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Agenda

Evolution
Functionality
Key interfaces
Interconnectivity

Evolution

Network Architecture Evolution


HSPA
(3GPP R6)

HSPA
(3GPP R7)

I-HSPA
(3GPP R7)

LTE
(3GPP R8)

Standard
HSPA
Terminals
Node B

RNC

Node B

RNC

SGSN

SGSN

GGSN

GGSN

Node B with
RNC functions

eNodeB

Access
Transport
Network
SGSN

MME

Control Path

Data Path

GGSN

SAE-GW

EPS Network Architecture


Home
Subscriber
Server

eNB

Mobility
Management
Entity

E-UTRAN
S6a

EPC
Policy & Charging
Rule Function

S10

Other
eNB

Rx+

S7

S1-MME
X2
S11
S5/S8

SGi

Server
s PDNs

S1-U

LTE-Uu

Serving
Gateway

LTE-UE

eNode B

SAE Gateway
CP+UP
CP
UP

PDN
Gateway

Evolved Node B (eNB)


LTE-Uu
LTE-UE

cell

Evolved
Node B

Functions for Radio Resource Management: Radio Bearer Control, Radio Admission Control, Connection
Mobility Control, Dynamic allocation of resources to UEs in both uplink and downlink (scheduling)
IP header compression and encryption of user data stream;
Routing of User Plane data towards Serving Gateway

Scheduling and transmission of paging messages (originated from the MME)


Scheduling and transmission of broadcast information (originated from the MME or O&M)
Measurement and measurement reporting configuration for mobility and scheduling
Scheduling and transmission of messages (originated from the MME)
Performs all Radio Resource Management functionality
An eNB can handle several cells

Mobility Management Entity (MME)


Pure Signaling Entity inside EPC
Inter CN node signaling for mobility between 3GPP access networks
Handles attach and Detach to the SAE system as well as Tracking Area
update
PDN GW and Serving GW selection
Roaming
Bearer management functions including dedicated bearer establishment

It generates and allocates temporary IDs for UEs

AS Security control
Tracking Area list management (for UE in idle and active mode)
Idle UE reachability
Support for message transmission

S10

S6a
S1-MME

MMEs can be interconnected via the S10 interface

S11
eNode B

S1-U

Serving Gateway (SGW)


Manages the user data path with in EPC
Connects via S1 interface towards eNB
Packet routing and forwarding
Connects the P-GW with S5/S8 interface
A serving gateway is controlled by one or more MMEs via S11 interface
S11

Transport level packet marking in the uplink and the downlink


E-UTRAN idle mode downlink packet buffering and initiation of network
triggered service request procedure
Mobility anchoring for inter-3GPP mobility

The local Mobility Anchor point for inter-eNB handover


UL and DL charging per UE, PDN, and QCI
Accounting on user and QCI granularity for inter-operator charging

S1-U

eNode B

S5/S8

Packet Data Network (PDN) Gateway


Provides the connection between EPC and a number of external
data networks
UE IP address allocation
QoS coordination between the external PDN and EPC
S7

Rx+

connected via S7 to a PCRF


Transport level packet marking in the uplink and the downlink
S5/S8

UE IP address allocation
Per-user based packet filtering (by e.g. deep packet inspection)
UL and DL service level charging and rate enforcement

UL and DL service level gating control


DL rate enforcement based on APN-AMBR

Lawful Interception
DHCP functions

SGi
PDNs

10

Policy Control and Charging Rule Function (PCRF)


Quality of Service (QoS) coordination between the external PDN and
EPC

PCRF is connected via Rx+ interface to the external Data network


(PDN)
S7

Check and modify the QoS associated with a SAE bearer setup from
SAE or to request the setup of a SAE bearer from the PDN

S5/S8

Rx+

SGi
PDNs

Enforces minimum Qos Parameters for packet based on their QoS


Parameters

Charging Policy: Determines how packet should be accounted

11

Home Subscriber Server (HSS)

