.


called stuffi

alum, in

mon
In

disguise

the

The mixture

composed of one part of


minute crystals, and three of comis

salt.

many

other trades a similar

proceeding prevails.
phisticating the

reduced

The

mode

of

practice of so-

necessaries of

life,

to systematic regularity,

is

being

ranked

by public opinion among other mercantile


pursuits ; and is not only regarded with
less

disgust than formerly, but

is

generally esteemed as a justifiable

almost

way

to

wealth.
It is

law

is

really astonishing that the

penal

not more effectually enforced against

practices so inimical to the public welfare*

The man who robs a


shillings

fellow subject of a few

on the high-way,

is

sentenced to

PRELIMINARY REMARKS.
death, while he

who

13

slow

distributes

poison to a whole community, escapes un-

punished.
It

has been urged by some, that, under

so vast a system of finance as that of Great


Britain,

is

it

expedient that the revenue

should be collected in large amounts

and

therefore that the severity of the law should

be relaxed in favour of

all

mercantile con-

cerns in proportion to their extent

ragement must be given

encou-

to large capitalists

and where an extensive brewery or

distil-

lery yields an important contribution to the

revenue, no
in

strict

scrutiny need be adopted

regard to the quality of the article from

which such contribution


the excise

is

raised,

provided

and customs do not

suffer by the

of the

constitution

fraud.

But the

principles

PRELIMINARY REMARKS.

14

no sanction

afford

and the

to this preference,

true interests of the country require that

should be abolished

for a tax

upon deception must be


and must
the

Sound

diffusion

of

by

knowledge.

policy requires that the law should

be impartially enforced
its

dependant

at best precarious,

be, sooner or later, diminished

irresistible

it

in all cases

and

if

penalties were extended to abuses of

which
there

it

is

does not

now

take

cognizance,

no doubt that the revenue would be

abundantly benefitted.

Thus devoted

to disease

by baker, brewer,

grocer, wine merchant, &c. the physician


called to our assistance
s'hall

is

but here again, as I

state presently, the pernicious

system

has given the blow, steps in

of fraud, as

it

to defeat the

remedy.

ADULTERATIONS
OF

And Methods of detecting them.

THE

species of fraud to which I shall

now but

briefly advert,

and which has

in-

creased to so alarming an extent, that

loudly calls for the

vernment,

is

interference

of

it

Go-

the adulteration of drugs and

medicines.

Nine tenths of the most potent drugs and


chemical preparations used in pharmacy, are

vended

in a sophisticated state

who would be

by dealers

the last to be suspected.

16

ADULTERATION OF

ADULTERATION OF PERUVIAN BARK.


IT

is

well known, that of the

ruvian bark there

is

genuine

mination

exercised

this precious

green hides;

that too

by

medicament
and

lessly assorted,

that

of Pe-

a variety of species in-

ferior to the
is

article,

is

little discri-

the collectors of
that

it

is

care-

frequently packed in

much

of

it

Spain in a half-decayed state,

arrives in

mixed with

fragments of other vegetables and various


extraneous substances

and

in this state

is

distributed throughout Europe.

But, as

if this

were not a

sufficient dete-

rioration, the public are often served with

a spurious compound of mahogany sawdust

and oak wood, ground

into

powder, mixed

with a proportion of good quinquina, and


sold as genuine bark powder.

DRUGS AND MEDICINES.


Every chemist knows
constantly at
furnish bark

work

17

that there are mills

in this metropolis,

powder

at a

which

much cheaper

rate

than the substance can be procured for in


its

natural state.

The

price of the best ge-

nuine bark, upon an average,

is

not lower

than twelve shillings the pound; but im-

mense

quantities of

powder bark are sup-

plied to the apothecaries at three or four


shillings a

pound.

There

is

no ready test

for detecting the fraud.

ADULTERATION OF RHUBARB POWDER,


IPECACUANHA, &C.
IT

is

also notorious that there are

ma-

nufacturers of spurious rhubarb powder,

ipecacuanha powder*, James's powder, and


*

Of

this root, several varieties are

imported.

The

18

ADULTERATION OF

other simple and

great potency,

compound medicines of

who

carry on their diabolical

trade on an amazingly large scale.

Indeed,

the quantity of medical preparations thus


sophisticated exceeds belief.

Cheapness,

and not genuineness and excellence,

is

the

grand desideratum with the unprincipled


dealers in drugs and medicines.

Those who are familiar with chemistry

may

easily convince themselves of the ex-

istence of the fraud,

by subjecting

to a che-

mical examination either spirits of hartshorn,

white

sort,

which has no wrinkles, and no perceptible

bitterness in taste,

and which, though taken

dose, has scarcely any effect at

verised

a large

by fraudulent druggists, and mixed with a

portion of emetic tartar,

powder

in

all, after being pul-

is

sold at a

low

of genuine ipecacuanha root.

ready method known

to detect the fraud.

price, for the

There

is

no

19

DRUGS AND MEDICINES.

or
magnesia, calcined magnesia, calomel,
in general

any other chemical preparation

demand.

ADULTERATION OF SPIRIT OF
HARTSHORN,

And Method of
SPIRIT of hartshorn

detecting
is

it.

counterfeited

mixing liquid caustic ammonia with the


tilled

its

dis-

to increase the

spirit of hartshorn,

pungency of

by

odour, and to enable

it

to

bear an addition of water.

The fraud

is

detected by adding spirit of

wine to the sophisticated

spirit

for, if

no

considerable coagulation ensues, the adulteration

is

proved.

It

vered by the hartshorn


a brisk effervescence
riatic or nitric acid.

may

also be disco-

spirit not

producing

when mixed with mu-

ADULTERATION OF

20

ADULTERATION OF MAGNESIA,
And Method of detecting it.
MAGNESIA

usually contains a portion of

lime, originating from hard water being used

instead of soft, in the preparation of this

me-

dicine.

To

ascertain the purity of magnesia,

to a portion of

it

little

luted with ten times

its

add

sulphuric acid, di-

bulk of water.

If

the magnesia be completely soluble, and


the solution remains transparent,

it

may be

pronounced pure; but not otherwise.

Or,

dissolve a portion of the magnesia in muriatic acid,

and add a solution of sub-carbo-

nate of ammonia.
it

If

any lime be present,

will form a precipitate

magnesia

will

remain

whereas pure

in solution.

DRUGS AND MEDICINES.

21

ADULTERATION OF CALCINED
MAGNESIA,

And Method of
CALCINED magnesia
in a

pure

same

state.

tests as

ought not

It

the

detecting
is

seldom met with

may be
common

assayed by the
magnesia.

to effervesce at all,

sulphuric acid

and,

if

it.

It

with dilute

the magnesia and

acid be put together into one scale of a balance, no diminution of weight should ensue

on mixing them together.


however,

nesia,
to

be

is

Calcined mag-

very seldom so pure as

totally dissolved

by diluted sulphuric

acid; for a small insoluble residue generally

remains, consisting chiefly of silicious earth,

derived from the alkali employed in the


preparation of
ric acid,

afford

when

it.

The

solution in sulphu-

largely diluted, ought not to

any precipitation by the addition of

oxalate of ammonia.

22

ADULTERATION OF

ADULTERATION OF CALOMEL,
And Method of detecting it.
THE genuineness

of calomel

may be

as-

certained by boiling, for a few minutes, one


part with

^ part of muriate

ten parts of distilled water.

nate of potash
tion,

is

added

of

ammonia

When

in

carbo-

to the filtered solu-

no precipitation will ensue

if

the calo-

mel be pure.

ADULTERATION OF SYRUP OF BUCKTHORN, WORM-SEED, AND ARROWROOT POWDER.


SYRXJP of buckthorn, for example, instead
of being prepared from the juice of buck-

thorn berries,(V h amnus catharticns,) is made

from the

fruit

of the blackberry bearing

DRUGS
alder,

23

ANI} MEDICINES.

and the dogberry

tree,

A mixture

of

the berries of the buckthorn and blackberry


bearing" alder,

and of the dogberry

may be seen publicly exposed

tree,

for sale

by

some of the venders of medicinal herbs.


This abuse
the berries

may be
:

discovered by opening

those of buckthorn have almost

always four seeds; of the alder, two; and


of the dogberry, only one.
ries,

Buckthorn ber-

bruised on white paper, stain

green colour,

There

is

which

the

other

it

do

of a
not.

no method of detecting the ge-

nuineness of the buckthorn syrup.


Instead of

worm-seed [arlemisia san-

tonica~\ the seeds of tansey are frequently

offered for sale, or a mixture of both.

Most of the arrow-root, the fecula of the


maranta arudinacea, sold by druggists,

is

mixture of potatoe starch and arrow-root.

ADULTERATION OF

24

ADULTERATION OF ESSENTIAL

OILS,

And Methods of

detecting them.

GREAT many of

the essential oils ob-

tained from the more expensive spices, are

frequently so

much

adulterated, that

not easy to meet with such as are at


for use

readily detected.

oils,

if

Thus,

milky on the addition of water

tile,

all fit

The grosser abuses, indeed,

be adulterated with alcohol,

pressed

is

nor are these adulterations easily

discoverable.

may be

it

oil

will turn

it

if

the

with ex-

alcohol will dissolve the vola-

and leave the other behind

if

with

oil

of turpentine, on dipping a piece of paper


in the mixture,

and drying

heat, the turpentine will


its

smell.

The more

it

with a gentle

be betrayed by

subtle artists*

bow-

DRUGS AND MEDICINES.


ever,

25

have contrived other methods of so-

phistication,

which elude

all trials.

And as

agree in their general pro-

all volatile oils

perties of solubility in spirit of wine,

and

volatility in the heat of boiling water,

&c.

plain that they

it is

may be

variously

mixed

with each other, or the dearer sophisticated


with the cheaper, without any possibility of
discovering the abuse by any of the before-

mentioned

taste are the only certain

the smell and


tests of

Perfumers assert that

trials.

which the nature of the thing will

admit.

For example,

if

a bark should have

every respect the appearance of good

in

cinnamon, and should be proved indisputably to be the genuine bark of the cinna-

mon

tree

yet

vour, or has
it

it

if it

want the cinnamon

but in a low degree,

and the case

is

fla-

we reject

the same with the essen-

26

ADULTERATION OF
of cinnamon.

only from use

tial

oil

and

habit, or comparisons with specimens

of known quality, that

It is

we

can judg

of the

goodness, either of the drugs themselves, or


of their

oils.

ADULTERATION OF COLOURS
USED IN PAINTING,
Jlnd Methods of detecting them.
PAINTERS' colours, not only those used
by artists, such as ultramarine, carmine,

and

lake, Antwerp blue,

chrome yellow, and

Indian ink; but also the coarser colours used

by the common house-painter,


less adulterated.

white lead

is

Thus, of the

are

more or

latter kind,

mixed with carbonate

or sul-

phate of barytes ; vermillion with red lead.

PAINTERS' COLOURS.

The following

hints

may

27

serve to detect

these frauds.
if

Ultramarine,

genuine, should speedily

become deprived of

its

colour

when thrown

into concentrated nitric acid.

Carmine should be
liquid

ammonia.

vermillion.

by

It is

soluble in

totally

mixed with

often

This substance

is

not acted on

liquid.

Madder and carmine


totally soluble

by

should be

lakes

boiling in concentrated

solution of soda or potash.

Antwerp
prived of

its

blue should not

colour

become de-

when thrown

into liquid

chlorine.

Chrome yellow should not effervesce with


nitric acid.

Indian Ink ; the best kind breaks splin-

c2

28 ADULTERATION OF PAINTERS COLOURS.


tery, with

a smooth glossy fracture, and

feels

and not

soft,

gritty,

when rubbed

against the teeth.

in

White lead should be completely soluble


nitric acid, and the solution should re-

main transparent when mingled with a

so-

lution of sulphate of soda,

Vermillion should become totally volatilized


it

on being exposed

to a red heat

should impart a red colour to

wine,

when

digested with

it.

and

spirit

of

OP

VARIOUS ARTICLES
USED IN HOUSEKEEPING.

SOAP, POTATOES, BUTTER, PAPER,


&C.

THE

fraud

may be

detected by pouring"

upon one part of the suspected soap,


duced to thin shavings,

six parts,

re-

by weight,

of rectified spirit of wine; and, suffering


the mixture to stand in a slightly stopped
bottle in a

warm

place, the soap, if genuine,

c 3

30 ADULTERATION OF VARIOUS ARTICLES


will

become dissolved

but

if

adulterated

with clay, this substance will be

left

be-

hind.

Potatoes are soaked in water to augment


their weight.,

The

inferior sorts of butter are frequently

adulterated with hogs' lard.

In the manufacture of printing paper, a


large quantity of plaster of Paris

added

to the

paper

cloth

permanent colour, and


the edge of cloth

is

often

to increase the

stuff,

weight of the manufactured

The selvage of

is

article.

often

dyed with a

artfully stitched to

dyed

with a fugitive

dye.

The frauds committed


skins,

and

in

in the

tanning of

the manufacture of cutlery

and jewellery, exceed

belief,

USED

IN

HOUSEKEEPING.

FRAUDS PRACTISED

IN

31

THE GOAL TRADE,

" IN coal sheds the measure as well as


the mixing one kind of coal with another
often scandalous*; for the

is

Act of Parliament

does not take the least notice of the small


measures.

It is

known

fact

when

a frau-

dulent dealer orders in a room of coals, for

every chaldron of 36 bushels,

send them out

at

if

he does not

the rate of 42 bushels

again, he will be dissatisfied with his

This

sure.

is

mea-

extremely hard upon the

lower class of people,

who

are only able to

purchase a peck, or half a peck, at a time

and

let the

measure be ever so bad, they

have no means of redress.

Eddington on the Coal Trade,

c 4

p. 94.

FRAUDS PRACTISED

32

" With
regard to the measure of coal, as
offered in the market,
that

many

it

may be remarked

coal -merchants will promise to

give 68 sacks to a room

but here

it

should

be observed, that much depends on the size

and shape,

or, as

of the coal,

viz.

called, the

it is

roundness

any of the Wall's End,

Wellington, Benton,Heaton, Hebron, Percy,

Main, Cowper, Blyth, and Hartley, being


put on board of ships

in large

masses and

blocks, round as out of the mine


tain, that, in

all

it is

cer-

every room of five chaldron

and a half the ingrain, when the round are


broken, every room will measure out from
to

chaldron again."

Mr. Edington observes, that " the difference is so great between round coals, with
regard to absolute quantity, and small

and dry

coals, that

damp

no means can be ob-

IN

THE COAL TRADE.

33

tained to correct and prevent abuse.


if

a vat of Wall's

End

coals be

Thus*

measured

from the ship, such measure as the meter


gives,

turn over the vat, and break the

round coals

them out

to the size the

to his customers,

and

vat again,

it

will

merchant sends
then

fill

up the

be found to over-run

a bushel, more or less according to the

Secondly, a score

roundness of the coal.

measured out of Wall's End coals


pool, into a

in

is

the

barge having four rooms, each

containing five chaldrons and a half the ingrain

no sooner does the barge arrive at

the wharf, than the round coals are broken,

and,

if

very dry, the coals being wetted, will

increase in bulk; nor


satisfied if

is

the coal merchant

he does not by this practice send

out from six to six and a quarter, or even


six

and a

half,

chaldron from each room,


c 5

FRAUDS PRACTISED

34

" The loss in the use of small coals

who

considerable to the poor,


large

fires.

When

fast or dinner, the

limited;

and

to

is

more

cannot keep

they want their breaktime they can spare

is

have their water sooner

boiling, or their meals quicker ready, they

must make use of the poker, and


great deal of coal.

lose a

Hence more bright

coal

goes to the dust-hole of the poor man, than


to the dust-hole of a rich family, where, the
fire

being large, the small coal has more

chance of burning.
"

The

loss is still greater to the poor, in

consequence of the inferior sorts of coal

which are sold


sort,

it

to

them.

ful

the

if

burns too slow, and


;

it

is

the light

burns too quick, and they consume

double the quantity


it

If

great quantity of

is

strong sort,

nearly as waste-

it

then

goes

to

IN

the dust-hole

THE COAL TRADE.


without

35

being lighted

at

all.

"

An

incorrect opinion

is

often

enter-

tained, that the real quantity of coal con-

tained in a sack

is

lessened by separating

or screening the small from the round coals

but

we must

body

recollect, that

occupies less

space than

any compact
is

required to

contain the same matter, reduced to smaller


irregular pieces, or to powder.

Now

the

screening only takes away the finest dusty


part of the coals, and admits more small
pieces of round coals to be filled into the

sack."

c6

36 DISGUSTING PRACTICE OF RENDERING

DISGUSTING PRACTICE OF RENDERING BUTCHER'S MEAT, FISH, AND

POULTRY, UNWHOLESOME.
THE abominable custom daily practised of
blowing, as

it is

technically called, or inflat-

ing butchers' meat, especially the joints of


veal and Iamb, with

from the lungs,


glistening,

is

to

the breath respired

make

it

appear white and

a practice which claims the in-

terference of the Magistrates.

This detestable custom unquestionably

renders meat not only unfit for keeping, but

unwholesome

likewise

for

human

food.

have the authority of a celebrated physiologist* to state, that the

meat

is

capable of

communicating the most loathsome diseases ;


besides,

idea of

it is

it

is

such a dirty

trick, that the very

sufficient to disgust a person at

every thing which comes from a butchers'


* A.
Carlisle, Esq.

BUTCHERS' MEAT UNWHOLESOME.


for

shop

who

37

can bear the notion of eating

meat, the cellular substance of which has

been

may

with air of a dirty fellow,

filled

same time be perhaps

at the

who

inflicted

with the very worst of diseases.

But not only butchers' meat, but sea

fish,

especially cod, haddock, and whiting, are


a similar

manner

make them

often blown, to

appear large and plump

in

stem

a quill, or the

of a tobacco pipe, being inserted into the


orifice at the belly of the fih,

and a hole

being made under the

is

gill,

the breath

bulk of the

is

thumb on each
it

hard,

to escape.
'at

blown

which
in, to

next the

extend the

fish.

This imposition

ing

fin,

is

detected by placing the

side of the orifice

and press-

when

the air will be perceived

Meat

that has

been

inflated

once be recognised by the cellular

brane being distended.

may
mem-

38 DISGUSTING PRACTICE OF RENDERING


Another pernicious custom of rendering-

meat unwholesome,
previous to
disease,

its

to

is,

being

throw the beast,

killed, into a state of

by over-driving

it

which the furious animal

is

for the fever into

often thrown,

the cruelty of the drover,

high fever
all

yet that

at

is

is

actually the case with

The

flesh of

once distinguished

butchers' shambles,

brane being

frequently

person would chuse


of an animal which died in a

over-drove cattle.

animals

by

No

raised to madness.
to eat the flesh

is

filled

by the

cellular

such

at the

mem-

with blood, which makes

the meat appear of a more florid colour, and

adds to

its

weight.

Another highly blameable custom to render meat unwholesome,

is,

to

keep animals

without food for four or five days together,


to save the butcher the trouble of clearing

the stomach and intestines more readily.

BUTCHERS' MEAT UNWHOLESOME.

Oxen

39

are usually kept without food for four

or five days before they are killed

calves,

sheep and pigs, each of them two or three


days. Fasting so long renders the animals
unhealthy, and makes them restless, feverish,

and diseased.

It is also a

ing counties

common
to

practice in

some graz-

bring to market the carcases

Po-

of such animals as die of themselves.


verty may,

people to eat

indeed, oblige

such meat; but

it

would be better
what

to eat a smaller quantity of

and wholesome

at least

it

would

for
is

them

sound

afford a

better nourishment, with less danger.

The
eat of

injunction given to the

Jews not to

any creature which had died

quence of a disease, seems

to

in conse-

have a

strict

regard to health, and ought to be observed,


as

a wholesome

well as Jews.

lesson,

by

Christians as

40 DISGUSTING PRACTICE OF RENDERING

The Editor of The Literary Miscellany,


states, that

a practice

it is

among many but-

chers to suspend calves by the hind legs, with


the head downwards, for hours, and to bleed

them

Such processes of

to death slowly.

complicated and lengthened

cruelty, too

horrid to relate, are only for the purpose

of whitening the

flesh.

And, with a

view, two calves are often

by

and thrown across ahorse

their hind legs,

when brought

similar

tied together

to the butcher's shop, so that

they are suffered to be suspended for hours


together, with the head downwards, before

they are killed.

On

the frequent cruelties committed

butchers

it

is

not

my

business to

by

speak.

Every person resident in this town must have


noticed, that in drivinga number of sheep and
oxen,

if any

of them be untractable, the driver

often breaks one of the legs of the sheep, or

BUTCHERS' MEAT UNWHOLESOME.

41

cuts the large tendon on the foot of the ox.

This

a cruelty at which the

is

human mind

shudders.
By Heaven's high
But

thou

art

Admit
Take

LOWER WORLD

their lives devoted to thy

the appointed forfeit

Yet add not

Nor join

By

will the

CRUEL TOO BY RIGHT DIVINE

let

need

is

thine

them bleed

to the hardships of their state,

to servitude oppression's

no unmanly

weight

rigors swell distress,

But, where thou canst, exert thy power to bless,

Beyond thy wants

'tis

barbarous to annoy,

And but from need 'tis

baseness to destroy.*

PRATT'S Lower World, B.

II.

GENERAL REMARKS ON THE ADULTERATION OF FOOD.

THE

object of

all

unprincipled modern

manufacturers seems to be the sparing of


their time

and labour as much as possible,

GENERAL REMARKS.

42

and

to increase the quantity of the articles

much regard

they produce, without


quality.

to their

The ingenuity and perseverance

of self-interest

and contrives

is

proof against prohibitions,

to elude the vigilance of the

most active government.

The eager and


which seems

to

insatiable thirst for gain,

be a leading characteristic

of the times, calls into action every


faculty,

and gives an

irresistible

the power of invention

becomes the reigning

human

impulse to

and where lucre

principle, the possi-

ble sacrifice of even a fellow creature's


is

a secondary consideration.

life

In reference

to the deterioration of almost all the necessaries

and comforts of existence,

it

may be

justly observed, in a civil as well as a re" in the midst


ligious sense, that

are in death."

of life we

abater.

IMPORTANCE OF THE PURITY OF WA-

TER EMPLOYED IN DOMESTIC ECO-

NOMY AND THE ARTS.


IT requires not much reflection to become

convinced that the waters which issue from


the recesses of the earth, and form springs,
wells, rivers, or lakes, often materially differ

from each other

in their taste

obvious properties.

who have

and other

There are few people

not observed a difference in the

waters used for domestic purposes and in


the arts ; and the distinctions of

hard and

soft water are familiar to every body.

44 EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT WATERS USED

Water

perfectly

met with

in nature.

It

must

also

families,

of domestic

affected

scarcely ever

be obvious, that the health

and comfort of
niences

is

pure

and the conve-

life,

are materially

by the supply of good and whole-

some water.

Hence a knowledge of the

quality and salubrity of the different kinds

of waters employed in the


cerns of

life,

daily use

common

con-

on account of the abundant

we make

of them in the prepara-

tion of food, is unquestionably

considerable importance, and

an object of

demands our

attention.

The
ters

effects

produced by the foreign mat-

which water may

contain,

are

more

considerable,

and of greater importance,

than might at

first

be imagined.

It

cannot

be denied, that such waters as are hard, or

IN

DOMESTIC ECONOMY AND THE ARTS. 45

loaded with earthy matter, have a decided


effect

upon some important functions of the

human body.

They

increase the distress-

ing symptoms under which those persons


labour

who

monly

called gravel complaints

are afflicted with

other ailments

what
;

is

com-

and many

might be named, that are

always aggravated by the use of waters

abounding

in saline

and earthy substances.

The purity of the waters employed in


some of the arts and manufactures, is an
object of not less

consequence.

In the

process of brewing malt liquors, soft water


is

preferable to hard.

that the

Every brewer knows

largest possible

quantity of the

extractive matter of the malt

is

obtained in

the least possible time, and at the smallest


cost,

by means of soft water.

In the art of the dyer, hard water not

46 EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT WATERS USI^D


only opposes the solution of several dye
stuffs,

but

it

also alters the natural tints of

some'delicate colours ; whilst in others again,


it

precipitates the earthy

with which

it is

and saline matters

impregnated, into the deli-

cate fibres of the stuff,

and thus impedes

the softness and brilliancy of the dye.

The bleacher cannot use with advantage


waters impregnated with earthy salts

and

a minute portion of iron imparts to the cloth

a yellowish hue.

To

the manufacturer of painters' colours,

water as pure as possible


sential

for

the

is

successful

several delicate pigments.

absolutely es-

preparation of

Carmine, mad-

der lake, ultramarine, and Indian yellow,

cannot be prepared without perfectly pure


water.

For the steeping or raiting of

flax, soft

IN

DOMESTIC ECONOMY AND THE ARTS. 47

water

is

the flax

absolutely necessary

in

hard water

may be immersed for months, till

texture be injured, and

still

its

the ligneous

matter will not be decomposed, and the


fibres properly separated.

In the culinary

more or

art,

the effects of water

pure are likewise obvious.

less

Good and pure water

softens the fibres of

animal and vegetable matters more readily

than such as

knows

is

Every cook

called hard.

that dry or ripe pease,

and other

farinaceous seeds, cannot readily be boiled


soft in

hard water; because the farina of

the seed

is

not perfectly soluble in water

loaded with earthy

salts.

Green esculent vegetable substances are

more tender when boiled


in

hard water

to

them a

in soft

water than

although hard water imparts

better colour.

The

effects of

hard

48

ILLUSTRATION.

and

soft

water

may be

easily

shown

in the

following manner.

Illustration.

Let two separate portions of tea-leaves be


macerated, by precisely the same processes,
in

circumstances

all

alike,

in

similarly

and separate vessels, the one containing hard


and the other
the infusion

have by
it

soft water, either hot or cold,

made with

the soft water will

far the strongest taste,

although

possesses less colour than the infusion

made with

the hard water.

more intense black with a


phate of

iron,

It will strike

solution of sul-

and afford a more abundant

precipitate, with a solution of animal jelly,

which

once shews that

soft

water has

extracted more tanning matter,

and more

at

'

CHARACTERS OF GOOD WATER.


gallic acid,

49

from the tea-leaves, than could

be obtained from them under

like circum-

by means of hard water.

stances

Many

animals which are accustomed to

drink soft water, refuse hard water; Horses


in particular

prefer the former.

refuse hard water

customed

Pigeons

when they have been

ac-

to soft water.

CHARACTERS OF GOOD WATER.

A
fit

GOOD

criterion of the purity of water

domestic purposes,

for

This quality
if

we

is

at

its

softness.

once obvious by the touch,

only wash our hands in

Good water should be


rent:

is

it

with soap.

beautifully transpa-

a slight opacity indicates extraneous

matter.

To judge

of the perfect transpa-

rency of water, a quantity of

it

should be

CHARACTERS OF GOOD WATER.

50

put into a deep glass vessel, the larger the


better, so that

we

down perpendi-

can look

cularly into a considerable mass of the fluid

we may

then readily discover the slightest

degree of muddiness
the water

much

better than if

be viewed through the glass

placed between the eye and the light.

It

should be perfectly colourless, devoid of


odour, and

its

taste soft

and agreeable.

It

should send out air-bubbles when poured

from one vessel into another


pulse

soft,

it

should boil

and form with soap am uniform

opaline fluid, which does not separate after

standing for several hours.


It is to the

presence of

carbonic acid gas that


ils

taste,

which
tables.

it

common

air

and

common water owes

and many of the good effects


produces on animals and vege-

Spring water, which contains more

CHARACTERS OF GOOD WATER.


air,

has

more

lively taste

51

than river

water.

Hence the insipid and vapid taste of newly


boiled water, from which these gases are

expelled: fish cannot live in water deprived


of those elastic fluids.

100 cubic inches of the

New

River water,

with which part of this metropolis

is

sup*

plied, contains 2,25 of carbonic acid,

and

1,25 of

common

It contains,

air.

beside a

minute portion of muriate of lime, carbonate


of lime, and muriate of soda.
of the river

Thames

The water

contains rather a larger

quantity of common

air,

and a smaller por-

tion of carbonic acid.

Water

is

distillation:

in

which

freed from foreign matter by

and

for

accuracy

any chemical process


is

water must be used.

D 2

requisite,

distilled

52 EASY METHOD OF CURING HARD .WATER.

EASY METHOD OF CURING HARD

WATER.

HARD waters may, in


part,

by dropping

them a

into

sub-carbonate of potash

be owing only

general, be cured in

solution of

or, if the

hardness

the presence of super-

to

carbonate of lime, mere boiling will greatly

remedy the

defect

and a neutral carbonate of

acid

flies

off,

lime

falls

down

be used

But

if

for

part of the carbonic

to the

bottom

may

it

then

washing, scarcely curdling soap.

the hardness be owing in part to

sulphate of lime, boiling does not soften

it

at all.

When
it is

spring water

advantageous

is

used

to leave

exposed to the open

air in

it

for

for

washing,

some time

a reservoir with

CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION OF WATERS. 53


a large surface.

Part of the carbonic acid

becomes thus dissipated, and part of the


carbonate of lime

falls to

Mr.

the bottom.

Dalton* has observed that the more any


spring

is

drawn from, the

softer the

water

OF

THE

becomes.

CHEMICAL

CONSTITUTION

WATERS USED IN DOMESTIC ECO-

NOMY AND THE ARTS.


Rain Water,

COLLECTED with every precaution

as

it

descends from the clouds, and at a distance

from large towns, or any other object capable of impregnating the atmosphere with
*

Dalton, Manchester Memoirs, vol.

D3

iv.

p. 55.

54 CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION OF WATERS


foreign matters, approaches

a state of purity

Even

natural water.

acid gas.

The

to

collected under these

circumstances, however,
tains a portion of

more nearly

than perhaps any other

common

it

invariably con-

air

and carbonic

specific gravity of rain

water

scarcely differs from that of distilled water ;

and from the minute portions of the foreign


ingredients which it generally contains, it
is

very soft, and admirably

many

adapted for

culinary purposes, and various pro-

cesses in different manufactures

and the

arts*

Snow Water.
Fresh-fallen snow,

contact of

from

air.

air,

melted without the

appears to be nearly free

Gay-Lussacand Humboldt, how-

USED FOR DOMESTIC

55

PURPOSES.

ever, affirm, that

proportion of

it

contains nearly the usual

air.

Water from melted


so

much

Dew has

air.

saturated with

been supposed to be

air.

Snow water
putation

ice does not contain

has long lain under the im-

occasioning those

of

strumous

swellings in the neck which deform the


inhabitants of

but this opinion

rendered

still

not supported

is

well-authenticated
is

of the .Alpine vallies

many

by any

indisputable facts, and

more improbable,

if

not

by the frequency of
Sumatra*, where ice and

entirely overturned,

the disease in

snow

are never sefen.

In high northern latitudes, thawed

Marsden's History of Sumatra.

D4

snow

56 CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION OF WATERS


forms the constant drink of the inhabitants

during winter; and the vast masses of ice

which

float

on the polar

seas,

abundant supply of fresh water

afford
to the

an

ma-

riner.

Spring

Water

Includes well-water and


arise

all

others that

from some depth below the surface of

the earth, and which are used at the fountain-head, or at least before they have run

any considerable distance exposed to the


air.
Indeed, springs may be considered as

which has passed through the


of the earth, and, having accumu-

rain water
fissures

lated at the bottom of declivities, rises again


to the surface,

forming springs and wells.

USED FOR DOMESTIC PURPOSES.

