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THE 1987 XIV

Section 1. The State shall protect and promote the right of all citizens to
quality education at all levels, and shall take appropriate steps to make such
education accessible to all.
Section 2. The State shall:
(1) Establish, maintain, and support a complete, adequate, and integrated
system of education relevant to the needs of the people and society;
(2) Establish and maintain a system of free public education in the
elementary and high school levels. Without limiting the natural right of
parents to rear their children, elementary education is compulsory for all
children of school age;
(3) Establish and maintain a system of scholarship grants, student loan
programs, subsidies, and other incentives which shall be available to
deserving students in both public and private schools, especially to the
(4) Encourage non-formal, informal, and indigenous learning systems, as well
as self-learning, independent, and out-of-school study programs particularly
those that respond to community needs; and
(5) Provide adult citizens, the disabled, and out-of-school youth with training
in civics, vocational efficiency, and other skills.
Section 3. (1) All educational institutions shall include the study of the
Constitution as part of the curricula.
(2) They shall inculcate patriotism and nationalism, foster love of humanity,
respect for human rights, appreciation of the role of national heroes in the
historical development of the country, teach the rights and duties of
citizenship, strengthen ethical and spiritual values, develop moral character
and personal discipline, encourage critical and creative thinking, broaden
scientific and technological knowledge, and promote vocational efficiency.
(3) At the option expressed in writing by the parents or guardians, religion
shall be allowed to be taught to their children or wards in public elementary

and high schools within the regular class hours by instructors designated or
approved by the religious authorities of the religion to which the children or
wards belong, without additional cost to the Government.
Section 4.(1) The State recognizes the complementary roles of public and
private institutions in the educational system and shall exercise reasonable
supervision and regulation of all educational institutions.
(2) Educational institutions, other than those established by religious groups
and mission boards, shall be owned solely by citizens of the Philippines or
corporations or associations at least sixty per centum of the capital of which
is owned by such citizens. The Congress may, however, require increased
Filipino equity participation in all educational institutions.
The control and administration of educational institutions shall be vested in
citizens of the Philippines.
No educational institution shall be established exclusively for aliens and no
group of aliens shall comprise more than one-third of the enrollment in any
school. The provisions of this subsection shall not apply to schools
established for foreign diplomatic personnel and their dependents and,
unless otherwise provided by law, for other foreign temporary residents.
(3) All revenues and assets of non-stock, non-profit educational institutions
used actually, directly, and exclusively for educational purposes shall be
exempt from taxes and duties. Upon the dissolution or cessation of the
corporate existence of such institutions, their assets shall be disposed of in
the manner provided by law.
Proprietary educational institutions, including those cooperatively owned,
may likewise be entitled to such exemptions, subject to the limitations
provided by law, including restrictions on dividends and provisions for
(4) Subject to conditions prescribed by law, all grants, endowments,
donations, or contributions used actually, directly, and exclusively for
educational purposes shall be exempt from tax.
Section 5. (1) the State shall take into account regional and sectoral needs
and conditions and shall encourage local planning in the development of
educational policies and programs.
(2) Academic freedom shall be enjoyed in all institutions of higher learning.
(3) Every citizen has a right to select a profession or course of study, subject
to fair, reasonable, and equitable admission and academic requirements.

(4) The State shall enhance the right of teachers to professional

advancement. Non-teaching academic and non-academic personnel shall
enjoy the protection of the State.
(5) The State shall assign the highest budgetary priority to education and
ensure that teaching will attract and retain its rightful share of the best
available talents through adequate remuneration and other means of job
satisfaction and fulfillment.
Section 6. The national language of the Philippines is Filipino. As it evolves, it
shall be further developed and enriched on the basis of existing Philippine
and other languages.
Subject to provisions of law and as the Congress may deem appropriate, the
Government shall take steps to initiate and sustain the use of Filipino as a
medium of official communication and as language of instruction in the
educational system.
Section 7. For purposes of communication and instruction, the official
languages of the Philippines are Filipino and, until otherwise provided by law,
The regional languages are the auxiliary official languages in the regions and
shall serve as auxiliary media of instruction therein.
Spanish and Arabic shall be promoted on a voluntary and optional basis.
Section 8. This Constitution shall be promulgated in Filipino and English and
shall be translated into major regional languages, Arabic, and Spanish.
Section 9. The Congress shall establish a national language commission
composed of representatives of various regions and disciplines which shall
undertake, coordinate, and promote researches for the development,
propagation, and preservation of Filipino and other languages.
Section 10. Science and technology are essential for national development
and progress. The State shall give priority to research and development,
invention, innovation, and their utilization; and to science and technology
education, training, and services. It shall support indigenous, appropriate,
and self-reliant scientific and technological capabilities, and their application
to the countrys productive systems and national life.

Section 11. The Congress may provide for incentives, including tax
deductions, to encourage private participation in programs of basic and
applied scientific research. Scholarships, grants-in-aid, or other forms of
incentives shall be provided to deserving science students, researchers,
scientists, inventors, technologists, and specially gifted citizens.
Section 12. The State shall regulate the transfer and promote the adaptation
of technology from all sources for the national benefit. It shall encourage the
widest participation of private groups, local governments, and communitybased organizations in the generation and utilization of science and
Section 13. The State shall protect and secure the exclusive rights of
scientists, inventors, artists, and other gifted citizens to their intellectual
property and creations, particularly when beneficial to the people, for such
period as may be provided by law.
Section 14. The State shall foster the preservation, enrichment, and dynamic
evolution of a Filipino national culture based on the principle of unity in
diversity in a climate of free artistic and intellectual expression.
Section 15. Arts and letters shall enjoy the patronage of the State. The State
shall conserve, promote, and popularize the nations historical and cultural
heritage and resources, as well as artistic creations.
Section 16. All the countrys artistic and historic wealth constitutes the
cultural treasure of the nation and shall be under the protection of the State
which may regulate its disposition.
Section 17. The State shall recognize, respect, and protect the rights of
indigenous cultural communities to preserve and develop their cultures,
traditions, and institutions. It shall consider these rights in the formulation of
national plans and policies.
Section 18. (1) The State shall ensure equal access to cultural opportunities
through the educational system, public or private cultural entities,
scholarships, grants and other incentives, and community cultural centers,
and other public venues.
(2) The State shall encourage and support researches and studies on the arts
and culture.