Similar to HLR in 2G/3G Network

With LTE/EPS the HSS will get additionally data per subscriber
for mobility and service handling

The HSS can be accessed by the MME via S6a interface

S10

S6a
S1-MME

eNode B

S1-U

S11

Roaming Architecture

13

Roaming architecture with Home Routed Traffic


HSS

PCRF
Rx

Gx

PDN
Gateway

S6a

HPLMN
VPLMN

UTRAN

SGSN

GERAN
S12

S3

S8

MME
S1-MME

S4
S10
S11

E-UTRAN

UE
LTE Uu

S1-U

Serving
Gateway

SGi

Operators IP
services (e.g.
IMS, PSS etc)

14

Roaming architecture for Local Breakout


HSS

H-PCRF

S6a

HPLMN
VPLMN

S9

UTRAN

SGSN

GERAN
S12

S3

MME
S1-MME

V-PCRF
S4
Gx

S10
S11

E-UTRAN

UE
LTE Uu

S1-U

Serving
Gateway

S5

Rx
SGi

PDN
Gateway

Visited
Operators
PDN

EPS Network Interfaces and


Functionalities

16

EPS Interfaces
Iu-PS

UTRAN

SGSN

Gn

GGSN

EPC

S3

eNB

Gi

S4

E-UTRAN
S6a

Other
eNB

Rx+

S7

S10

S1-MME
X2
S11

S5/S8
LTE-Uu

LTE-UE

CP+UP

S1-U

CP

PDNs

SAE Gateway

eNode B

UP

SGi

17

EUTRAN and EPC - S1 Flex

eNB 1

eNB 1 Single S1-MME and Single S1-U

eNB 2

eNB 2 Single S1-MME and Multiple S1-US1Flex-U


eNB 3 Multiple S1-MMES1Flex MME and Single S1-U
eNB 3

S1 MME
S1 U

Multiple S1-MMES1Flex MME


Multiple S1-US1Flex-U

18

LTE-Uu Interface

Uu

LTE-Uu
User Plane

Control Plane

Applications

NAS

IP

RRC
PDCP
RLC
MAC
PHY

Air interface of E-UTRAN


Based on OFDMA in downlink and SC-FDMA in
uplink
FDD and TDD duplex methods
Scalable Bandwidth : from 1.4 up to 20 MHz
Data Rates up to 100 Mbps(DL), 50 Mbps (UL)

19

X2 Interface
X2 Interface

X2

Control
Plane

eNodeB-1

X2

Inter eNB interface

User Plane

User PDUs

X2-AP

GTP-U

SCTP

UDP

IP

IP

L2

L2

L1

L1

eNodeB-2

Intra LTE-Access-System Mobility


Support for UE in LTE_ACTIVE:
- Context transfer from source eNB
to target eNB;
- Control of user plane tunnels
between source eNB and target
eNB;
- Handover
The control plane of the X2(X2-CP)
interface allows signalling between eNB
The user plane of the X2(X2-UP)
interface allows the transfer of
application data between eNB

S1 Interface
S1-AP

S1-AP

SCTP

SCTP

IP

IP

L2

L2

L1

L1
S1-MME

eNodeB

eNodeB

GTP

GTP-U

UDP

UDP

IP

IP

L2

L2

L1

L1

S1-U

20

The S1 interface connects an eNodeB to the Evolved Packet


Core (EPC). This allows both signalling and data to be
transferred between EPC and E-UTRAN.

S1-MME
The control plane of the S1 (S1-MME) interface allows
signalling with the MME.
MME and UE will exchange non-access stratum signaling
via eNB through this interface
e.g.: if a UE performance a tracking area update the
TRACKING AREA UPDATE REQUEST message will be sent
from UE to eNB and the eNB will forward the message via
S1-MME to the MME.
S1AP: S1 Application Protocol
S1-U
The user plane of the S1 (S1-UP) interface allows application
data transfer through the Serving Gateway.
It is a pure user data interface.
GTP-U is the application protocol that tunnels the user data
between eNB and SGW.
Which serving GW a users SAE bearer will have to use is
signaled from MME to this User

S6a Interface

21

S6a Interface
GTP-C

Diameter

UDP

TCP/SCTP

IP

IP

L2

L2

L1

L1

Interface between MME and HSS.

