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SOLUTION PAPER #1

Q1 :
Management is the process of reaching organizational goals by working with and through people and
other organizational resources.
Management has the following 3 characteristics:
1. It is a process or series of continuing and related activities.
2. It involves and concentrates on reaching organizational goals.
3. It reaches these goals by working with and through people and other organizational resources.
MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS:
The 4 basic management functions that make up the management process are described in the following
sections:
1.
2.
3.
4.

PLANNING
ORGANIZING
INFLUENCING
CONTROLLING.

PLANNING: Planning involves choosing tasks that must be performed to attain organizational goals,
outlining how the tasks must be performed, and indicating when they should be performed.
Planning activity focuses on attaining goals. Managers outline exactly what organizations should do to be
successful. Planning is concerned with the success of the organization in the short term as well as in the
long term.
ORGANIZING:
Organizing can be thought of as assigning the tasks developed in the planning stages, to various
individuals or groups within the organization. Organizing is to create a mechanism to put plans into
action.
People within the organization are given work assignments that contribute to the companys goals. Tasks
are organized so that the output of each individual contributes to the success of departments, which, in
turn, contributes to the success of divisions, which ultimately contributes to the success of the
organization.
INFLUENCING:
Influencing is also referred to as motivating,leading or directing.Influencing can be defined as guiding the
activities of organization members in he direction that helps the organization move towards the
fulfillment of the goals.

The purpose of influencing is to increase productivity. Human-oriented work situations usually generate
higher levels of production over the long term than do task oriented work situations because people find
the latter type distasteful.
CONTROLLING:
Controlling is the following roles played by the manager:
1. Gather information that measures performance
2. Compare present performance to pre established performance norms.
3. Determine the next action plan and modifications for meeting the desired performance
parameters.
Controlling is an ongoing process.

Q2:
Environmental factors.
There are events or situations that occur that affect the way a business operates, in a positive or
negative way. These events or situations can have either a positive or a negative impact on a
business and are called environmental factors.
There are two types of environmental factors: internal environmental factors and external
environmental factors.
Internal environmental factors are events that occur within an organization. Generally speaking,
internal environmental factors are easier to control than external environmental factors. Some
examples of internal environmental factors are:

Management changes
Employee morale
Culture changes
Financial changes and/or issues

External environmental factors are events that take place outside of the organization and are
harder to predict and control. External environmental factors can be more dangerous for an
organization given the fact they are unpredictable, hard to prepare for, and often bewildering.
Some examples of external environmental factors are:

Changes to the economy


Threats from competition
Political factors
Government regulations
The industry itself

Q3:
A basic management function involving formulation of one or more detailed plans to achieve
optimum balance of needs or demands with the available resources. The planning process (1)
identifies the goals or objectives to be achieved, (2) formulates strategies to achieve them, (3)
arranges or creates the means required, and (4) implements, directs, and monitors all steps in
their proper sequence.
The process of planning includes the determination of objectives and outlining the future actions
that are needed to achieve these objectives. Various steps that are followed in the process of
planning are:
(i) Identifying the problem: It involves the identification of the aim for the fulfillment of which
the plan is being formulated. If a new plan is require or the modification of an existing plan
could help in achieving these aims.
(ii) Gathering information about the activities involve: An effective plan needs complete
knowledge of the activities involved and their effect on other external and internal activities.
(iii) Analysis of information: This information is then analysed minutely and the information
related with similar subjects is classified so that similar type of data can be kept together.
(iv) Determining alternate plans: There are alternate plans available for the achievement of the
objectives and ingenuity and creativeness are required as some plans are also developed at this
stage.
(v) Selecting the plan: At this stage the plan which is acceptable to the operating personnel is
proposed. The adaptability and the cost of the plan are also taken into consideration.
(vi) Detailed sequence and timing: Detailed like who will perform which activity under the plan
and the time within which the plan should be carried out is determining in this step.
(vii) Progress check of the plan: The provisions are made for the follow up of the plan as the
success of any plan can be measured by the results only.
Q4:
A social unit of people that is structured and managed to meet a need or to pursue collective
goals. All organizations have a management structure that determines relationships between the
different activities and the members, and subdivides and assigns roles, responsibilities, and
authority to carry out different tasks. Organizations are open systems--they affect and are
affected by their environment.