Section 19. (1) The State shall promote physical education and encourage
sports programs, league competitions, and amateur sports, including training
for international competitions, to foster self-discipline, teamwork, and
excellence for the development of a healthy and alert citizenry.
(2) All educational institutions shall undertake regular sports activities
throughout the country in cooperation with athletic clubs and other sectors.


Section 1. The State recognizes the Filipino family as the foundation of the
nation. Accordingly, it shall strengthen its solidarity and actively promote its
total development.
Section 2. Marriage, as an inviolable social institution, is the foundation of
the family and shall be protected by the State.
Section 3. The State shall defend:
(1) The right of spouses to found a family in accordance with their religious
convictions and the demands of responsible parenthood;
(2) The right of children to assistance, including proper care and nutrition,
and special protection from all forms of neglect, abuse, cruelty, exploitation
and other conditions prejudicial to their development;
(3) The right of the family to a family living wage and income; and
(4) The right of families or family associations to participate in the planning
and implementation of policies and programs that affect them.
Section 4. The family has the duty to care for its elderly members but the
State may also do so through just programs of social security.


Section 1. The flag of the Philippines shall be red, white, and blue, with a sun
and three stars, as consecrated and honored by the people and recognized
by law.

Section 2. The Congress may, by law, adopt a new name for the country, a
national anthem, or a national seal, which shall all be truly reflective and
symbolic of the ideals, history, and traditions of the people. Such law shall
take effect only upon its ratification by the people in a national referendum.
Section 3. The State may not be sued without its consent.
Section 4. The Armed Forces of the Philippines shall be composed of a citizen
armed force which shall undergo military training and serve as may be
provided by law. It shall keep a regular force necessary for the security of the
Section 5. (1) All members of the armed forces shall take an oath or
affirmation to uphold and defend this Constitution.
(2) The State shall strengthen the patriotic spirit and nationalist
consciousness of the military, and respect for peoples rights in the
performance of their duty.
(3) Professionalism in the armed forces and adequate remuneration and
benefits of its members shall be a prime concern of the State. The armed
forces shall be insulated from partisan politics.
No member of the military shall engage, directly or indirectly, in any partisan
political activity, except to vote.
(4) No member of the armed forces in the active service shall, at any time,
be appointed or designated in any capacity to a civilian position in the
Government, including government-owned or controlled corporations or any
of their subsidiaries.
(5) Laws on retirement of military officers shall not allow extension of their
(6) The officers and men of the regular force of the armed forces shall be
recruited proportionately from all provinces and cities as far as practicable.
(7) The tour of duty of the Chief of Staff of the armed forces shall not exceed
three years. However, in times of war or other national emergency declared
by the Congress, the President may extend such tour of duty.

Section 6. The State shall establish and maintain one police force, which
shall be national in scope and civilian in character, to be administered and
controlled by a national police commission. The authority of local executives
over the police units in their jurisdiction shall be provided by law.
Section 7. The State shall provide immediate and adequate care, benefits,
and other forms of assistance to war veterans and veterans of military
campaigns, their surviving spouses and orphans. Funds shall be provided
therefor and due consideration shall be given them in the disposition of
agricultural lands of the public domain and, in appropriate cases, in the
utilization of natural resources.
Section 8. The State shall, from time to time, review to increase the pensions
and other benefits due to retirees of both the government and the private
Section 9. The State shall protect consumers from trade malpractices and
from substandard or hazardous products.
Section 10. The State shall provide the policy environment for the full
development of Filipino capability and the emergence of communication
structures suitable to the needs and aspirations of the nation and the
balanced flow of information into, out of, and across the country, in
accordance with a policy that respects the freedom of speech and of the
Section 11. (1) The ownership and management of mass media shall be
limited to citizens of the Philippines, or to corporations, cooperatives or
associations, wholly-owned and managed by such citizens.
The Congress shall regulate or prohibit monopolies in commercial mass
media when the public interest so requires. No combinations in restraint of
trade or unfair competition therein shall be allowed.
(2) The advertising industry is impressed with public interest, and shall be
regulated by law for the protection of consumers and the promotion of the
general welfare.
Only Filipino citizens or corporations or associations at least seventy per
centum of the capital of which is owned by such citizens shall be allowed to
engage in the advertising industry.

The participation of foreign investors in the governing body of entities in

such industry shall be limited to their proportionate share in the capital
thereof, and all the executive and managing officers of such entities must be
citizens of the Philippines.
Section 12. The Congress may create a consultative body to advise the
President on policies affecting indigenous cultural communities, the majority
of the members of which shall come from such communities.
Magna Carta of Women (Republic Act No. 9710)

Release Date:
Monday, March 15, 2010

What is Magna Carta of Women (Republic Act No. 9710)?

The Magna Carta of Women is comprehensive womens human rights law that
seeks to eliminate discrimination against women by recognizing, protecting,
fulfilling and promoting the rights of Filipino women, especially those in
marginalized sector.
What is discrimination against women?

The Magna Carta of Women defines discrimination against women as:

any gender-based distinction, exclusion, or restriction which has the
effect or purpose of impairing or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment, or
exercise by women, irrespective of their marital status, on a basis of
equality of men and women, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in
the political, economic, social, cultural, civil or any other field;
any act or omission, including by law, policy, administrative measure, or
practice, that directly or indirectly excludes or restricts women in the
recognition and promotion of their rights and their access to and enjoyment
of opportunities, benefits, or privileges;

a measure or practice of general application that fails to provide for

mechanisms to offset or address sex or gender-based disadvantages or
limitations of women, as a result of which women are denied or restricted in
the recognition and protection of their rights and in their access to and
enjoyment of opportunities, benefits, or privileges; or women, more than
men are shown to have suffered the greater adverse effects of those
measures or practices; and
discrimination compounded by or intersecting with other grounds, status,
or condition, such as ethnicity, age, poverty, or religion.
What are the rights of women guaranteed under the Magna Carta of Women?