It enables transfer of subscription and


authentication data for
authenticating/authorizing user access to the
evolved system between MME and HSS.

The HSS can during these procedures also


S6a

store the users current MME address in its


database.

S5/S8 Interface
Control
plane

22

User
plane
User PDUs

TS 29.274

GTP-C

GTP-U
UDP

IP

TS 29.281
SGi

PDNs

L2
L1

S5 Interface
The S5 interface connects the Serving Gateway to the
Packet Data Network (PDN) Gateway.
Both control plane signalling and user plane data use
the S5 interface.
The PDN Gateway provides connectivity to the set of
IP services so the S5 represents the main connection
for application data across the Evolved Packet Core
S5 is used If Serving GW and PDN GW belong to the
same network (non-roaming case)

S8 Interface
The S8 interface is similar to the S5
interface but it terminates at a PDN
Gateway belonging to a different PLMN.
This interface is used by end-users who are
roaming away from their home PLMN

23

S10 and S11 Interface


GTP-C

GTP-C

GTP-C

GTP-C

UDP

UDP

UDP

UDP

IP

IP

IP

IP

L2

L2

L2

L2

L1

L1

L1

L1

S10

S10 Interface
Interface between MME and other MME
Reference point between MMEs for MME relocation (e.g handover) and
MME to MME information transfer.
Used during inter-MME tracking area updates
S10 is a pure signaling interface, no user data runs on it.

S11

S11 Interface
This is the interface between the MME and S-GW.
This allows signalling information for mobility and bearer
management to be transferred.
Application data does not use the S11 interface
A single MME can handle multiple Serving GW each one with
its own S11 interface

24

Rx and SGi Interface


Rx
(Control Plane)

Rx
Interface between PCRF(Policy & Charging
Rules Function) and the external PDN
network/operators IMS Standardized in
3GPP TS 29.214

RX Application

Diameter
SCTP
IP

L1/L2

SGi
PDNs

SGi
(User Plane)
Application
UDP or TCP
IPV4/IPV6
L1/L2

Interface used by the PDN GW to send

and receive data to and from the


external data network
It is either IPv4 or IPv6 based
This interface corresponds to the Gi
interface in 2G/3G networks.
Standardized in 3GPP TS29.061:
Interworking between the PLMN
supporting packet based service and
PDN

Other LTE Interfaces

S3
It is the interface between SGSN and MME
Enables user and bearer information exchange for inter 3GPP access network mobility in idle and/or active state
based on Gn reference point as defined between SGSNs
S4
It provides the user plane with related control and mobility support between SGSN and the SGW
Based on Gn reference point as defined between SGSN and GGSN
S7
It provides transfer of (QoS) policy and charging rules from Policy and Charging Rules Function (PCRF) to Policy and Charging
Enforcement Function (PCEF) in the PDN GW
S9
Interface between HPCRF and VPCRF is used in roaming cases
It is used in VPLMN for the enforcement of Dynamic control policies from the HPLMN
S12
Direct Tunnel from the serving Gateway to RNC
S12 is the user plane Interface used for Tunneling user data directly between the S-GW and UTRAN
This Would allow to forward packet data from 3G RAN to the serving Gateway to the PDN Gateway
S2
Provides the connectivity to non 3GPP access network(WLAN, WiMAX, 3GPP2)
SGs
Provides the connectivity between MME and MSS

25

Interconnectivity

LTE/EPS With 2G/3G

27

LTE/EPS With Non-3GPP

S2 interface provides connectivity to a


non-3GPP access network (e.g. WLAN,
WiMAX, 3gpp2, Fixed,)

28

Summary

Evolution
Functionality
Key interfaces
Interconnectivity

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www.mcpsinc.com
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