Factors That Affect an Organization


Some of the forces impacting your small business are more challenging to master than others.
The degree to which you can control them varies. At the same time, you can improve the state of
internal and external factors effecting your small business; you can't make the economy grow,
but you can encourage spending. Understanding the factors at work better equips you to prepare
for them.

Internal Communication
The culture of your organization is built on internal communication; this includes interpersonal
relationships, training materials, newsletters, philosophical statements and policies. Your
employees are happier when they are courteous and respectful of one another

Structure
Structure is an internal factor that impacts your company's day-to-day operations. You might sort
your company by departments and teams, or you might structure it so that employees work with
outside contractors. The structure impacts the number of employees you hire, the levels of
hierarchy, the extent of employee and department collaboration and the roles of your employees.
If you choose a structure based on contractual work, for example, you will save money on
employees but have less control over the end product.

Economics
The economy is an external factor that effects the success of your business. The ability of your
clients to pay directly impacts your bottom line, regardless of whether you sell a product or
service. You can offer sales and promotions, and you can tout the value of your company's
offerings, but during rough financial times your clients might prefer to allocate their resources
elsewhere your product line minimizes this challenge.

External Communications
The way your company interacts with customers and its public audience impacts your company's
image. If you alienate your external audience, you risk losing your source of income. Ensure
tactful communication strategies to promote a positive impression. Effective advertisements
speak to the intended audience. Customers expect to be treated with courtesy by you and your
employees.

Q5:

MASLOW THEORY OFMOTIVATION


The order of needs in Maslow's hierarchy, in order from most essential and basic to the
most complex, are physiological needs, followed by security needs for safety, then social needs
such as love and belonging. The hierarchy progresses on to needs related to esteem and
recognition, and, finally, self-actualization. According to Maslow, each preceding need has to be
met in order to reach self-actualization, which is a state in which a holistically healthy person is
able to realize his or her full potential.
Maslow first outlined his motivational theory in his 1943 paper, "A Theory of Human
Motivation," and a subsequent book, "Motivation and Personality."
Maslow's research and theories represent a shift in the field of psychology. Instead of focusing
on abnormalities, Maslow's humanistic psychology concerns normal development of average
humans.
Maslow's theory of motivation assumes that humans are perpetually wanting. As soon as a
person achieves goals, he or she is motivated to reach other levels of need.

ERG Theory of Motivation


To bring Maslows need hierarchy theory of motivation in synchronization with empirical
research, Clayton Alderfer redefined it in his own terms. His rework is called as ERG theory of
motivation. He recategorized Maslows hierarchy of needs into three simpler and broader classes
of needs:

Existence needs- These include need for basic material necessities. In short, it includes
an individuals physiological and physical safety needs.
Relatedness needs- These include the aspiration individuals have for maintaining
significant interpersonal relationships (be it with family, peers or superiors), getting
public fame and recognition. Maslows social needs and external component of esteem
needs fall under this class of need.
Growth needs- These include need for self-development and personal growth and
advancement. Maslows self-actualization needs and intrinsic component of esteem needs
fall under this category of need.

Q6:
Controlling. It involves comparing actual performance to expected performance.

Controlling as a Process
The controlling process involves:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Establishing standards to measure performance


Measuring actual performance
Comparing performance with the standard
Taking corrective action

Controlling Process Explained


The controlling process is simply a set of steps a manager uses to determine whether organizational
goals have been met. Let's explore each step of the process and apply examples to demonstrate its
function for management. Let's use the example of TQM Auto Repair Shop to understand the
controlling process.