All rights in the Philippine Constitution and those rights recognized under
international instruments duly signed and ratified by the Philippines, in
consonance with Philippine laws shall be rights of women under the Magna
Carta of Women. These rights shall be enjoyed without discrimination since
the law prohibits discrimination against women, whether done by public and
private entities or individuals.

The Magna Carta of Women also spells out every woman's right to:

Protection from all forms of violence, including those committed by the

State. This includes the incremental increase in the recruitment and training
of women in government services that cater to women victims of genderrelated offenses. It also ensures mandatory training on human rights and
gender sensitivity to all government personnel involved in the protection
and defense of women against gender-based violence, and mandates local
government units to establish a Violence Against Women Desk in every
barangay to address violence against women cases;

Protection and security in times of disaster, calamities and other crisis

situations, especially in all phases of relief, recovery, rehabilitation and
construction efforts, including protection from sexual exploitation and other
sexual and gender-based violence.

Participation and representation, including undertaking temporary special

measures and affirmative actions to accelerate and ensure women's
equitable participation and representation in the third level civil service,
development councils and planning bodies, as well as political parties and
international bodies, including the private sector.

Equal treatment before the law, including the State's review and when
necessary amendment or repeal of existing laws that are discriminatory to

Equal access and elimination of discrimination against women

in education, scholarships and training. This includes revising educational
materials and curricula to remove gender stereotypes and images, and
outlawing the expulsion, non-readmission, prohibiting enrollment and other
related discrimination against women students and faculty due to pregnancy
outside of marriage;

Equal participation in sports. This includes measures to ensure

that gender-based discrimination in competitive and non-competitive sports
is removed so that women and girls can benefit from sports development;

Non-discrimination in employment in the field of military, police and

other similar services. This includes according the same promotional
privileges and opportunities as their men counterpart, including pay
increases, additional benefits, and awards, based on competency and

quality of performance. The dignity of women in the military, police and

other similar services shall always be respected, they shall be accorded with
the same capacity as men to act in and enter into contracts, including
marriage, as well as be entitled to leave benefits for women such as
maternity leave, as provided for in existing laws;

Non-discriminatory and non-derogatory portrayal of women in media and

film to raise the consciousness of the general public in recognizing the
dignity of women and the role and contribution of women in family,
community, and the society through the strategic use of mass media;

Comprehensive health services and health information and education

covering all stages of a woman's life cycle, and which addresses the major
causes of women's mortality and morbidity, including access to among
others, maternal care, responsible, ethical, legal, safe and effective
methods of family planning, and
encouraging healthy lifestyle activities to prevent diseases;

Leave benefits of two (2) months with full pay based on gross monthly
compensation, for women employees who undergo surgery caused by
gynecological disorders, provided that they have rendered continuous
aggregate employment service of at least six (6) months for the last twelve
(12) months;

Equal rights in all matters relating to marriage and family relations. The
State shall ensure the same rights of women and men to: enter into and
leave marriages, freely choose a spouse, decide on the number and spacing
of their children, enjoy personal rights including the choice of a profession,
own, acquire, and administer their property, and acquire, change, or retain
their nationality. It also states that the betrothal and marriage of a child
shall have no legal effect. The Magna Carta of Women also guarantees the

civil, political and economic rights of women in the marginalized sectors,

particularly their right to:

Food security and resources for food production, including equal rights in
the titling of the land and issuance of stewardship contracts and patents;

Localized, accessible, secure and affordable housing;

Employment, livelihood, credit, capital and technology;

Skills training, scholarships, especially in research and development

aimed towards women friendly farm technology;

Representation and participation in policy-making or decisionmaking

bodies in the regional, national, and international levels;

Access to information regarding policies on women, including programs,

projects and funding outlays that affect them;

Social protection;

Recognition and preservation of cultural identity and integrity provided

that these cultural systems and practices are not discriminatory to women;

Inclusion in discussions on peace and development;

Services and interventions for women in especially difficult circumstances

or WEDC;

Protection of girl-children against all forms of discrimination in education,

health and nutrition, and skills development; and

Protection of women senior citizens.

The Magna Carta of Women defines the marginalized sectors as those

who belong to the basic, disadvantaged, or vulnerable groups who are
mostly living in poverty and have little or no access to land and other
resources, basic social and economic services such as health care,
education, water and sanitation, employment and livelihood opportunities,
housing security, physical infrastructure and the justice system. These
include, but are not limited to women in the following sectors or groups:
Small farmers and rural workers, Fisherfolk, Urban poor, Workers in the
formal economy, Workers in the informal economy, Migrant workers,
Indigenous Peoples, Moro, Children, Senior citizens, Persons with
disabilities, and Solo parents.

How can Filipino women living abroad benefit from this law?

Statistics show that more and more Filipino women are migrating
for overseas employment. In many places, women migrant workers
have limited legal protections or access to information about their
rights, rendering them vulnerable to gender-specific discrimination,
exploitation and abuse. Section 37 of the Magna Carta of Women mandates

the designation of a gender focal point in the consular section of Philippine

embassies or
consulates. The said officer who shall be trained on Gender
and Development shall be primarily responsible in handling gender concerns
of women migrant workers, especially those in distress. Other agencies
(e.g. the Department of Labor and Employment and the Department of
Social Welfare and Development) are also mandated to cooperate in
strengthening the Philippine foreign posts' programs for the delivery of
services to women migrant workers, consistent with the one-country team
approach in Foreign Service.

Who will be responsible for implementing the Magna Carta of Women?

The State, the private sector, society in general, and all individuals
shall contribute to the recognition, respect and promotion of the rights of
women defined and guaranteed in the Magna Carta of Women. The
Philippine Government shall be the primary duty-bearer in implementing the
said law. This means that all government offices,
controlled corporations shall be responsible to implement the provisions of
Magna Carta of Women that falls within their mandate, particularly those
guarantee rights of women that require specific action from the State. As
the primary duty-bearer, the Government is tasked to:

refrain from discriminating against women and violating their rights;

protect women against discrimination and from violation of their rights by
private corporations, entities, and individuals;

promote and fulfill the rights of women in all spheres, including their
rights to substantive equality and non-discrimination.