As wells take

their origin at

57

some depth

from the surface, and below the influence


of the external atmosphere,, their temperature

is

in general

pretty uniform during

every vicissitude of season, and always several degrees lower than the atmosphere..

They

differ

from one another according to

the nature of the strata through which they


issue; for

though the ingredients usually

existing in

them are

tities

in

as to impart to the water no striking

properties,

common

and do not render

unfit

it

purposes, yet they modify

ture very considerably.

of some springs
soft,

such minute quan-

is

Hence

its

for

na-

the water

said to be hard, of others

some sweet, others brackish,

accord-,

ing to the nature and degree of the impregnating ingredients.

Common

springs are insensibly changed

D5

58 CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION OF WATERS


in mineral or

medicinal

springs, as their

become larger or more unsome instances, they derive

foreign contents

usual

or, in

medicinal celebrity
those

ingredients

spring-water ;

as, for

from the absence of


usually

occurring

example,

in

the case

is

with the Malvern spring, which

is

nearly

pure water.

Almost

all

spring-waters possess the pro-

perty termed hardness in a greater or less

degree ; a property which depends chiefly

upon the presence of super-carbonate, or


of sulphate of lime, or of both

and the

varies very
quantity of these earthy salts

considerably in different

Dalton* has shewn that

Manchester Memoirs,

instances.

Mr.

one grain of sul-

vol. x. 1819.

USED FOR DOMESTIC PURPOSES*

59

phate of lime, contained in 2000 grains of


water, converts

water that

is

it

the hardest spring

into

commonly met

The waters of deep wells

with.

are usually

much

harder than those springs which overflow


the

mouth of the well

but there are some

exceptions to this rule.

The purest springs


in

primitive

are those

beds of gravel, or

rocks, or

through sand or

filter

which occur

silicious strata.

la

general, large springs are purer than small

ones

and our old wells contain

finer

water

than those that are new, as the soluble parts

through which the water

filters in

channels

under ground become gradually washed


away.

D6

60 CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION OF WATERS

River

Is a

Water

term applied to every running stream

or rivulet exposed to the

flowing

and always

air,

an open channel.

in

It is

formed of

spring water, which, by exposure, becomes

more pure, and of running land or surface


water, which, although turbid from particles

of the al u vial soil suspended in

wise very pure.

It is

purest

a gravelly or rocky bed,


is

swift.

It is

from earthy
it

generally

when

and when
soft,

usually contains less

its

course

and more free

for,

by the

air

and

agitation of a

to the

ture of the atmosphere, part of


is

runs over

common

long currant, and exposed

acid gas

it

other-

than spring water; but

salts

carbonic acid gas

it, is

its

temperacarbonic

disengaged, and the lime held

USED FOR DOMESTIC


in

solution

by

in

is

it

PURPOSES.

6l

part precipitated,

the loss of which contributes to the softness

of the water.

becomes
fresh

Its

specific gravity

and agreeable

spring

is

thereby

less, the taste not so harsh, but less

often

made

and out of a hard

a stream of sufficient

purity for most of the purposes where a


soft

water

Some

is

required.

streams, however, that arise from

clean silicious beds, and flow in a sandy or

stony channel, are from the outset remarkably

pure

such as the mountain lakes and rivu-

lets in the

rocky

districts

of Wales, the

source of the beautiful waters of the Dee,

and numberless other rivers

that

through the hollow of every valley.

flow

Swit-

zerland has long been celebrated for the


purity and excellence of

pour

in copious

its

waters, which

streams from the

mouu-

62 CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION OF WATERS

tains,

and give

rise to the finest rivers in

Europe.

Thames Water.

Some

rivers,

their rise

however, that do not take

from a rocky

at first considerably

soil,

and are indeed

charged with foreign

matter, during a long course, even over a


richly cultivated plain,

pure as

to saline contents

mud

with

become remarkably

containing

but often fouled

much

animal and ve-

getable matter, which are rather suspended

than held

in true solution.

Such

is

the water

of the river Thames, which, taken up at Lon-

don

at

good

low water mark,

and

after rest,

it

is

very

soft,

and

contains but a very

small portion of any thing that could prove

USE/)

pernicious

FOR DOMESTIC PURPOSES.


or

63

any manufacture.

impede

It is also excellently fitted for sea-store;

but

it

then undergoes a remarkable sponta-

neous change, when preserved


casks.

No water

wooden

in

carried to sea

becomes

putrid sooner than that of the Thames.

mode now adopted

the

stituting iron tanks for


1

in the

But

navy, of sub-

wooden

casks, tends

greatly to obviate the disadvantage.

Whoever

will

consider the situation of

the Thames, and the immense population

along

its

banks

for so

many

miles,

must

at

once perceive the prodigious accumulation


of animal matters of

means of the

make
no

their

all

commmon

way

into

it.

kinds, which

by

sewers constantly

These matters

are,

doubt, in part, the cause of the putrefac-

known

tion

which

sea;

and of the carburetted and sulphuretted

it is

well

to

undergo

at

64 CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION OF WATERS

hydrogen gases which are evolved from

When a wooden

cask

is

it.

opened, after being

kept a month or two, a quantity of carbur etted

and sulphuretted hydrogen escapes, and the


water
to

is

so black

be borne.

and offensive

Upon racking

into large earthen vessels,


to the air,

it

as scarcely

it off,

however,

and exposing*

it

gradually deposits a quantity

of black slimy mud, becomes clear as crys-

and remarkably sweet and palatable.

tal,

It

might, at

first sight,

be expected that

the water of the Thames, after having re-

ceived

all

the contents of the sewers, drains,

and water courses of a large town, should


acquire

thereby such impregnation with

foreign matters, as to

but

it

become very impure

appears, from the most accurate ex-

periments that have been made, that those


kinds of impurities have no perceptible in-

USED FOR DOMESTIC PURPOSES.

65

fluence on the salubrious quality of a mass

of water so immense, and constantly kept in

motion by the action of the

Some

tides.

traces of animal matter

may, how-

ever, be detected in the water of the


for if nitrate of lead

"

you

will find that

that a white

be dropped into

it

powder

Thames
it

*
;

becomes milky, and


falls to

the bottom,

which dissolves without effervescence


nitric acid. It is, therefore, (says

in

Dr. Thom-

son) a combination of oxide of lead with

some animal matter."

Observations on the

bridge Wells
poses,

is

Water with which Tun-

chiefly supplied

by Dr. Thomson

for

Domestic Pur-

forming an Appendix

to

an

Analysis of the Mineral Waters of Tunbridge Wells,

by Dr. Scudamore.

SUBSTANCES CONTAINED IN WAtER,

66

SUBSTANCES USUALLY CONTAINED IN


COMMON WATER, AND TESTS BY

WHICH THEY ARE DETECTED.


To acquire a knowledge of
nature of common water,
to

add

to

it

it is

a few chemical

the general

only necessary

tests,

which

will

quickly indicate the presence or absence of


the substances that

Almost the only

mon

may be

expected.

salts contained in

com-

waters are the carbonates, sulphates,

and muriates of soda, lime, and magnesia:


and sometimes a very minute portion of iron

may

also

be detected

in

them.

EXPERIMENT
Fill

a wine-glass with

and add

to

it

I.

distilled water,

a few drops of the solution of

ANI> f HE TESTS

FOR DETECTING THEM. 67

soap in alcohol, the water will remain tran*


sparent.

This test

is

employed

for ascertaining the

presence of earthy salts in waters.


it

Hence

produces no change when mingled with

distilled or perfectly

added

to

pure water ; but when

water containing earthy

salts,

white flocculent matter becomes separated,

which speedily
the fluid.

collects

on the surface of

Now, from the quantity of

floc-

culent matter produced, in equal quantities

of water submitted to the


notion

may be formed

hardness of

test,

a tolerable

of the degrees of

different kinds of water,

at

least 80 far as regards the fitness of the

water for the ordinary purposes of domestic

economy.

This

in the following

may be rendered
manner.

obvious

68

SUBSTANCES CONTAINED

EXPERIMENT
Fill

IN

WATER,

II.

a number of wine-glasses with

ferent kinds of pump or well water,


fall into

and

let

each glass a few drops of the solu-

tion of soap in alcohol.

instantly ensue,
collect

dif-

turbidness will

and a flocculent matter

on the surface of the fluid,

mixture be

left

undisturbed.

if

the

The quantity

of flocculent matter will be in the ratio s>f


the quantity of earthy salts contained in the
water.
It is

//

obvious that the action of this test

not discriminative with regard

-^

is

to the che-

mical nature of the earthy salt present in


the water.

It serves

only to indicate the

presence or absence of those kinds of substances which occasion that quality in water

which is usually called hardness, and which

AND THE TESTS FOR DETECTING THEM. 69


always owing to

is

with an earthy

salts

base.
If

we wish

different acids

water,

to

know

the nature of the

and earths contained

the following tests

in the

may be em-

ployed.

EXPERIMENT

Add

III.

about twenty drops of a solution of

oxalate of ammonia, to half a wine-glass of

the water

if

a white precipitate ensues,

we

conclude that the water contains lime.

By means
may be

of this

test,

one grain of lime

detected in 24,250 of water.

If this test occasion a white precipitate


in

water taken fresh from the

spring,

and not

after

boiled and suffered to


is

pump

or

the water has been

grow

dissolved in the water

cold, the lime

by an excess of

70 SUBSTANCES CONTAINED IN WATER,


carbonic acid

and

duce a precipitate

continues to pro-

if it

in the water

which has

been concentrated by boiling, we then are


sure that the lime

is

combined with a fixed

acid.

EXPERIMENT

To

IV.

detect the presence of iron, add to a

wine-glassful of the water a few drops of an


infusion of nut-galls
gall to

or better, suffer a nut-

be suspended

in

it

for

twenty-four

hours, which will cause the water to acquire

a blueish black colour,

if iron

EXPERIMENT

Add

V.

a few grains of muriate of barytes,

to half a wine-glass of the

amined

be present.

if it

water to be ex-

produces a turbidness which

AND THE TESTS FOR DETECTING THEM.

71

does not disappear by the admixture of a

few drops of muriatic acid, the presence of


sulphuric acid

is

rendered obvious.

EXPERIMENT

VI.

If a few drops of a solution of nitrate of


silver occasion a milkiness with the water,

which vanishes again by the copious addition of liquid

ammonia, we have reason

to

believe that the water contains a salt, one

of the constituent parts of which

is

muriatic

acid.

EXPERIMENT

VII.

If lime water or barytic water occasions a


precipitate

which again vanishes by the

admixture of muriatic acid, then carbonic


acid

is

present in the water.

SUBSTANCES CONTAINED

72

EXPERIMENT

IN

WATER,

VIII.

If a solution of phosphate of soda produce

a milkiness with the water, after a previous


addition to

it

of a similar quantity of neutral

carbonate of ammonia,

The

magnesia.
best

made

we may

then expect

application of this test

in the following

manner

is

Concentrate a quantity of the water to be

examined

to

about

-fa

part of

its

bulk, and

drop into about half a wine-glassful, about


five

grains of neutral carbonate

No magnesia becomes

monia.
pitated

if this

adding a

of am-

yet preci-

earth be present;

but on

like quantity of phosphate of soda,

the magnesia falls down, as an insoluble


salt.

It is essential that

ammonia be

neutral.

the carbonate of

AND THE TESTS FOR DETECTING THEM. 73


The presence of oxygen gas
bined
in

in

water

may

loosely

com-

readily be discovered

the following manner.

EXPERIMENT

Fill

IX.

a vial with water, and add to

it

small quantity of green sulphate of iron.


If the water
if

be entirely free of oxygen, and

the vessel be well stopped and completely

filled,

the solution

otherwise,

it

is

transparent; but

if

soon becomes slightly turbid,

from the oxide of iron attracting the oxygen,

and a small portion of

it,

in this

more highly

oxidated state, leaving the acid and being


precipitated.

If

we examine

the different waters which

are used for the ordinary purposes of

life,

DELETERIOUS EFFECTS OF WATER

74

and judge of them by the above tests, we


shall find them to differ considerably from

Some

each other.

contain a large quantity

of saline and earthy matters, whilst others


are nearly pure.

The

differences are pro-

duced by the great solvent power which


water exercises upon most substances.

Hence wells should never be


bricks,

which render

soft

lined with

water hard

or, if

bricks be employed, they should be bedded


in

and covered with cement.

DELETERIOUS EFFECTS OF KEEPING

WATER

IN

LEADEN RESERVOIRS.

THE deleterious effect of lead, when


into

the stomach,

sally

known,

that

is
it is

at

taken

present so univer-

quite unnecessary to

KEPT

IN

LEADEN RESERVOIRS.

adduce any argument

75

in proof of its

dange-

rous tendency.

The

antients were,

upwards of 2000 years

ago, as well aware of the pernicious quality

of this metal as

we

are at the present day

have been

and indeed they appeared

to

much more apprehensive

its effects,

of

scrupulous in the application of

and

it

to pur-

may have been

occasi-

poses of domestic economy.

Their precautions

onally carried to an

unnecessary length.

This was the natural consequence of the imperfect state of experimental


that period.

When men

knowledge

were unable

detect the poisonous matters

to

at
to

be over

scrupulous in the use of such water, was an


error on the right side.

The moderns, on the other hand,

in part,

perhaps, from an ill-founded confidence, and

E2

76

DELETERIOUS EFFECTS OF WATER

inattention to a careful

and continued exa-

mination of

have fallen into an

its effects,

opposite error.

There can be no doubt that the mode of preserving water intended for food or drink in

leaden reservoirs,

is

exceedingly improper;

and although pure water exercises no sensible action

upon metallic

lead, provided air

be excluded, the metal

is

by the water when

admitted

is

so obvious, that

air is
it

certainly acted on
:

this effect

cannot escape the no-

tice of the least attentive observer.

The white

line

which may be seen

at the

surface of the water preserved in leaden

where the metal touches the water

cisterns,

and where the

air is

admitted,

is

a carbo-

nate of lead, formed at the expense of the

This substance, when taken into the

metal.

stomach,

is

highly deleterious to health.

KEPT

IN

LEADEN RESERVOIRS.

This was the reason which induced the an-

condemn leaden pipes

tients to

veyance of water
that persons

for the con-

having been remarked

it

who swallowed

the sediment of

such water, became affected with disorders


bowels*.
waters have unequal

ferent potable

t
s

powers on

In some

this metal.

-"^i

places the use of leaden


discontinued, from

pumps has been

the expence

entailed

upon the proprietors by the constant want


Dr.

of repair.

Lambf

states

an instance

where the proprietor of a well ordered


plumber

to

make

the lead of a

pump

his

of

double the thickness of the metal usually

employed

for

pumps,

to save the charge of

Sir G. Baker, Med. Trans,


t Lamb on Spring Water.

E 3

vol.

i.

p. 280.

DELETERIOUS EFFECTS OF WATER

78

repairs

because he had observed that the

water was so hard, as he called

it,

that

it

corroded the lead very soon.

The following

instance

related

is

by

Sir

George Baker*:
"

A gentleman was the father of a nume-

rous offspring, having had one-and-twenty


children, of

whom

eight died young, and

thirteen survived their parents.


their infancy,

During

and indeed until they had

quitted the place of their usual residence,

they were all remarkably unhealthy

being

particularly subject to disorders of the sto-

mach and bowels. The

father,

during

years, was paralytic the mother,


;

time, was subject

to colics

and

Medical Trans,

vol.

i.

long

bilious ob-

structions*

many

for a

p. 420.

KEPT

LEADEN RESERVOIRS.

IN

" After the death of the


parents, the

79

fa-

mily sold the house which they had so long

sary to

The purchaser found it necesThis was made


repair the pump.

of lead

inhabited.

examination, was

which, upon

found to be so corroded, that several perforations

were observed

which the bucket plays


the upper part

the cylinder in

and the cistern

was reduced

common brown

of

in

in

to the thinness

paper, and was full of

holes, like a sieve."

I have myself seen numerous instances

where leaden

cisterns

have been completely

corroded by the action of water with which


they were in contact: and there
not a plumber

who cannot

is,

perhaps,

give testimony of

having experienced numerous similar instances in the practices of his trade.


I

have been frequently called upon

E4

to

DELETERIOUS EFFECTS OF WATER

80

examine leaden

cisterns,

which had become

leaky on account of the action of the water

which they contained

and

could adduce

an instance of a legal controversy having


taken place to settle the disputes between
the proprietors of an estate and a plumber,
originating from a similar cause

the plum-

ber being accused of having furnished a


faulty

whereas

reservoir;

proved to be owing

to the

case

was

chemical action of

Water containing a

the water on the lead.


large quantity of

the

common

air

and carbonic

acid gas, always acts very sensibly on

me-

tallic lead.

Water which has no


its

natural state,

upon

sensible action, in
lead,

the capability of acting on

neous matter, which


ceive.

it

may

it

may

acquire

by heteroge-

accidentally re-

Numerous instances have shewn

that

KEPT

IN

LEADEN

RESERVOIRS.

81

vegetable matter, such as leaves, falling into


leaden cisterns

filled

with water, imparted

to the water a considerable solvent

of action on the lead, which in


state

did not possess.

it

sity of

Hence

its

power
natural

the neces-

keeping leaden cisterns clean

this is the

more necessary,

and

as their situations

expose them to accidental impurities.

The

noted saturnine colic of Amsterdam, described by Tronchen, originated from such a

circumstance; as also the case related by

Van Swieten*,

of a whole family afflicted

with the same complaint, from such a


tern.

And

it

is

highly probable that the

case of disease recorded

cis-

by Dr. Duncanf,

Van Swieten ad Boerhaave, Aphorisms,

Comment.
t Medical Comment. Dec.

2, 1794.

E5

1060,

DELETERIOUS EFFECTS OF WATER

82

proceeded more from some foulness


cistern,

in the

than from the solvent power of the

water.

In this instance the officers of the

packet boat used water for their drink and

cooking out of a leaden

cistern, whilst the

used the water taken from the same

sailors

was

source,

except that

wooden

vessels.

that all

the officers were seized with the

colic,

and

The
Dr.

all

the

The

kept in

consequence was,

men continued

healthy.

carelessness of the bulk of mankind,

Lambe very

things,

theirs

"

is

justly observes, to these

so great, that to repeat

them

again and again cannot be wholly useless."

Although the great majority of persons

who

daily use water kept in leaden cisterns

receive no sensible injury, yet the apparent


salubrity

must be ascribed

to the great slow-

KEPT
ness of

its

83

LEADEN RESERVOIRS.

IN

operation,

and the minuteness of

the dose taken, the effects of which

become

modified by different causes and different


constitutions,

and according

to the predis-

positions to diseases inherent

The supposed

individuals.

who

multitude

amounts

to

in different

security of the

use the water with impunity

no more than presumption, in

favour of any individual, which


not be confirmed

may

or

may

by experience.

Independent of the morbid susceptibility


of impressions which distinguish certain habits,

there

is,

besides,

much

original constitution of the

which we are
"

The

variety in the

human

frame, of

totally ignorant.

susceptibility or proneness to dis-

ease of each individual, must be esteemed


peculiar to himself.

Confiding to the expe-

E 6

84

DELETERIOUS EFFECTS OF WATER.

rience of others

which may prove


can with
avoiding

a ground of security

is

fallacious

certainty be
its

various and

and the danger

obviated only by

And ^considering

source.

at different ages,

the

changes of the

complicated

human frame, under


and

different circumstances
it is

neither impossible

nor improbable that the substances taken


into the

system

at

one period, and even for

a series of years, with apparent impunity,

may, notwithstanding,

at

another period, be

eventually the occasion of disease and of


death.

"

The experience of a single person, or of


many persons, however numerous, is quite
incompetent to the decision of a question of
this nature.

"

The pernicious

effects of an

use of spirituous liquors

is

intemperate

not less certain

KEPT
because

IN

we

LEADEN RESERVOIRS.

85

often see habitual drunkards

enjoy a good state of health, and arrive at old

age and the same may be said of individuals


:

who

indulge in vices of

destructive to

life

all

many

kinds, evidently

of

whom,

in spite

of their bad habits, attain to a vigorous old

age*."
In confirmation of these remarks,

duce the following account of the

we

ad-

effect of

water contaminated by lead, given by Sir

G. Baker:
"

The most remarkable

case on the sub-

ject that

now

of Lord

Ashburnham's family,

to

occurs to

my memory,
in

is

that

Sussex;

which spring water was applied, from a

considerable distance, in leaden pipes.

In

consequence, his Lordship's servants were

Lambe on Spring Water.

METHOD OF DETECTING

86

every year tormented with


of them died.
Battle,

An

and some

'eminent physician, of

who corresponded

subject, sent

colic,

with

me on

the

up some gallons of that water,

which were analysed by Dr. Higgins, who


reported that the water had contained more

than the

common

quantity of carbonic acid

and that he found

in

which he attributed
In consequence of
substituted

in solution,

to the carbonic acid.


this,

wooden

from that time

lead

it

for

Lord Ashburnham
leaden pipes; and

his family

have had no par-

ticular complaints in their bowels,"

Richmond, Sept.

27, 1802.

METHOD OF DETECTING LEAD

IN

WATER.
ONE

of the most delicate tests for detect-

ing lead,

is

water impregnated with sulphu-

LEAD

WATER.

IN

87

hydrogen gas, which instantly im-

retted

parts to the fluid

containing the minutest

quantity of lead, a brown or blackish tinge.

This test

is

so delicate that distilled water,

when condensed by
tub,
this

is

effected

test,

by

a leaden pipe in a

it.

To shew the

still

action of

the following experiments will

serve.

EXPERIMENT

T.

Pour into a wine-glass containing distilled


water, an equal quantity of water impreg-

nated with sulphuretted hydrogen gas: no

change

will take place

but

if

a J of a grain

of aeetate of lead (sugar of lead of com-

merce,) be added, the mixture will instantly


turn brown and dark-coloured.

METHOD OF DETECTING

88

To apply

this test,

one part of the sus-

pected water need merely to be mingled with


a like quantity of water impregnated with

sulphuretted hydrogen.

Or better, a larger

quantity, a gallon for example, of the water

may be

concentrated by

evaporation to

about half a pint, and then submitted

to the

action of the test.

Another and more


plying this

test, is, to

efficient

mode

of ap-

pass a current of sul-

phuretted hydrogen gas through the sus-

pected water in the following manner.

EXPERIMENT
Take a

bottle*

(a) or Florence flask,

adapt to the mouth of

II.

it

a cork furnished

See the Figure, page 89.

LEAD

WATER.

IN

with a glass tube (6) bent at right angles


let

one leg of the tube be immersed in the

vial (c) containing the water to

as

shewn

in

be examined ;

the following sketch.

Then

take one part of the sulphuret of antimony

of commerce, break
size of split pease,

pour upon

it

it

into pieces of half the

put

it

into the flask,

four parts of

common concen-

trated muriatic acid (spirit of salt of

merce.)

and

com-

Sulphuretted hydrogen gas will

become disengaged from the materials

in

abundance, and pass through the water in


the vial (c).

Let the extrication of the gas

be continued for about

five

minutes ; and

if

90

METHOD OF DETECTING

the minutest quantity of lead be present, the

water will acquire a dark-brown or blackish

The

tinge.

extrication of the gas

by the
The action

tated

test,

when

application of a gentle heat.

of the sulphuretted hydrogen

applied in this manner,

nishingly great

lead

is facili-

may be

for

is

asto-

one part of acetate of

detected by

in

it,

20,000 parts

of water*.

Sulphate of potash, or sulphate of soda,

is

likewise a very delicate test for detecting

* See

An

Analysis of the Mineral Waters of Tun-

bridge Wells, by Dr. Scudamore,

The

p. 55.

application of the sulphuretted hydrogen test

requires

some precaution

metals besides lead


quicksilver, tin,

effected

by

it,

may be

in those

cases

where other

expected ; because

silver,

copper, and several other metals, are

as well as lead

of these metals being

met with

but there
in

common

Chemical Tests, third edition, p. 207.

is

no chance

water.

See

LEAD

IN

WATER.

91

minute portions of lead. Dr. Thomson*


covered, by means of
in

it,

one part of lead in

100,000 parts of water

Philosopher considers

dis-

it

and

this

as the

acute

most une-

quivocal test of lead that we possess. Dr.


Thomson remarks that " no other precipitate

can well be confounded with

sulphate of barytes
bility of the

common

and there

is

it,

except

no proba-

presence of barytes existing in

water."

Analysis of Tunbridge Wells Water,

damore, p. 5$.

by Dr. Scu-

8totUterattott of

IT

is

sufficiently obvious, that

few of those

commodities, which are the objects of com-

merce, are adulterated to a greater extent


than wine.

All persons moderately conver-

sant with the subject, are aware, that a portion of

alum

is

added

to

young and meagre

red wines, for the purpose of brightening


their colour; that Brazil

wood, or the husks

of elderberries and bilberries*, are employed


to impart a deep rich purple tint to red

Port of a pale, faint colour

that

gypsum

is

used to render cloudy white wines transparent

that an additional astringency

is

im-

* Dried bilberries are


imported from Germany, under
the fallacious

name

of berry 'dye.

ADULTERATION OF WINE.

93

parted to immature red wines by means of

oak-wood sawdust*, and the busks of


berts;

fil-

and that a mixture of spoiled foreign

and home-made wines

is

converted into the

wretched compound frequently sold

in this

town by the name of* genuine old Port.'


Various expedients are resorted to for the

purpose of communicating particular

Thus a nutty flavour

vours to insipid wines.


is

bitter

produced by

Port wine

is

almonds

factitious

flavoured with a tincture

from the seeds of raisins


dients

employed

to

fla-

drawn

and the ingre-

form the bouquet of

high-flavoured wines, are sweet-brier, orisroot, clary,

cherry laurel water, and elder

flowers.
*

Sawdust

ship-builders,

for this

purpose

is

chiefly supplied

and forms a regular

of the brewers' druggists.

article of

by the

commerce

ADULTERATION OF WINE.

94

The flavouring ingredients used by manufacturers,

dealers

in

may

all

be purchased by those

wine who are

mysteries of the trade

book

receipt

script

initiated in

and even a manu-

for

preparing

them,

and. the whole mystery of managing


sorts of wines,

may be

the

all

obtained on payment

of a considerable fee.

The sophistication

of wine with substances

not absolutely noxious to health,


to an

enormous extent

Many thousand

in

is

carried

this metropolis.

pipes of spoiled cyder are

annually brought hither from the country,


for the

purpose of being converted into fac-

titious

Port wine. The art of manufacturing

spurious wine

is

a regular trade of great

extent in this metropolis.


" There
in this
is,

city,

nity of chemical operators,

a certain frater-

who work under-

ADULTERATION OF WINE.

ground

in holes, caverns,

95

and dark

retire-

ments, to conceal their mysteries from the


eyes and observation of mankind.

These

subterraneous philosophers are daily em-

ployed

in the

transmutation of liquors, and

by the power of magical drugs and incantations, raising under the streets of London
the choicest products of the hills and val-

They can squeeze Bourdeaux out of the sloe, and draw Champagne

leys of France.

from an apple.

Virgil, in that

remarkable

prophecy,
Incultisque rubens pendebit sentibus uva.

Virg. Eel.

The

seems

iv.

29.

ripening grape shall hang on every thorn.

to

have hinted

at this art,

which ean

turn a plantation of northern hedges into a

vineyard.

These adepts are known among

one another by the name of Wine-brewers

ADULTERATION OF WINE*

96
and, I

am

do great injury, not only

afraid,

to

Her Majesty's customs, but

of

many

of her good subjects*.

Recipes

may be

to the bodies

for

manufacturing spurious wines

seen in Dr. Reece's

Health, No.

7,

"

and

Pharmacopoeias,

in the

p.

Gazette

Supplement

of

to the

245.

CRUSTING OF WINE BOTTLES,

AND

OTHER NEFARIOUS ARTIFICES COMMITTED

BY

FRAUDULENT

WINE

MERCHANTS.
THE

particular

in this factitious

consists

and separate department

wine trade, called crusting,

of lining the interior surface of

Tatler, vol.

viii.

p. 110, edit. 1797, 8vo.

ADULTERATION OF WINE.

97

fempty wine-bottles, in part, with a red crust

of super-tartrate of potash , by suffering a


saturated hot solution of this

salt,

coloured

red with a decoction of Rrazil-wood, to crystallize

within them

tion of maturity

is

and

after this

simula-

perfected, they are filled

with the compound called Port Wine.


Other artisans are regularly employed in
staining the lower extremities of bottle-corks

with a fine red colour, to appear, on being

drawn, as

if

they had been long in contact

with the wine.

The preparation of an
to produce,

astringent extract,

from spoiled home-made and

"
foreign wines, a
genuine old Port,"

mere admixture

or to

wine a rough austere

impart to a

taste,

by
weak

a fine colour,

and a peculiar flavour ; forms one branch of


the

business of particular wine-coopers

ADULTERATION OF WINE,

98

while the mellowing and restoring of spoiled

white wines,

who

interior surface of bottles,

purpose of misleading the unwary

into a belief that the


is

of a certain age.

ation

of wine.

stated that a crystalline crust

formed on the

for the

men

the sole occupation of

are called refiners

We have
is

is

is

wine contained

in

correspondent oper-

performed on the wooden cask

whole interior of which

them

is

the

stained artificially

with a crystalline crust of super-tartrate of


potash, artfully affixed in a

manner pre-

cisely similar to that before stated.

Thus

the wine-merchant, after bottling off a pipe

of wine,

is

enabled to impose on the under-

standing of his
pieces the cask,

customers,

by taking

to

and exhibiting the beautiful

dark coloured and

fine crystalline crust, as

an indubitable proof of the age of the wine ;

ADULTERATION OF WINE.

99

a practice by no means uncommon, to


the vanity of those

who

flatter

pride themselves

in their acute discrimination of wines.

These and many other sophistications,

which have long been practised with impunity, are

considered as legitimate by those

who pride themselves

for their skill in the

art of

according to the

managing,

or,

fa-

The plea

miliar phrase, doctoring wines.

alledged in exculpation of them,

that,

is,

though deceptive, they are harmless

but

even admitting this as a palliation, yet they

form only one department of an

art

which

includes other processes of a tendency absolutely criminal.


_

Several well-authenticated facts have con-

vinced

me

that the adulteration of

with substances deleterious to health,


tainly practised oftener than

F2

is,

wine
is

cer-

perhaps,

ADULTERATION OF WINE*

100

suspected

and

it

would be easy

some instances of very

to give

serious effects hav-

ing arisen from wines contaminated with


deleterious substances, were this a subject

on which
statement

meant

is

to speak.

The following

copied from the Monthly Ma-

gazine for March 1811, p. 188.


" On the 17th of
January, the passengers

by the Highflyer coach, from the north,


dined, as usual, at Newark. A bottle of
Port wine was ordered

on tasting which,

one of the passengers observed that

it

had

an unpleasant flavour, and begged that

might be changed.
the bottle, poured

The waiter took away


into a

fresh decanter

half the wine which had been objected

and

filled it

up from another bottle.

he took into the room,


part

it

to,

This

and the greater

was drank by the passengers, who,

ADULTERATION OF WINE.
after the

coach had

set out

101

towards Grarv-

tham, were seized with extreme sickness ;

one gentleman

in particular,

more of the wine than the

who had taken


others,

it

was

thought would have died, but has since

The half of the bottle of wine

covered.

re-

sent

out of the passengers' room, was put aside


for the

purpose of mixing negus.