Types of Control
It is also valuable to understand that, within the strategic and operational levels of control, there are
several types of control. The first two types can be mapped across two dimensions: level of
proactivity and outcome versus behavioral. The following table summarizes these along with
examples of what such controls might look like.

Proactivity
Proactivity can be defined as the monitoring of problems in a way that provides their timely prevention, rather
than after the fact reaction. In management, this is known as feedforward control; it addresses what can we do
ahead of time to help our plan succeed..

Concurrent Controls
The process of monitoring and adjusting ongoing activities and processes is known as concurrent control. Such
controls are not necessarily proactive, but they can prevent problems from becoming worse.

Feedback Controls
Finally, feedback controls involve gathering information about a completed activity, evaluating that information,
and taking steps to improve the similar activities in the future. This is the least proactive of controls and is
generally a basis for reactions. Feedback controls permit managers to use information on past performance to
bring future performance in line with planned objectives.

Control
Proactivity

Behavioral control

Outcome control

Feedforward
control

Organizational culture

Market demand or economic forecasts

Concurrent
control

Hands-on management supervision


during a project

The real-time speed of a production line

Feedback control

Qualitative measures of customer


satisfaction

Financial measures such as profitability,


sales growth

Q7:
Communication is the exchange of ideas, opinions and information through
written or spoken words, symbols or actions. Communication is a dialogue, not a
monologue. In fact, communication is more concerned with a dual listening process.
For communication to be effective, the message must mean the same thing to both the
sender and the receiver.

Communication process can be various types in the shape of its forming. It can be
horizontal communication process, Circular communication process and two way
communication process. The thing is depended on how a communication flows
complete the process. A short description of different types of communication
process are highlighted below:
1. Horizontal Process: When communication flows like a straight line from sender to
the receiver of a message, It takes a shape of horizontal communication process. It
is also known or stated as one way process of communication.

2. Circular Process: Circular process of communication is all about to complete


communication making as like as a circle. When communication is completed by
making a circle, it is stated as circular communication process. This process is also
called as on going process.

3. Two way Process: Two way communication process is the steps of two way
communication system. In such process, sender sends a message using some
intermediary channels and the receiver of that message makes a response to the
sender what is called as Feedback. In this communication process, proper Feedbackis
expected. And that's why it makes this process as effective communication process.
This process of communication is called as reciprocal process.

A communicator can use any of above process of communication to make effective


communication or acquire the objectives of communication. Naturally, to acquire
the objectives of business communication a strategical management chooses a
communication process where it suites best.

Q8:
Decision making is the process of making choices by identifying a decision, gathering
information, and assessing alternative resolutions.
Using a step-by-step decision-making process can help you make more deliberate, thoughtful
decisions by organizing relevant information and defining alternatives. This approach increases
the chances that you will choose the most satisfying alternative possible.

Rational Model
Violet Jones is a manager at the Intestinal Distress Tacos fast food restaurant. She is under
enormous pressure from headquarters to increase her monthly profits. Violet is not sure what the
solution is for her financial dilemma. She has to decide to use the rational decision-making model to
determine the best path for a solution. To do this, Violet must follow these six steps:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Define the problem.


Identify the decision criteria.
Allocate weights to the criteria.
Develop the alternatives.
Evaluate the alternatives.
Select the best alternative.

Q9:

The managerial grid model (1964) is a style leadership model developed by Robert R.
Blake and Jane Mouton.
This model originally identified five different leadership styles based on the concern for
people and the concern for production.
The optimal leadership style in this model is based on Theory Y.
The grid theory has continued to evolve and develop. The theory was updated with two
additional leadership styles and with a new element, resilience.
In 1999, the grid managerial seminar began using a new text, The Power to Change.
The model is represented as a grid with concern for production as the x-axis and concern for
people as the y-axis; each axis ranges from 1 (Low) to 9 (High). The resulting leadership styles
are as follows:

The indifferent (previously called impoverished) style (1,1): evade and elude. In this style,
managers have low concern for both people and production. Managers use this style to preserve
job and job seniority, protecting themselves by avoiding getting into trouble. The main concern
for the manager is not to be held responsible for any mistakes, which results in
less innovation decisions.