The Government shall fulfill these duties through the development

and implementation
administrative guidelines, and other appropriate measures, including
temporary special measures. It shall also establish mechanisms to promote
the coherent and integrated implementation of the Magna Carta of Women
and other related laws and policies to effectively stop discrimination against
Filipino women.

What are the specific responsibilities of government under the Magna Carta of Women?

The Magna Carta of Women mandates all government offices,

including government-owned and controlled corporations and local
government units to adopt gender mainstreaming as a strategy for
implementing the law and attaining its objectives. It also mandates (a)
planning, budgeting, monitoring and evaluation for gender and
development, (b) the creation and/or strengthening of gender and
development focal points, and (c) the generation and maintenance of
gender statistics and sex-disaggregated databases to aid in planning,
programming and policy formulation.

Under this law, the National Commission on the Role of Filipino

Women which will be renamed as the Philippine Commission on Women
(PCW) shall be the overall monitoring and oversight body to ensure the
implementation of the law. As an agency under the Office of the
President of the Philippines, it will be the primary policy-making and
coordinating body for women and gender equality concerns and shall lead in
ensuring that government agencies are capacitated on the effective
implementation of the Magna Carta of Women.

Consistent with its mandate, the Commission on Human Rights shall act
as the Gender and Development Ombud to ensure the promotion
and protection of women's human rights. The Commission on Audit
shall conduct an annual audit on the government offices' use of their gender
development budgets for the purpose of determining its judicious use
and the efficiency, and effectiveness of interventions in addressing
gender issues. Local government units are also encouraged to develop and
pass a
gender and development code to address the issues and concerns of
women in their respective localities based on consultation with their
women constituents.

What are the penalties of violators?

If the violation is committed by a government agency or any

government office, including government-owned and controlled corporations
and local government units, the person directly responsible for the
violation, as well as the head of the agency or local chief executive shall be
held liable under the Magna Carta of Women. The sanctions under
administrative law, civil service or other appropriate laws shall be
recommended by the Commission on Human Rights to the Civil Service
Commission and the Department of the Interior and Local Government.

Further, in cases where violence has been proven to be perpetrated

by agents of the State, such shall be considered aggravating offenses
with corresponding penalties depending on the severity of the offenses.

If the violation is committed by a private entity or individual, the

person directly responsible for the violation shall be liable to pay
damages. Further, the offended party can also pursue other remedies
available under the law and can invoke any of the other provisions of
existing laws, especially those that protect the rights of women.

How will the implementation of the Magna Carta of Women be funded?

The Magna Carta of Women provides that the State agencies should
utilize their gender and development budgets for programs and activities
to implement its provisions. Funds necessary for the implementation of
the Magna Carta of Women shall be charged against the current
appropriations of the concerned agencies, and shall be included in their
annual budgets for the succeeding years.

The Magna Carta of Women also mandates the State to prioritize

allocation of all available resources to effectively fulfill its obligations under
the said law.

When is the effectivity of the Magna Carta of Women?

The Magna Carta of Women shall take effect fifteen (15) days after
its publication in at least two (2) newspapers of general circulation.

Who will formulate the Implementing Rules and Regulations?

The Philippine Commission on Women, in coordination with the Commission

on Human Rights and all concerned departments and agencies including, as

observers, both Houses of Congress, and with the participation of

representatives from non-government organizations and civil society groups
shall formulate the implementing rules and regulations of the Magna Carta
of Women within one hundred eighty (180) days after its effectivity.

Republic Act 9710

Magna Carta of Women

Republic Act 9710 and IRR

CSC Guidelines on the Availment of the Special Leave Benefits for Women under R.A. 9710

JMC No. 2010-2: Guidelines in the establishment of a VAW Desk in every barangay

DOLE Guidelines for the Implementation of the Special Leave Benefits for Women in the Private Sector

Amended Guidelines on the Implementation of the Special Leave Benefit for Women Employees in the Private Sector

The MCW is a comprehensive women's human rights law that seeks to eliminate
discrimination through the recognition, protection, fulfilment and promotion of the rights of
Filipino women, especially those belonging in the marginalized sectors of the society. It
conveys a framework of rights for women based directly on international law.
The MCW establishes the Philippine governments pledge of commitment to the Convention
on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women's (CEDAW) Committee in
its 36th Session in 2006 and to the UN Human Rights Council on its first Universal Periodic
Review in 2009. It is the local translation of the provisions of the CEDAW, particularly in
defining gender discrimination, state obligations, substantive equality, and temporary
special measures. It also recognizes human rights guaranteed by the international Covenant
on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR).
Salient features of the law include:

Increasing the number of women in third level positions in government to achieve a

fifty-fifty (50-50) gender balance within the next five years while the composition of
women in all levels of development planning and program implementation will be at
least 40 percent;

Leave benefits of two (2) months with full pay based on gross monthly compensation
for women employees who undergo surgery caused by gynecological disorders,
provided that they have rendered continuous aggregate employment service of at
least six (6) months for the last twelve (12) months;

Non-discrimination in employment in the field of military, police and other similar

services that include according the same promotional privileges and opportunities as
their men counterpart, including pay increases, additional benefits, and awards, based
on competency and quality of performance.

Provision for equal access and elimination of discrimination in education,

scholarships, and training. Thus, "expulsion, non-readmission, prohibiting enrollment,
and other related discrimination of women students and faculty due to pregnancy out
of marriage shall be outlawed.

Non-discriminatory and non-derogatory portrayal of women in media and film to

raise the consciousness of the general public in recognizing the dignity of women and
the role and contribution of women in family, community, and the society through the
strategic use of mass media;

Equal status given to men and women on the titling of the land and issuance of
stewardship contracts and patents.