In the

evening, Mr. Bland, of Newark, went into


the hotel, and drank a glass or two of wine

He

$nd water.

returned

home

at his usual

hour, and went to bed; in the middle of the

night he was taken so

Bland

to

in the

town

rived,

he was dead.

ill,

as to induce Mrs.

send for his brother, an apothecary


;

but before that gentleman ar-

and the jury,

An

inquest was held,

after the fullest inquiry,

the examination of the surgeons by

r3

and

whom

ADULTERATION OF WINE.

102

the body was opened, returned a verdict of

Died by Poison."

DANGEROUS ADULTERATION OF WINE

WITH POISONOUS SUBSTANCES.


THE most dangerous
is

adulteration of wine

by some preparations of lead, which pos-

sess the property of stopping the progress

of acescence of wine, and also of rendering

white wines,

when muddy,

have good reason


tainly

employed

effect is

transparent.

to state that lead is cerfor

very rapid

this

purpose.

The

and there appears

to

be no other method known, of rapidly recovering ropy wines.

Wine merchants

per-

suade themselves that the miniate quantity

ADULTERATION OP WINE.

103

of lead employed for that purpose


fectly

is

per-

harmless, and that no atom of lead

Chemical analysis

remains in the wine*

proves the contrary; and the practice of

by means of

clarifying spoiled white wines


lead,

must be pronounced

as highly dele-

terious.

Lead* in whatever state


the stomach,

it

be taken into

occasions terrible diseases

and wine, adulterated with the minutest


quantity of

it,

becomes a slow poison.

merchant or dealer who practises


gerous sophistication,

and deliberately

to that of fraud,

scatters

the seeds of disease

his

those consumers

emolument.

dan-

adds the crime of

murder

among

this

The

who

and death

contribute to

If to debase the current

coin of the realm be

denounced as a

capital

offence, what punishment should be awarded

104

ADULTERATION OF WINE*

against a practice which converts into poison

a liquor used for sacred purposes ?

Dr. Watson* relates, that the method of


adulterating wine with lead, was at one time

a common practice

in Paris.

Dr. Warren f states an instance of thirty-

two persons having become severely


after drinking

ill,

white wine that had been

adulterated with lead.

and one became

One

of

them

died,

paralytic.

In Graham's Treatise on Wine-Making J,

under the

article of Secrets,

belonging to

the mysteries of vintners, p. 31, lead

is

re-

* Chemical
Essays, vol. viii. p. 369.
t Medical Trans, vol. ii. p. 80.
J This book, which has run through many editions,
may be supposed to have done some mischief. In the
Vintner's Guide, 4th edit. 1770, p. 67, a

lump of sugar

of lead, of the size of a walnut, and a table-spoonful of


sal

eni^um, are

$wo

gallons) of

a*irected to

be added to a

muddy wine3 to

cure

it

of

tierce (forty-

its

muddiness*

ADULTERATION OF WINE,

commended

wine from becoming

to prevent

The following
Mr. Graham's work
acid.

105

lines are copied

from

" To hinder Wine


"

from

Put a pound of melted

water, into your cask, pretty


it

turning.
lead,

in fair

warm, and stop

close,"

"

To

" Put in a

soften

little

Grey Wine.

vinegar wherein litharge

has been well steeped, and boil some honey,


to

draw out the wax.

cloth,

Strain

and put a quart of

wine, and this will

ACCIDENTAL

mend

it

it

through a

into a tierce of

it."

IMPREGNATION OF WINE

WITH LEAD.
IT

is

well

known

that bottles in

which

wine has been kept, are usually cleaned

F5

106

ADULTERATION OF WINE.

by means

of shot, which

rolling motion

by its

detaches the super-tartrite of potash from


the sides of the bottles. This practice, which

generally pursued by wine-merchants,

is

may

give rise to serious consequences, as

will

become evident from the

following-

case*:
"

A gentleman who had never

experienced a day's

illness,

in his life

and who was

constantly in the habit of drinking half a

was

bottle of

Madeira wine

taken

three hours after dinner, with a se-

ill,

after his dinner,

vere pain in the stomach and violent bowel


colic,

which gradually yielded within twelve

hours to the remedies prescribed by his

The day following he


drank the remainder of the same bottle of

medical adviser.

Philosophical Magazine, 1819,

No. 257/p. 229.

107

ADULTERATION OF WINE.
wine which was

left

the preceding day,

and

within two hours afterwards he was again


seized with the most violent colliquative
pains, headach, shiverings,

over the whole body.

and great pain

His apothecary be-

coming suspicious that the wine he had


drunk might be the cause of the

disease,

ordered the bottle from which the wine had

been decanted,

to

be brought

to him,

with

a view that he might examine the dregs, if

any were

left.

The bottle happening to slip

out of the hand of the servant, disclosed a

row of shot wedged


lar

forcibly into the

bent-up circumference of

it.

angu-

On

ex-

amining the beads of shot, they crumbled


into dust, the outer crust (defended

coat of black lead with

glazed) being alone

left

by a

which the shot

is

unacted on, whilst

the remainder of the metal was dissolved.


F

ADULTERATION OF WINE,

108

The wine,

therefore,

had become contami-

nated with lead and arsenic, the shot beingmetals, which

compound of these
doubt had produced the

no

mischief."

TEST FOR DETECTING THE

DELETE-

RIOUS ADULTERATIONS OF WINE.

READY

re-agent for detecting the pre-

sence of lead, or any other deleterious metal


in wine,
test.

It

is

known by

consists

the

name

of the wine

of water saturated with

sulphuretted hydrogen gas, acidulated with


muriatic acid.

By adding one

part of

it,

to

two of wine, or any other liquid suspected


to contain

lead, a dark coloured or black

precipitate will fall

down, which does not

disappear by an addition of muriatic acid

ADULTERATION OP WINE.
and

this

precipitate, dried

109

and fused before

the blowpipe on a piece of charcoal, yields a

globule of metallic lead.


precipitate iron

iron in solution

This test does not

the muriatic acid retains

when combined with

sul-

phuretted hydrogen; and any acid in the

wine has no

effect

in

precipitating any of

the sulphur of the test liquor.

more

efficacious

method

is,

Or a

still

to pass a current

of sulphuretted hydrogen gas through the

wine, in the manner described, p. 89, having


previously acidulated the wine with muriatic acid.

The wine
pared

test

sometimes employed

in the following

manner

is

pre-

Mix equal

powdered sulphur and of


slaked quick-lime, and expose it to a red

parts of finely

heat

for

twenty minutes.

To

thirty-six

grains of this sulphate of lime, add twenty-

ADULTERATION OF WINE.

110

six grains of stiper-tartrate of potassa

the mixture into an ounce bottle, and

put

fill

up

the bottle with water that has been previ-

The

ously boiled, and suffered to cool.

li-

quor, after having been repeatedly shaken,

and allowed

to

become

clear,

by the

subsi-

dence of the undissolved matter, may then

be poured

into another

phial,

into

which

about twenty drops of muriatic acid have

been previously put.


use.

This

test,

It is

then ready for

when mingled with wine

containing lead or copper, turns the wine of

a dark-brown or black colour.

But the

mere application of sulphuretted hydrogen


gas to wine, acidulated by muriatic acid,
a far more preferable
in

wine.

mode of detecting

is

lead

ADULTERATION OF WINE.

Ill

METHOD OF DETECTING EXTRANEOUS


COLOURS IN RED WINE.
M. VOGEL* has

lately

recommended ace-

tate of lead as a test for detecting extrane-

ous colours in red wine.

He

remarks, that

none of the substances that can be employed


for colouring wine,

such as the berries of the

Vaccinium Martillus
ries,

(bilberries,) elderber-

and Campeach wood, produce with ge-

nuine red wine, a greenish grey precipitate,

which
test

is

the colour that

is

procured by

this

by means of genuine red wines.


/

Wine coloured with

the juice of the bil-

berries, or elderberries, or

Journ. Pharm.

iv. 56.

Campeach wood,

(Feb. 1818,) and Thomson's

Annals, Sept. 1818, p. 232.

112

ADULTERATION OF WINE,

produces, with acetate of lead, a deep blue


precipitate

and Brazil-wood, red saunders,

and the red

beet,

precipitated red

produce a colour which

by

acetate of lead.

coloured by beet root


lourless

by lime water

Wine

also rendered

is

is

co-

but the weakest

As

acid brings back the colour.

the colour-

ing matter of red wines resides in the skin

of skins,

M. Vogel prepared a quantity


and reduced them to powder. In

this state

he found that they communicated

of the grape,

to alcohol a

deep red colour a paper stained


:

with this colour was rendered red by acids

and green by

alkalies.

M. Vogel made a quantity of red wine


from black grapes,
periments

and

for the

this

purpose of his ex-

produced the genuine

greyish green precipitate with acetate of


lead.

He

also found the

same coloured

ANALYSIS OF WINE.

precipitate in

113

two specimens of red wine, the

genuineness of which could not be sus*


pected; the one from Chateau-Margeaux,

and the other from the neighbourhood of


Coblentz.

SPECIFIC DIFFERENCES OF VARIOUS

KINDS OF FOREIGN WINES.

EVERY body knows that no product of


the arts varies so much as wine
that dif;

ferent countries, and sometimes the different

provinces of the same country, produce different wines.

These differences, no doubt,

must be attributed

chiefly to the climate in

which the vineyard


ture

is

situated

to its cul-

the quantity of sugar contained in the

grape juice

the manufacture of the wine,

114

ANALYSIS OP WINE.

mode of

or tbe
to

suffering

be accomplished.

its

fermentation

If the grapes be ga-

thered unripe, the wine abounds with acid ;\

but
will

if

the fruit be gathered ripe, the wine

be

in the

When the proportion

rich.

grape

nerous.

and the fermenta-

is sufficient,

tion complete, the

wine

is

it

the fermentation

remains undecomposed, as
is

sweet and luscious


contains, even

languid, and the wine


;

when

if,

on the contrary,

full ripe,

portion of sugar, the wine


if it

perfect and ge-

If the quantity of sugar be too

large, part of

and

of sugar

is

is
it

only a small

thin

and weak

be bottled before the fermentation

be completed,

part of the sugar remains un-

decomposed, the fermentation will go on


slowly in the bottle, and on drawing the
cork, the wine sparkles in the glass

example, Champagne.

as, for

Such wines are not

ANALYSIS OF WINE.

When

mature.

sufficiently

the

115

must

is

separated from the husk of the red grape


before

it is

fermented, the wine has

or

little

no colour these are called white wines.


:

on the contrary, the husks are allowed to

remain in the must while the fermentation


is

going on, the alcohol dissolves the colour-

ing matter of the husks, and the wine


loured

co-

Hence

such are called red wines.

is

white wines are often prepared from red


grapes, the liquor being

drawn

off before

it

has acquired the red colour; for the skin of


the grape only gives the colour.
in

these

vary

much

principal

Besides

circumstances,

wines

in flavour.

CHEMICAJL CONSTITUTION AND COM-

PONENT PARTS OF WINE.


ALL wines
tical

contain one

principle,

common and

iden-

from which their similar

116

ANALYSIS OF WINE.
are produced

effects

namely, brandy or

It is especially

alcohol.

by the

different

proportions of brandy contained in wines,


that

they differ most from

When

wine

separates*

is distilled,

The

known under

spirit

the alcohol readily

thus obtained

name

the

one another.

is

well

of brandy.

All wines contain also a free acid; hence

they turn blue tincture of cabbage, red.

The acid found


in

grape wines,

abundance

in the greatest
is

tartaric

acid.

Every

wine contains likewise a portion of supertartrate of potash,

and extractive matter, de-

rived from the juice of the grape.

These

substances deposit slowly in the vessel in

which they are kept.

To

this is

owing the

improvement of wine from age.


wines

which

effervesce or

froth,

Those

when

poured into a glass, contain also carbonic


acid,

to

which

their briskness

is

owing.

ANALYSIS OF WINE.

117

The peculiar flavour and odour of different


kinds

of wine probably depend upon the

presence of a volatile
tity that

it

oi7,

so small in quan-

cannot be separated.

METHOD OF ASCERTAINING THE QUANTITY OF SPIRIT CONTAINED IN VARIOUS SORTS OF WINE.

THE

strength of all wines depends upon

the quantity of alcohol or brandy which they


contain,

Mr. Brande, and Gay Lussac,

have proved, by very decisive experiments,


that all wines

contain brandy or alcohol

ready formed.

The following

is

the process

discovered by Mr. Brande, for ascertaining


the quantity of spirit, or brandy, contained
in different sorts of wine.

ANALYSIS OF WINE.

118

Experiment.

Add
wine

to eight parts,

by measure, of the

be examined, one part of a concen-

to

trated solution of sub-acetate of lead:

dense

which

insoluble
is

precipitate

will

ensue;

a combination of the test liquor with

the colouring, extractive, and acid matter of

Shake the mixture

the wine.

nutes, pour the


collect the

brandy or

whole upon a

filtered fluid.
spirit,

for a

few mi-

filtre,

and

It contains the

and water of the wine,

together with a portion of the sub-acetate of


lead.

Add,

this fluid,

in small quantities at a time, to

warm, dry, and pure sub-carbo-

nate of potash (not salt of tartar, or sub-

carbonate of potash of commerce), which


has previously been freed from water by
heat,

till

the last portion added remains un-

ANALYSIS OF WINE,
dissolved.

The brandy

in the fluid will

119

or spirit contained

become separated

for the

sub-carbonate of potash abstracts from

whole of the water with which


bined

it

it

the

was com-

the brandy or spirit of wine forming

a distinct stratum, which

floats

aqueous solution of the alkaline


experiment be made

in

upon the

salt.

If the

a glass tube, from

one half inch to two inches

in diameter,

and

graduated into 100 equal parts, the per centage of

spirit, in

a given quantity of wine,

may be read off by mere inspection.

In this

manner the strength of any wine may be


examined.

120

QUANTITY OF BRANDY

Per Centage of Alcohol* contained in


various kinds of Wine and other fermented Liquors'f.
Proportion of Spirit
per cent.

CONTAINED
Lachryma

Christi...

IN WINE.

121

122

ADULTERATION OF WINE.

Red Hermitage
Vin de Grave

12,32

Mead

13,94

8,88

Ditto

12,80

Ale (Burton)
Ditto (Edinburgh).

13,37

Ditto (Dorchester).

5,50

Average
Frontignac
Cote Rotie

12,79

12,32

7,32

Average

Brown

Stout

6,20

6,87
6,80

Gooseberry Wine... 11,84


Currant Wine
20,55

LondonPorteraverage4,20
Do. SmaUBeer, do. 1,28

Orange Wine average 11, 26

Brandy

Tokay

9,88

Rum

53,68

9,87

Gin

51,60

Elder

Wine

53,39

Cyder highest average 9,87

Scotch Whiskey

54,32

Ditto lowest ditto...

5,21

Irish ditto

53,90

Perry average

7,26

CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION OF HOME-

MADE WINES.
BESIDES grapes, the most valuable of the
articles of

which wine

is

made, there are a

considerable

number of fruits from which a

vinous liquor

is

in this

obtained.

Of such, we have

country the gooseberry, the currant,

ADULTERATION OF WINE.

123

the elderberry, the cherry, &c. which fer-

ment

well,

made

and afford what are called home-

wines.

They

differ chiefly

containing a

much

from foreign wines

in

larger quantity of acid.

Dr. Macculloch* has remarked that the acid


in

home-made wines

acid

is

principally the malic

while in grape wines

it is

the tartaric

acid.

The great

deficiency in these wines, inde-

pendent of the flavour, which chiefly originates, not

from the juice, but from the seeds

and husks of the


Which

is

fruits, is

the excess of acid,

but imperfectly concealed by the

addition of sugar.

This

is

owing, chiefly, as

Dr. Macculloch remarks, to the tartaric acid

Macculloch on Wine.

This

is

by

far the best

Treatise published in this


country on the Manufacture
of Home-made Wines.

G 2

124

ADULTERATION OP WINE.

existing in the grape juice in the state of


super-tartrate of potash, which

is

in part de-

composed during the fermentation, and the


rest

becomes gradually precipitated

the malic

whilst

acid exists in the currant and

gooseberry juice in the form of malate of


potash; which salt does not appear to suffer

a decomposition during the fermentation of


the wine

and, by

its

retained in the wine.

greater solubility,

is

Hence Dr. Maccul-

loch recommends the addition of super-tartrate of potash, in the


tish

wines.

They

manufacture of Bri-

also

contain a

much

larger proportion of mucilage than wines

made from

grapes.

The juice of the goose-

berry contains some portion of the tartaric


acid

hence

it

is

duction of what

better suited for the prois

called English

pagne, than any other

Cham-

fruit of this country.

of

THIS

is

one of the sophistications of the

articles of food
this
is

most commonly practised in

metropolis, where the goodness of bread

estimated entirely by

therefore usual to

alum

to the

its

add a

dough

this

whiteness.

certain quantity of

improves the look

of the bread very much, and renders

and

firmer.

may

it

whiter

Good, white, and porous bread

certainly

wheaten

It is

flour

be manufactured from good


alone; but to produce the

degree of whiteness rendered indispensable

by the caprice of the consumers


it is

in

London,

necessary (unless the very best flour

employed,)

that

the

dough

should

is

be

bleached; and no substance has hitherto


o 3

ADULTERATION OF BREAD.

126

been found

to

answer

this

purpose better

than alum.

Without

this 'salt,

it is

bread, from the kind of

ployed by the
that

which

is

impossible to make

London bakers,

commonly

em-

flour usually

so white as

sold in the metro-

polis.

If the

alum be omitted, the bread has a

slight yellowish grey

hue

as

may be

in the instance of what is called

seen

home-made

bread, of private families.

The quantity

of alum requisite to produce

the required whiteness and porosity, depends


entirely

upon the genuineness of the

flour,

and the quality of the grain from which the


flour

is

obtained.

The mealman makes

ferent sorts of flour from the


grain,
biscuit

dif-

same kind of

The best flour is mostly used by the


bakers and pastry cooks, and the in-

ADULTERATION OF BREAD.

127

The

ferior sorts in

the making* of bread.

bakers' flour

very often made of the worst

is

kinds of foreign damaged wheat, and other


cereal grains

mixed with them

the wheat into flour.

in grinding*

In this capital, no

fewer than six distinct kinds of wheaten


flour are

brought into market.

called line flour,

They

are

seconds, middlings, fine

middlings, coarse middlings, and twenty-

penny

flour.

Common garden

beans, and

pease, are also frequently ground

the

London bread

up among

flour.

ADULTERATION OF BREAD WITH ALUM.


I

have been assured by several bakers^on

whose testimony

I can rely, that the small

profit attached to the bakers' trade,

o 4

and the

ADULTERATION OF BREAD.

128

bad quality of the


lity

of the

induce the genera-

flour,

London bakers

to use

alum

in the

making of their bread.


1

The smallest quantity of alum

that can be

employed with effect to produce awhite,1ight,


and porous bread, from an
flour,I
is

kind of

inferior

have my own baker's authority to state,

from three to four ounces to a sack of flour,

The alum

weighing 240 pounds.

mixed well

in the

either

form of powder, with a

quantity of flour previously


liquid paste with water,

rated with the

is

dough

made

into a

and then incorpo-

or the

alum

is

dis-

solved in the water employed for mixing


the whole quantity of the flour for

up

making

the dough.

Let us suppose that the baker intends to


convert five bushels, or a sack of flour into
loaves with the least adulteration practised.

ADULTERATION OP BREAD.

He pours
and

rate

the flour into the kneading trough,

sifts it

makes

it lie

through a

fine

wire sieve, which

to sepavery light, and serves

any impurities with which the

be mixed.

129

Two

flour

may

ounces of alum are then

dissolved in about a quart of boiling water,

and the solution poured

Four or

tub.

wise put into


water.
to the

into the seasoning-

pounds of salt are likethe tub, and a pailful of hot-,


five

When this mixture has cooled down

temperature of about 84, three or four

are
pints of yeast

added the whole


;

is

mixed,

strained through the seasoning sieve,


tied into a hole

in the flour,

empand mixed up

with the requisite portion of it to the consistence of a thick batter.

Some dry

then sprinkled over the top, and

up with

it is

flour is

covered

cloths.

In this situation

it

o 5

is

left

about three

ADULTERATION OF BREAD.

130

hours.

and breaks

gradually swells

It

through the dry flour scattered on

which one ounce of alum

now added, and

the

a paste as before

is

the whole
it

is

dissolved,

made up

is

dough

In this situation

up.

sur-

An additional quantity of warm water,

face.

in

its

is

is

into

then covered

a few

left for

hours.

The whole is then intimately kneaded with


more water

dough

flour

is

upwards of an hour.

to

one side of the trough

sprinkled over

this state

for

it,

and

about four hours.

kneaded again for half an hour.


is

to

now

The

cut into pieces with a knife, and

is

penned

for

some dry

it is

left in

It is

then

The dough

cut into pieces and weighed, in order

furnish the requisite quantity for each

loaf.

The

loaves are

two ours and a half.

left in

When

the oven about

taken out, they

ADULTERATION OF BREAD.

131

are carefully covered up, to prevent as

much

as possible the loss of weight.

The following account of making a


or five bushels of flour, into bread,

is

sack,

taken

from Dr. P. Markhatn's Considerations ou


the Ingredients used in the Adulteration of

Bread Flour and Bread,


Five

p.

21

bushels of flour, eight ounces of

alum*, four pounds of salt, half a gallon of


yeast, mixed with about three gallons of
water.

The theory of the bleaching property of


alum, as manifested in the panification of an

Whilst correcting

ter transmits to
ec

me

On Saturday

this sheet for the press,, the prin-

the following lines

Mr. Wood, a baker, was convicted before T. Evance, Esq. Union Hall, of having in
his possession

last,,

a quantity of alum for the adulteration

of bread, and fined in the penalty of

under 55 Geo.

III. c. 99."

5.

and

costs,

The Times, Oct. 1819,

G 6

132

ADULTERATION OF BREAD.

inferior

kind of

understood

flour, is

and indeed

by no means well
it is

ing that the effect should be

really surpris-

produced by so

small a quantity of that substance


three ounces of

alum being

two or

sufficient for a

sack of flour.

From experiments
employed, with
bakers, I

am

which

in

have been

the assistance of skilful

authorised to state, that with-

out the addition of alum,


possible to

make

bread, such as

is

it

does not appear

white, light, and porous

used

in this metropolis,

unless the flour be of the very best quality.

Another substance employed by frauduis

subcarbonate of ammonia.

this salt,

they realize the important

lent bakers,

With

consideration of producing light and porous

bread, from spoiled, or what


called sour flour.

This

salt,

is

technically

which becomes

ADULTERATION OF BREAD.

133

wholly converted into a gaseous state during the operation of baking,

dough

to swell

up

into air bubbles,

carry before them the


it

stiff

at the

same

the salt itself

time, totally volatilised dur-

ing the operation of baking.


vestige of carbonate of

the bread.

which

dough, and thus

renders the dough porous

is,

causes the

This salt

Thus not a

ammonia remains

is

also largely

in

em-

ployed by the biscuit and ginger-bread


bakers.

ADULTERATION OF BREAD WITH


POTATOES.

POTATOES

are likewise largely, and per-

haps constantly, used by fraudulent bakers,


as a cheap ingredient, to
fit.

The

enhance their pro-

potatoes being boiled, are tritu-

ADULTERATION OF BREAD,

134

rated, passed through a sieve,

rated with the

and incorpo-

dough by kneading.

This

adulteration does not materially injure the

bread.

The bakers

assert, that the

bad

quality of the flour renders the addition of

potatoes advantageous as well to the baker


as to the purchaser,

and that without

this

admixture in the manufacture of bread,

would be impossible

on the trade

But the grievance

of a baker.

same price

to carry

is

it

is,

taken for a potatoe

a loaf of genuine bread, though

that the

loaf, as for

it

must

cost

the baker less.


I

have witnessed, that

five

bushels of flour,

three ounces of alum, six pounds of

bushel of potatoes boiled into a

salt,

one

stiff paste,

and three quarts of yeast, with the requisite


quantity of water, produce a white, light,

and highly palatable bread.

ADULTERATION OF BREAD.
Such are the

artifices

preparation of bread*

135

practised in the

and

it

must be

al-

lowed, on contrasting them with those sophistications practised

by manufacturers of

other articles of food, that they are comparatively unimportant.


dical

men have no

many diseases

However, some me-

hesitation in attributing

incidental to children to the

use of eating adulterated bread

others

again will not admit these allegations: they

persuade themselves that the small quantity


of alum added to the bread (perhaps,

upon

an average, from eight to ten grains to a


quartern loaf,)

is

absolutely harmless.

There are instances of convictions on record, of

bakers having used gypsum, chalk, and pipe clay, in


the manufacture of bread.

ADULTERATION OF BREAD.

136

Mr.

Edmund Davy,
Cork

try, at the

Professor of Chemis-

Institution,

has communi-

cated the following important facts to the

concerning

public

the

manufacture

of

bread.
"

The carbonate of magnesia of the shops,

when well mixed with


tion of

from twenty

the propor-

flour, in

to forty

grains to a

pound of flour, materially improves

it

for the

purpose of making bread.


" Loaves

made with

bonate of magnesia,

and

after

the addition of car-

being baked, the bread

and spongy, has a good


well.

In cases

when

oven

rise well in the

the

taste,

new

is

light

and keeps

flour

indifferent quality, from twenty

is

of an

to

thirty

grains of carbonate of magnesia to a

pound

of the flour will considerably improve the

ADULTERATION OF BREAD.
bread.

When

the flour

forty grains to a

lity,

is

137

of the worst qua-

pound of

flour

seem

necessary to produce the same effect.


" As the
improvement in the bread from

new

flour

depends upon the carbonate of

magnesia, it

is

taken to mix

necessary that care should be


it

intimately with the flour,

previous to making the dough.


" Mr.
Davy made a great number of comparative experiments with other substances,

mixed
bread

in different
flour.

their pure

The

proportions

with

new

fixed alkalies, both in

and carbonated

state,

when used

in small quantity, to a certain extent

were

found to improve the bread made from new


flour

but no substance was so efficacious in

this respect as carbonate of magnesia.

"

The greater number of his experiments

were performed on the worst new seconds

ADULTERATION OF BREAD.

138

Mr. Davy could procure.

flour

made some

trials

different quality.

also

on seconds and firsts of


lu some cases the results

were more striking and


others

He

satisfactory than in

but in every instance the improve-

ment of the bread, by carbonate of magnesia,


was obvious.
"

Mr. Davy observes, that a pound of

carbonate of magnesia would be sufficient

mix with

to

two hundred and

fifty-six

pounds of new flour, or at the rate of thirty


grains

to

the pound.

And

supposing a

pound of carbonate of magnesia

half-a-crown, the additional expence

be only half a farthing

in

the

cost

to

w ould
r

pound of

flour.

" Mr.
est

Davy

conceives that not the slight-

danger can be apprehended from the

use of such an innocent substance as the

METHOD OF DETECTING ALUM

IN

BREAD. 139

carbonate of magnesia, in such small proportions as are necessary to

improve bread from

new flour."

METHOD OF DETECTING THE PRESENCE OF ALUM IN BREAD.


POUR upon two

ounces of the suspected

bread, half a pint of boiling distilled water

mixture for a few minutes, and

boil the
it

through unsized paper.

fluid to

and

filter

Evaporate the

about one fourth of its original bulk,

let

gradually

fall into

the clear fluid

a solution of muriate of barytes.

If a co+

pious white precipitate ensue, which does


not disappear by the addition of pure nitrie
acid, the presence of

Bread,

alum may be suspected.

made without alum, produces, when

assayed

in this

manner, merely a very slight

140 METHOD OP DETECTING ALUM IN BREAD.


which originates from a minute

precipitate,

portion of sulphate of magnesia contained


in all

common

made with
nesia,

salt of

salt freed

produces

commerce

and bread

from sulphate of mag-

an infusion with water,

which does not become disturbed by the


barytic test.

Other means of detecting

all

the consti-

tuent parts of alum, namely, the alumine,

sulphuric acid, and potash, so as to render


the presence of the alum unequivocal, will
readily suggest itself to those

who

miliar with analytical chemistry;

one of the readiest means

is,

to

are fa-

namely:

decompose

the vegetable matter of the bread,

by the

action of chlorate of potash, in a platina


crucible, at a red heat,

the residuary mass,

and then

to assay

by means of muriate

of barytes for sulphuric acid

by ammonia,

METHOD OF DETECTING ALUM


for

alumine

IN

BREAD. 141

and by muriate of

platina, for

The above method of detecting


the presence of alum, must therefore be

potash*.

taken with some limitation.

There

is

no unequivocal

test for detect-

ing in a ready manner the presence of alum


in bread,

common

we

If

on account of the impurity of the


salt

used

in the

making of bread.

could, in the ordinary

making, employ common


free

way

salt,

of bread

absolutely

from foreign saline substances,

mode

the

of detecting the presence of alum

would be very

easy.

Some

conjecture

may, nevertheless, be formed of the presence, or absence, of alum,

by assaying the

See a Practical Treatise on the Use and Applica-

tion of Chemical Tests, illustrated


edition, p.

270, 231, 177, and 196.

by experiments, 3d

142 METHOD OF JUDGING OF THE GOODNESS


infusion

manner

of bread in the

stated,

the assay with the


p. 139, and comparing
results afforded by an infusion of home-

made

or household bread,

known

to

be

genuine, and actually assayed in a similar

manner.

METHOD OF JUDGING OF THE GOODNESS


OF BREAD-CORN AND BREAD-FLOUR.
MILLERS judge of

the goodness of bread

corn by the quantity of bran which the


grain produces.

Such grains
have

as are full

a bright and

and plump, that

shining

appearance,

without any shrivelling and shrinking in


the covering* of the skin, are the best; for

wrinkled grains have a greater quantity of

OF BREAD-CORN AND FLOUR.

143

such as are sound or

skin, or bran, than

plump.
Pastry-cooks and bakers judge of the

goodness of flour
comports

itself in

in the

manner

it

is

formed into

paste

which

it

The best kind

kneading.

of wheaten flour assumes,

in

at

the instant

by the

addition

of water,* a very gluey, ductile, and elastic


paste, easy to be kneaded,

and which may

be elongated, flattened, and drawn

in

every

direction, without breaking.

For the following


Mr. Hatchet
"

fact

we

are indebted to

Grain, which has been heated or burnt

in the stack,

may

ner be rendered

in the

fit

for

following

man-

being made into

bread.
"

The wheat must be put

into a vessel

times the
capable of holding at l^ast three

144 METHOD OF CURING MUSTY WHEAT.


quantity, and the vessel filled with boiling-

the grain

water;

sionally stirred,
grains,

which

an hour,

it

and the hollow decayed

float,

the water has

may be removed. When

become

is

be occa-

should then

drawn

cold, or in about half


off.

corn with cold water,

Then

rince the

and,

having com-

it

thinly on the

pletely drained

it,

floor of a kiln,

and thus thoroughly dry

stirring

spread

and turning

it

frequently during

this part of the process.*"

Phil.

it,

Trans, for 1817, part

1.

^alteration of

MALT

LIQUORS, and particularly porter,

the favourite beverage of the inhabitants

of London, and of other large towns,


articles, in the

amongst those

is

manufacture

of which the greatest frauds are frequently

committed.

The

statute

prohibits the brewer from

using any ingredients in his brewings, except malt and hops


that those

nutritious

but

it

too often

happens

who suppose they are drinking a


beverage, made of these ingre-

dients only,

are entirely deceived.

beverage may,

in fact,

The

be neither more nor

ADULTERATION OF BEER.

146

less than a

compound of the most

rious substances
all

and

it

is

delete-

also clear that

ranks of society are alike exposed to the

The

nefarious fraud.

ment

will

proofs of this state-

be shown hereafter*.