4 Different Approaches to Leadership


Keith Grint introduces a four definitions of leadership
leadership as position,
leadership as person,
leadership as result, and
leadership as process.
Whilst other commentators use different definitions, I think these approached to leadership, although not
universal, do cover most perspectives.
Bear in mind that each definition need not be mutually exclusive.
1. Leadership as Position
Position-based leadership assumes it is where people operate that makes them leaders.
This view usually takes the form of authority in a formal hierarchy. For instance, the general or CEO. This
definition implies that the character of the leader is less important than their position.
Do people follow or do as theyre told?
Chef doesnt mean that youre the best cook, it simply means boss. Tom Colicchi
2. Leadership as Person
This definition of leadership emphasises the importance of the persons character.
Person-based or character-based leadership says it is who you are that makes you a leader.
But what does this mean?
That great leaders are heroic or charismatic? Do people follow because there is an emotional relationship
between leader and follower?
The capacity and will to rally men and women to a common purpose together with the character that
inspires confidence and trust. Field Marshal Montgomery
3. Leadership as Result
With this definition of leadership we look at the results of leadership.
Results-based leadership focuses on what leaders do.

The dilemma here is this: Is success the result of something leaders do or is it the successful organisation
that propels the leader forward?
Leadership is the capacity to translate vision into reality. Warren Bennis
It seems that results-based leadership can embody many definitions of leadership: Leadership as
change, leadership as influence and so on.
4. Leadership as Process
The process-based definition of leadership considers the relationship between leader and practice. It is
what leaders do that matters.
Leadership is the process of influencing the activities of an individual or a group in efforts toward goal
achievement in a given situation. Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard

Q10:
Human Resource Management:
Human resource management is all about increasing employee performance to their highest level
corresponding to their role in the organization. Since every organization is made of people, HRM is all
about acquiring services of people, developing their skills, motivating them to the foremost level and
making sure that they continue to maintain their commitment towards the organization.
In short, HRM is concerned with the management of employees from recruitment to retirement.
Although there are many functions of human resource management, following is the list of five major
functions.
1. Recruitment and selection

Recruitment is the process of captivating, screening, and selecting potential and qualified candidates
based on objective criteria for a particular job. The goal of this process is to attract the qualified applicants
and to encourage the unqualified applicants to opt themselves out.

Before starting the process of recruitment, the companies must execute proper staffing plans and should
grade the number of employees they are going to need. Forecasting of the employees should depend
upon the annual budget of the organization and short-term and long-term goals of the organization.

Recruitment and selection process is very important to every organization because it reduces the costs of
mistakes such as engaging incompetent, unmotivated, and underqualified employees. Firing the
unqualified candidate and hiring the new employee is again an expensive process.
2. Orientation

Many organizations do not provide a thorough orientation to the new employees. This is the fundamental
step to help a new employee to adjust himself with the employer and with his new job. Employee
orientation program should include the objectives and goals of the organization and how the employee
can help to achieve the long-term and short-term goals of the organization.
Giving intensive orientation to the employee is one of the major functions of human resource
management. The program should help the employee to know his assigned duties and his exact job
description, job role, and the relationship of position to other positions in the organization. It gives
clarification to the employee to take an active role in the organization.
3. Maintaining good working conditions

It is the responsibility of the human resource management to provide good working conditions to the
employee so that they may like the workplace and the work environment. It is the fundamental duty of the
HR department to motivate the employees. The study has been found that employees dont contribute to
the goals of the organization as much as they can. This is because of the lack of motivation.