In addition to guaranteeing substantive rights, the MCW establishes the responsibility of the
government to take actions in order to end discrimination against women. It provides that
the Philippines government must "ensure the substantive equality of men and women" and
mandates the State to take steps to review, amend or repeal existing laws that are
discriminatory towards women.
The Government, in its entirety, shall fulfill these duties through the development and
implementation of laws, policies, regulatory instruments, administrative guidelines, and
other appropriate measures. It shall also establish mechanisms to promote the coherent and
integrated implementation of the MCW and other related laws and policies to effectively stop
discrimination against Filipino women.

The MCW mandates all government offices, including government-owned and controlled
corporations and local government units to adopt gender mainstreaming as a strategy for
implementing the law and attaining its objectives. It also mandates (a) planning, budgeting,
monitoring and evaluation for gender and development, (b) the creation and/or
strengthening of gender and development focal points, and (c) the generation and
maintenance of gender statistics and sex-disaggregated databases to aid in planning,
programming and policy formulation.

The Impact of K-12 in Philippine

Education Essay
The objective of this research paper is to know what is the impact of K-12 in Philippine Education.
This study aims to answer these following questions; (1) what are the advantages and
disadvantages of the K-12 program or the additional 2 years to Basic Education? (2) Will the parents
agree or disagree to the K- 12 program?
This research would be able to help the parents of the students who are affected by the K-12
program, this will give them an idea of what will be the advantages and disadvantages of the
program, and if it will


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help their children grow from the academic nature. The students will benefit from the study by letting
them know how they are going to be able to understand the addition of 2 years from their schooling.
Students will know how it will provide a better quality of education to them.
This study will benefit the teachers from the school, for them to be prepared for the additional two
years to the basic education. It is important for them to know the advantages and disadvantages of
the program, because they will be the one providing the knowledge to the children. This research will
also benefit the school, so they will anticipate the additional cost to the program, also the additional
teachers and everything that they should be anticipating for.
This paper attempted to determine the advantages and disadvantages and the perspective of the
parents regarding K12 program. This research design used in this study is the descriptive research
method wherein data from documents were used to answer the research question posed. Education

in the Philippines has and always been a treasure for all Filipinos who wish to improve life a little bit
especially those belonging to the middle and low income group. But with the advent of the K+12
Basic program of the Department of Education where formal education starts from Kindergarten, six
years in elementary, three years junior high school and two years senior high school.
Counting the number of years that parents will devote to spending for their childrens education
means more work, more efforts to exert, more waiting years before they will finally see their children
graduate from basic education. Parents think of the longer period before they can witness their
children earn their living, a common dream of a typical Filipino parent. However, if this program will
be fully materialized, Filipino graduates of basic education become highly comparable and
competent as with their other Asian and global counterparts. Parents may shell more for school
needs but they just have to think that their children can already enroll in other countries, if they wish
to, because of the competitive basic education curriculum. This should be the thinking of a rational
parent, a must for a progressive country like in the Philippines
The Philippine education system pursues the achievement of excellent undergraduates in the
elementary and secondary level. The Department of Education pronounces the addition of two more
years in the basic education of students, which according to them will benefit not only the Filipino
youth but all the Filipino in the Philippines. The administration asserts that with the implementation of
such program, the problem of unemployment in the country will be resolved. In as much as
employment in the Philippines is concerned, the K12 education also responds to the fact that most
countries in the world already have the same plan in their educational institutions. With this, the
standards of these countries go a notch higher than what the country has, thus, creating an
expansion in the global competency. We need to add two years to our basic education.
Those who can afford pay up to fourteen years of schooling before university. Thus, their children
are getting into the best universities and the best jobs after graduation. I want at least 12 years for
our public school children to give them an even chance at succeeding. (Aquino III, 2011) K12
educational systems are additional years to secondary level. This research contains some
information about curriculum of K12. This means that the present four years in high school will be
called Junior High School and additional two years as senior High School. The model, which is being
proposed, is K-6-4-2 where K means Kindergarten (5 years old), 6 means six years in elementary (6
to 11 years old), 4 means four years in Junior High School (12 to 15 years old) and 2 means two
years in Senior High School (16 to 17 years old. Kindergarten will start in school year 2011 2012.
The new and enhanced curriculum in Grade 1 and first year high school will start in school year 2012
The first year senior high school or the eleventh year will begin in school year 2016 2017. The first
graduates of the 12- year curriculum will be in 2018. Enhancing the quality of basic education in the

Philippines is urgent and critical. The poor quality of basic education is reflected in the low
achievement scores of Filipino students. One reason is that students do not get adequate
instructional time or task. Our children deserve to receive the best education our country can provide
for them and our economy depends on an educated and skilled workforce to be successful in the
global market.
This study focuses only on the perception of the parents students affected by the K-12 program
since it has been implemented this year the study will only focus on what the parents think and how
it will affect them. It will also focus on the circumstances that will put one in favorable position, and
those circumstances that will put one in unfavorable position. The study will only ask the parents
about K-6-4-2 and not go beyond asking them if theyll still let their children continue to study or not.
This research utilizes the descriptive method since the researcher aims to discuss and to know the
perception of parents regarding to the additional years of basic education. The main goal of this type
of research is to describe the data and characteristic what is being studied. The idea behind this type
of research is to study frequencies, averages, and other statistical calculations. Although this
research is highly accurate, it does not gather the causes behind a situation. Descriptive research is
mainly done when a researcher wants to gain a better understanding of a topic. Interview, books and
newspaper were researchers major instrument in gathering information and were augmented with
other data collected through readings
What are the advantages and disadvantages of the K-12 program or the additional 2 years to Basic