The author f of a

Practical Treatise on

Brewing, which has run through eleven


editions,

after

having stated the various

ingredients for brewing porter,


" that however much

they

may

observes,
surprise,

"

however pernicious or disagreeable they


"
may appear, he has always found them
"

requisite in the

brewing of

porter,

and

" he thinks
they must invariably be used
"
by those who wish to continue the taste,

See pages 158, 171, 181.

Child, on

Brewing

Porter,, p. 7.

ADULTERATION OF BEER.
"

147

and appearance of the beer*.


" And
though several Acts of Parliament
flavour,

" have been


passed to prevent porter brew" ers from
using many of them, yet the
" author can
affirm, from experience,
**

he

could never produce the present flavoured

"

porter without

"

qualities of porter are to be ascribed to

The

them -f.

intoxicating

" the various


drugs intermixed with
u

"
i4

"

is

evident some porter

other,
less

and

it

arises

is

it.

It

more heady than

from the grea(er or

quantity of stupifying ingredients.


to

Malt,

produce intoxication, must be

" used in such


large quantities as would
"
"

very

much

diminish,

if

not totally ex-

elude, the brewer's profit."

Child, on

Ibid, p. 16.

Brewing Porter,

H2

p. 16.

ADULTERATION OP BEER.

148

EARLY PRACTICE OF ADULTERATING


BEER WITH SUBSTANCES NOXIOUS
TO HEALTH, AND RAPID PROGRESS
OF THIS FRAUD.

THE

practice of adulterating beer appears

be of early date.

to

By

an Act so long

ago as Queen Anne, the brewers are prohibited from mixing cocculus indicus, or

any unwholesome ingredients,

under severe penalties

in their beer,

but few instances of

convictions under this Act are to be

met with

in the public records for nearly a century.

To shew

own

that they have

days,

we

documents

augmented

shall exhibit an abstract

our

from

laid lately before Parliament*.

" Minutes of the Committee

mons, to

in

whom

of the

House of Com-

the petition of several inhabitant* of

ADULTERATION OF BEER.
These

will not only

149

amply prove,

that

unwholesome ingredients are used by

frau-

dulent brewers, and that very deleterious


substances are also vended both to brewers

and publicans

for adulterating

that the ingredients


er's
all

mixed up

beer,

in the

but

brew-

enchanting cauldron are placed above

competition, even with the potent charms

of Macbeth's witches

" Root

of hemlock, digg'd

i'

the dark,

" For a charm of


pow'rful trouble,
" Like a hell-broth boil and bubble."

London and
and

its vicinity,

complaining of the high price

inferior quality of beer,

was

referred, to

examine

the matter thereof, and to report the same, with their


observations thereupon, to the House. Printed by

order of the House of

Commons, April 1819."

H3

150

ADULTERATION OF BEER.

Mr. Morris* recommends the following


Receipt for brewing Porter

Cwt.

Ib.

Qrs.

Malt, 25 Quarters.

Hops.
Cocculus Indicus Berry

2
6

30

Xeghorn Juice
Porter Extract
Cwt.

Ibs,

Qrs.

Malt, 20 Quarters.

Hops
Cocculus Indicus Berry

00

Sugar

4
28

.0

Fabia Amara

To make up a Vat of 150 Barrels*


Use half a

barrel of colouring,

cwt

of cream of tarter, \ cwt. of ground alum,


*

Morris on Brewing- Malt Liquors,

p. 38,

and H6.

ADULTERATION OF BEER.
1

pound of

and put them in a


at the

same

three days

time.

In a fortnight

own good

Mix these well


vat,

it

together,

rousing it thoroughly

Let the vat remain open

then close

and two barrels

salt of steel,

of strong finings.

151

will

and sand

it

be

fit

for use.

it

over*

Your

sense will inform you how, to

advantage.

The following

are

some of the

Articles

used by fraudulent Brewers, and recom-

mended by Mr.
Colouring.

Morris.
" I should

every brewer to provide


sufficient quantity, as

to the beer,

it

recommend

to

himself with a

gives a good face

and enables you

to gratify the

sight of your different customers.

Cocculus Indicus.

" Cocculus Indicus

is

used as a substitute for malt and hops, and


is

a great preservative of malt

H 4

liquor

it

152

ADULTERATION OF BEER,

prevents second fermentation in bottled beer,,

and consequently the bursting of the bottles

warm climates.

in

Its effect is

of an inebri-

ating nature.
" Calamus Ar omaticus is used in the brew-

ery as a succedaneum for hops and strength,

by

slicing

it

thin,

with the hops


to six

"

one pound of which

is

equal

pounds of hops.

Quassia leaves so severe a bitter on the


long

palate,
it

and boiling it a short time

after the liquor is drank, that

requires much judgment in using it.


" Coriander is much used
by brewers, to

give a flavour to ales.


"
Capsicum, or guinea pepper,
ales

"

used in

and amber.

Caraway Seed

flavour

"

is

and

is

is

used

put into

Grams of Paradise are

ttire also,

ales, for the

in the tun.

and are used

of a

in ales.

warm

na-

ADULTERATION OF BEER,

This article, when used in the

**

Ginger.
brewery,

is

153

always ground

fine

and made

use of in the tun at the time of cleansing,


"

Beans tend

to

mellow malt liquor

and,

from their properties, add much to its inebriating qualities


in too

"

but they must not be used

large a quantity.

Oyster Shells are very good to recover

sour beer

but when used, you must leave

the

bung

out.

"

Alum

is

generally put into the vat, as

it

gives the beer a smack of age."

Such are the

articles

recommended by

Mr. Morris.

The fraud of imparting

to porter

and

ale

an intoxicating quality by narcotic substances, appears to have flourished during

the period of the late French war:


ii

for, if

ADULTERATION OF BEER.

154

we examine the importation


will

of drugs,

lists

it

be noticed that the quantities of coc-

culus indicus imported in a given time prior


to that period, will

bear no comparison with

the quantity imported in the same space of

time during the war, although an additional

duty was laid upon

this

commodity.

has been the amount brought

country in five years, that

it

far

Such
this

into

exceeds the

quantity imported during twelve years anterior to the

drug has
two
It

above epoch.

The

price of this

risen within these ten years from

shillings to seven shillings the

was

at the period to

pound.

which we have

alluded, that the preparation of an extract

of cocculus indicus

first

appeared, as a

new

saleable commodity* in the price-currents

of br eivers* -drug gist s*


time, also, that a

It

was

at the

same

Mr. Jackson, of notorious

ADULTERATlbN OF BEER.

155

upon the idea of brewing beer


from various drugs, without any malt and

memory,

hops.

fell

This chemist did not turn brewer

himself; but he struck out the more profitable trade of

teaching his mystery to the

brewers for a handsome

fee.

From

that

time forwards, written directions, and receipt-books for using the chemical preparations to be substituted for malt

and hops,

were respectively sold; and many adepts


soon afterwards appeared every where, to
instruct brewers in the nefarious
practice,
first

From

pointed out by Mr. Jackson.

that time, also,

chemists took

the fraternity of brewers'

its rise.

They made

chief business to send travellers

a!!

it

their

over the

and samples exhibiting


the price and quality of the articles manu-

country with

factured

lists

by them

for the use of

H6

brewers

ADULTERATION Of BEER*

156

Their trade spread far and wide, but

only.
it

was amongst the country brewers

chiefly

that they found the most customers;

amongst them, up

it is

as I

am

tors,

on whose veracity

to the present

and
day y

assured by some of these operaI

can rely, that the

greatest quantities of unlawful ingredients

are sold.

The Act

of Parliament* prohibits che-

mists, grocers,

and druggists, from supply-

ing illegal ingredients to brewers under a

heavy penalty, as

is

obvious from the

fol-

lowing abstract of the Act.


"

"

No

druggist,

vender of or dealer

in

drugs, or chemist, or other person, shall

" sell or deliver to


any licensed brewer,
" dealer in or retailer of
beer,

* 56 Geo.

III. c. 2.

knowing him

ADULTERATION OF BEER.
" to be
such, or shall
"

157

or deliver to any

sell

person on account of or in trust for any

* such brewer, dealer or

retailer,

any liquor

" called
by the name of or sold as colouring,
" from whatever material the same
may be
"

made, or any material or preparation other

" than

unground brown malt

for

darkening

" the colour of


worts, or beer, or

any liquor
" or
preparation made use of for darkening
" the colour of worts or
beer, or any mo"

lasses,

honey,

vitriol,

quassia,

cocculus

"

Indian, grains of paradise, Guinea pepper


" or
opium, or any extract or preparation of
"
molasses, or any article or preparation to

" be used in worts or beer for or as a sub" stitute for malt or


hops
"
shall offend in
gist

"

and

if

any drug-

any of these particu-

such liquor preparation, molasses, &c.


" shall be
forfeited and may be seized
by
lars,

158
"
'

ADULTERATION OF BEER.

any

officer

of Excise, and the person so

offending shall for each

"

offence forfeit

500."

The following

is

grocers, prosecuted

list

of druggists and

by the Court of Excise,

and convicted of supplying unlawful ingredients to brewers.

Druggists and
convicted

Grocers prosecuted

from 1812

to

1819,

and

for sup-

plying illegal Ingredients to Brewers

for adulterating Seer*,


Messrs.

Dunn and

Co, druggists, for selling

aduk

terating ingredients to brewers, verdict 500/.

Messrs.

Rugg and others,

druggists, for selling adul-

terating ingredients to brewers, verdict 500/.

Copied from the Minutes of the Committee of the

House

of Commons, appointed for examining the price

and quality of beer.

See page 18, 29, 30, 31, 36, 43.

ADULTERATION OP BEER.
Messrs. Hodgkinson and others, for
ing ingredients to brewers, 1001.

and

selling"

159
adulterat-

costs.

Messrs. Hiscocks and others, for selling adulterating


ingredients to a brewer, 200/. and costs.

Mr. Hornby,

for selling adulterating ingredients to

a brewer, 2001.

Mr. Wilson,

for selling adulterating ingredients to

brewer, 2001.

Mr. Andrews,

grocer, for selling adulterating ingre-

dients to a brewer, 25/.

and

costs.

Air.

Knowles, for selling substitute for hops, costs.


Messrs. Kernot and Alsop, for selling cocculus india,
c. 25/.

Messrs. Brandram and Co.* for selling various drugs,

WOL
Mr. Moss, for selling various drugs, 300/.
Mr. Whitcombe, Mr. Dunn, and Mr. Waller, druggists, for having liquor for darkening the colour of beer,
hid and concealed.

Mr. Hebberd,

for

having liquor for darkening the

colour of beer, hid and concealed.

Mr. Whitcombe, Mr. Dunn, and Mr. Waller, drugfor making liquor for darkening the colour of

gists,

Beer.

Not Messrs. Brandram,

of Size-lane, Cannon-st.

ADULTERATION OF BEER.

160

Mr. Lord, grocer,


and costs.

for selling molasses to a brewer,

20/.

Mr. Smith

grocer, for selling molasses to a

Carr,

brewer, 20/. and costs.

Mr. Fox, grocer,


%bL and costs.
Mr. Cooper,
and costs.

for selling molasses to

a brewer,

grocer, for selling molasses to a brewer,

40/.

Mr. Bickering,
brewer,

40/.

and

Mr. Howard,
2l. and

for

grocer,

selling molasses

to a

costs.

grocer, for selling molasses to a brewer,

costs.

Mr. Reynolds,

grocer,

for

selling molasses to

brewer, costs.

Mr. Hammond,

grocer, for selling molasses to a

brewer, 20/. and costs.

Mr. Mackway,

grocer, for selling

molasses to a

brewer, 20/.

Mr. Renton, grocer, for selling molasses


costs, and taking out a licence.

Mr. Adam son,

grocer, for

to

a brewer,

selling molasses to

brewer, costs, and taking out a licence.

Mr. Weaver,

for

selling

Spanish liquorice to a

brewer, 200/.

Mr. Moss, for selling Spanish liquorice


Mr. Braden, for selling liquorice, 20/.

Mr, Draper,

for selling molasses to

to

a brewer.

a brewer,

20/.

ADULTERATION OF BEER.

161

REMARKS ON PORTER.
THE method

of brewing- porter has not

been the same

at all times as

it is

at pre-

sent.

At

first,

the only essential difference in

the methods of brewing this liquor and that

of other kinds of beer, was, that porter was

brewed from brown malt only and this gave


;

to

it

both the colour and flavour required.

Of late

years

it

has been brewed from mix-

tures of pale and

brown malt.

These, at some establishments, are mashed


separately,

and the worts from each are

af-

terwards mixed together. The proportion of


pale and

brown

malt, used for

ter, varies in different

brewing por-

breweries

some em-

ploy nearly two parts of pale malt and one


part of

brown malt

but each brewer ap-

ADULTERATION OF BEER.

162

pears to have his

own

proportion

which the

intelligent manufacturer varies, according


to

the nature and

qualities of the malt.

Three pounds of hops


allowed

to

are,

upon an average,

every barrel (thirty-six gallons)

of porter.

When

the price of malt, on account of the

great increase in the price of barley during

the late war, was very high, the

London

brewers discovered that a larger quantity of


wort of a given strength could be obtained
from pale malt than from brown malt.
therefore

increased

the

They

quantity of the

former, and diminished that of the latter.

This produced beer of a paler colour, and


of a less bitter flavour.

To remedy

disadvantages, they invented an

these

artificial

colouring substance, prepared by boiling-

brown sugar

till

it

acquired a very dark

ADULTERATION OF BEER.
brown colour
ployed

to

163

a solution of which was em-

darken the colour of the beer.

Some brewers made use

of the infusion of

malt instead of sugar colouring*.


to the beer a bitter

taste, the

To impart
fraudulent

brewer employed quassia wood and worm-

wood
But

as a substitute for hops.


as the colouring of beer

by means of

sugar became in

many

for using illegal

ingredients, the Legisla-

ture, apprehensive

might, and

instances a pretext

from the mischief that

actually

did, result

from

it,

passed an Act prohibiting the use of burnt

sugar in July 1817; and nothing but malt

and hops

is

now allowed

composition of beer
glass

law.

for

to enter into the

even the use of

clarifying beer,

is

isin-

contrary to

164

No

ADULTERATION OF BEER.
sooner had the beer-colouring Act

been repealed, than other persons obtained


a patent for
ing an

effecting' the

artificial

purpose of impart-

colour to porter,

by means

of brown malt, specifically prepared for that

purpose only.

The

beer, coloured

by the

new method, is more liable to become spoiled,


when coloured by the process formerly
The colouring malt does not
practised.

than

contain any saccharine matter.


is

by mere

torrefaction

The grain

converted into a

gum-like substance, wholly soluble in water,

which renders the beer more

liable to pass

into the acetous fermentation than the

com-

mon brown

cause the

malt

is

latter, if

capable of doing

be-

prepared from good bar-

ley, contains a portion of saccharine matter,

of which the patent malt

is

destitute.

ADULTERATION OF BEER.
But

as

brown malt

is

165

generally prepared

from the worst kind of barley, and as the

made from good

patent malt can only be


grain,

it

may become, on

that account, an

useful article to the brewer (at least,

colour and body to the beer)

but

it

materially economise the quantity

necessary to produce good porter.

brewers of eminence in
sured me, that the
louring beer

is

vise

this

cannot
of malt

Some
as-

mode of

co-

wholly unnecessary; and


colour

brewed better without it hence


;

is

gives

town have

of this

that porter of the requisite

malt

it

this

may be
kind of

not used in their establishments.

The quantity of gum-like matter which


contains, gives too

beer, and render

it

much ferment

liable to spoil.

experiments, made on a
settled this fact,

it

to the

Repeated

large scale, have

ADULTERATION OF

166

BEEfc.

STRENGTH AND SPECIFIC DIFFERED CE&


OF DIFFERENT KINDS OF PORTER.

THE

strength of

that of wine,

all

kinds of beer, like

depends on the quantity of

contained in a given bulk of the

spirit

li-

quor.

The reader need scarcely be


no

article there are

porter.

ferent

more

told, that of

varities than of

This, no doubt, arises from the dif-

mode

of manufacturing the beer, al-

though the ingredients are the same. This


difference is more striking in the porter
manufactured among country brewers, than
it is

in the

beer brewed by the eminent

London porter brewers.

London

The

totality of the

porter exhibits but very slight dif-

ferences, both with respect to strength or the

quantity of

spirit,

and

solid extractive mat-

ADULTERATION OF BEER.

167

contained in a given bulk of

ter,

may be

spirit

stated,

The

it.

upon an average,

to

be

4,50 per cent, in porter retailed at the publicans

the solid matter

to twenty-three

six gallons.

from twenty-one

is

pounds per barrel of thirty-

The country-brewed porter is

seldom well fermented,

and seldom con-

tains so large a quantity of spirit

abounds
turbid

in

mucilage; hence

when mixed with

it

it

usually

becomes

Such

alcohol.

beer cannot keep, without becoming sour.


It

that

has been matter of frequent complaint,

ALL the porter now

brewed,

is

not

what porter was formerly. This idea may


be true, with some exceptions. My professional

occupations

twenty-eight

me

years,

have,

during

repeatedly

these

obliged

examine the strength of London porter, brewed by different brewers


and, from
to

the minutes

made on

that subject, I

am

au-

4^ULTERATION OF BEEU.

168

thorized to state, that the porter

now brewed

by the eminent London brewers,


stronger

tionably

brewed

at different periods

French war.

which

than that

is

unques-

which was

during the late

Samples of brown stout with

have been

whilst writing

this

obligingly favoured,
Treatise,

Barclay, Perkins,and Co.

Hanbury, and Co.

by Messrs.

Messrs. Truman,

Messrs.

Henry Meux

and Co. and other eminent brewers of this


capital

afforded,

upon an average, 725 per

cent. of alcohol, of 0,833

and

specific gravity;

porter, from the same houses, yielded

upon an average 5,25 per

cent, of alcohol,

of the same specific gravity*; this beer re*

of

The average specific gravity of different samples


brown stout, obtained direct from the breweries of

Messrs. Barcley, Perkins, and Co. Messrs. Truman,


Hanbury, and Co. Messrs. Henry Meux and Co. and

from several other eminent London brewers, amounted


to 1,022; and the average specific gravity of porter,
from the same breweries, 1,01 8.

ADULTERATION OF BEER.

169

ceived from the brewers was taken from the

same

store

from which the publicans are

supplied.
It is

from

nevertheless singular to observe, that

fifteen

samples of beer of the same

denominations, procured from different retailers,

the proportions of spirit

fell

conside-

Sam-

rably short of the above quantities.


ples of
retailers,

brown

stout,

afforded,

per cent, of

procured

from

the

upon an average,* 6,50

alcohol;

and

the

average

strength of the porter was 4,50 per cent.

Whence can

this

difference

between the

beer furnished by the brewer, and that retailed

by the publican,

arise ?

We

shall

not be at a loss to answer this question, when

we

find that so

many

retailers of porter

been prosecuted and convicted


table

beer with

their strong

for

have

mixing

beer ; this

is

ADULTERATION OF BEER.

170

by

prohibited

law, as becomes obvious by

the following words of the Act*.

" If
any

common

or other brewer, inn-

keeper, victualler, or retailer of beer or ale,


shall

mix

or suffer to be

mixed any strong

beer, ale, or worts, with table beer, worts,

or water, in any tub or measure, he shall


forfeit

and

50." The difference between strong

table beer,

is

thus settled by Parlia-

ment.
" All beer or ale
f

above the price of

eighteen shillings per barrel, exclusive of


ale duties

now payable

per barrel,) or that

(viz.

may be

hereafter paya-

ble in respect thereof, shall

strong beer or ale

2 Geo.

III. c. 11, sec. 2.

and

all

ten shillings

be deemed

beer of the price

1 59 Geo.

III. c. 53, sec. 25.

ADULTERATION OF BKER.

171

of eighteen shillings the barrel or under,


exclusive of

the duty payable (viz. two

shillings per barrel) in respect thereof, shall

be deemed table beer within the meaning


of this and all other Acts

may

now in

force, or that

hereafter be passed in relation to beer

or ale or

any duties thereon."

Publicans prosecuted and convicted from


1815

to 1818, for adulterating

illegal Ingredients,

Beer with

their

Beer with

andfor mixing Table

Strong Beer*.

Mr. Atterbury, for using salt of steel, salt, molasses,


&c. and for mixing table beer with strong beer, 401.
Mr. Dean, for using salt of steel, salt, molasses, &c.
and

for

mixing table beer with strong beer,

50/.

Copied from the Minutes of the Committee of the

House

of Commons, appointed for examining the price

and quality of beer,

p. 19, 29, 36, 37, 43.

i2

ADULTERATION OF BEER.

172
Mr. Jay,

for using salt of steel,

salt,

molasses, &c.

and for mixing table beer with strong beer

Mr. Atkinson,

50/.

for using salt of steel, salt, molasses,

&c. and for mixing table beer with strong beer,

Mr. Langworth,

201.

for using salt of steel, salt, molasses,

&c. and

for mixing table beer with strong beer, 50/.


Mrs. Spencer, for using salt of steel, salt, molasses,
&c. and for mixing table beer with strong beer, 1 50/.

Mr. Hogg,
and

for

for using salt of steel, salt, molasses,

mixing table beer with strong beer,

&c.

51.

Mr. Craddock, for using salt of steel, salt, molasses,


&c. and for mixing table beer with strong beer, 1001.
Mr. Harris, for using salt of steel, salt, molasses, &c.
and

for receiving stale beer,

beer, 42/.

and

and mixing it with strong

costs.

Mr. Scoons,

for using salt of steel, salt, molasses,

&c. and for mixing

stale

beer with strong beer, verdict

200/.

Mr. Geer and another, for using salt of steel, salt,


molasses, &c. and for mixing strong and .table beer,
verdict 400/.

Mr. Coleman, for using salt of steel, salt, molasses,


&c. and for mixing strong and table beer, 33/. and costs.
Mr. Orr,
and

for using salt of steel, salt, molasses,

Mr.

&c.

mixing strong and table beer, 50/.


Gardiner, for using salt of steel, salt, molasses,

for

&c. and

for

mixing strong and table beer, 10Q/.

173

ADULTERATION OF BEER.
Mr. Morris,
&c. and

for

for using salt of steel,

salt,

mixing strong and table beer,

molasses,

201.

Mr. Harbur, for using salt of steel, salt, molasses,


&c. and for mixing strong and table beer, 501.
Mr. Corrie, for mixing strong beer with table beer.

Mr. Cape, for mixing strong beer with table beer.


Mr. Gudge, for mixing strong beer with small beer.

FRAUDULENT PRACTICE OF ADULTERATING

BEER WITH SUBSTANCES

NOT DELETERIOUS TO HEALTH.

WE have stated already (p.


thing

is

145) that no-

allowed by law to enter into the

composition of beer, but malt and hops.

The substances used by fraudulent brewers for adulterating beer, are chiefly the fol-

lowing

Quassia, which gives to beer a bitter taste,


is

substituted for hops


i

but hops possess a

ADULTERATION OF BEER.

174

more agreeable aromatic


is

flavour,

and there

also reason to believe that they render

beer less liable to spoil by keeping

a pro-

perty which does not belong to quassia.


requires but

little

It

discrimination to distin-

guish very clearly the peculiar bitterness of


quassia in adulterated porter.

of the shavings of this

tities

Vast quan-

wood

are sold

3 half-torrefied and ground state to dis-

in

guise
its

its

obvious character, and to prevent

being recognized among the waste mate-

rials

of the brewers.

Wormwood*

has like-

wise been used by fraudulent brewers.

The adulterating

of hops

is

prohibited

by

the Legislature f.

* See

Minutes of the Committee of the House of

Commons

for

Reporting on the Price and Quality of

1819. p. 29.
7 Geo. II. c. 19, sec. 2-

ADULTERATION OF BEER.

175

" If
any person shall put any drug or ingredient whatever into hops to alter the
colour or scent thereof, every person so of-

by the oath of one

fending, convicted

wit-

ness before one justice of the peace for the

county or place where the offence was com5 for every hundred

mitted, shall forfeit

weight."

Beer rendered
keeps well, unless

bitter
it

by quassia never

be kept

in a place pos-

temperature considerably lower

sessing a

than the temperature of the surrounding at-

mosphere

and

this is not well practicable

in large establishments.

The use of boiling the wort of beer with


hops,

is

partly to communicate a peculiar

aromatic flavour which the hop contains,


partly to cover the sweetness of

posed saccharine matter, and also


i

undecom-

to separate,

176

by

ADULTERATION OF BEER.
virtue of the gallic acid

and tannin

contains, a portion of peculiar vegetable

cilage
is still

it

mu-

somewhat resembling gluten, which


diffused through the beer. The com-

pound thus produced, separates in small flakes


like those of curdled soap

and by these

means the beer is rendered less liable to spoiK


For nothing contributes more

to the conver-

sion of beer, or any other vinous fluid, into

vinegar, than mucilage.


full-bodied and

clammy

Hence,
ales,

also, all

abounding

mucilage, and which are generally

ill

in

fer-

mented, do not keep as perfect ale ought to


do.

Quassia is, therefore, unfit as a substi-

tute for hops

and even English hops are

preferable to those imported from the Conti-

nent ; for nitrate of silver and acetate of lead

produce a more abundant precipitate from


an infusion of English hops, that can be oh-

ADULTERATION OF BEER.

177

by the same

tained from a like infusion

agents from foreign hops.

One of
that

it

the qualities of

porter,

should bear a fine frothy head, as

technically termed

is

good

judges of

this

all

it

because professed

beverage would not pro-

nounce the liquor excellent,


possessed

is,

although

it

other good qualities of porter,

without this requisite.

To impart to porter this property of frothing when poured from one vessel into another, or to

produce what

is

also

termed a

cauliflower head, the mixture called beer-

heading, composed of common green


(sulphate of iron), alum, and

This addition to the beer

by
*

for

the publicans*.

It is

is

salt, is

vitriol

added.

generally

made

unnecessary to ge-

See List of Publicans prosecuted and convicted

mixing table beer with strong beer, &c.

" Alum

gives likewise a

smack of age

penetrating to the palate."

p. 171.

to beer,

and is

S. Child,on Breiving,p.lS.
i

ADULTERATION OF BEER.

178

nuine beer, which of

itself possesses the pro-

perty of bearing a strong white froth, witis-

out these additions

and

it is

only in conse-

quence of table beer being mixed with strong


beer that the frothing property of the porter

From experiments

is lost.

this subject, I

have tried on

have reason to believe that the

sulphate of iron, added for that purpose,

does not possess the power ascribed to

it.

when they

But the publicans frequently,


fine a butt of beer, by means of

isinglass,

adulterate the porter at the same time with


table beer, together with a quantity of
lasses

mo-

and a small portion of extract of gen-

tian root, to

the porter

keep up the peculiar flavour of

and

it is

to the molasses chiefly,

which gives a spissitude to the beer, that the


frothing property must be ascribed; for,
without

it,

the sulphate of iron does not pro-

duce the property of frothing in diluted beer.

ADULTERATION OF BEER.

179

The following lines on the application of


Beer Heading, are copied from Morris's
Treatise on brewing Malt Liquors, p. 108.
" On this
Heading.
part of our subject

it

may be

necessary to observe, that here are

various

modes of making

Some make

it.

use of ground copperas and ground alum,


in

about equal proportions

salt of steel, of

on a shilling

is

some

which as much as

resort to
will

lie

sufficient for a barrel of beer.

But, as the duties of a brewhouse sufficiently

employ every person engaged

mend
it

it

to be

it,

recom-

purchased of those who make

their business to

"

in

have

it

ready prepared.

Observe, that porter should not be sent

out without

it,

much admired
able to

its

as

it

causes the head so

in that
liquor,

and

is

agree-

flavour."

Capsicum and grains of


i

paradise,

two

ADULTERATION OP BEER.

180

highly acrid substances, are employed to

weak

give a pungent taste to

Of late, a concentrated
ticles, to

be used

insipid beer.

tincture of these ar-

for a similar purpose,

possessing a powerful

effect,

and

has appeared

in the price-currents of brewers' druggists.

Ginger

root,

peels, are
chiefly

and orange

employed as flavouring substances

by the

From

coriander seed,

ale brewers.

these statements, and the seizures

that have been

made

at various breweries,

of illegal ingredients
it

is

obvious that the

adulterations of beer are not imaginary.


will

It

be noticed, however, that some of the

sophistications are comparatively harmless,

whilst others are effected


leterious to health.
bits

by substances de-

The following list exhi-

some of the unlawful substances seized

at different breweries
ratories*

and

at

chemical labo-

ADULTERATION OF BEER.

Illegal Ingredients, seized

181

from 1812

1818, at various Breweries

to

9
and Brewers

Druggists*.
1812, July.

Mr. Nibbs.

Multum

84lb.

Cocculus indicus

12

4 Galls.

Colouring

180

Honey
Hartshorn Shavings...

14

Spanish Juice

46

Orange Powder

17

Ginger

56
300,

Penalty

Mrs. Willis.

1813, June 13.

Cocculus indicus
Spanish Juice
Hartshorn Shavings...

Orange Powder
Penalty
*

Ibs.

lib.

12
6
1

200.

Copied from the Minutes of the Committee of the

House

of Commons, appointed for examining the price

and! quality of beer, p. 38.

182

ADULTERATION OF BEER.

August

Mr. Whiffing.

3.

Grains of Paradise

...

441 b

10

Quassia
Liquorice

64

Ginger

80

Caraway Seeds
Orange Powder

40
14
4

Copperas
Penalty

Nov.

25.

200.

Mrs. Hasler.

Cocculus indicus

12lbs.

Multum

26

Grains of Paradise

...

Orange Powder
Penalty

Dec. 14.
Copperas,

&c

12

30

Spanish Juice

3
200.

Mr. Abbott.
14lbs.

2
Orange Powder .....
Penalty 500. and Crown's

costs.

Proof of using drugs at various times.

ADULTERATION OF BEER.
1815, Feb. 15.

Messrs. Mantell and Cook.

Proof of mixing strong beer with table beer, and


using colouring with other things.

Compromised

1817.

From Mr.

for

300.

Stevenson, an old Servant to

and Waller, brewers' druggists.

Cocculus indicus Extract 6lbs.

Multum

560

Capsicum

>...

Colouring

88

310

Copperas
Quassia

150

&

Drugs

Mixed Drugs

84

240

Spanish Liquorice ... 420


Hartshorn Shavings... 77
Liquorice Powder

...

177

Orange Powder

126

Caraway Seeds

100

Ginger
Ginger Root

110
176

Condemned, not being claimed.

Dunn

184

ADULTERATION OF BEER.
July 30.

Mr. Lyons.

Capsicum

lib.

Liquorice Root Powder


Coriander Seed

2
2

Copperas

Orange Powder

8
\

Spanish Liquorice

Beer C olouring

Not

tried (7th

Aug.

May,

24

galls.

1818.)

Mr. Gray.

6.

Multum

4lbs.

Spanish Liquorice

21

Liquorice Root Powder 113

116

Ginger

Honey

11

Penalty, ^300, and costs ; including mixing strong


beer with table, and paying table-beer duty for strong
beer, &c.

Numerous other
stances,

made

vanced, were

seizures of illegal sub-

at breweries,
it

might be ad-

necessary to enlarge this

subject to a greater extent.

ADULTERATION OF BEER.

185

ADULTERATION OF STRONG BEER

WITH SMALL BEER.