Human resource management should come up with a system to provide financial and non-financial
benefits to the employee from the various departments. Employee welfare is another concept which
should be managed by HR team. Employee welfare promotes job satisfaction.
4. Managing Employee relations

Employees are the pillars of any organization. Employee relationship is a very broad concept and it is one
of the crucial functions of human resource management. It also helps to foster good employee relations.
They have the ability to influence behaviors and work outputs.
Management should Organize activities which will help to know an employee at the personal and
professional level. Well-planned employee relations will promote a healthy and balanced relation between
the employee and the employer. It is the key for the organization to be successful.

5. Training and development

Training and development are the indispensable functions of human resource management. It is the
attempt to improve the current or future performance of an employee by increasing the ability of an
employee through educating and increasing ones skills or knowledge in the particular subject.

SOLUTION PAPER# 2
Q1:
The capacity of mental, physical, emotional, and social activities experienced during the five stages
of a human being's life - prenatal, infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Includes the
behaviors as dictated by culture, society, values, morals, ethics, and genetics.

As behavioral management theory grew in popularity, it became apparent that it was critical
for skilled managers to understand their labor force if their organizations were to flourish.
Managers needed to understand how their employees satisfaction levels and senses of
loyalty could affect their work ethics and therefore overall productivity. No longer was it
enough to see employees as small parts of a complex production process. Employees
became a valuable resource that could work with managers and senior executives to
promote an organizations development
Q2:
Learning is the act of acquiring new, or modifying and reinforcing
existing, knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences which may lead to a potential change
in synthesizing information, depth of the knowledge, attitude or behavior relative to the type and
range of experience.[1] The ability to learn is possessed by humans, animals, plants[2] and
some machines.

Classical Conditioning
This is learning by association. A Russian physiologist called Ivan Pavlov, studied salivation in dogs as
part of his research programme. Normally, dogs will salivate at the when food is presented, but Pavlov
was interested why the dogs had started to salivate when the saw the people that usually fed them (they
also responded to the sound of the dishes being used for their meals). Pavlov set up an experiment to find
out if the dogs could be trained to salivate at other stimuli such as the sound of a bell or a light. At feeding
times, Pavlov would ring a bell and the amount of saliva produced by the dog was measured. After several
'trials' Pavlov rang the bell without presenting the food and found that the dogs salivated in the same way
as if food was being presented.
You will note that the conditional response is the same as the unconditioned response, the only difference
being that the response is evoked by a different stimulus.
The Classical Conditioning Procedure:
In scientific terms, the procedure for this is as follows.
1 Food is the unconditioned stimulus or UCS. By this, Pavlov meant that the stimulus that elicited the
response occurred naturally.
2 The salivation to the food is an unconditioned response (UCR), that is a response which occurs
naturally.
3 The bell is the conditioned stimulus (CS) because it will only produce salivation on condition that it is
presented with the food.

4 Salivation to the bell alone is the conditioned response (CR), a response to the conditioned stimulus.

Q3:
Same as previously Question # 5

Q4:
Personality is the combination of behavior, emotion, motivation, and thought patterns that define an
individual. Personality psychology attempts to study similarities and differences in these patterns
among different people and groups.

The "big five" are broad categories of personality traits. While there is a significant body of
literature supporting this five-factor model of personality, researchers don't always agree on
the exact labels for each dimension. However, these five categories are usually described as
follows:

1. Extraversion:
Extraversion is characterized by excitability, sociability, talkativeness, assertiveness and
high amounts of emotional expressiveness.
People who are high in extroversion are outgoing and tend to gain energy in social
situations. People who are low in extroversion (or introverted) tend to be more reserved and
have to expend energy in social settings.

2. Agreeableness:
This personality dimension includes attributes such as trust, altruism, kindness, affection
and other prosocial behaviors.
People who are high in agreeableness tend to be more cooperative while those low in this
trait tend to be more competitive and even manipulative.

3. Conscientiousness:
Standard features of this dimension include high levels of thoughtfulness, with good
impulse control and goal-directed behaviors. Those high on conscientiousness tend to be
organized and mindful of details.