To Individuals and Families; (1) An enhanced curriculum will decongest academic workload, giving
students more time to master competencies and skills as well as time for other learning opportunities
beyond the classroom, thus allowing for a more holistic development. (2) Graduates will possess
competencies and skills relevant to the job market. The K+12 proposals will be designed to adjust
and meet the fast-changing demands of society to prepare graduates with skills essential for the
world. (3) Graduates will be prepared for higher education. Due to an enhanced curriculum that will
provide relevant content and attuned with the changing needs of the times, basic education will
ensure sufficient mastery of core subjects to its graduates such that graduates may opt to pursue
higher education if they choose to. (4) Graduates will be able to earn higher wages and/or better
prepared to start their own business.
There is a strong correlation between educational attainment and wage structure and studies
specific to the Philippine setting show that an additional year of schooling increases earnings by
7.5%. This should also allow greater access to higher education for self-supporting students.
(5)Graduates could now be recognized abroad. Filipino graduates, e.g. engineers, architects,

doctors, etc., could now be recognized as professionals in other countries. Those who intend to
study abroad will meet the entrance requirements of foreign schools. For the Society and the
Economy; (1) the economy will experience accelerated growth in the long run. The objective of the
K+12 programs is to improve quality of basic education. Several studies have shown that the
improvements in the quality of education will increase GDP growth by as much as 2%.
Studies in the UK, India and US show that additional years of schooling also have positive overall
impact on society. (2) The Philippine education system will be at par with international standards.
K+12 will facilitate mutual recognition of Filipino graduates and professionals following the
Washington Accord and the Bologna Accord. (3) A better educated society provides a sound
foundation for long-term socioeconomic development. The Enhanced K+12 Basic Education system
will contribute to the development of emotionally and intellectually mature individuals capable of









(1)Parents have to shell out more money (for transportation and food) for education of their children.
(2) The government does not have the money to pay for two more years of free education, since it
does not even have the money to fully support todays ten years. DepEd must first solve the lack of
classroom, furniture and equipment, qualified teachers, and error- free textbooks. (3) Filipinos right
now are accepted in prestigious graduate schools in the world, even with only ten years of basic
education. (4) As far as the curriculum is concerned, DepEd should fix the current subjects instead of
adding new ones.
The problem is the content, not the length, of basic education. As an editorial put it, we need to have
better education, not more education. (5) A high School diploma will not get anybody anywhere,
because business firms will not hire fresh high school graduates. (6) Every family dreams of having
a child graduate from college. (7) While students are stuck in Grade 11 and 12, colleges and
universities will have no freshmen for two years. This will spell financial disaster for many private
Higher Education Institutions (HEIs). (8) The drop-out rate will increase because of the two extra
years. Will the parents agree or disagree to the K- 12 program?
The additional two years in basic education may not be the only answer to the quality of the
educational system. Quality may also depend on the curriculum, the quality of educators and the
facilities provided for by the school campuses. With the continuing increase in school tuition, the
upgrade on quality education should have already been included. The additional two years will only
be to the advantage of the schools and will only make education a more lucrative business. The
question remains. Will the new system assure graduates of employment after graduation? If not, the
DepEd should instead enhance what we already have and not add to the burden of education. K-12
will give more job opportunities to high school graduates.

It will make more globally competitive Filipino students and it will maximize their time on choosing
their career base on their ability. I agree in K+12 it is because that students will have more time to
choose the right course that best suits in their skills and they will be more capable and matured to
confront college career, which is a new special field endeavor. It depends on the value of education,
not on the duration. Why not give more support and develop the schools and students potentials? I
think it is more effective to attain the excellent literacy of every Filipino youth. This is part of
President Benigno NoyNoy Aquino IIIs Educational Reform Program.
The P-Noy Administration believes that adding more years to basic education in the Philippines
could help solve the problem of unemployment, keep up with global standards, and help Filipino
students to have more time to choose the career that best suits their skills. Its a given fact that the
Aquino administration has good intentions in implementing this K-12 plan. But no matter how good
these intentions are, there would still be parts of the society who would give them a hard time
making this education amendment. Sadly, the Philippine education system is far behind other
countries. If this K-12 plan would push through, help the concerned parties have that optimism that
this would bring our education system a few notches higher. Make everybody realize that yes, we do
have quality education here and we are able to produce skillful, well-rounded, and competent young
According to the study, the following conclusions are proven; (1) The parents of the students that are
involved in the study said that the implementation of the K12 program that it is a must, because the
primary objective of the program is to improve the quality of education so that, when the students
finished the basic education they will be more productive. (2) The most important contribution of the
program to the students is to improve their abilities, and revolutionized the Philippines in terms of
educational attainment. RECOMMENDATIONS
After drawing the conclusion, the researcher suggests; (1) there should be a researcher having the
comparison between the curriculum with K+12 rule and the other traditional 6 years in Elementary 4
years in High School. (2) After some time -2018 to be exact- A researcher conducts a study the
effectiveness of the program.
Seamo-Innotech (2010, August 25). Additional Years in Philippine Basic Education:Rationale and
Legal Bases. Deapartment of Education, 7(2), 79-80. WEBPAGE

Philippines K-12 Reforms Poised to

Transform Higher Education System
Published: June 7, 2016

Ashley Craddock, Editor

This month, a wave of Filipino teens will become the first students required to complete
grades 11 and 12. As such, they are at the leading age of a major education reform
effort that will bring the Philippines primary and secondary education systems into
alignment with international norms. While aimed at the K-12 sector, the reforms are
expected to dramatically affect the nations higher education system and potentially
Filipino students international mobility as well.

RELATED: Education in the Philippines Practical Information

Between the Kindergarten Act of 2012 and the Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013,
both elementary and high school systems in the Philippines have undergone an
ambitious overhaul in recent years. Together, the two laws extend formal education
from just 10 years to 13, adding a mandatory year of kindergarten to the elementary
curriculum, and extending high school through 12th grade. (Until 2011, kindergarten
was optional, and just six years of primary education were compulsory.)