ANOTHER

fraud

frequently committed,

both by brewers and publicans, (as


dent from the Excise Report,)
tice of adulterating

This fraud

beer.

shillings a barrel
is

two

is

prohibited

by law

and the public

shillings.

The revenue

is

suffers,
is

suffer

tea

and upon table beer

cause a larger quantity of beer

the prac-

"The duty upon strong beer

it*,

evi-

strong beer with small

since both the revenue

by

is

is

it

be-

sold as

See Mr. Marr's evidence in the Minutes of the

House

of

Commons,

p. 32.

ADULTERATION OF BEER.

186

strong beer

that

at a price

is,

exceeding

the price of table beer, without the strong

beer duty being paid.

In the next place,

the brewer suffers, because the retailer gets


table or mild beer, and retails

The following

beer."

as strong

it

are the words of the

Act, prohibiting the brewers mixing table

beer with strong beer


" If
any
fer to

common brewer

shall

mix

be mixed any strong beer, or

worts with

or sufstrong*

table beer or table worts, or

with water in any

guile

or

fermenting

tun after the declaration of the quantity of

such guile
shall at

shall

have been made

any time mix or suffer

to

or if he

be mixed

strong beer or strong worts with table beer

worts or with water, in any vat, cask, tub,

measures or

utensil, not

being an entered

ADULTERATION OF BEER.
fermented tun, he

guile or

187

shall forfeit

200/V
With respect
this offence,

to the persons

Mr. Carr*, the

who commit

Solicitor of the

"
Excise, observes, that
they are generally

brewers

who

carry on the double trade of

brewing both strong and table beer.


almost impossible

to

It is

prevent them from

mixing one with the other

and frauds of

very great extent have been detected, and


the parties punished for that offence.

brewer

One

Plymouth evaded duties to the


amount of 32,000/ ; and other brewers, who
at

brew party guiles of beer carrying on the two


trades of ale and table beer brewers, where

* 42
George III,

c.

38, section 12.

t See Minutes of the House of Commons,

p. 32.

ADULTERATION OF BEER*

188

the trade

is

a victualling brewer, which

common brewer, he being

different from the

who sells

a person

only wholesale

tualling brewer being a brewer


seller

by

is

the vic-

and

also a

retail.

" In the
neighbourhood of London," Mr.

Carr continues," more particularly, I speak

from having had great experience, from the


informations and evidence which I have received, that the retailers carry on a most

extensive fraud upon the public, in pur-

chasing stale table beer, or the bottoms of


casks.

There are a

about and

sell

class of

such beer

price to public victuallers,


their cellars.
their

and

they purchase

at

table-beer

who mix

it

in

If they receive beer from

brewers which

stale beer;

men who go

if

is

mild, they purchase

they receive stale beer,

common

table beer for that

ADULTERATION OF BEER.

189

purpose; and many of the prosecutions are


against retailers for that offence."

lowing may serve

The

fol-

proof of this state-

in

ment.

Brewers prosecuted and convicted from


1813 to 1819, for adulterating Strong
Beer with Table Beer*.
Mr. Manton and another, brewers,

for

mixing strong

and table beer, verdict 300/.


Mr. Morrell and another, brewers.,

for

mixing strong

and table beer, 20/. and costs.


Mr. Jones and another, brewers,

for

mixing strong

and table beer, verdict


Mr. Stroad, brewer,
beer, 200/.

and

125/.

mixing strong and table

for

costs.

Mr. Cobbett, brewer,


and costs.

for

mixing strong and table

Mr. Withers, brewer,

for

mixing strong and table

beer, 100?.

beer, 7o/.

and

costs.

Copied from the Minutes of the Committee of the

House of Commons, appointed


and quality of Beer, 1819,

for

examining the price

p. 29, 36,

43.

ADULTERATION OF BEER*

190

Mr. Cowel, brewer,


1

strong ,

Mr.

50/.

and

mixing table beer with

for

costs.

Mitchell, brewer, for mixing table beer with

strong, absconded.

Messrs. Lloyd and another, brewers,

for

mixing

table beer with strong, 25/. and costs.

Messrs.

Edmunds and

another, brewers,? for mixing

table beer with strong, for a long period, verdict 600Z.

Mr. Hoffman, brewer,


beer,

for

and using molasses,

Mr. Langworth, brewer,


stale table beer,

10/.

and

mixing strong and table


and costs.

130/.

for

mixing strong with

costs.

Mrs. Spencer, brewer, for mixing strong with

stale

table beer, verdict 150/.

Messrs. Smith and others, brewers, for mixing strong

and table beer.

Mr. George, brewer,

for

mixing strong and table

beer, verdict 200/.

Mr. Row, brewer,

for

mixing strong and table

beer, verdict 400/.

Messrs. Drew, jun. and another, for mixing strong


beer with table, 50/. and costs.

Mr. Cape, brewer,


and costs.

for

mixing strong and table beer,

250Z.

Messrs. Williams and another, brewers, for mixing


strong and table beer, verdict 200/.

ADULTERATION OF BEER.

191

REMARKS WITH REGARD TO THE ORIGIN OF THE BEER CALLED PORTER.


IT

is

necessary to state, that every pub-

lican has

two

the brewer
is

sorts of beer sent to

the one

beer sent

the other

is

is

him from

called mild,

out fresh as
called old

that

is

it

is,

which

brewed
such as

is

brewed on purpose for keeping, and which


has been kept in store a twelve-month or
eighteen months.
called entire,

of the

is

The

origin of the beer

thus related by the editor

Picture of London:

"Before the

year 1730, the malt liquors in general use


in

London were

and

it

ale beer

was customary

and two-penny;

to call for a pint, or

tankard, of half-and-half,

i.

and half of beer, half of

ale

e.

half of ale

and half of

ADULTERATION OF BEER.

192

t\vo-penny.

came the

In course of time

it

also be-

practice to call for a pint or

tankard

meaning a third of ale,


beer, and two-penny and thus the publican
of three-threads,

to three casks,

and

turn three cocks, for a pint of liquor.

To

had the trouble

to

go

avoid this inconvenience and waste, a brewer


the

name

of Harwood conceived the idea

making a liquor, which should partake


of the same united flavours of ale, beer, and
of

two-penny
ing

it

so,

and succeeded,

entire, OY entire butt,

was drawn
and

he did

as

liquor,

that

meaning

it

entirely from one cask or butt

was a very hearty and nourishing*


and supposed to be very suitable for
it

porters and other working people,

the

call-

name

altered,

is

obtained

The system

of porter*"

and porter

it

is

now

very generally com-

pounded of two kinds,

or rather the

same

193

ADVLTERATIOH OF BEER.
liquor in

two

different states,

mixture of which
ther

is

good

alone.

is

the due ad-

though neimild porter, and

palatable,

One

the other stale porter

is

the former

is

which has a slightly bitter flavour; the


has been kept longer.

that

latter

This mixture the

publican adapts to the palates of his several

and

customers,

mixture

effects the

very

readily, by means of a machine, containing


small pumps worked by handles. In these

are four pumps, but only three spouts, be-

cause two of the

same spout

pumps throw

out at the

one of these two pumps draws

the mild, and the other the stale porter, from


the casks

down

in the cellar

and the pub-

by dexterously changing his hold


works either pump, and draws both kinds of
lican,

beer at the same spout.

An

server supposes, that since

it

indifferent oball

comes from

ADULTERATION OF BEER.

194

one spout,

it is

entire butt beer, as the

lican professes over his door,

pub-

and which has

been decided by vulgar prejudice

to

be

only good porter, though the

difference

not easily distinguished.

have been

is

informed by several eminent brewers,


of

late,

a far greater quantity

is

that,

consumed

of mild than of stale beer.

COPMOSITION OF OLD OR ENTIRE


BEER.

THE

entire beer of the

modern brewer,

ac-

cording to the statement of C. Barclay*,

Esq. consists of some beer brewed exthe purpose of keeping


pressly for

it

like-

wise contains a portion of returns from pub-

See the Parliamentary Minutes* p.

94>.

ADULTERATION OF BEER.
I

leans

a portion of beer from the bottoms

of vats

the beer that

drawn of from the

and from one part of the pre-

to another,

mises to another.

and put
it

stout,

is

which convey the beer from one vat

pipes,

that

This beer

collected
states

contains a certain portion of

brown

which

tling beer

dearer*

is

twenty shillings a barrel

common beer

which

is

and that

all

and some bot-

these beers, united,

various circumstances,

When

it

depends upon

how long they may

in those vats before

fectly bright.

ten shillings a barrel

are put into vats, and that

remain

is

Mr. Barclay also

into vats.

dearer than

195

they become per-

bright, this beer ig

Mr. Barclay has not specified the relative proporbrown stout and of bottling beer, which are

tions of

introduced at such an augmentation of expence.

K2

ADULTERATION OF BEER*

196

sent out to the publicans, for their entire


beer,
tity

and there

is

sometimes a small quan-

of mild beer mixed with

The present

entire

it."

beer, therefore,

is

very heterogeneous mixture, composed of


the waste and spoiled beer of the pub*

all

licans

the bottoms of butts

of the pots
for

the

the leavings

drippings of the machines

drawing the beer

the remnants of beer

that lay in the leaden pipes of the brewery,

with a portion of brown stout, bottling beer,

and mild beer.

FRAUDULENT PRACTICE OF CONVERTING NEW BEER INTO OLD OR ENTIRE BEER.


THE

old or entire beer we have examined,

as obtained from

Messrs. Barclay's, and

ADULTERATION OF BEER.
London brewers,

other eminent

tionably a good

longer appear

compound

to

but

197

is

unques-

it

does no

be necessary, among frau-

dulent brewers, to brew beer on purpose


for keeping, or to

months.

keep

more

it

twelve or eighteen

easy,

expeditious,

and

economical method has been discovered to


convert any sort of beer into entire beer,

merely by the admixture of a portion of

An

sulphuric acid.

eighteen months

is

imitation of the age of

thus produced in an in-

This process

stant.

is

technically called to

bring beer forward, or to

The

practice

is

make

a bad one.

it

hard.

The genuine,

old, or entire beer, of the honest brewer,

quite a different

compound

it

is

has a rich,

generous, fullrbodied taste, without being


acid,

and a vinous odour: but

haps, not be generally

known

K3

it

may, per-

that this kind

ADULTERATION OF BEER.

198

of beer always affords a less proportion of


alcohol than

The

is

produced from mild beer.

practice of bringing beer

is to

be understood,

is

forward,

resorted to only

it

by

fraudulent brewers*.
If,

on the contrary, the brewer has too

large a stock of old beer on his hands,

recourse

is

had

to

an opposite practice

of converting stale, half-spoiled, or sour


beer, into mild beer,

mixture of an

by the simple

alkali, or

ad>-

an alkaline earth.

Oyster-shell powder and subcarbonate of


potash, or soda, are usually

employed

for

These substances neutralise

that purpose.

the excess of acid, and render sour beer

somewhat

palatable.

By

this process the

beer becomes very liable to


*

Mr.

Child, in

directs, to

make

Ms

spoil.

Treatise on Brewing,

p. 23,

neiv faer older, use oil of vitriol.

ADULTERATION OF BEER,
It is

199

the worst expedient that the brewer

can practise

the beer thus rendered mild,


it

becomes va-

pid; and speedily assumes a

muddy grey

soon loses

colour,

its

vinous taste;

and an exceedingly disagreeable

taste.

These sophistications may be considered,


at first, as

minor crimes practised by fraudu-

lent brewers,

when compared with

the

me-

thods employed by them for rendering beer

noxious to health by substances absolutely


injurious*

FRAUDULENT PRACTICE OF INCREASING THE INTOXICATING QUALITY


OF BEER.

To

increase the intoxicating quality of

beer, the deleterious vegetable substance,

K4

ADULTERATION OF BEER.

200

called cocculus indicus,

and the extract of

thifc

technically

poisonous

berry,

black extract,
are employed.

or,

called

by some, hard multum,

Opium, tobacco, nux vomica,

and extract of poppies,

have also been

used.

This fraud constitutes by far the most


censurable offence committed by unprincipled brewers; and
flection

it

to behold so

is

a lamentable re-

great a

number of

brewers prosecufed and convicted of


crime

nor

names of

is it

less deplorable to find the

drug-gists,

plicated in the fraud,


ful

this

eminent

by

in trade,

im-

selling the unlaw-

ingredients to brewers for fraudulent

purposes.

ADULTERATION OF BEER.

201

prosecuted and convicted

1813

to 1819,.

ybr receiving and using

illegal Ingredients in their

Mr. Gardner, brewer,


dients, 100/.,

Messrs.

from

Brewings*.

for using adulterating ingre-

judgment by default.
and another, brewers,

Webb

for

using

adulterating ingredients, and mixing strong and table


beer, verdict 500^.

Mr. Wyatt, brewer,

for using adulterating ingre-

dients, verdict 40 O/.

Mr. Harbart,

retailer,

for receiving adulterating

ingredients, verdict 150/.

Messrs. Blake and others, brewers, for using adulterating ingredients,

verdict

Mr. Sneed,
25/.

and mixing strong and table beer,

250k

and

for receiving adulterating ingredients,

costs.

Messrs. Rewell and another, brewers, ditto, verdict


1DO/.

*
Copied from the Minutes of the Committee of the
House of Commons appointed for examining the price
and quality of beer, p. 29, 36.

K5

ADULTERATION OP BEER.

202

Messrs. Swain and another, brewers, for using adulterating ingredients, verdict 200/.

Mr. Ing, brewer,

Mr.

Hall,

dients^ 5/.

ditto,

and

Mr. Webb,

ditto,

stayed on defendant's death.

for receiving adulterating ingre-

costs.
retailer, for vising adulterating ingre-

dients.

Messrs. Fogg and another, brewers, for receiving

and using adulterating


Mr. Gray, brewer,
dients, 300/.

and

Mr. Bowman,

ingredients.
for using adulterating ingre-

costs.

for using liquid in bladder,

supposed

to be extract of cocculus, 100/.

Mr. Bowman, brewer,


Mr. Stephens, brewer,

for ditto, 100Z.

and

Messrs. Rogers and another, brewers, for

and

costs.

for ditto, verdict 50/.


ditto,

220 /,

costs.

Mr. Moore, brewer,

for using colouring, 300/.

and

costs.

Mr. Morris,
pepper,

for using adulterating ingredients.

Webb

and Ball, for using ginger, Guinea


and brown powder (name unknown), 1st.

Messrs.

100/. 2nd. 500/.

Mr. Clarke, for using molasses, 150Z.


Messrs. Kewell and Burrows, for using cocculus
india, multum, &c. 100/.
Messrs. Allatson and Abraham, for using eocculus
india,

multum, and porter

flavour, 630/.

203

ADULTERATION OF BEER.

Messrs. Swain and Sewell, for using cocculus india,

Guinea opium. &c.

Mr.

200/.

Ing, for using cocculus india, hard colouring,

and honey, dead.


Mr. Dean, for using molasses, 50/.
Mr. Cowell, for using Spanish liquorice, and mixing
table beer *vith strong beer, 50/^

Mr.

Mitchell, for using cocculus india, vitriol,

Guinea pepper,

and

left the country.

Messrs. Lloyd and

Man,

for using extract

of coc-

culus, 251.

Mr. Gray, for using ginger, hartshorn shavings,


and molasses, 300/.

Mr. Hoffman, for using molasses, Spanish juice,


and mixing table with strong beer, ISO/.
Messrs. Rogers and Boon, for using extract of cocculus, multum, porter flavour, &c. 220/.
Mr.

Betteley, for using

wormwood,

coriander seed,

and Spanish juice, 200/.

Mr. Lane, brewer,


hops,

5/.

and

for using

wormwood

instead of

costs.

That a minute portion of an unwholesome


ingredient, daily taken in beer, cannot
to

fail

be productive of mischief, admits of no

doubt ; and there

is

reason to believe that

K6

204

ADULTERATION OF BEER.

a small quantity of a narcotic substance (and


cocculus indicus

is

a powerful narcotic*),

daily taken into the stomach, together with

an intoxicating
cacious than

The

it

liquor,

highly more

is

would be without the

effi-

liquor.

may be gradual; and a strong


constitution, especially if it be assisted with
effect

constant and hard labour,

may

counteract

the destructive consequences


perhaps for

many

years

but

baneful effects at
is

it

it

never

last.

fails to

shew

its

Independent of this,

a well-established

fact,

that

porter

drinkers are very liable to apoplexy and


palsy, without taking this narcotic poison.
*

The

deleterious effect of Cocculus Indicus (the

fruit of the

memispermum

cocculus}

is

owing

to

culiar bitter principle contained in it; which,

swallowed
poison.
ries in

from

It

in

minute

may be

quantities, intoxicates

bitter ;

and acts as

obtained from cocculus indicus ber-

a detached state

7r*x/?ofc

a pe-

when,

chemists

and TO&KOV,

call it
picrotoxin^

poison.

ADULTERATION OF BEER.
If

we judge from

205

the preceding

lists

furnished
prosecutions and convictions
the Solicitor of the Excise*,

many wholesale

that

retail dealers,

it

by

be evident

will

as well as

brewers,

stand very conspicuous

those offenders.

of

But the reader

among

will like-

wise notice, that there are no convictions,


in

any instance, against either of the eleven

great

London porter brewersf

for

any

illegal

practice.
It

has been asserted, that

ficult J for

it

is

more

dif-

the officers of the Excise to detect

See Minutes of the House of Commons,

p. 28, 36.

t Messrs. Barclay, Perkins, and Co. Truman, Hanbury and Co. Reid arid Co. Whitbread and Co.
Combe,

and Co. Henry Meux and Co.


Goodwin and Co. Elliot and Co.-<Cox, and Camble and Co.

Delafield,

Calvert and Co.

Taylor and Co.


See the Minutes, before quoted,
t Ibid.

p. 22.

p. 32*

ADULTERATION OF BEER.

206

fraudulent practices in large breweries than


in small ones; this

extent:

may be

true to a certain

but what eminent London porter

brewer would stake

his reputation

chance of so paltry a gain,

would inevitably be

man? The

at the

in

on the

which he

mercy of his own

eleven great brewers of this

metropolis are persons of such high respectability, that

there

is

no ground

for the slight-

would attempt any


which they were aware

est suspicion that they


illegal

practices,

could not possibly escape detection in their


extensive establishments.

And

let

it

be

remembered, that none of them have been


detected in any unlawful practice* in the
processes of their manufacture, or in the
adulteration of their beer.

Minutes of the House of Commons,

p. 32.

207

ADULTERATION OF BEER,

METHOD OF DETECTING THE ADULTERATION OF BEER.


THE

detection of the adulteration of beer

with deleterious vegetable substances

beyond the reach of chemical

The presence of sulphate of

is

analysis.

iron

may

be detected by evaporating the beer to


perfect dryness,

and burning away the ve-

getable matter obtained, by the action of


chlorate of potash, in a red-hot crucible.

The sulphate

of iron will be left behind

among the residue


when dissolved in

in the crucible,

water,

may

for the constituent parts of the salt,

iron

and sulphuric acid

tincture of galls,

which,

be assayed,
namely,

for the former,

by

ammonia, and prussiate of

ADULTERATION OF BEER.

208

potash

and

for the latter,

by muriate of

barytes*.

Beer, which has been rendered fraudulently

hard or

stale,

by the admixture of

sulphuric acid, affords a white precipitate


(sulphate of barytes), by dropping into

it

solution of acetate or muriate of barytes;

and

this precipitate,

when

collected

by

fil-

tering the mass, and after having been dried,

and heated red-hot

for a

few minutes

in a

platina crucible, does not disappear by the

addition

of nitric

nuine old beer

may

or muriatic acid.

but the precipitate which

having been made red-hot


cible, instantly
*

Ge-

produce a precipitate
it

affords, after

in a platina cru-

becomes re-dissolved with

See a Treatise on the Use and Application of Che; Tests for Sulphuric Acid^ &c<.

mical Tests, 3d edition

ADULTERATION OF BEER.
effervescence

by pouring on

nitric or muriatic acid

cipitate is

and

is

it

209

some pure

in that case the pre-

malate (not sulphate) ofbarytes,

owing

a portion of malic acid

to

having been formed

But with regard

in the beer.
to the vegetable

rials deleterious to health,


difficult, in

any

it

is

extremely

instance, to detect

chemical agencies

and

in

mate-

them by

most cases

it is

quite impossible, as in that of coeculus in-

dicus in beer.

METHOD OF ASCERTAINING THE QUANTITY

OF

SPIRIT

PORTER, ALE,

OP^

CONTAINED IN

OTHER KINDS OF

MALT LIQUORS.
TAKE any

quantity of the beer, put

it

into

a glass retort, furnished with a receiver,

ADULTERATION OF BEER.

210

and

distil,

spirit

with a gentle heat, as long as any

passes over into the receiver ; which

may be known by

heating from time to time

a small quantity of the obtained fluid in a


tea-spoon over a candle, and bringing into
contact with the vapour of

a piece of paper.

it,

the flame of

If the vapour of the dis-

tilled fluid catches fire, the distillation

be continued
set

on

To the
is

fire

until the

vapour ceases

must
to

be

by the contact of a flaming body*

distilled liquid thus obtained,

the spirit of the beer,

which

combined with

water, add, in small quantities at a time,

pure subcarbonate of potash


freed from water
to a red heat),

till

by having been exposed


the last portion of this salt

added, remahis iiddissolved

The

spirit will

(previously

in

the fluid.

thus become separated from

the water, because the subcarbonate of pot-

ADULTERATION OF BEER.
ash abstracts from

which

it

it

211

the whole of the water

contained; and this combination

sinks to the bottom, and the spirit alone


If this experiment be

floats

on the top.

made

in a glass tube,

about half or three-

quarters of an inch in diameter, and gra-

duated into 50 or 100 equal parts, the relative per centage of spirit in a

of beer

given quantity

may be seen by mere inspection.

Quantity of Alcohol contained in Porter,


Ale, and other kinds of Malt Liquors*.

One hundred

parts,

Parts of Alcohol^ 'by

by Measure,

Measure.

contained

Ale,

home-brewed

Ale, Burton, three samples

8,30
-.

Repository of Arts, No. 2, p. 74.

6,25

1316.

ADULTERATION OF BEER.

212
One hundred

parts,

Parts of Alcohol,

by Measure,

contained

by Measure.

Ale, Burton*

8,88

Ale, Edinburgh*

6,20

Ale, Dorchester*
Ale,

5,50

common London-brewed^

Ale, Scotch, three samples

six samples.... 5,82


.....

....5,75

Porter, London, eight samples

4,00

Ditto, Dittot

4,20

Ditto, Dittot

4,45

Ditto, Ditto, bottled

V&

Brown

Stout, 4 samples....

Ditto, Dittot

6,80

Small Beer, six samples

0,75

Ditto, DittoJ

1,28

Copied from Professor Branded Paper in the Phi-

losophical Transactions, 1811, p. 345.

t Result of our own Experiments,


$ Professor Brande's Experiments.

see p. 16D,

Counterfeit

CHINA and PORTO, now

**

Let others buy what you've to sell.


" Your Port, and
your Bohea ;

" For we've our native

farewell;

Sloe divine,

" Whose
fruit yields all our Porto Wine,
" Whose leaves make all our Tea."
Literary Journal, vol.

THE heavy

duties payable to

i.

p. 14?.

Government

upon

tea,

hold out a strong- temptation to

those

who

scruple not to enrich themselves

by

fraud, although at the

health,

The

and even the


application

expence of the

lives of the

community.

of leaves poisonous to

health for the purpose of imitating tea,

is

not

COUNTERFEIT TEA.

214
a

new

invention, detected for the

within these few years

as

is

first

time

obvious from

the Acts of Parliament passed at different periods to prevent and punish the offence.

The

the subject

whereby
tea, or

enactment on

first legislative
is

it is

in 2d.

Geo.

declared

"

I.

cap. 30, sec. 4,

That the dealer in

manufacturer or dyer thereof,

shall counterfeit

who

or adulterate tea, or shall

alter, fabricate, or

manufacture

it

with terra

japonica, or with any other drug or drugs


whatsoever, or shall mix with tea any leaves
other than leaves of tea, or other ingredients

whatsoever,

shall

forfeit

the

sum

of one

hundred pounds."

The 4th Geo.

II. cap. 14, sec. 11, recites,

" That several


persons do frequently dye,
fabricate, or

manufacture very great quanti-

COUNTERFEIT TEA.
ties

215

of sloe-leaves, and the leaves of tea that

have been before used, or the leaves of other


shrubs, or plants, in imitation of tea,

trees,

and do likewise mix, colour,

and dye

stain,

such leaves with terra japonica, logwood,

and other ingredients, and do

sell

and vend

the same as true and real tea, to the


prejudice of the health of his Majesty's
subjects,

the diminution of the revenue, and to the

The Act then de-

ruin of the fair trader."

clares, that the dealer in or seller of such

"

sophisticated" teas, shall forfeit the

of ten pounds for every

The
Geo.

latest statute

III. cap. 29,

on

sum

pound weight.
this subject is 17th

which

states, that this

trade had increased to a very great degree,

and by the same Act, the


turer of such tea

is

seller or

manufac-

to forfeit five

pounds

per pound weight of tea; or, upon non pay-

COUNTERFEIT TEA.

216

that sum, be

ment of
for

to prison

any time not exceeding twelve months;


the party so selling

if

and,

he

committed

is

a tea-dealer,

subject to the provisions of the Act

of Geo.

II.

and the penalty

sterling, per

The extent
traffic

is

is

ten

pound weight.
to which this most

pounds

iniquitous

has been carried, appears to have

been as great formerly as now, and therefore

it is

necessary for the public to be al-

ways on their guard, and not

to

suppose that

the late convictions will deter others from

continuing the practice.

In 1778 there was

a printed circular, signed by the headsman

and secretary of a company of grocers

in

Norwich, stating, that they had been shown


a small quantity of green tea, one-fourth

part of which was avowedly sloe-leaves,


yet so well manufactured as almost to pre-

COUNTERFEIT TEA.
vent detection

and there

terfeit

of hyson tea, which

tion.

So much

is

is

217

another coun-

a strong decep-

for the closeness of the imi-

tation.

Of the extent

to

which

this illicit traffic

of

was

carried, we have

very satisfactory evidence.

In a report of

defrauding the revenue

House of Commons,

the Committee of the

dated December 24, 1783, wherein

which

is

is

it

" the
stated, that
quantity of fictitious

tea,

annually manufactured from sloe

and ash-tree leaves,

different

in

parts of

England, to be mixed with genuine

computed

at

more than

OF POUNDS:"

and

teas, is

FOUR MILLIONS

this too at a

time

when

the whole quantity of genuine teas sold


the East India

more than six

Company

millions of

by

did not amount to

pounds annually.

In Scotland, and in Ireland, the fraud of

COUNTERFEIT TEA.

218

counterfeiting tea* has been carried on to an

equal extent, and with greater ingenuity

in

the latter country, the penalties imposed for


this

offence,

amounted

to

have,

during a few months,

more than 15,000

In the defence set up by some fraudulent


grocers convicted of adulterating tea,
stated that the spurious leaves

made

it is

use of

were perfectly harmless and that they were


;

only mixed with tea to cheapen

it

to the

who could

lower classes of the community,

not afford to pay the high price at which

genuine tea was sold.

But sloe-leaves are

rendered poisonous by the process they un-

dergo

in

for tea.

being manufactured as a substitute

We

have the authority of the most

eminent botanist of his day, to prove

The History of the Tea

Plant, p.

4,9.

this

COUNTERFEIT TEA.
statement.

219

The following is from the

twelfth

volume of English Botany, page 842; by

James Smith, M.D. President of the

Sir

Linnoean Society.

" The recent


the

many

fruit

articles

of the sloe*

is

one of

used to adulterate Port

wine in England. The dried leaves are said


to

be a substitute

mixed with

often

may

for tea
it

and

are, perhaps,

in this country.

pernicious ; for the green parts of the

and cherry
it is

They

be one cause of its proving sometimes

tribe are

fortunate

if

plumf

highly poisonous

and

they act merely as a purga-

tive."

Prunos Spinosa,

sloe or blackthorn,

t The genus, Primus,


plum, cherry, peach, bay,

or plum, includes the sloe,


laurel,

L 2

&c.

220

COUNTERFEIT TEA.

It is

not to be expected that the recent

convictions will suppress a crime which has

existed for a century, and to the committal

of which the temptation

is

stronger than

ever; while the duties remain unrepealed,


the opinion

may be fairly hazarded,

position will

on the

still

public.

strengthened

continue to be practised

This

when

it is

opinion

300

tained

this species of fraud

by

must be

stated that a profit

of from

to

that im-

600 per cent, can be ob;

and though

some of our punishments are represented to


be too severe, yet there are many more

much

too mild,

and wholly inadequate

to

the purpose of deterring offenders from a


repetition of the crime.

It is

probable, that

not a single individual, of those lately fined,


will desist from his nefarious practices
profits of which

the

have long since enabled him

COUNTERFEIT TEA.
to

meet the

trivial loss

and

conviction,

him the penalty

will

which attends a

speedily

which

in

221

he

reimburse
has been

convicted.

The

late detections that

respecting the

illicit

have been made

establishments for the

manufacture of imitation tea leaves, arrested,


not long ago, the attention of the public

and the
ries

parties

by whom these manufacto-

were conducted, together with the nu-

merous venders of the

factitious tea, did not

escape the hand of justice.


statement,

it is

In proof of this

only necessary to consult the

London newspapers (the Times and Courier)


from March to July 1818; which show to
what extent

this nefarious traffic has

carried on in this metropolis

port

the prosecutions and

been

and they reconvictions of

numerous individuals who have been guilty


L 3

222

COUNTERFEIT TEA.

The following

of the fraud.

are

some of

those prosecutions and convictions.

HATTON GARDEN*.

On Saturday an

formation came to be heard at this


before

Thomas Leach, Esq.

the

office,

sitting-

Edmund Rhodes,

gistrate, against

ma-

charged

with having, on the 12th of August

dyed, fabricated,

in-

last,

and manufactured, divers

large quantities, viz. one hundred weight of


sloe

leaves, one

leaves, oiie

hundred weight of ash

hundred weight of elder leaves,

and one hundred weight of the leaves of a


certain other

tree,

in imitation of tea, con-

trary to the statute of the 17th of Geo. Ill,


also,
c.

2 Geo.

I. c.

14, sec. 11.

Rhodes had,

for

30, sec. 5

whereby the

and 4 Geo.
said

Edmund

every pound of such leaves

so manufactured, forfeited the


*

II.

sum

Courier, Jime 22, 1818,

of

5/.

COUNTERFEIT TEA.

223

making the total of the penalties amount to


2,0007. The second count in the information

charged the said Rhodes with having

in his possession the

under the

above quantity of leaves,

The

like penalty of 2,000/.

third

count charged him with having, on the said


12th of August
quantities,

last, in his

possession, divers

exceeding six pounds weight; of

each respective kind of leaves

pounds weight of green

viz. fifty

sloe leaves, fifty

pounds weight of green leaves of ash,

fifty

pounds weight of green leaves of elder, and


fifty

pounds weight of the green leaves of a

certain other tree

not having proved that

such leaves were gathered with the consent


of the owners of the trees and shrubs from

which they were taken, and that such leaves


were gathered
for the

for

some other

use,

and not

purpose of manufacturing the same


L 4

COUNTERFEIT TEA.

224

in imitation of tea;

for each

whereby he had

pound weight,

amounting

in the

whole

forfeited

sum

the

of 5/.

to 1,000/,; and, in

default of payment, in each case, subjected

himself to be committed to the House of


Correction for not more than twelve months,

nor less than six months*

Mr. Denton, who appeared


dant,

who was

for the defen-

absent, said, that he

was a

very poor man, with a family of five children, and was only the servant of the real

manufacturer, and an ignorant


country, put

man from

into the premises to carry

the business, without

the

on

knowing what the

leaves were intended for.