4. Neuroticism:
Neuroticism is a trait characterized by sadness, moodiness, and emotional instability.
Individuals who are high in this trait tend to experience mood swings, anxiety, moodiness,

irritability and sadness. Those low in this trait tend to be more stable and emotionally
resilient.

5. Openness:
This trait features characteristics such as imagination and insight, and those high in this
trait also tend to have a broad range of interests. People who are high in this trait tend to be
more adventurous and creative. People low in this trait are often much more traditional and
may struggle with abstract thinking.
It is important to note that each of the five personality factors represents a range between
two extremes

factors of Personality:

Q5:
Perception can be defined as our recognition and interpretation of sensory information. Perception
also includes how we respond to the information. We can think of perception as a process where we
take in sensory information from our environment and use that information in order to interact with
our environment. Perception allows us to take the sensory information in and make it into something
meaningful.

Perception Process:
The perceptual process is the method by which humans take information, or stimuli,
from the environment and create meaning or reaction to the stimuli. Perceptual process
is a continual function of the brain. People may not be aware of the actual steps of the
process because it is automatic and instantaneous.

Factors that influence perception:

Factors in the perceiver


Attitudes
Motives
Interests
Experience
Expectations
Factors in the situation
Time
Work setting
Social setting
Factors in the target
Novelty
Motion
Sounds
Size
Background
Proximity
Similarity
Q6:
A value is a belief, a mission, or a philosophy that is meaningful. Whether we are consciously aware of
them or not, every individual has a core set of personal values. Values can range from the
commonplace, such as the belief in hard work and punctuality, to the more psychological, such as selfreliance, concern for others, and harmony of purpose.
Example : You have been given a check for $1000.00 to do whatever you like with it. What would you do
with it?
The five sources of value:

Acquisition how could these results help us to find and attract new customers?

Retention how do they affect the retention of existing customers?

Cross-sell and up-sell can we sell more products or a higher value product to increase the overall value that we get
from existing customers?

Costs do they show us ways in which we can save money?

Risk how does what weve learnt help us to reduce risk to the business and decrease the likelihood of losing
money?

Q7:
predisposition or a tendency to respond positively or negatively towards a certain idea, object,

person, or situation. Attitude influences an individual's choice of action, and responses


to challenges, incentives, and rewards (together called stimuli).
Four major components of attitude are (1) Affective: emotions or feelings. (2) Cognitive:
belief or opinions held consciously. (3) Conative: inclination for action. (4) Evaluative:
positive or negative response to stimuli.
THere are primarily three factors that determine our attitude. They are:
1. Environment
2. Experience
3. Education
These are called the triple Es of attitude. Lets evaluate each of the factors individually:
Environment Environment consists of the following:

Home: positive or negative influences

School: peer pressure

Work: supportive or over-critical supervisor

Media: television, newspapers, magazines, radio, movies

Cultural background

Religious background

Traditions and beliefs

Social environment

Political environment

Experiences Our behavior changes according to our experiences with people and events in
our life. If we have a positive experience with a person, our attitude toward him becomes
positive and vice versa.

Education I refer to both formal and informal education, not just academic qualifications.
Knowledge strategically applied translates into wisdom, ensuring success. I talk education in
the broader sense. It makes the role of the educator vital. A teacher affects eternity. The
ripple effect is immeasurable. We are drowning in information but starving for knowledge and
wisdom. Education ought to teach us not only how to make a living but also how to live.

Q8:

Cognitive dissonance can be seen as an antecedent condition which leads to activity oriented
toward dissonance reduction just as hunger leads toward activity oriented toward hunger
reduction. It is a very different motivation from what psychologists are used to dealing with
but, as we shall see, nonetheless powerful."
The degree of dissonance people experience can depend on a few different factors, including
how highly we value a particular belief and the degree to which our beliefs are inconsistent.
The overall strength of the dissonance can also be influenced by several factors.