Popular Reaction

While the government hopes that the changes to the K-12 education system will leave
its students better equipped for employment and further study, the effort has been
widely critiqued by Filipino students, parents, teachers, and others. Fear of financial
hardship is at the heart of many the concerns. Some parents, for instance, oppose the
reforms because the cost of keeping children in school and out of the workforce for two
additional years will be a financial strain. The Philippine Supreme Court received at
least six petitions seeking to block or delay the reforms. One petition argued that more
than 70,000 staff at colleges would lose their jobs as a result of the changes. Others
point to inadequate staffing levels and classroom space, insufficient attention to the
curriculum, and even to school buildings that lack electricity and a water supply. The
Court has rejected these arguments, however, and in March 2016 refused to issue a
restraining order or writ of preliminary injunction.
by Rachel Michael, Area Specialist

Chain Reaction
Changes to the education system are intended to better equip students for employment
and further study, both at home and abroad. However, one consequence is the major
and ongoing ripple effect they will have on colleges and universities. In particular, the
reforms will spark a precipitous decline in higher education enrollments during the
2019/20 and 2020/21 school years, as the cohort of students who would typically enroll
show up on campus instead continue on in senior high school. Despite the fact that
numbers should recover the following year, the prospect has created widespread
concern among university faculty, who, last year emerged as leading voices of
opposition, said The New York Times. Many are concerned that moving classes for 17and 18-year-olds from universities to high schools will result in the firing of at least
25,000 university employees, the paper noted. (The government argues that this
lower figure, not the higher one cited in widely circulated petitions protesting the
reforms, is correct.)

Will Parents Gain from the

Philippines Shift to the K-12 System?

Critics have always looked on to parents as the primary victims of the K-12
education system. Given the additional two years in high school, they insist
that this program will bring no good and only additional financial burden for
poor Filipino families.
Do you agree with this remark? Do you also worry about the costs of the new
education system of your child? Forget all your economic troubles and take
time to know K-12 fully.
Benefits to Enjoy
Twelve years of basic education is an international standard. With the new K12 program, Filipino students are at the same league with the rest of the

Below are some of the rewards parents can get from the K-12 scheme:

K-12 program in public school is affordable.

Due to subsidies given by the government, the new program offers primary
and secondary education in public schools at no cost. In private schools,
DepEd approves and regulates tuition and other school fees.

K-12 offers a learner-centered curriculum.

With a student-centered curriculum, students will take a more active role in the
learning process. They can choose what they will learn, how they will learn,
and how they will evaluate their own learning. In senior high school, students
can select the field they want to master. In addition, teachers can use the
students mother tongue as a medium of instruction during the early years of
their primary education (from Kinder to Grade 3). Not only will this make
learning enjoyable and easy for students; it will also help address parents and
families diverse needs, especially those with special cases and others that
come from indigenous groups.

K-12 fosters gainful employment and entrepreneurship.

Unlike the previous education system where parents need to wait until their
children graduate from college or are 18 years old to work, the additional two
years in the K-12 program will prepare students for both employment and
entrepreneurship. Graduates of the new system can instantly get a job after
getting certificates and passing TESDAs competency-based assessment.
They may likewise choose to set up their own business or continue further

education in college. All these options will help make every child competent,
skilled, and highly employable.
Clearly, the new K-12 system in the Philippines is not just about a stretched
curriculum and an additional financial stress on the parents. It targets and
enhances childrens progress and future, too.

K to 12: The effect on teachers

Grace Melanie I. Lacamiento (The Freeman) - June 27, 2014 - 12:00am
CEBU, Philippines - When the K to 12 program was first brought up, those who opposed
it raised concerns on the additional burden to parents and students. However, now that
K to 12 is in the initial stages of implementation, another issue has cropped up
its effect on teachers.
The transition from the 10-year Basic Education program to the 12 years of the K to 12
program is also critical to teachers as these professionals will also need to upgrade their
skills so they will not be left behind when the program is fully implemented come 2016.
For schools to be able to shift to the K to 12 program, administrators have to make
adjustments to the movement of faculty, as well as resources.
Understanding K to 12
Republic Act No. 10533, also known as the Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013, first
discussed in October 5, 2010, was signed into law in May 15, 2013 and took effect June
8 last year.
The K to 12 program covers Kindergarten and 12 years of basic education six years
of primary education, four years of Junior High School and two years of Senior High
School to provide sufficient time for mastery of concepts and skills, develop lifelong
learners, and prepare graduates for tertiary education, middle-level skills development,
employment and entrepreneurship.
The Senior High School level comprises two years of specialized upper secondary
education wherein students may choose a specialization based on aptitude, interests,
and school capacity.
Once they reach senior high, students are made to choose among four tracks such as
academic, technical-vocational-livelihood, sports, and arts and design.
Students who finish Grade 10 obtain Certificates of Competency or a National Certificate
Level I (NC I). Those who finish a Technical-Vocational-Livelihood track in Grade 12 may

obtain a National Certificate Level II (NC II) if they pass the competence-based
assessment of TESDA.
Coping with the shift
Local stakeholders foresee that with the K to 12 educational system in full swing two
years from now, there will be 1.1 million and 400,000 junior high school students from
the public and private schools, respectively.
However, this would mean that there will be no college freshmen for school year (SY)
2016-2017 and SY 2017-2018, and no second year college enrolees for SY 2017-2018
and SY 2018-2019.While there will already be college freshmen in 2018, there will be no
third year college students for SY 2018-2019 and SY 2019-2020, and no fourth year
college enrolees for SY 2019-2020 and SY 2020-2021.
The flow of students in the four years of tertiary education is seen to be normalized
come 2021 but there will be no college graduates for SY 2021-2022.
The absence of students in some college levels for the next five academic years is the
reason why school administrators raised certain concerns, such as the effect on the
number and employability of faculty members in the tertiary or college level.
University of San Carlos Vice President for Academic Affairs Fr. Anthony Salas, SVD. MM,
said that managing the impact of the educational reform on the faculty would be the
biggest challenge for colleges and universities, pointing out that the employment of the
faculty personnel is directly related to the academic programs being offered.
The General Education Curriculum in the college level will be revised and may lead to
fewer units with the removal of unnecessary remediation since K to 12 graduates have
undertaken the basic education curriculum required in College Readiness Standards.
With the new system, the tertiary level will now comprise of a year of General Education
subjects and at least two years of major subjects.
Salas said that they are already looking at those degree programs that will not survive
and should be closed years from now.
These programs, he added, are those that only have few enrollees such as the Bachelor
of Science in Mathematics and Bachelor of Science in Physics that only have 50
students for the four year levels but only produce around five graduates.
But we have to offer them because the country needs professionals from these
programs, he said.
He said that they have yet to set criteria for assessing the academic programs that they
would continue to offer in accordance to fulfilling the vision and mission of the
He, however, said that the possibility that some academic programs will be closed may
lead to another possibility that the school shall offer new ones.