By

direction of

Mr. Mayo, who conducted the prosecution,


several barrels and bags, filled with the imitation tea,

were then brought

into the office,

and a sample from each handed round.

To

COUNTERFEIT TEA.
the

225

eye they seemed a good imitation of

tea.

The defendant was convicted


nalty of

in the

pe-

500 on the second count.

The Attorney-General against Palmer.


(The Times, May 18, 1818.) This was an
by the Attorney-General against the
defendant Palmer, charging him with hav-

action

ing in his possession a quantity of sloeleaves and white-thorn leaves, fabricated into

an imitation of tea.

Mr. Dauncey stated the case

and observed
was a grocer.
lar

to the Jury,

that the defendant,


It

Mr. Palmer,

would-appear that a regu-

manufactory was established in Gold-

by whom the
manufactory was conducted, was a person
of the name of Proctor, and another person
stone-street.

named

The

J. Malins.

parties

They engaged
L 5

others to

COUNTERFEIT TEA.

226

them with

furnish

The

leaves.

leaves, in

order to be converted into an article resem-

bling black

tea,

baked upon an

were

to

the genuine tea had

was yet

to

logwood.

dry,

that curl

the colour, which

it,

was produced by

tea

was manufactured

be given to

The green

when

produce
:

then

boiled,

iron plate; and,

rubbed with the hand,


which

first

in a manner more destructive to the consti-

tution of those
leaves,

by whom

it

being pressed and

was drank.

The

dried, were

laid

upon sheets of copper, where they received


their colour from an

name of Dutch

article

pink.

The

known by
article

producing the appearance of the

the

used

fine

in

green

bloom, observable on the China tea, was,

He

al-

luded to verdigrise, which was added

to

however, decidedly a dead poison

complete the operation.

This was the case

227

COUNTERFEIT TEA.
which he had

and

to bring before the jury;

would appear, that, at the moment


they were supposing they were drinking a
hence

it

pleasant and nutritious beverage, they were,


in fact,

in all probability,

drinking the pro*

duce of the hedges round the metropolis,


prepared

for the

purposes of deception in the

most noxious manner.


T. Jones deposed, that he

and was employed by him

knew

Proctor,

at the latter

end

of April, 1817, to gather black and white

Sloe leaves were the black

thorn leaves.
thorn.

Witness also knew John Malins, the

son of William Malins, a coffee-roaster; he


did not at

first

know

the purpose for which

the leaves were gathered, but afterwards


learnt they

were

to

make

imitation

tea.

Witness did not gather more than one hundred and a half weight of these leaves

L6

but

COUNTERFEIT TEA.

228

he employed another person, of the name of


He had twoBagster, to gather them.

They were first


and the water squeezed from them

pence per pound


boiled,
in

a press.

for

them.

They were afterwards placed

upon sheets of copper to


dry while on the copper they were rubbed
with the hand to curl them. At the time of

over a slow

fire

was a

boiling there

little

verdiyrise put into

the water (this applied to green tea only).


leaves were dried,

After the
sifted,

More

to

they were

and stalks.
separate the thorns

verdigrise and

then added .
that green

some Dutch pink were

The verdigrise gave the leaves


bloom observable on genuine

tea.

The black

tea

went through a similar

course as the green, except the application


of Dutch pink: a

little

verdigrise was put in

229

COUNTERFEIT TEA.
the boiling-, and to this

was added a small

quantity of logwood to dye

it,

and thus the

manufacture was complete.

John Bagster proved that he had been

employed by Malins and Proctor


sloe

to gather

and white-thorn leaves they were taken


:

to Jones's house,

and from thence

coffee-roasting premises* witness

two-pence per pound

for

to Malin's

received

them; he saw the

manufacturing going on, but did not

much about

it:

know

witness saw the leaves on

sheets of copper, in Goldstone-street.

This was the case for the Crown.


dict for the

Crown,

840.

Ver-

230

COUNTERFEIT TEA.

List of Grocers prosecuted and convicted in

for adulterating Tea.

the year 1818,

Mr. Rhodes

the defendant

was convicted

in

600.

the penalty of

Mr. Palmer

the defendant was convicted in

the penalty of 840.


Mr. Prentice the defendant submitted to a
verdict for the Crown.

Mr. Holmes

the defendant submitted to a

verdict for the Crown.

Mr. Orkney
Mr. Grey

verdict for the Crown.


verdict for the

Crown

Penalties

120.

Messrs. Gilbert and Powel

Crown

Penalties

Mr. Clarke

Mr.
70.

Crown

Penal-

verdict for the Crown.

Penal-

verdict

for the

210.

Mr. Dowling
ties

the

verdict for the Crown.

Mr. Horner
ties

verdict for

140.

70.
Bellis

verdict for the

Crown

Penalties

COUNTERFEIT TEA.

231

METHOD OF DETECTING THE ADULTERATIONS OF TEA.


THE

adulterations of tea

may be evinced

by comparing the botanical characters of the


leaves of the two respective trees, arid by
submitting-

them to the action of a few che-

mical tests.

The shape of the


narrow, as shown in

arc deeply serrated,

mity

is

tea-Jeaf

is

slender and

this sketch,

the edges

and the end or extre-

acutely pointed.

The texture

of the

232

COUNTERFEIT TEA.

leaf is very delicate,

glossy, and

The

colour

shewn

in

this

rounded, and the leaf

The

a lively pale green.

is

sloe-leaf (and also the white-thorn

as

leaf,)

its

surface smooth and

its

is

sketch,

is

more

obtusely pointed.

serratures or jags on the edges are not

so deep, the surface of the leaf

is

more un-

even, the texture not so delicate, and the

colour is a dark olive green.

These characters of course can be observed only after the dried leaves have been
suffered to

macerate in water for about

twenty-four hours.

The
in size,

leaves of some sorts of tea

but the shape

is

may differ

the same in

all

of

233

COUNTERFEIT TEA.
them

because

all

the different kinds of tea

imported from China are the produce of one


species of plant, and the difference between

the green and souchong, or black tea, de-

pends

chiefly

age, and

Our

upon the

mode

climate, soil, culture,

of drying the leaves.

ladies are our tea-makers

study the leaf as well as the liquor

become

let

them

let

them

familiar with both vegetables, with

their forms, colours, flavours,

and scents;

let

us drink our tea upon the responsibility of

our wives, daughters, and

upon

that of our grocers.

sisters,

and not

Let every female

distinguish tea-leaves from sloe-leaves, as

she had served an apprenticeship

well as

if

in the

ware-house in Leadenhall-street.

Let them wet and spread out the leaves

which come from

their

grocers,

them be compared with our

figures.

and

let

234

COUNTERFEIT TEA.

The examination of twenty-seven samples of imitation tea of different qualities,

from the most

costly, to the

which

my lot

it fell

to

most common,

to undertake,

induces

me to point out the following chemical marks


of sophistications, as the most simple and
expeditious.

moistened,

Spurious black

when rubbed on

tea,

slightly

a sheet of white

paper, immediately produces ablueish-black


stain;

and speedily

into cold water,

affords,

when thrown

a blueish black tincture,

which instantly becomes reddened by letting


fall into it

a drop or two of sulphuric acid.

Two ounces of the suspected leaves should


be infused

in half-a-pint of cold, soft water,

and suffered

to stand for

about three hours.

Genuine tea produces an amber-coloured


fusion,

in-

which does not become reddened by

sulphuric acid.

COUNTERFEIT TEA,

235

All the samples of spurious

green tea

(nineteen in number) which I have examined,

were coloured with carbonate of copper (a


poisonous substance), and not by means of

The

verdigrise or copperas*.

stances

would

in

sub-

instantly turn the tea black

because both these


soluble

latter

water,

metallic
are

salts

being

acted on by the

astringent matter of the leaves, whether ge-

nuine or spurious, and convert the infusion


into ink.

Tea, rendered poisonous


copper, speedily imparts to

by carbonate of
liquid ammonia

a fine sapphire blue tinge.

"

It is

only ne-

Mr. Twining, an eminent tea-merchant, asserts, that

the leaves of spurious tea are boiled in a copper,, with

See Encyclop. Britan.


copperas and sheep's dung."
vol. xviii. p. 331, 1797.
See alo the History of the Tea
Plant, p. 48.

and

p.

22 and 228 of

this Treatise.

236

COUNTERFEIT TEA.

cessary to shake up in a stopped

vial, for

few minutes, a tea-spoonful of the suspected


leaves, with about

two table-spoonsful of li-

quid ammonia, diluted with half


water.

The supernatant

a fine blue colour,

if

its

bulk of

liquid will exhibit

the minutest quantity

of copper be present.

Green tea, coloured with carbonate of copper,

when thrown

into water

impregnated

with sulphuretted hydrogen gas, immediately acquires

a black

colour.

Genuine

green tea suffers no change from the action


of these

tests.

The presence of copper may be

further

rendered obvious, by mixing one part of the


suspected tea-leaves, reduced to powder,

with two or three parts of nitrate of potash,


(or with

two parts of chlorate of potash,) and

projecting this mixture by small portions

a,t

COUNTERFEIT TEA.

2-37

a time, into a platina, or porcelain-ware crucible,

kept red-hot in a coal

fire

the whole

vegetable matter of the tea leaves will thus

become destroyed, and the oxid of copper


left

behind, in combination with the potash,

of the nitrate of potash (or salt petre), or

with the muriate of potash,

if

chlorate of

potash has been employed.


If water, acidulated with nitric acid, be

then poured into the crucible to dissolve the


mass, the presence of the copper

may be

rendered manifest by adding to the solution,


liquid

ammonia,

in

such quantity that the

pungent odour of it predominates-

<0ttttterfett Coffee.

THE
fee
is

fraud of counterfeiting ground cofmeans


of pigeons' beans and pease,
by

another subject which, ^not long ago, ar-

rested the attention of the

public

and

from the numerous convictions of grocers


prosecuted for the offence,
this practice

time,

and

it is

evident that

has been carried on for a long

to a considerable extent.

The following statement

exhibits

some of

the prosecutions, instituted by the Solicitor

of the Excise, against persons convicted of


the fraud of manufacturing spurious, and

adulterating genuine, coffee*

COUNTERFEIT COFFEE.

239

Alexander Brady, a grocer, prosecuted


and

of

convicted

" I have sold


said,

Some

selling
it

for

sham-coffee,

twenty years."

of the persons prosecuted

by the

we

solicitor of the

Excise

for this fraud,

might, at

sight,

be inclined to be-

lieve,

first

were inconscious that the adulterating

of genuine coffee with spurious substances

w as
r

illegal

excuse,

as

but this ignorance affords no


the

Act of the 43 Geo.

cap. 129, explicitly states


first

III.

" If after the

day of September, 1803, any burnt,

scorched, or roasted pease, beans, or other


grain, or vegetable substance or substances

prepared or manufactured for the purpose


of being in imitation of or in any respect to

resemble coffee or cocoa, or to serve as a


substitute for coffee or cocoa, or alledged

or pretended

by the possessor

or vender

COUNTERFEIT COFFEE.

240

thereof so to be, shall be


sale, or shall

or shall be
sion

or kept for

be offered or expesed

found

of any dealer

sellers

made

of coffee,

in the

to sale,

custody or posses-

or dealers in or seller or

or if

any burnt, scorched,

or roasted pease, beans, or other grain, or

vegetable substance or substances, not being


coffee,

shall

be called by the preparer,

manufacturer, possessor, or vender thereof,

by the name of English or British coffee,


or any other name of coffee, or by the name
of

American

cocoa, or English or British

cocoa, or any other

name of cocoa,

the

same

respectively shall be forfeited, together with

the packages containing the same, and shall

and may be seized by any

officer or officers

of Excise; and the person or persons preparing, manufacturing, or selling the same*
or having the

same

in his, her, or their cus*

COUNTERFEIT COFFEE.

241

or dealers
tody or possession, or the dealer
in or seller or sellers of coffee or cocoa, in

whose custody the same


shall forfeit

and

lose the

shall

sum

be found,

of one hun-

dred pounds."

List

of Grocers prosecuted and convicted

by the Solicitor of the Excise (I8l8) for


t

adulterating Coffee.

The Jlttorney-General against Malins,


This was an information filed by the Attorney-General against the defendant, charg-

ing him, he being a dealer in coffee, with

having

in his possession a large quantity of

imitation coffee,

made from scorched pease

and beans, resembling


to

coffee,

be sold as such, contrary


31

and intended

to the statute of

COUNTERFEIT COFFEE,

242

the 43d of the King,


liable to

pay a

whereby he became

fine of

100.

J.Lawes deposed that he had lived servant


with the defendant; he constantly roasted

pease and beans, and ground them into

powder.
very

When

so

ground,

much resembled

coffee.

the powder

Sometimes

the sweepings of the coffee were thrown in

among the pease and beans. Witness carried


out this powder to several grocers in different parts of the town.

Thomas Jones

lived with the defendant.

His occupation was roasting and grinding


pease and beans. They looked, when ground,
the same as coffee.

Witness had seen Mr.

John Malins sweep up the refuse coffee, and


mix it with the pease and beans. He had
taken out this mixture to grocers.
J.

Richardson, an excise-officer, deposed,

that, in

COUNTERFEIT COFFEE.

243

December 1817, he went

to the pre-

mises of the defendant, and there seized


four sacks, five tubs, and nine pounds in

paper, of a powder

made

to

resemble

coffee.

The quantity ground was 1,567 pounds; it


had all the appearance of coffee; and a
little coffee

mon

being mixed with

it,

any com-

person might be deceived.

He

also

seized two sacks containing 279 pounds of

whole pease and beans roasted.


latter

were some grains of

Among" the
coffee.

The

witness here produced samples of the articles seized.

John Lawes deposed, that the

articles

was

in the habit

of manufacturing while in Mr.

Mai ins' em-

exhibited were such as he

ployment.

The jury found a


Penalty

verdict for the Crown.

100.

M2

244

COUNTERFEIT COFFEE.

The Kiny against Chaloner. -Mr. Chaloner, a dealer in tea and coffee, was charged
on the oaths of Charles Henry Lord and John
Pearson, both Excise
in

officers,

with having

on the 17th of March,

his possession,

nine pounds of spurious coffee, consisting'

of burnt pease, beans, and gravel or sand,

and a portion of

some of the same

coffee,
;

and with selling

also with having in his

possession seventeen pounds of vegetable

powder,

and an

article

which contained not a

imitating coffee,

particle of

genuine

coffee.

The defendant was convicted


nalty of

in the

pe-

90.

The Kiny against Peether.


action similar to the

Crown, penalty of

last.-

This was an

Verdict for the

50.

The Kiny ayainst Toppiny.


the Crown, penalty of

50.

Verdict for

COUNTERFEIT COFFEE.

The King against Hallett.


the Crown, penalty of

for years

he did

modation

This defendant,

he had sold sham coffee


as a matter of

it

to the poor,

a higher price

Verdict for

50.

The King against Pox.


in his defence, said,

245

who

he did not

accom-

could not give


sell

it

for ge-

nuine coffee.

Commissioner of the Excise.

"

Then

you have been defrauding the public

for

.many years, and injuring the revenue by


your

illicit

practices

the poor have an equal

right to be supplied with as genuine an article as the rich,"

He -wag

convicted in the penalty of

50.

The King against Brady. One of the


commissioners tasted some of the sham
coffee

produced by the

officers,

M3

and declared

COUNTERFEIT COFFEE.

246

tLat
for

it

was a most infamous

human

and

stuff,

unfit

food.

"

Defendant.

Why,

have sold

it

for

twenty years."
"

Commissioner.
for

Then you have been

twenty years acting most dishonestly,

defrauding the revenue

and the health of

much by

the poor must have suffered very

taking such an unwholesome

having dealt

article.

in this article so

vates your case

you have

for

long aggra-

twenty years

been selling burnt beans and pease


nuine coffee.
nalty of

You

Your

for ge-

are convicted in the pe-

50."
'

The King against Bowser.

This de-

fendant pleaded guilty to the charge, and

prayed the court to mitigate the penalty.

He was

convicted

in

the penalty of

50*

COUNTERFEIT COFFEE.

The King against Owen*.

247

Mr. Lawes

addressed the commissioners on behalf of


the defendant, in mitigation of punishment
for

he did not mean

deny the offence.

to

His client was a very young man, and had

been most unfortunate

in business.

He was

not aware until lately of the existence of

any law by which

He was
for
.

could be punished.

it

convicted in the penalty of

each quantity of sham

50

coffee.

Mr. Greely and Mr. Dando were fined

20 each

were fined

and Mr. Hirling and Mr. Terry


90 each,

for selling

spurious

coffee f.

The

adulteration of

pease and beans,

is

ground

coffee,

with

beyond the reach of

Times, July 10, 1818.

M4

t Times, June

6,

1818.

COUNTERFEIT COFFEE.

248

chemical analysis

be amiss on

but

this

it

may, perhaps, not

occasion to give to our

readers a piece of advice given by a retired

grocer to a friend, at no distant period


"
"
Never, my good fellow," he said,
pur:

chase from a grocer any thing which passes

through

you

g*et

his

tract

You know

not what

instead of the article yon expect

to receive

are all

mill.

coffee,

pepper, and all-spice,

mixed with substances which de-

from their own natural qualities."

Persons keeping mills of their own can


all

times prevent these impositions.

at

ADULTERATION

BY the Excise laws


in

this

country,

ana

at present existing

the various

degrees

of

strength of brandy, rum, arrack, gin, whis-

key, and other spirituous liquors,

composed of

little else

are determined

chiefly

than spirit of wine,

by the quantity of alcohol

of a given specific gravity contained in the


spirituous liquor of a supposed

unknown

The great public importance of


subject in this country, where the con-

strength.
this

sumption of spirituous liquors adds a vast

M 5

250

ADULTERATION OF

sum

to the public revenue, has

means of
series of

instituting

many

experiments on

been the

very interesting-

The

this subject.

instrument used for that purpose by the

Customs and

officers of

the

instrument

hydrometer, heretofore

The

is

called

which has now su-

Sikes' s hydrometer*,

perseded

Excise,

called

Clark's

in use.

specific gravity or strength of the

legal standard spirit of the Excise,


nically called proof, or

proof spirit.

is

tech-

" This

liquor (not being spirit sweetened, or having

any ingredient dissolved

in

it,

to

defeat

the strength thereof), at the temperature of

George

III. c. xxviii,

May

1818.

" An Act

for

in ascerestablishing the use of Sikes's hydrometer

Clark's hytaining the strength of spirit, instead of

drometer/'

first

established

and amended by Geo,

by 56 Geo.

III. c. 28.

III. c. 3, 110,

251

SPIRITUOUS LIQUORS.
51 Faht. weighs exactly

fth parts of an

equal measure of distilled water ;" and with


this spirit the strength of all other spiritu-

ous liquors are compared according to law.

The strength of brandy, rum,


proof, or below proof,

is

arrack, gin,

weaker than

or other spirituous liquors,

estimated by the

quantity of water which would be necessary


to

bring the spirit up to proof.

The hydrometer

is

calculated to

shew the

percentage of strength above or below proof,


as the case
to trial.

may

The

be, of the spirit submitted


stern of the

instrument

is

graduated, and so sub-divided, as to meet

every variety
to

in the strength of the liquor

be examined, which may

weights (nine

in

fall

between the

number), used with the

in-

strument; the divisions and sub-divisions on


the hydrometer, which remain above the sur-

M 6

ADULTERATION OF

252

face of the liquor in


is

made

to

which the instrument

swim, being added to the number

upon the weight used, and together forming


the indication.

But

as the difference of temperature af-

fects materially the specific gravity of spi-

rituous liquors, a thermometer, and tables

of the concentration of strength as denoted

by the hydrometer, are used


cation of the instrument.

in the appli-

The

officer

of

the Excise has therefore only to turn to the


tables opposite the indication,
diately

and imme-

under the temperature he

finds the

percentage of the strength of the liquor.

The quantity
tity
is

by

of proof spirit in any quan-

of spirituous liquor of any other strength,

found by multiplying the quantity of


its

spirit

percentage of strength, the decimal

point in the percentage being

two places to the

left

first

renloved

hand, and deducting

253

SPIRITUOUS LIQUORS.
the product,

from

if

the spirit be below proof,

or adding

it,

if

above proof,

to the

cjuantity of liquor.

For Example, 125

gallons.

50.
Weight used..
Subdivision shewn by the hydrometer... 1.2

51.2

Temperature by the thermometer

68

Opposite 51.2 on the column of indications,

and under the 68th degree of tem-

perature,
it

is

had

8.4 per cent, above proof;

been below proof, the 10.500 must have

been deducted, and would have

left

1142

of proof spirit, contained in the 125 gallons


of the liquor.

Brandy and rum


found
less

it

is

seizable^if sold by> or

in the possession of, the dealer,

un-

possesses a certain strength*.

The

following are the words of the Act

* Seventeen
per cent below proof, according to
Sikes's

hydrometer*

254
"

ADULTERATION OF

No

distiller, rectifier*,

compounder or

dealer, shall serve or send out

any foreign

of a lower strength than that of


spirits,
in

6 under hydrometer prooff, nor have

his possession

any foreign

spirits

mixed

in

to-

gether, except shrub, cherry or raspberry

brandy, of lower strength than as aforesaid,

upon pain of such


and such

spirits,

spirits

being forfeited

with the casks and vessels

containing the same,


officer of Excise.'

may be

seized

by any

We have, therefore, a ready check against


the frauds of the dishonest dealers in spirituous

liquors.

engage

to

30 Geo.

If the

spirit

merchant

deliver a liquor of a certain

III. c. 37, sec. 31.

t According to Clarke's hydrometer, or 17 per cent,


below proof, according to Sikes's hydrometer.

255

SPIRITUOUS LIQUORS.
strength, the hydrometer

is

far the

by

easy and expeditious check

most

that can

be

guard against frauds of receiving


a weaker liquor for a stronger one and to

adopted

to

those individuals

who

are in the habit of

purchasing large quantities of brandy, rum,


1

or other spirituous liquors, the hydrometer

renders the greatest service.

For

it

is

by

no means an uncommon occurren^, to meet


with brandy, rum, and other spirituous liquors, of a specific gravity very

much below

the pretended strength which the liquor

ought

to possess.

The following advice given


ers*,

also

to his read-

by the author of a Treatise on Brewing

The

Distillers'

Guide, by P. Jonas, 1818, p. 3;

Observations on

Malted and Unmalted Corn,


Distilling, p. 167 ; and

connected with Brewing and

Shannon on Brewing and

Distilling, p. 232,

233.

256

ADULTERATION OF

and

Distilling-,

may

serve to put the unwary

on their guard against some of the frauds


practised by mercenary dealers.
" It is a custom

among

which

retailing- distillers,

have not taken notice of

in this di-

rectory, to put one third or one fourth part

of proof molasses brandy, proportionably, to

what rum they dispose

of;

which cannot

be distinguished, but by an extraordinary


palate,

and does not

proof of the goods

at all lessen the

and must

be well mixed and incorporated together

your

retailing-

cask

or

but makes them about

shillings a gallon cheaper;

two

body

in

but you should keep

some of the best rum, not adulterated,


please some customers,

to

whose judgment

and palate must be humoured.


"
to

When you are to draw a sample of goods

shew a person

that has

judgment

in the

SPIRITUOUS LIQUORS.

proof,

do not draw your goods

257

into a phial

be tasted, or make experiment of the

to

strength thereof that way, because the proof


will not hold except the

goods be exceed-

ingly strong; but draw the pattern of goods


either into a p;lass from the cock, to run

or rather

very small,

quantity into a
it

little

draw

off

a small

pewter pot and pour

your glass, extending your pot as

into

high above the glass as you can without


wasting

it,

which makes the goods carry a

better head abundantly, than if the

goods were
"

to

be put and tried

You must be

with
their

in a phial.

so prudent as to

distinction of the persons

what goods you

own use who

attendance, and as

you have

sell to

same

make a
to deal

gentlemen

for

require a great deal of

much

for

time of pay-

ment, you must take a considerably greater

ADULTERATION OF

258

price than of others


to

what goods you

persons where you believe there

manifest, or at least

profit

is

some hazard of your

money, you may safely

common

sell

sell for

what goods you

more than
sell to

poor, especially medicinally, (as

the

many

of

your goods are sanative), be as compassionate as the cases require.

" All brandies, whether


French, Spanish,
or English, being proof goods, will admit of

one pint of liquor (water) to each gallon,


to

be made up and incorporated therewith

in

your cask, for

quantities

and

retail,

all

or selling smaller

persons that insist upon

having proof goods, which not one

in

twenty

understands, you must supply out of what

goods are not so reduced,

though

at

higher price."

Such

is

the advice given by Mr. Shannon.

259

SPIRITUOUS LIQUORS.

The mode of judging by the


rituous liquors
is

is

deceitful.

taste of spi-

A false strength

given to a weak liquor, by infusing in

acrid vegetable substances, or


to

it

it

by adding

a tincture of grains of paradise and

Guinea pepper.

These substances impart

weak brandy

or rum, an extremely hot

to

and pungent

taste.

Brandy and rum

is

also frequently so-

phisticated with British molasses, or sugarspirit,

coloured with burnt sugar.

The

flavour

brandy,

which characterises French

and which

is

owing

a peculiar essential
portion of
in k, is imitated

lasses spirit over

prior to

being

by

oil

distilling-

wine lees

distilled

by

small

contained

British

but the

mo-

spirit,

over wine lees,

previously deprived, in part, of


disagi-eeable flavour,

to a

its

is

peculiar

rectification over

260

ADULTERATION OF

fresh-burnt charcoal and quicklime.

brandy-merchants employ a
from
into

raisin wine,

which

is

spirit

procured partakes

flavour which

is

obtained

suffered to pass

The

an incipient acescency.

thus

Other

spirit

the

of

strongly

characteristic of foreign

brandy.

Oak

saw-dust, and a spirituous tincture

of raisin stones, are likewise used to impart

new brandy and rum a ripe taste, resembling brandy or rum long kept in oaken
to

and a somewhat

casks,

oily

consistence,

so as to form a double froth at

when

strongly agitated in a

its

vial.

surface,

The

co-

louring substances are burnt sugar, or molasses; the latter gives to imitative

a luscious

taste,

and fulness

These properties are said


cularly

fit

for the retail

in the

to render

brandy
mouth.
it

parti-

London customers.

SPIRITUOUS LIQUOflS.

The

is

following-

the

method of com-

pounding or making up as
9

brandy*

called,

261

it is

technically

for retail:
Gallons.

" To

Add

ten puncheons of brandy

flavoured raisin

1081

118

spirit...

Tincture of grains of paradise

Cherry laurel water

Spirit of

Almond cakes

2
1207

"

Add

and give

also 10 handfuls of
it

oak saw-dust;

complexion with burnt sugar."

METHOD OF DETECTING THE ADULTERATIONS OF BRANDY, RUM, AND


MALT SPIRIT.
THE

false

strength of brandy or

rum

is

rendered obvious by diluting the suspected


*

Observations on Malted and Unmalted Corn, con-

nected with Brewing and

Distilling-, p, 167.

ADULTERATION OF

262

liquor with water

the acrimony of the cap-

sicum, and grains of paradise, or pepper,

may

then

be readily discovered by the

taste.

The

adulteration of brandy with British

molasses, or sugar-spirit, becomes evident

by rubbing a portion of the

suspectetl

brandy between the palm of the hands; the


spirit,

as

it

evaporates, leaves the disagree-

able flavour which


spirits.
its

peculiar to

all British

Or the liqour may be deprived of

alcohol,

by heating a portion

over a candle,
fire

is

till

in a

spoon

the vapour ceases to catch

on the approach of a lighted taper.

The

residue thus obtained, of genuine French

brandy,

possesses

resembling*

the

a vinous

original

odour,

still

of

the

flavour

brandy, whilst the residue, produced from


sophisticated brandy, has a peculiar disa-

SPIRITUOUS LIQUORS,

263

greeable smell, resembling gin, or the breath


of habitual drunkards.

Arrack

rum a

is

coarsely imitated

by adding

to

small quantity of 'pyroligneous acid

and some flowers (acid) of benzoe.

The

compound thus produced, however, must


be pronounced a bad one. The author of a
very popular Cookery Book, (the Cook's
Oracle,

2d edition,

p. 480,) directs

two scru-

ples of benzoic acid to be dissolved in one


"
quart of rum, to make mock arrack."

MALT
MALT

spirit,

SPIRIT.

or gin, the favourite liquor

of the lower order of people, which

is

cha-

by the peculiar flavour of juniper


berries, over which the raw spirit is distilled,
racterized

ADULTERATION OF

204
is

usually obtained from a mixture of malt

and barley

sometimes both molasses and

corn are employed, particularly

owing

is

there be

But the flavour of whis-

a scarcity of grain.

key, which

if

made from barley and

oats, is

to the malted grain being dried with

peat, the

smoke of which gives

it

the charac-

teristic taste.

The malt
nish,

raw

distiller is not

allowed to fur-

under a heavy penalty, any crude or

spirit to

the rectiiier or manufacturer

of gin, of a greater strength than seven per

cent over proof.

The

rectifier

who

the spirit from the inalt distiller

is

receives

not al-

lowed, under a certain penalty, to send out


the spirit to his customers greater than of a
certain strength, as

is

obvious from the

lowing words of the Act


"

No rectifier

or

fol-

compounder

shall sell or

265

SPIRITUOUS LIQUORS.

send out any British brandy, British rectified


spirits, British

of greater strength than that of one

spirits,

in five

compounds, or other British

under hydrometer proof (Clark's hy-

drometer, equal to 22 per cent, below proof

by Sikes's hydrometer) : and if he shall sell


and send out any such spirits of a greater
strength than that of one in five under hy-

drometer proof, such

spirits,

with the casks

or vessels containing the same, shall be forfeited,

and may be seized by any

Excise

and he

officer of

shall forfeit treble the value

of such spirit, or

50

at the election of the

King's Attorney-General, or the person


shall sue for the

such

spirits to

London
If

price."

same

the single value of

be estimated

at the highest

(30 Geo. III.

we examine gin,

soon be convinced that

who

c.

37, sec. 6.)

as retailed,
it is

we

shall

a custom, pretty

ADULTERATION OF

266

prevalent amongst dealers, to weaken this

li-

quor considerably with water, and to sweeten

it

with sugar.

This fraud

may

readily

be detected by evaporating a quantity of the


liquor in a table-spoon over a candle,

dryness

to

the sugar will thus be rendered

obvious, in the form of a gum-like substance,

when

the spirit

is

volatilised.

One hundred and twenty gallons of genuine gin, as obtained from the wholesale
manufactories, are usually

made up by

frau-

dulent retailers into a saleable commodity,

with fourteen gallons of water and twentysix

pounds of sugar.

Now

this dilution of

the liquor produces a turbidness; because


the

oil

of juniper and other flavouring sub-

stances which the spirit holds in solution,

become

precipitated

by virtue of the water,

and thus cause the liquor

to

assume an opa-

SPIRITUOUS LIQUORS,
line colour:

and the

spirit

267

thus weakened

cannot readily be rendered clear again by


subsidence.
recourse
ditious

Several expedients are had

to, to clarify

manner

the liquor in an expe-

some of which are hatm-

less; others are criminal,

because they ren-

der the liquor poisonous.