Cognitions that are more personal, such as beliefs about the self, tend to result in
greater dissonance.
The importance of the cognitions also plays a role. Things that involve beliefs that are
highly valued typically result in stronger dissonance.
The ratio between dissonant thoughts and consonant thoughts can also play a role in
how strong the feelings of dissonance are.
The greater the strength of the dissonance, the more pressure there is to relieve the
feelings of discomfort.

Examples of Cognitive Dissonance


Cognitive dissonance can occur in many areas of life, but it is particularly evident in
situations where an individual's behavior conflicts with beliefs that are integral to his or her
self-identity. For example, consider a situation in which a man who places a value on being
environmentally responsible just purchased a new car that he later discovers does not get
great gas mileage.
The conflict:

It is important for the man to take care of the environment.


He is driving a car that is not environmentally-friendly.

In order to reduce this dissonance between belief and behavior, he has a few difference
choices.
He can sell the car and purchase another one that gets better gas mileage or he can reduce
his emphasis on environmental responsibility. In the case of the second option, his
dissonance could be further minimized by engaging in actions that reduce the impact of
driving a gas-guzzling vehicle, such as utilizing public transportation more frequently or
riding his bike to work on occasion.

Q9:
Same as Question 8 in Previous
Q10:
Same as Q9 in Previous

Q11:
Emotion, in everyday speech, may refer to the affective aspect of consciousness, a state or feeling,
or a conscious mental reaction towards an object accompanied by behavioral and or physical
changes.[1] Scientific discourse has drifted to other meanings and there is no consensus on a
definition. Emotion is often intertwined with mood, temperament, personality, disposition,
and motivation.[2] In some theories, cognition is an important aspect of emotion.

Five Dimensions of Emotion


Pleasure (positive, negative)
Emotions can be positive, pleasant and giving good feelings. Emotions may also be negative, unpleasant and cause
discomfort. Any emotion can be placed on a scale between extreme pleasure and extreme discomfort, with a zero
point between where neither positive nor negative feelings are experienced (such as the way surprise is often
experienced).
Positive emotions
Happiness, liking, respect, hope, contentment

Negative emotions
Sadness, anger, fear, shame, disgust

Focus (internal, external)


Emotions may have a primary focus inside us or outside us, for example being about ourselves or about the outer
world. Sometimes these are very much about one or the other and at other times they may be a bit of both. A
highly outward emotion is anger, as we project bad feelings toward others. A highly inward one is contentment,
for example in the way a meditating person feels.

Internal emotions
Shame, contentment, surprise, pride

External emotions
Anger, fear, liking, disgust

Direction (attraction, repulsion)


Emotions often have direction, bringing us together with things or pushing us away from them. For example love
is an attractive emotion, while fear is repulsive. We can reduce distance by moving ourselves towards object of
interest or bringing it close. Likewise we can act on repulsion by pushing it away or removing ourselves from its
proximity.

Inward emotions
Pride, shame, contentment, admiration,
embarrassment

Outward emotions

Anger, fear, disgust, contempt

Intensity
Intensity is about how strongly we feel emotions. This is a uni-polar dimension, as it can range from close to zero,
for example when we feel flat or just a bit irritated, to very intense, such as feelings of grief or extreme anger.
Pleasure and Locus are bi-polar scales as they have two poles with a 'zero' in between. Many emotions have
words for high and low intensity, such as the more intense 'anger' and the less intense 'irritation'.
Irritation, contentment, mild surprise, dislike

Hate, grief, joy, disgust

Arousal
Arousal is about activation, the energy and motivation that the emotions give us towards taking action. It is unipolar and similar to intensity, but it is not the same. You can experience an intense emotion, such as joy, but not

be motivated to act. Likewise, arousing emotions such as curiosity may not be particularly intense.
Lower arousal emotions lead to inaction, perhaps because we are feeling flat, with low

Low arousal emotions


Depression, contentment

High arousal emotions


Anger, curiosity, fear