For instance, if we talk about library studies. We do not only study books but also
focus on archiving with the use of computer database. By then, it becomes attuned with
the needs of the market, he said.
USC has around 400 part-time and full-time faculty members for the tertiary education.
Most of its part-time instructors are teaching general education courses such as English,
Filipino and Mathematics.
The Department of Education said that more teachers are being hired to fill the
necessary gaps in schools for the SY 2016-2017 onwards for basic education.
University of San Jose Recoletos Vice President for Religious Affairs Rev. Fr.
Emmanuel Bolilia, OAR, said that the university is not thinking of the possible
retrenchment of some of their faculty but since basic education will need to hire more
teachers to handle the senior high program, they are thinking of letting some of their
college instructors teach in secondary education.
He added that the university may even hire more teachers for the senior high program
since there are some faculty members who are retiring in 2016 and 2017. He said they
are working hard on mitigating the effects of the K to 12 transition on the
universitys employees.
Our first concentration would be on our faculty. We believe in our workforce, he
said, adding that the Catholic community-oriented educational institution that USJ-R has been known of would
prioritize creating a working environment that would be beneficial to all.
For colleges that will have no freshmen enrollees for the academic years 2016-2017 and
2017-2018, USJ-R is planning on assigning Grade 11 to 12 subjects to qualified
professors from the college level.
USJ-R will devote the whole SY 2014-2015 for the preparation of the school for the K to
12 transition while the entire SY 2015-2016 will be intended to simulate themselves on
how they will operate come 2016.
Teachers who are qualified to teach in specialized subjects in the elementary and
secondary education under the K to 12 are those who graduated in science,
mathematics, statistics, engineering, music and other degree courses and are passers
of the Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET).
If universities have to hire non-LET passers because of a shortage in applicants, those
hired must take and pass the LET within five years after their date of hiring. Part-time
instructors are not required to have a LET license.
For the specialized subjects in the secondary education, technical-vocational teachers
should be graduates of technical-vocational courses and should possess the necessary
certification from TESDA. They should also undergo training from DepEd or a Higher
Education Institution (HEI).
Those faculty from HEIs will be allowed to teach in the general education or subject
specialties in the secondary education given that they must be a holder of a relevant
Bachelors degree and must have satisfactorily served as a full-time HEI faculty.

The DepEd and private education institutions may also hire practitioners who have
expertise in the specialized learning areas offered by the Basic Education Curriculum to
teach in the secondary level, provided that they teach on a part-time basis only.
USC basic education department director Fr. Felino Javines Jr., SVD, DM also said with
the available laboratories and facilities USC has, the tertiary education can shoulder a
segment of the senior high program.
He said that the university shall encourage its faculty members in the basic education
to pursue further studies and earn national certificates from TESDA to be qualified in the
senior high program.
He added that teachers need to prepare themselves to handle both skills-based and
academic subjects since the K to 12 transition shall actually entail a competition among
qualified teachers who are competent to handle the basic and tertiary education.
USC already started retooling their faculty personnel since 2011. Its basic education
department has around 400 teachers.
We call it succession planning. Our teachers are lined up for training and further
studies so in time, they will be ready to deliver, Javines said.
After the retooling stage, he said that they will identify the respective faculty members
to be assigned in the different areas of the enhanced basic education program.
While college administrators are concerned more on how many will remain and how
many will go, he said that the basic education administrators primarily focus on how
many students they can handle and how many programs they can accommodate in the
senior high program.
By law, the schools are obliged to find alternative measures for its full-time and tenured
faculty members, unlike with their part-time instructors.
For those faculty members who will not qualify, the school may opt not to renew their
contract with probationary and part-time instructors.
Salas said that there would also come a time when they will not hire part-time teachers
anymore while some full-time instructors will be transferred to basic education.
The programs that will survive will now be critical to the faculty that will run the
program, he added.
Once they have identified the academic programs that would be continued to offer, he
said that USC shall identify who are the instructors to be retained, to be retooled and to
be offered with early retirement.
While for the tenured faculty, the school may re-classify them to administrative or
academic support positions, assign faculty to do research for two years, payroll
employment for two years, put them in floating status that would last usually for six

Otherwise, the school can have them on sabbatical leave wherein they can work
elsewhere for two years.
As much as they would want to retain all of their college teachers, Salas said that they
still have to evaluate them if they pass on the qualifications required by the Commission
on Higher Education.
He added that since there will be fewer students enrolling in the tertiary education,
those faculty members who want to stay in the university should be able to do research
for the university.
USC has 280 of its college faculty doing research, to which they allot a budget of
P80,000 for research per instructor.
While Salas still cannot estimate how many teachers will be retained in the tertiary
education, he was sure that those who will stay shall have additional workload.
By January next year, USC shall begin to assess the preparedness of its teachers for the
K to 12 program and will start the retooling stage by June 2015.
Earlier, USC has been in the papers for reportedly terminating the services of all its
employees in the General Services Office. Fifteen of those who were let go staged a
strike last May 20.
He admitted that the closure of the said office is considered as a cost-cutting measure
of the school in implementing the K to 12 program.
What happened was we had more support staff than our faculty members. It is
inefficient. We have to save since we dont want not having any reserves in time
when we will not have any freshmen enrollees in 2016 to 2017, he said.
For now, the university avails of on-call services from support-related establishments.
Salas further clarified that USC shall continue looking for qualified teachers and keep
their existing faculty members as of now amid the projected freeze hiring come 2016.
It would be very delimiting for a university to stop hiring since we still have to look
for the best. For now, universities will continue to hire because it will be at their stake
not to hire those who are really qualified, he said.
Meanwhile, USC has created a roadmap on how to manage the impact of K to 12
specifically on the management of its existing resources.
Salas admitted that while USC stands for its moral commitment to its faculty, the
university could not assure that all of their current faculty will still be on board by 2016.
Definitely, we have to bite the bullet. Lets admit it. There will be teachers who
will be displaced especially for those who have been in their comfort zone for a long
time, he said. /QSB (FREEMAN)