One of
consists in

the methods, which

first,

to the

adding

a port ion of alum

is

innocent,

weakened

liquor,

dissolved in water,

and then a solution of sub-carbonate of potash.

The whole

is

stirred together,

and

undisturbed for twenty-four hours.

left

The

precipitated alumine thus produced from the

alum, by virtue

of the sub-carbonate of

potash, acts as a strainer


liquor,

and

carries

upon the milky

down with

it

the finely

divided oily matter which produces the blue


colour of the diluted liquor.

N2

Roach, or Ro-

ADULTERATION OF

268

man

alum,

also

is

employed, without any

other addition for clarifyingspirituous

li-

quors.

"

"

To reduce unsweetened Gin*.

A tun of fine

352 gallons
36

gin

" Water...
<f

Which, added

ec

The
is

doctor is

together, make...

now put

on,

and

further reduced with water...

" Which

gives

288 gallons

it

Total

19

307 gallons
of gin.

" This
done, let lib. of alum be just co-

vered with water, and dissolved by boiling

rummage

the whole well together, and pour

in the alum,

and the whole

be

fine in a

Distilling, p.

198, and

will

few hours."

Shannon on Brewing and

P. Jonas's Distillers' Guide, 1818, p. 42.

269

SPIRITUOUS LIQUORS.

"

To prepare and sweeten British Gin*.


" Get from
your distiller an empty pun-

cheon or cask, which will contain about 133


gallons.

Then take a cask of clear

rectified

120 gallons, of the usual strength

spirits,

as rectify ers sell their

goods

at

put the

120 gallons of spirits into your empty cask.


" Then take a
quarter of an ounce of oil

of vitriol, half an ounce of


quarter of an ounce of

oil

oil

of almonds, a

of turpentine, one

ounce of oil of juniper berries, half a pint of


spirit of wine,

gar.

When

and half a pound of lump su-

Beat or rub the above


well

in

a mortar.

rubbed together, have ready

prepared half a gallon of lime water, one

Shannon on Brewing and

Distillers'

Guide, by

Distilling,

P. Jonas, p. 44.

N3

n 19S.
;

aiiu tne

ADULTERATION OF

270

gallon of rose water; mix the whole in either

a pail, or cask, with a stick,

till

every parti-

be dissolved ; then add

cle shall

to the fore-

going, twenty five pounds of sugar dissolved


in

about nine gallons of rain or Thames wa-

ter, or

water that has been boiled

whole well together, and

stir

mix the

them

carefully

with a stick in the 133 gallons cask.


"

To force down

the same, take and boil

eight ounces of alum in three quarts of water,


for three quarters of

the

fire,

an hour

take

it

from

and dissolve by degrees six or seVn

ounces of salt of

milk-warm, pour

tartar.
it

into

When

the

same

your gin, and

is

stir it

well together, as before, for five minutes,the

same
fined.

draw

you would a butt of beer newly

as

Let your cask stand as you mean to


it.

At every time you purpose

to

sweeten again, that cask must be well washed

271

SPJRITUOUS LIQUORS.

out; and take great care never to shake

your cask

all

the while

it is

drawing."

Another method of fining spirituous


quors, consists in adding to
tion of sub-acetate of lead,

tion of alum.

it, first,

li-

a solu-

and then a solu-

This practice

is

highly dan-

gerous, because part of the sulphate of lead

produced, remains dissolved in the liquor,

which

it

thus renders poisonous.

nately, this
liquors, I

method of

Unfortu-

clarifying spirituous

have good reason to uelie V,

more frequently practised than the preceding method, because its action is more rapid; and

it

imparts to the liquor a fine com-

plexion, or great refractive power; hence

some

vestiges of lead

may

often be detected

in malt spirit.

The weakened

spirit is

then sweetened

with sugar, and, to cover the raw taste of


N 4

ADULTERATION OF

272
the malt
it

spirit,

a false strength

is

given to

with grains of paradise, Guinea pepper,

capsicum, and other acrid and aromatic substances.

METHOD OF DETECTING THE PRESENCE

LEAD IN

OF

SPIRITUOUS

LIQUORS.
--- ^

nf
nrpspnrp
~~~ -- ~
.

j,~

loarl imaty
~xst~v*

**xc.j

WO

Asi+^^+^A :~
ClC/l/CJ^tCCl iAl

spirituous liquors, as stated pages

114.

The

cordial called shrub


frequently

exhibits vestiges of copper.


nation, I

90 and

have been informed,

This contamiis

accidental,

and originates from the metallic vessels employed in the manufacture of the liquor,

273

SPIRITUOUS LIQUORS.

METHOD OF ASCERTAINING THE QUANTITY

OF

ALCOHOL

KINDS OF SPIRITUOUS

THE

LIQUORS,

quantity of real alcohol in any spiri-

tuous liquors

simple

DIFFERENT

IN

may

readily be ascertained

distillation,

by

which process separates

the alcohol from the water and foreign matters contained in the liquor.
tity

of brandy, ruin, or malt

with about one-fourth


a retort
distil

its

diluted

bulk of water, into

with a gentle heat.


over

spirit,

a capacious receiver, and

fitted to

spirit distils

Put any quan-

first into

The

strongest

the receiver, and

the strength of the obtained products decontains so

much water

as no longer to be inflammable

by the ap-

creases,

till

at last

it

N 5

274

ADULTERATION OF

proach of a lighted taper, when held

spoon over a caudle (see p. 210).

in

If the

process be continued, the distilled product

becomes milky, scarcely spirituous


smell,

and of an acidulous

tilling operation

may

to the

The

taste*

dis-

then be discontinued.

fourth, or third part, of the dis-

If the

first,

tilled

product has been set a part,

it

will

be

found a moderately strong alcohol, and the


remainder one more diluted.
distilled spirit

If the

whole

be mixed with perfectly dry

subcarbonate of potash, the alcohol will


at the top of the potash, as stated p.

will separate in

two

distinct fluids.

float

211

it

If the

decanted alcohol be re-distilled carefully


with a very gentle heat, over a small portion
of dry quick lime, or muriate of lime,

it

will

be obtained extremely pure, and of a specific


gravity of about 825, at 60

of temperature.

SPIRITUOUS LIQUORS.
Its flavour will

275

vary according to the kind

of spirituous liquor from which

is

it

ob-

tained.

Per Centage of Alcohol contained


rious kinds

in va-

of Spirituous Liquors*.
Proportion of
Alcohol per Cent.
by Measure.

Brandy, Cogniac, average proportion of )


4 samples
j
Ditto, Bourdeaux,

52>

ditto ditto

54,50

Ditto, Cette

53,00

Ditto, Naples, average of three samples...

53,25

Ditto, Spanish, average of 6 samples

52,28

Rum

53,68

Ditto,

Leeward, average of 9 samples

...

53,00

Scotch Whiskey, average of 6 samples....


Irish Ditto, average of 4 samples

53,50
54,25

Arrack, Batavia

49,50

Dutch Geneva

52,25

Gin, Hodges's (own experiment), 3 sam- 7


S
from retail dealers
pies,

procured

Ditto, (ditto) procured from the

facturer

maim-

Repository of Arts, p. 350, Dec. 1819.

N 6

SEVERAL
notice in

instances have

come under

my

which Gloucester cheese has been

contaminated with red lead, and has pro-

duced serious consequences on being taken


In one poisonous sample

into the stomach*

which
evil

it

fell to

my

lot

to

investigate, the

had been caused by the sophistication

of the anotto, employed for colouring cheese.

This substance was found to contain a portion of red lead

which has

lately

been confirmed by the

communicated

lowing

fact,

Mr.

W. Wright>

J.

method of sophistication

to the public

fol-

by

of Cambridge, and co-

POISONOUS CHEESE.

277

pied from the Repository of Arts, vol. viiu

No. 47, p. 262.


" Your readers

ought here

to

be

told, that

several instances are on record, that Gloucester

and other cheeses have been found

contaminated with red lead, and that this


contamination has produced serious conse-

quences.

In the instance

now

alluded

to,

rnd probably

in all other cases, the delete-

rious mixture

had been caused ignorantly,

by the adulteration of the anotto employed


for colouring- the cheese.

This substance,

was found

in the instance I shall relate,

contain a portion of red lead

to

a species of

adulteration which subsequent experiments

have shewn

to

be by no means uncommon.

Before I proceed further to trace this fraud


to its source, I shall briefly relate

the cir-

POISONOUS CHEESE.

278

cumstknce which gave

rise to

its

detec-

tion.

"

gentleman,

side for

some time

who had

occasion to re-

in a city in the

West of

England, was one night seized with a

dis-

tressing butindescribeable pain in the region

of the

abdomen and of the stomach, accom-

panied with a feeling of tension, which occasioned

much restlessness,

pugnance

to food.

anxiety, and re-

He began

to

apprehend

the access of an inflammatory disorder ; but


in

twenty-four hours the symptoms entirely

subsided.

In four days afterwards he ex-

and
perienced an attack precisely similar i
he then recollected* that having, on both occasions, arrived

from the country

late in the

evening, he had ordered a plate of toasted

Gloucester cheese, of which he had partaken

POISONOUS CHEESE.

heartily

a dish which,

when

279

at

re-

home,

gularly served him for supper.

He

buted his

The

illness to the cheese.

attri-

cir-

cumstance was mentioned to the mistress of


the inn,

who expressed

great surprise, as

the cheese in question was not purchased

from a country dealer, but from a highly


respectable shop in London.
ascribed the

some

He, therefore,

before-mentioned effects

peculiarity in his constitution,

days afterwards he partook

A few

of the same

cheese ; and he had scarcely retired to

when

to

rest,

a most violent colic seized him, which

lasted the whole night

suing day.

The cook was now directed

henceforth not to
cheese, and

and part of the en-

serve up any

toasted

he never again experienced

these distressing symptoms.

Whilst

this

POISONOUS CHEESE.
matter was a subject of conversation
house, a
kitten

servant-maid

the

in

mentioned that a

had been violently sick

after

having

eaten the rind cut off from the cheese pre-

pared for the

gentleman's supper.

The

landlady, in consequence of this statement,

ordered the cheese to be examined by a


chemist in the vicinity^

who

returned for

answer, that the cheese was contaminated

with lead

So unexpected an answer

ar-

rested general attention, and more particularly as

the

suspected cheese had been

served up for several other customers.


"
Application was therefore made by the

London dealer

to the

tured the cheese

farmer

who manufac-

he declared that he had

bought the anotto of a mercantile

who had

traveller,

supplied him and his neighbours

POISONOUS CHEESE.
for years

281

with that commodity, without giv-

ing occasion to a single complaint.

On sub-

sequent inquiries, through a circuitous channel,

unnecessary to

be detailed here

at

length, on the part of the manufacturer of

the cheese,

it

plies of anotto

was found,

that as the sup-

had been defective and of

had been had

inferior quality, recourse

to

the expedient of colouring the commodity

with vermillion.
**~t

Even

be Considered

admixture could

dlt^ r nn s
*

ther application being

who

this

made

But on

fur*

to the druggist

sold the article, the answer was, that

mixed with a porand the deception was held

the vermillion had been


tion of red lead;
to

be perfectly innocent, as frequently prac-

tised

on the supposition, that the vermillion

would be used only

as a

pigment

for house-*

POISONOUS CHEESE.

282

painting.

Thus the druggist

rnillion, in

the regular

way

sold his ver-

of trade, adulte-

rated with red lead, to increase his profit,

without any suspicion of the use to which

would be applied

it

and the purchaser who

adulterated the anotto, presuming that the


vermillion

was genuine, had no

hesitation in

heightening the colour of his spurious anotto


with so harmless an adjunct. Thus, through
the circuitous and diversified operations of

Commerce, a portion of deadly poison ma^


find admission into the necessaries of life, in

way which can

attach no criminality to

the parties through

whose hands

it

has suc-

cessively passed."

This dangerous sophistication


tected

may be de-

by macerating a portion of the sus-

pected cheese in water impregnated with

283

POISONOUS CHEESE,

hydrogen,

sulphuretted
muriatic acid

which

the cheese to assume a

acidulated

will instantly cause

brown or black

lour, if the minutest portion of lead


sent.

with

co-

be pre-

Counterfeit

BLACK PEPPER

is

the fruit of a shrubby,

creeping plant, which grows wild


Indies,

and

is

cultivated, with

tage, for the sake of

Malabar.

The

its

in the East

much advan-

berries, in

Java and

berries are gathered before

they are ripe, and are dried in the sun.

They becoire black and corrugated on the


surface.

That

factitious

pepper-corns have of late

been detected mixed with genuine pepper,


a fact sufficiently known*.

is

Such an

Thompson's Annals of Chemistry, 1816

11.
pository of Arts, vol. i.1816, p.

a^o Re-

285

COUNTERFEIT PEPPER.
adulteration

may

prove, in

instances

many

of household economy, exceedingly vexatious

and prejudicial

make use

to those

of the spurious

who ignorantly
I

article.

have

examined large packages of both black and


white pepper, by order of the Excise, and

have found them

to contain

cent, of this artificial

rious pepper

is

made

about 16 per

of

oil

cakes (the resi-

due of lintseed, from which the


pressed),

common

sieve,

first

and then rolled

necessary

to

in a mass,

and gra-

is

easy.

The mode
It is

only

throw a sample of the sus-

pected pepper into a bowl of water


tificial

has been

pressed through a

in a cask.

of detecting the fraud

oil

and a portion of

clay,

Cayenne pepper, formed


nulated by being

The spu-

compound.

pepper- corns

fall

to

the ar-

powder, whilst

the true pepper remains whole.

COUNTERFEIT PEPPER.

286

Ground pepper

by adding

is

very often sophisticated

to a portion of

genuine pepper

a quantity of pepper dust, or the


sweepings

from the pepper warehouses, mixed with a


little

Cayenne pepper.

known, and purchased


the

name of P. D.

An

inferior sort

The sweepings
in the

are

market, under

signifying pepper dust.

of this vile refuse, or the

sweepings of P. D.

is

distinguished

among

venders by the abbreviation of D. P. D. denoting, dust (dirt) of pepper dust.

This adulteration of pepper, and the mak-

ing and selling commodities

in imitation of

pepper, are prohibited, under a severe penalty.

Act.

"

The following
(Geo. III.

c.

are the words of the

53, sec. 21, 1819.)

And whereas commodities made

tation of

in imi-

pepper have of late been sold and

found in the possession of various dealers

COUNTERFEIT PEPPER.
in

287

pepper, and other persons in Great Bri-

tain

be

it

therefore enacted, that from

and

day of July 1819, if any


commodity or substance shall be prepared

after the said 5th

by any person in imitation of pepper, shall


be mixed with pepper, or sold or delivered
as

and

or as a substitute for pepper, or if

for,

any such commodity or substance alone or


mixed, shall be kept for

sale, sold, or deli-

vered, or shall be offered or exposed to sale,


or shall be in custody or possession of

any

dealer or seller of pepper, the same, together with


shall

all

pepper with which the same

be mixed, shall be

forfeited,

with the

packages containing the same, and shall

and may be seized by any

officer of excise

and the person preparing, manufacturing,

mixing as

aforesaid,

sale, or delivering the

selling,

exposing to

same, or having the

COUNTERFEIT PEPPER-

288

same

in his, her, or their


forfeit the

sion, shall

custody or posses-

sum

of one hundred

pounds."

The following prosecutions and convictions have lately come before the public
:

Mr, Baker* was charged with selling an


injurious mixture of rape and mustard seed,
called P. D. for pepper.

The defendant pleaded ignorance, and he


was ordered to pay a fine of 40s.
James Hemmett, a grocer, in Kent-street,
in the Borough, was charged with a similar
offence.

Skinner, an officer, deposed, that on the

13th of July last he bought a quarter of a

pound of pepper
dant
it

shop of the defen-

he afterwards examined

to contain
*

at the

Morning

it,

and found

an injurious mixture.

Chronicle, January 6th

and 19th, 1820.

289

COUNTERFEIT PEPPER.
James Story, the Examining
that there

might be a

the greatest part

little

Officer, said,

pepper

was P. D. and

in

but

it,

that of the

most deleterious quality.

The defendant pleaded ignorance of havit

ing

in his possession,

but did not produce

any witnesses.

He was

sentenced to pay a fine of 45s.

Mr. Bowling, a grocer, was charged with


a similar offence.

The defendant pleaded

that

he had before

been convicted by the Court, and trusted


that

would be a

sufficient

The Court thought


vation,

of

punishment.

this rather

and again convicted him

an aggrain the

sum

10.

Mr. Powey* was charged with

Times, January 5th, 1820.

selling

290

COUNTERFEIT PEPPER.

pepper, containing an injurious mixture, with


intent to defraud the revenue.

As

this ap-

peared to be part of an oiien^e for which the


defendant had been fined

was mitigated

penalty

charged with

selling"

to 10s,

James Beard
pepper

5, the

w,as

containing a

the trade, P.

mixture

called,

in

which was nothing more

than mustard and rape seed ground together,

and sold

Court expressed

for
its

peppejr dust.

The

determination to pro-

tect the public

from such frauds, and fined

the defendant

.5.

WHITE PEPPER.
THE common

white pepper

is

factitious,

being prepared from the black pepper


the following

manner

-The pepper

in

is first

COUNTERFEIT PEPPER

291

steeped in sea water and urine, and ex-

posed

to

days,

till

is

the heat of the sun for several

the rind or outer bark loosens

then taken out of the steep, and,


it is

dry,

falls off.

rubbed with the hand

The white

fruit is

the remains of the rind


chaff.

by

when

the rind

till

then dried, and

blown away

taste of the

flavour

in

pepper

is

White pepper

this process.

inferior

ways

it

like

great deal of the peculiar flavour

and pungent hot


off

taken
is

and quality

al-

to

black pepper.

However, there

is

a sort of native white

pepper, produced on a species of the pepper


plant,
tious,

mon

which

is

much

and indeed

better than the facti-

little inferior to

black, pepper.

o 2

the com-

CAYENNE PEPPER

is

an indiscriminate

mixture of the powder of the dried pods of

many

species of capsicum, but especially of

the capsicum frutescens* or bird

which

is

the hottest of

pepper,

all.

This annual plant, a native of South


rica, is cultivated

West India

Ame-

in large quantities in

islands,

our

and even frequently

in

our gardenSj for the beauty of its pods, which


are long, pointed and pendulous, at

a green colour, and,

orange red.

when

They are

pulp, and contain

of

a bright
ripe, of

filled

many

first

with a dry loose

small,

flat,

kidney-

COUNTERFEIT PEPPER.

The

shaped seeds.

293

of capsicum

taste

is

extremely pungent and acrimonious, setting


the mouth, as

The

is

fire.

which

its

pungency de-

soluble in water and in alcohol.

sometimes adulterated with red lead,

It is

prevent

its

becoming bleached on expoThis fraud

sure to light.
tected

were, on

principle on

pends,

to

it

may be

by shaking up part of it

vial containing

readily de-

in a

stopped

water impregnated with sul-

phuretted hydrogen gas, which will cause


speedily to assume a dark
colour.

muddy

it

black

Or the vegetable matter of the

pepper may be destroyed, by throwing a


mixture of one part of the suspected pepper

and three of

nitrate of potash

(or

two of

chlorate of potash) into a red-hot crucible,


in small quantities at a time.

behind

may

The mass

then be digested in

o 3

left

weak nitric

COUNTERFEIT PEPPER.

294

acid,

and the solution assayed

for lead

by

water impregnated with sulphuretted hydrogen.


"

We

advise those

enne not to think

make

it

other

way of

They

it

who
too

are fond of Cay-

much

there is no

of English Chillies

being sure

will obtain a

it

trouble to

is

genuine.

pepper of much

finer fla-

vour, without half the heat of the foreign

and a hundred

The

6unces.

chillies will

warm

of the

them

in

them

in

a mortar, as

keep them

in

produce two

flavour of the chillies


that

superior to

is

capsicums.

place to dry;
fin

very

Put

then rub

as possible,

a well stopped bottle*."

The Cook's

Oracle, 12mo. 1S19.

and

poisonous

VEGETABLE

substances, preserved in

state called pickles,

septic

by means of the

power of vinegar, whose

tlfe

anti-

sale fre-

a fine lively
quently depends greatly upon

green

colour]

^vhich,

by

is

knd the

consumption

of

sea-faring people in particular,

prodigious,

are sometimes intentionally

coloured by means of copper.

Gerkins,

French beans, samphires, the green pods


of capsicum, and

many

other pickled vege-

table substances, oftener than

expected, are
this

metal*

is

perhaps

met with impregnated with

Numerous
o 4

fatal

consequences

296
are

POISONOUS PICKLES.

known

to

have ensued from the use of

these stimulants of the palate, to which the


fresh and pleasing

hue has been imparted

according to the deadly formula laid


in

some modern cookery books

down

such as

boiling the pickles with half-pence, or suffering

them

to

stand for

a considerable

period in brazen vessels.

Dr. Percival [Medical Transactions, vol.


iv.

p.

" a
80] has given an account of

young lady who amused herself, while her


hair was dressing, with eating samphire
pickles impregnated with copper.

complained of pain
five days,

in the

stomach; and,

in

vomiting commenced, which was

incessant for two days.

mach became
in

She soon

After

this,

her sto-

prodigiously distended

and,

nine days after eating the pickle, death

relieved her from her suffering."

297

POISONOUS PICKLES.

Among many
of

thors

modern au-

recipes which

cookery books

have

given for

imparting a green colour to pickles, the


following

are

censure; and

particularly
it

is

to

of

deserving

be Loped that they

will be suppressed in future editions of the

works.
"
in

To Pickle Gerkins.*

Boil the vinegar

a bell-metal or copper pot

pour

it

boil-

ing hot on your cucumbers."


"

To make greening '[.-'Take

bit

of

verdigrise, the bigness of ahazle-nut, finely

powdered; half-a-pint of

and a

bit of

salt.

Put

The

distilled vinegar,

alum powder, with a

all in

a bottle, shake

Ladies' Library, vol.

ii.

little

it,

and

bay
let

p. 203.

t Modern Cookery, or the English Housewife^ 2d


edition, p. 94.

OQ

POISONOUS PICKLES*

298

it

stand

till

Put a small tea-spoon-

clear.

ful into codlings, or

whatever you wish

to

green."

Mr. E. Raffeld*
pickles green, boil

directs,

" to

render

them with halfpence,

or

allow them to stand for twenty-four hours

copper or brass pans."

in

To
is

detect the

only

and

to

presence of copper,

necessary to mince

it

the pickles,

pour liquid ammonia, diluted with

an equal bulk of water, over them in a

stopped phial

if

the pickles contain the

minutest quantity of copper, the ammonia

assumes a blue colour.

The English Housekeeper,

book has run through 18

editions.

p. 352,

354-.

This

gGrotttvatfdtt of

VINEGAR,

as prepared in this country,

from malt, should be of a pale brown colour, perfectly transparent,

somewhat pungent, acid

of a pleasant,

taste,

and fragrant

From

odour, but without any acrimony.


the

mucilaginous

vinegar always contains,

posure to

and

at

air,

to

it

is

apt,

become turbid

last vapid.

best obviated

which malt

impurities

on ex-

arid

ropy,

The inconvenience

by keeping the

is

vinegar; in

bottles completely filled arid well corked

and

it is

of advantage to boil

it

in the bottles

a few minutes before they are corked.

06

300

ADULTERATION OF VINEGAR.

Vinegar

is

sometimes largely adulterated

with sulphuric acid, to give

The presence of this

acid

is

it

more

acidity.

detected,

on

if,

the addition of a solution of acetate of bary tes, a white precipitate

is

formed, which

is

insoluble in nitric acid, after having been

made

red-hot in the

(See p. 208.) With

fire.

the same intention, of

making the vinegar

appear stronger, different acrid vegetablesubstances are infused in


difficult

of detection

attention, the

but

This fraud

it.

when

is

tasted with

pungency of such vinegar will

be found to depend rather on acrimony than


acidity.

Distilled vinegar,

various
is

purposes

frequently

ought

to be,

which

in

employed

domestic

of

distilled,

but

is

economy,

not in glass, as

common

for

stills

it

with a

ADULTERATION OF VINEGAR.
pewter pipe, whence

it

cannot

301

fail

to ac-

quire a metallic impregnation,

One ounce, by measure, should


at least thirteen grains of
It

dissolve

white marble.

should not form a precipitate on the

addition of a solution of acetate of barytes,

or of water saturated with sulphuretted

The former circumstance shews

hydrogen.
that

it

and the

The

is

adulterated with sulphuric acid

latter indicates

a metal.

metallic impregnation

is

best ren-

dered obvious by sulphuretted hydrogen, in


the

manner

stated,

page 87.

The

distilled

vinegar of commerce usually contains

and not lead, as has been asserted*

tin,

fttoutterotion of

CREAM

is

often adulterated with rice

der or arrow-root.

employed

for that

in fabricating

The former

creams and custards, for

often used in the


is

frequently

purpose by pastry-cooks,

London

preferable to rice

tarts,

The

latter is

dairies.

Arrow-

and other kinds of pastry.

root

is

pow-

powder

for,

when

converted with milk into a thick mucilage

by a gentle

ebullition,

it

imparts to cream,

previously diluted with milk, a consistence

and apparent richness, by no means unpa-

ADULTERATION OF CREAM.
latable,

303

without materially impairing the

taste of the cream.

The arrow-root powder


a small quantity of cold

is

mixed up with

skimmed milk

a perfect, smooth, uniform mixture

milk
for a

is

into

more

then added, and the whole boiled

few minutes,

the arrow-root

to effect the solution of

compound, when permixed up with the cream.


this

fectly cold,

is

From 220

230 grains

to

(or three large tea-

spoonsful) of arrow-root are added to one


pint of milk
is

and one part of

mixed with three of cream.

this solution
It is

scarcely

necessary to state, that this sophistication


is

innocuous.

The fraud may be detected by adding

to

a teaspoonful of the sophisticated cream


a few drops of a solution of jodine

in spirit

ADULTERATION OP CREAM.

304

of wine, which instantly produces with

it

Genuine cream acquires^

dark blue colour.

by the addition of

this test,

a faint yellow

tinge.

The common

notion, of milk being adul-

terated with chalk, or whiting,

Such an adulteration

is

is

not

unfounded.
practicable,

without being immediately detected

be-

cause the smallest quantity of whiting, or


chalk, speedily separates,

and

falls to

the

bottom.
I

have been frequently called upon

examine samples of milk, supposed

to

to

be

sophisticated with whiting-, but a chemical

examination of the milk always proved the


contrary.
is

often

That a

added

of no doubt.

liberal quantity of

to the

water

London milk, admits

'

IN the preparation of sugar plums, comfits,

and other kinds of confectionery, espe-

cially
lity

those sweetmeats of

frequently exposed

streets, for the

inferior

to sale in the

called

open

allurement of children, the

grossest abuses are committed.


comfits,

qua-

sugar pease,

The white
are

chiefly

composed of a mixture of sugar^ starch,


and Cornish clay (a species of very white
pipe-clay);

and the red sugar drops are

usually coloured with the inferior kind of


vermillion.

This pigment

terated with red lead.

is

generally adul-

Other kinds of sweet-

306

POISONOUS CONFECTIONERY.

meats are sometimes rendered poisonous by


being coloured with preparations of copper.

The following account of Mr. Miles* may be


advanced
"

in

proof of this statement:

Some time

ago, while residing in the

house of a confectioner,

I noticed the co-

louring of the green fancy sweetmeats being

done by dissolving sap-green

Now

sap-green

itself,

in

brandy.

as prepared from the

juice of the buckthorn berries,

no doubt

is

a harmless substance; but the manufacturers of this colour


;

produced

various

have for
tints,

many

some

years past

extremely

bright, -which there can be no doubt are


effected

"

by adding preparations of copper.


The sweetmeats which accompany

these lines you will find exhibit vestiges

Philosoph.

Mag. No.

25$, vol.

M.

1819. p. 317.

POISONOUS CONFECTIONERY.

307

of being contaminated with copper.

The

practice of colouring these articles of con-

fectionery should, therefore, be banished:

the proprietors of which are not aware of

the deleterious quality of the substances

employed by them*"

The

foreign

conserves,

such as

small

green limes, citrons, hop-tops, plums, an*


gelica roots, &c. imported into this country,

and usually sold

in

round chip boxes, are

frequently impregnated with copper.

The adulteration of
of clay,

may be

confitures

by means

detected by simply dis-

solving the comfits in a large quantity of


boiling water.

The

clay,

after

suffering

the mixture to stand undisturbed for a few


days, will

fall to

the bottom of the vessel

and on decanting the clear

fluid,

and

suffer-

ing the sediment to become dry gradually,

it

308

POISONOUS CONFECTIONERY.

may be

obtained in a separate state.

If the

adulteration has been effected

by means of

clay, the obtained precipitate,

on exposure

to

a red heat in the bowl of a

common

tobacco-pipe, acquires a brick hardness.

The presence of copper may be detected


by pouring over the comfits

liquid

ammonia,

which speedily acquires a blue colour, if


The presence of
this metal be present.
lead

is

rendered obvious by water impreg-

nated with sulphuretted hydrogen, acidulated with muriatic acid (see p. 87), which

assumes a dark brown or black colour,


lead be present.

if

<atsttj)*

THIS

article is

very often subjected to

one of the most reprehensible modes of adulteration ever devised.


to

Quantities are daily

be met with, which, on a chemical exa-

mination, are found to abound with copper.

Indeed, this condiment

is

often nothing else

than the residue left behind after the process

employed

for

obtaining distilled vinegar,

subsequently diluted with a decoction of the


outer green husk of the walnut, and sea-

soned with

all-spice,

mento. garlick, and

The

best

pi-

salt*.

method of making Mushroom Catsup


No. 439, of the Cook's Oracle.

detailed in receipt
is

Cayenne pepper,

common

too long to insert here.

is

It

310

POISONOUS CATSUP.

The quantity of copper which we have,


more than once, detected in this sauce, used
for seasoning,

cheapness,

is

and which, on account

much

resorted to

the lower walks of

life,

of

by people

its

in

has exceeded the

proportion of lead to be met with in other


articles

employed

in

domestic economy.

The following account

of Mr. Lewis, (Li-

terary Chronicle, No. 24, p. 379,) on this


subject, will be sufficient to cause the public
to be

"

on their guard.

Being

in the habit of

frequently pur-

chasing large quantities of pickles and other


culinary sauces, for the use of

my establish-

ment^ and also for foreign trade,


to

my

lot to

it fell

lately

purchase from a manufacturer

of those commodities a quantity of walnut


catsup, apparently of an excellent quality;
but, to

my

to
great surprise, I had reason

POISONOUS CATSUP.
believe that the article

311

might be contami-

nated with some deleterious substance, from


circumstances which happened in

my

busi-

ness as a tavern keeper, but which are un-

necessary to be detailed here; and


this that

induced

me

to

make

it

was

inquiry con-

cerning the compounding of the suspected


articles."

"
in a

The catsup being prepared by boiling


copper, as

is

usually

practised, the

outer green shell of walnuts, after having

been suffered to turn black by exposure to

auyia combination with common

salt,

with a

portion of pimento and pepper dust, in com-

mon

vinegar, strengthened with

gar extract,

left

behind as residue

of vinegar manufacturers;

some vinein

the

still

I therefore Sus-

pected that the catsup might be impregnated

POISONOUS CATSUP.

312

To convince myself of
boiled down to dry ness a

with some copper.


this opinion, I

quart of it in a stone pipkin, which yielded

tome a dark brown mass.


into a crucible,

red hot,

and kept

I put this
it

on a coal

became reduced

till it

black charcoal

pair of bellows,

mass
fire,

to a porous

on urging the heat with a

and

stirring the

mass

in the

crucible with the stem of a tobacco-pipe,

became, after two hours' exposure

to

an

it

in-

tense heat, converted into a greyish-white

ash; but no metal could be discriminated

amongst
aqua
of it,
after

it.

now poured upon

it

some

which dissolved nearly the whole


with an effervescence; and produced,

fortis,

having been suffered

to stand, to let the

insoluble portion subside, a bright grass-

green solution, of a strong metallic taste;

POISONOUS CATSUP.
after

immersing

of a knife,

it

313

into this solution the blade

became

instantly covered with

a bright coat of copper."


" The walnut
catsup was therefore evidently strongly impregnated with copper.

On

informing the manufacturer of this

fact,

he assured me, that the same method of preparing the liquor was generally pursued,

and that he had manufactured the

article in

a like manner for upwards of twenty years.


"

Such

nicate;

is

and

the statement I wish to commuif

you

will

allow

it

a place in

your Literary Chronicle, it may perhaps tend


to

put the unwary on their guard against the

practice of preparing this sauce


in a copper,

by boiling

it

which certainly may contami-

nate the liquor, and render

it

poisonous."

of

LOZENGES, particularly those

the

into

composition of which substances enter that


are not soluble in water, as ginger, cream of
tartar,

magnesia, &c. are often sophisticated.

The adulterating ingredient is usually


clay, of

which a liberal portion

is

pipe-

substituted

The following detection of tin's


fraud was lately made by Dr. T. Lloyd.
for sugar.

(Literary Gazette, No. 146.)

"

Some ginger lozenges having

fallen into

my

hands, I was not a

little

that
prised to observe, accidentally,

thrown into a coal

fire,

lately

sur-

when

they suffered but

3l5

ADULTERATION OF LOZENGES.
little

laid
it

change.

If one of the lozenges

were

on a shovel, previously made red-hot,

speedily took

fire

but instead of burning

with a blaze and becoming converted into a


charcoal,

ble

it

took

fire,

and burnt with a

fee-

flame for scarcely half a minute, and

there remained behind a stony hard substance, retaining the form of the lozenge.

This unexpected result led

me

to

examine

these lozenges, which were bought at a re-

spectable chemist's shop in the city

and

soon became convinced, that, in the preparation of them, a considerable quantity of

common

pipe-clay had been substituted for

sugar.

On making

a complaint about this

fraud at the shop where the article was sold,


I

was informed that there were two kinds of

ginger lozenges kept for

sale, the

one at

three-pence the ounce, and the other at six-

P2

ADULTERATION OF LOZENGES.

316

pence per ounce


nished to

me by

commodity;

by the

and that the

article fur-

mistake was the cheaper

the latter were distinguished

epithet verum, they being

composed

of sugar and ginger only: but the former

were manufactured partly of white Cornish


clay, with a portion of sugar only, with gin-

ger and Guinea pepper.

was likewise

in-

formed, that of Tolu lozenges, peppermint


lozenges and

ginger pearls, and several

other sorts of lozenges, two kinds were kept;


that the reduced articles, as they

were

were manufactured

very clever

persons

in their

haggling, and

own
insist

for those

conceit,

called,

who are fond of

on buying better bar-

gains than other people, shutting their eyes


to the defects of an article, so that they

enjoy the delight of getting

secondly, for those persons,

it

cheap

can

and,

who being but

ADULTERATION OF LOZENGES.
bad paymasters,

own

for his

the
yet, as

credit's

sake,

317

manufacturer,

cannot charge

more than the usual price of the

articles,

he

thinks himself therefore authorized to adulterate

it

in value, to

make up

for the risk

he

runs, and the long credit he gives."

The

comfits, called ginger pearls, are fre?

quently adulterated with clay. Thesefrauds

may be

detected in the manner stated, page

307,

p 3

THIS commodity

is

sometimes contami-

nated with lead, because the


yields the

oil

is

fruit

which

submitted to the action of

the press between leaden plates

and

it is,

moreover, a practice (particularly in Spain)


to suffer the oil to
cisterns, before
sale.

it

become

is

brought

The French and

usually free

Olive

to

market

Italian olive oil

for
is

from this impregnation.

oil is

poppy seeds

clear in leaden

sometimes mixed with


but,

by

oil

of

exposing the mixture

to the freezing temperature, the

olive

oil

POISONOUS OLIVE OIL.

319

freezes, while that of the

mains

fluid

and as

oils

poppy seeds rewhich freeze with

most difficulty are most apt to become rancid,


olive oil

deteriorated

is

poppy oil.
Good olive

should have a pale yellow

somewhat

colour,

bland

oil

taste,

inclining to

without smell

geal at 38 Fahrenheit.
is

by the mixture of

green

and should con-

In this country,

it

frequently met with rancid.

The presence of lead


ing, in a stopped vial,

pected

oil,

is

detected by shak-

one part of the sus-

with two or three parts of water,

impregnated with sulphuretted hydrogen.


This agent will render the

brown

oil

of a dark

or black colour, if any metal, delete-

rious to health, be present.

keeping

this oil in

The

practice of

pewter or leaden

cisterns,

POISONOUS OLIVE

320
as

is

the

oil

often the case, is objectionable

oil

this

OIL.

acts

upon the metal.

commodity

assert,

that

from becoming rancid

retailers often

suffer a

remain immersed in the

The
it

because

dealers in

prevents the

and hence some

pewter measure to

oil.

of 3*mott 8tfou

IT

is

well

known

to every one, that the

expressed juice of lemons

is

extremely apt

to spoil, on account of the saccharine muci-

lagenous matter

which

it

contains

and

hence various means have been practised,


with the intention of rendering"
able,

and

less

bulky.

it

less perish-

The juice has been

evaporated to the consistence of rob; but


this

always gives an unpleasant empyreu-

matic taste, and does not separate the foreign


matters, so that

it is still

apt to spoil

when

agitated on board of ship in tropical climates.


It

has been exposed to

frost,

and part of the

water removed under the form of ice; but


this is liable to all

the former objections:

and, besides, where lemons are produced in


sufficient quantity, there is not

p 5

a sufficient

322

ADULTERATION OF LEMON ACID.

The addition of a portion of

degree of cold.
spirit to

the inspissated juice, separates the

mucilage, but not the extractive matter and


the sugar.

By

means, however, of sepa-

rating the foreign matters associated with


in the juice,

it

by chemical processes unneces-

sary to be detailed here, citric acid

manufactured, perfectly pure, and

and

now

in a crys-

is

sold under the

concrete lemon acid.

In this state

tallised form,

is

name of
it is

ex-

tremely convenient, both for domestic and


medicinal purposes.

One drachm, when

solved in one ounce of water,


like

is

bulk of fresh lemon juice.

dis-

as acid as a

To commu-

nicate the flavour of the lemon, rub a

of sugar on the rind of a lemon to

lump
become

impregnated with a portion of the essential


oil

of the

fruit,

and add

this to the

lemonade^

negus, punch, shrub, jellies, or

culinary

sauces, prepared with the pure citric acid.

ADULTERATION OF LEMON ACID. 323


Fraudulent dealers often substitute the
cheaper tartareous acid for

and lemonade made by the pastry-

neg'iis

cooks, and the

metropolis,

To

The

citric acid.

is

punch sold

made with

at taverns in this

tartareous acid.

discriminate citric acid from tartare-

ous acid,

it is

only necessary to add a con-

centrated solution of the suspected acid, to

a concentrated solution of muriate of potash,

taking care that the solution of the acid


excess.

is

in

If a precipitate ensue, the fraud

is

obvious, because citric acid does not produce

a precipitate with a solution of muriate or


potash. Or,

by adding

to a saturated solution

of tartrate of potash, a saturated solution of


the suspected acid, in excess, which produces

with

it

an almost insoluble precipitate in

minute granular

Pure

crystals.

produces no such

effect

citric

acid

when added

excess to tartrate of potash.

poisonous
THE beverage

called soda water

is

fre-

quently contaminated both with copper and


lead

these metals being largely employed

in the construction of the apparatus for pre-

paring the carbonated water*, and the great


excess of carbonic acid which the water contains, particularly
oft

enables

it

to act strongly

the metallic substances of the apparatus;

a truth, of which the reader will find no


difficulty in

convincing himself, by suffering

a stream of sulphuretted hydrogen gas to

pass through the water.

(See

p. 89.)

Some manufacturers have been hence induced

to

construct the apparatus for manufacturing soda water


wholly either of earthenware or of glass. Mr. Johnston*
of

Greek

Street, Soho,

was

the first

who

pointed out

to the public the absolute necessity of this precaution.

SEVERAL samples which we have examined of

this fish sauce,

have been found

contaminated with lead.

The mode of preparation of this fishsauce, consists in rubbing down the broken
anchovy

in a mortar:

and

this triturated

mass, being of a dark brown colour, receives, without

much

risk of detection,

certain quantity of Venetian red,

the purpose of colouring


nuine,

is

it,

added

which,

if

for

ge-

an innocent colouring substance

but instances have occurred of this pigment


having been adulterated with orange lead,

which

is

nothing else than a better kind of

POISONOUS ANCHOVY SAUCE.

326

The fraud

minium, or red oxid of lead.

be detected as stated p. 312.

may

The conscientious oilmen,

less

anxious

with respect to colour, substitute for this


poison the more harmless pigment, called

Armenian

The
sauce

bole.

following- recipe for

making

this fish

copied from Gray's Supplement to

is

the Pharmacopoeias, p. 241.


"
Anchovies, 2 Ibs. to 4 Ibs. and a half;

pulp through a

fine hair sieve;

common

bones with

salt,

6 Ibs.; strain; add flour 7


of the fish
the sieve
fancy.

As

we

It

boil

boil

the

7 oz. in water
oz.

and the pulp

pass the whole through

colour with Venetian red to your

should produce

this fish

sauce

is

1 gallon."

so often in request,

give the following receipt of the best

way

of making

it

POISONOUS ANCHOVY SAUCE.


"

Put 10 or 12 anchovies

and pound them

to a

pulp

327

into a mortar,
this into

put

very clean iron, or well tinned copper sauce-

pan

then put a table spoonful of cold spring

\vater into the mortar;


to

shake

the anchovies; set

pour

it

or

the side of a gentle

by

it

very frequently

till

fire,

round, and

them

and

stir

they are melted

over,

them
then

add a quarter of a drachm (avoirdupois)


of

Cayenne;

let it

remain by the

minutes longer; then while

fire

a few

warm rub

it

through a hair sieve with the back of a

wooden spoon*."

From
433.

the Cook's Oracle,

2nd

edit.

1819, receipt

fttuftartu

THE

leaves of the cherry laurel, prunus

lauro-cerasus, a poisonous plant, have a

nutty flavour, resembling that of the kernels


of peach-stones, or of bitter almonds, which
to most palates

have

for

many

is

grateful.

These leaves

years been in use

among

cooks, to communicate an almond or kernellike flavour to custards, puddings, creams,

blanc-mange, and

oilier delicacies

of the

table.
It

has been asserted, that the laurel poison

in custards
is,

and other

articles of
cookery,

on account of its being used

in

very small

POISONOUS CUSTARD.

329

quantities, quite harmless.

To

refute this

assertion, numerous instances

might be cited;

and, among them, a recent one, in which four


children suffered most severely from par-

taking of custard flavoured with the leaves


of this poisonous plant.

" Several children at a


boarding-school,
in the vicinity of

Richmond, having par-

taken of some custard flavoured with the


leaves of the cherry laurel, as
practised

by

cooks, one

frequently

of the poor inno-

cents were taken severely

Two

is

ill

in

consequence.

of them, a girl six years of age, and a

boy of

five years old, fell into a

profound

sleep, out of which they could not be roused."

"

Notwithstanding the various medical

exertions used, the boy remained in a stupor


ten hours,

and the

girl

nine hours;

the

330

POISONOUS CUSTARD.

other two, one of which was six years old,

a girl, and a girl of seven years, complained

of severe pains in the epigastric region.

They
I

am

all

recovered, after three days' illness.

anxious to communicate to you this

being convinced that your publication


read at all the scholastic establishments

fact,
is

in this part of the country.

hope you

will

allow these lines a corner in your Literary


Chronicle, where they

may

contribute to

put the unwary on their guard, against the


deleterious effects of flavouring culinary

dishes with that baneful herb, the Cherry

Laurel."

"

am, with respect, your's,


"

Sir,

THOMAS LIDIARD*."

Literary Chronicle, No.

2%

p. 348.

1819,

POISONOUS CUSTARD.

What
would

331

person of sense or prudence, then,

trust to the discretion of an ignorant

cook, in mixing so dangerous an ingredient


in his

puddings and creams

maniac would choose

Who

but a

to season his victuals

with poison?

The water
leaves

is

distilled

from cherry laurel

frequently mixed with brandy and

other spirituous liquors, to impart to


the flavour of the cordial called
(see also

This

noyeau

page 261).

fluid,

though long

as a flavouring substance,
to

them

in frequent use

was not known

be poisonous until the year 1728; when

the sudden death of two


after drinking

women,

in

some of the common

cherry laurel water, demonstrated


leterious nature.

Dublin,
distilled
its

de-

MUSHROOMS

have been long

used

sauces and other culinary preparations

in

yet

numerous instances on record of

there are

the deleterious effects of some species of


these fungi, almost

with

poison*.

all

of which are fraught

Pliny

already

exclaims

against the luxury of his countrymen in thia

and wonders what extraordinary

article,

pleasure there can be in eating such danger-

ous foodf.

But

if

the palate must be indulged with

these lethal

them,

"

luxuries, or, as

voluptuous poison J,"

Seneca

it is

calls

highly ne-

* Fungi plerique veneno turgent. Linn. Amsen. Acid.

t Quae

voluptas tanta ancipitks cibi?

Hist. xxii. 23.

J Sen. Ep. 96.

Plin.

Nat.

POISONOUS MUSHROOM*.
cessary that

the mild eatable

should

be

enough

to distinguish the

gathered

false, or poisonous,

mushrooms

by persons

which

333

skilful

good from the


not always the

is

case; nor are the characters which

distin-

guish them strongly marked.

The following statement

is

published by

Mr. Glen, surgeon, of Knightsbridge :


"

A poor man, residing in

took a walk

in

Hyde Park,

tion of gathering

Knightsbridge,
with the inten-

some mushrooms.

He col-

lected a considerable number, and, after

stewing them, began to eat them.

He had

finished the whole, with the exception of

about six or eight, when, about eight or ten


minutes from the commencement of his meal,

he was suddenly seized with a dimness, or


mist before his eyes, a giddiness of the Lead,
*t~

with a general trembling and sudden loss of

POISONOUS MUSHROOMS.

334

power

much

so

so,

that he nearly

off

fell

the chair; to this succeeded, loss of recollection

he forgot where he was, and

circumstances of his case.

soon went

off,

and he so

though with

able,

a distance

yards

This deprivation
far rallied as to

difficulty, to

be

get up, with

Mr.Glen

for assist-

of about five

hundred

the intention of going to

ance

the

all

he had not proceeded more than half

way, when his memory again


lost his road,

him he
:

although previously well ac-

quainted with

who with

failed

it.

He was met by

difficulty learned

a friend,

and

his state,

conducted him to Mr. Glen's house.


countenance betrayed

great anxiety

His
;

he

reeled about, like a drunken man, and was


greatly inclined to sleep

and

feeble.

his pulse

was low

Mr. Glen immediately gave

him an emetic draught.

The poison had

so

diminished the sensibility of the stomach,

POISONOUS MUSHROOMS.

335

that vomiting did not take place for nearly

twenty minutes, although another draught

had been exhibited.


his

During this interval


drowsiness increased to such a degree,

that he

him
he

to

was only kept awake by obliging

walk round the room with assistance:

also, at this time,

complained of distress-

ing pains in the calves of his legs.

miting was

at

length produced.

Full w>-

After the

operation of the emetic, he expressed himself generally

drowsy.

better,

but

still

continued

In the evening Mr. Glen found

him doing well."

The following case

is

dical Transactions, vol.

"

recorded in the Meii.

middle-aged man having gathered

what he

called

champignons, they

were

stewed, and eaten by himself and his wife


their child also, about four years old, ate
little

of them, and the sippets of bread which

POISONOUS MUSHROOMS.

were put

Within

the liquor.

into

nutes after eating them, the

five

mi-

man began

to

stare in an unusual

manner, and was unable

to shut his eyes.

All objects appeared to

him coloured with a variety of colours.


felt

a palpitation in what he called his sto-

mach

and was so giddy that

over his body.

he did or said
to

speak

at all.

He

hardly

knew what

and sometimes was unable


These symptoms continued

in a greater or less

degree

hours; after which, he


order.

he could

He seemed to himself swelled

hardly stand.
all

He

for

twenty-four

felt little

or no dis-

Soon after he perceived himself ill,

one scruple of white

vitriol

was given him,

and repeated two or three times, with which


he vomited

plentifully.

" The woman,


aged thirty-nine,

felt all

the same symptoms, but in a higher degree.

She

totally lost

her voice and her senses,

POISONOUS MUSHROOMS.

337

and was either stupid, or so furious that

it

was necessary she should be held. The


white vitriol was offered to her, of which she

was capable of taking but very

little;

ever, after four or five hours, she

recovered: but she continued


far

how-

was much

many days

from being well, and from enjoying her

former health and strength.


fainted for the

first

week

She frequently
after;

and there

was, during a month longer, an uneasy sense


of heat and weight in her breast, stomach,

and bowels, with great

flatulence.

Her

much confused

head was,

at first

waking,

and she

often

experienced palpitations,

tremblings, and other hysteric


to $11

affections;

which she had ever before been a

stranger,

" The child tMf some convulsive


agitations

of his arms, but was otherwise

little

POISONOUS MUSHROOMS.

338

He was

affected.

capable of taking half a

scruple of ipecacuanha, with which he vomited, and was soon perfectly recovered."

MUSHROOM CATSUP.
THE

edible

mushroom

is

the basis of the

sauce called mushroom catsup


portion of which

who grow
ployed

is

for

this

sauce are gene-

which have not found a ready

sale in the market,


state

The mushrooms em-

preparing

rally those

a great pro-

prepared by gardeners

the fungi.

for

and are

in a putrified

no vegetable substance

is

liable to

so rapid a spontaneous decomposition as

mushrooms.

In a few days after they have

been gathered from the dung-bed on which


they grow, they become the habitation of

myriads of in&rcts

mushroom be

and,

if

even the fresh

attentively examined,

frequently be found to swarm with

it

life.

will

of

ALTHOUGH we have

already

made some

remarks on the sophistication of milk (page


302), the following additional statement may

deemed

not be

The most

superfluous.

correct

method of ascertaining

the different qualities of milk, or the relative richness of different kinds of milk,

by means

of a simple instrument,

is

lately

constructed at the suggestions of Sir Joseph

Banks.
It consists

of any

number of

cylindrical

glass tubes of the same internal diameter,

which

is

generally about half an inch, or J

Q2

340

ADULTERATION OF MILK.

and about 10 or 12 inches long.


They are closed at one end, and open, and
of an inch

little

flanched at the other, like the test

tubes used by chemists, and are mounted on


a stand in the same manner.

At the distance

of about 10 inches from the bottom of each

tube

is

a line or mark, with 0, or zero, placed

opposite

it,

and from

this point the

tube

is

graduated into tenths of an inch, and num-

bered downwards for 2 or 3 inches, so that


each division

is

iJo^1 of the capacity of the

tube.
If several of the tubes are filled with milk
at the

same

time, and placed at the

same

temperature, the cake of cream will form at


the top, and

its

quantity or percentage will

be read off by mere inspection.


In this

way experiments may be made on

the relative quantities of cream produced

ADULTERATION OP MILK.
by

341

different systems of feeding, or

ferent animals' feed,

by

dif-

and placed under

dif-

ferent circumstances.

with which

compared,

all

may

standard milk,

other samples

are to be

readily be fixed

by saying

what lactometer strength

it

shall

possess.

From experiments we have made with


several samples of genuine skimmed country milk,

the
to

we

are authorised to state, that

London milk was found by no means


be so very much

skimmed
pected.
indicate

of water.

inferior to the

country

milk, as might perhaps be ex-

The

tests

by the lactometer never

more than from 8

to

10 per cent,

of

ISINGLASS

may be

mentary substance

By

economy.

considered as an

employed

ali-

dometie

in

boiling isinglass in water,

it

becomes dissolved, and furnishes a mild


tremulous jelly, which, when seasoned with
cream, bitter almonds, and sugar,

blanc-mange;

lemon

and when

juice, sugar,

the basis of
It is also

many

is

called

seasoned with

and aromatics, forms

delicacies for the table.

employed

in

domestic use in the

clarification of various liquors

and

if

small

shreds are thrown into boiling coffee,


renders

it

clear in a

few minutes.

it

ADULTERATION OF ISINGLASS.
This substance

is

343

frequently adulterated

with shreds of the skins of the dried blad-

der of horses, and with other animal

mem-

may be detected by the


dissolving when boiled in water.

This fraud

branes.

shreds not

Genuine

isinglass should

be totally soluble

without leaving any filaments.

The
rent

best isinglass
it

is

perfectly transpa-

occurs in commerce twisted in the

form of a lyre or a heart

and the worst

formed into the shape of pancakes.

Q4

is

<tnttamom

CINNAMON
bark, or

is

often adulterated with cassia

by mixing with the genuine cinna1

mon, a portion of cinnamon bark which


has been deprived of

its

essential oil

by

distillation.

The best cinnamon


ought not much
paper in thickness.
ish colour;

it

to

is

rather pliable, and

exceed stout writing


It is

of a light yellow-

possesses a sweet taste, not

so hot as to occasion pain, and not suc-

ceeded by any aftertaste.


kind

is

The

inferior

distinguished by being thicker, of

a darker and brownish colour, hot and pun-

ADULTERATION OF CINNAMON.

345

gent when chewed, and succeeded by a


disagreeable bitter after-taste.

The

cassia

bark, which greatly resembles the true cin-

namon,

is

thicker,

and of a coarser texture,

and breaks short and smooth, whilst true


cinnamon breaks

fibrous

and

splintery.

Cassia has a slimy mucilagenous taste, and

without any of the roughness of the true

cinnamon bark.

Q5

gftmtttratfon of

GENUINE mustard,

either in powder, or in

the state of a paste ready for


rarely to

be met with

article sold

tard,

vise, is

perhaps

in the shops.

The

under the name of patent mus-

usually a mixture of mustard and

is

common wheaten flour, with a portion of Cayenne pepper, and a large quantity of bay
salt,

made with water

into a paste, ready for

Some manufacturers

use.

adulterate their

mustard with raddish-seed and pease


It

flour.

has often been stated, that a fine yellow

colour
meric.

is

given to mustard by means of tur-

We

doubt the truth of this assertion*

The presence of

the minutest quantity of

ADULTERATION OF MUSTARD.
turmeric

may instantly be

347

detected, by add-

ing to the mustard a few drops of a solution


alcali,

which changes

the bright yellow colour, to a

brown or deep

of potash, or any other

orange

Two

tint.

ounces and a half of Cayenne pep-

per, l|lb of

bay

salt,

and ltb of wheaten

81b of mustard flour,


flour,

made

into a stiff

paste, with the requisite quantity of water


in which the bay-salt is

previously dissolved,

forms the patent mustard, sold in

The

salt

pots.

and Cayenne pepper contribute

materially to the keeping of ready-made

mustard.

There

is

therefore nothing deleterious in

the usual practice of adulterating this com-

modity of the

The fraud only tends

table.

to deteriorate the quality

genuine

article itself.

Q 6

and flavour of the

amttterattott of

THIS

article is

frequently nothing else

than a mixture of the worst kind of


arabic, called Indian or Barbary

gum

gum, im-

ported chiefly for the use of making shoe-

blacking.

solution of the genuine Spa-

nish liquorice juice

of Barbary

gum;

is

mixed with a solution

and the mixture, after being

inspissated to a proper consistence,

made up
still

is

again

into cylindrical rolls, which, whilst

moist, are covered with bay-leaves,

re-packed

in chests, to

resemble

in

and

every re-

spect the genuine Spanish liquorice juice,

imported from Catalonia.

It is difficult to

ADULTERATION OF SPANISH LIQUORICE. 349

detect this fraud.


rice

Genuine Spanish liquo-

should be perfectly black,

cold,

when

and break with a smooth and glassy

fracture

clammy
place

brittle

it

or
it

should not become

damp,

on exposure

should have a sweet

empyreuma; and be soluble


out leaving any residue.

sensibly
in

taste,

a dry

without

in water, with-

bg Copper

MANY

kinds of viands are frequently im-

pregtiated with copper, in consequence of

the

employment of cooking

utensils

made

By the use of such vessels


food, we are daily liable to be

of that metal.
in dressing

poisoned; as almost

all

acid vegetables, as

well as sebaceous or pinguid substances^

employed

in culinary preparations, act

copper, and dissolve a portion of


too

many examples

are

upon

it;

and

met with of

fatal

consequences having ensued from eating


food which had been dressed in copper

351

POISONOUS FOOD.

vessels not well cleaned from the oxid of

copper which they had contracted by being

exposed

to the action of air

and moisture.

The inexcusable negligence of persons

who make use

of copper vessels has been

productive of mortality, so
as

rible,

much more

ter-

they have exerted their action

on a great number of persons

The annals of medicine

once.

at

farnish too

many

examples

in support of this assertion,

render

necessary to insist more upon

it

to
it

here.

Mr. Thiery, who wrote a

thesis

on the

noxious quality of copper, observes, that


" our food receives

its

quantity of poison in

the kitchen
dishes.

beer,

by

by the use of copper pans and


The brewer mingles poison in our
boiling

sugar-baker

it

ill

employs

copper vessels.

copper

pans;

The
the

FOOD POISONED

352

bakes

pastry-cook

moulds

our

tarts

in

copper

the confectioner uses copper ves-

sels; the oilman boils his pickles in

copper

or brass vessels, and verdigrise

plenti-

fully

is

formed by the action of the vinegar

upon the metal.


"

Though,

after all, a single dose

mortal, yet a quantity of poison,


small,

when taken

duce more

at every meal,

fatal effects

apprehended;

and

nojt

however

must pro-

than are generally

different

are differently affected

be

constitutions

by minute

quantities

of substances that act powerfully on the

system."

The author of a

tract, entitled,

" Serious

Reflections on the Dangers attending the

Use of Copper Vessels,"


merous and

frightful

asserts that a nu-

train

of diseases

is

occasioned by the poisonous effects of per-

BY COPPER VESSELS.

353

nicious matter received into the

stomach

insensibly with our victuals.

Dr. Johnston* gives an account of the

melancholy catastrophe of three men being


poisoned, after excruciating sufferings, in

consequence of eating food cooked

in

an

unclean copper vessel, on board the Cyclops frigate;

three

and, besides these, thirty-

men became

ill

from the same cause.

The following casef


George Baker, M.D.
"

Some

is

related

cyder, which had been

by

made

Sir

in

a gentleman's family, being thought too

was boiled with honey in a brewing


vessel, the rim of which was capped with

sour,

lead.
*

All

who drank

this

Johnston's Essay on Poison,

t Medical

Transactions, vol.

liquor

were

p. 102.
i.

p. 213.

See also

Serious Reflections on the Dangers attending the Use


of Copper Vessels, p. 15.

FOOD POISONED

354

seized with a bowel colic,


violently.

One

more or

less

of the servants died very

soon in convulsions; several others were


cruelly tortured a long time.

The master

of the family, in particular, notwithstanding


all

the assistance which art

could

give

him, never recovered his health, but died


miserably, after having almost three years

languished under a most tedious and incurable malady."

Too much care and


taken

in

preserving

all

attention cannot be

culinary utensils of

copper, in a state unexceptionably


their destined purpose.

frequently tinned,

and

fit

for

They should be
kept

thoroughly

clean; nor should any food ever be suffered


to

remain

in

them

for a longer time than

is

absolutely necessary to their preparation


for the table.

But the sure preventive of

BY COPPER VESSELS.
its

pernicious effect,

utensils

is,

355

to banish

copper

from the kitchen altogether.

The following wholesome advice on


subject

this

given to cooks by the author of

is

the excellent cookery

book* we have be-

fore quoted.

"

Stew-pans and soup-kettles should be

examined every time they are used;

and

their covers,

these,

must be kept perfectly

clean and well tinned, not only on the inside,

but about a couple of inches on the

outside; so

much

mischief arises from their

getting out of repair


tinned, all your

work

and,

if

not kept nicely

will be in vain

the

broths and soups will look green and dirty,

and

taste bitter

and poisonous, and

will

be

the eye and palate, and


spoiled both for

* The Cook's
Oracle,

p. 91.

POISONOUS FOOD,

356
your credit

will be lost;

and even the

upon

this,

life,

and as the health,

of the family depends

the cook

may be

sure her em-

ployer had rather pay the tin-man's

bill

than the doctor's."

The senate of Sweden,

in the year 1753,

prohibited copper vessels, and ordered that

none but such as were made of iron should


be used in their

fleet

and armies.

fUatfen

VARIOUS kinds

of food used in domestic

liable to

become impregnated

glazing- of the

common cream-co-

economy, are
with lead.

The

loured earthen ware, which

is

composed of

an oxid of lead, readily yields to the action


of vinegar and saline compounds
fore the jars

and there-

and pots of this kind of stone

ware, are wholly unfit to contain jellies of


fruits,

marmalade,

Pickles should in

and similar conserves.


no case be deposited in

cream-coloured glazed earthenware.

The custom which

still

prevails in

some

FOOD POISONED

358

parts of this country of keeping milk in lea-

den vessels

for the

use of the dairy,

is

very

improper.
" In Lancashire* the dairies are furnished

with milk-pans made of lead

and when Mr.

Parks expostulated with some individuals on


the danger of this practice, he was told that

leaden milk-pans throw up the cream


better than vessels of

much

any other kind,

" In some
parts of the north of England
is

it

customary for the inn-keepers to prepare

mint-salad

by bruising and grinding the

getable in a large

of lead of twelve

ve-

wooden bowl with a ball


or fourteen

In this operation the mint

is

pounds weight.

cut,

and portions

of the lead are ground off at every revolution of the ponderous instrument.

In the

Parks's Chemical Essays, vol. v. p. 193.

BY LEADEN VESSELS.

359

same county^

it is

common

practice to have

brewing-coppers constructed with the bot-

tom of copper and the whole sides of lead."

The baking of

fruit tarts in

cream-co-

loured earthenware* and the salting and

preserving of meat

in

less objectionable.

All kinds of food which

leaden pans, are no

contain free vegetable acids, or saline preparations, attack utensils

glaze, in the

covered with a

composition of which lead

enters as a component part.

beds of presses

for

The leaden

squeezing the

fruit in

cyder countries, have produced incalculable mischief.


follow,

when

because

These consequences never


the lead

this metal,

is

combined with

being more eager

tin

for

oxidation, prevents the solution of the lead.

When we

consider the various unsus-

pected means by which the poisons of lead

POISONOUS FOOD*

300

and copper gain admittance

into the

human

common but dangerous

body, a very

in-

stance presents itself: namely, the practice


of painting toys,

made

for the

amusement

of children, with poisonous substances, viz.

red lead, verdigrise, &c.


to

Children are apt

put every thing, especially what gives

them pleasure,

into their

mouths

the paint-

ing of toys with colouring substances that


are poisonous, ought therefore to be abo-

the more open

lished; a practice

which

to censure, as

of no real utility.

it is

lies

FINIS*

Joseph Mallett, Printer, 59, Wardour-street, Soho, London.

siim