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CHAPTER 1

The Problem and Its Background


Background of the Study
Household insects and humans have cohabited the earth and have
developed complex relationships. The most common household insects are
mosquitoes and cockroaches. The emerging of mosquitoes and cockroaches in
our environment causes the existence of differently deadly illnesses that
threatened human for many years. Mosquitoes transfer diseases through biting,
these transfer diseases includes dengue fever, malaria, filiariasis and more while
cockroaches transmit disease through contamination, these disease are asthma,
salmonella and escherichia coli and more. Using household insect killer through
burning of mosquito coils and insect spraying are two different ways of
eliminating the insects to get rid the humans from them. There are brand of
household insect killer in the market that are found effective but dangerous and
harmful to human health. Thus the researchers came up with the idea of
developing an organic household insect killer by developing a chili pepper and
lemongrass extracted oils.
The researchers purpose of doing this study is to develop an alternative
household insect killer made of chili pepper and lemongrass extracted oils that is
not as dangerous and harmful to human health. The dependent variables, the
chili pepper and lemongrass will be mix together with the independent variable
such as powdered charcoals, and powdered corn starch.

Theoretical Framework
Origin of Mosquito Coil

Pyrethrum was used for centuries as an insecticide in Persia and Europe.


The mosquito coil was developed around the 1890s by a Japanese business
man named Eiichiro Ueyama. That time in Japan, people usually mixed
pyrethrum powder with sawdust and burned it in a brazier or incense burner to
repel mosquitoes. Initially, Ueyama created incense sticks mixed from starch
powder, dried mandarin orange skin powder, and pyrethrum powder. However,
the bar-shaped mosquito sticks quickly burned up in about 40 minutes, too brief
for a long repelling action. In 1895, his wife Yuki proposed making the sticks
thicker and longer, and curling them in spirals. In 1902, after a series of trials and
errors, he finally obtained the desired incense burning effect out of a spiralshaped mosquito repellent. The method involved cutting from a thick bar of
incense to a certain length and manually winding it. This method continued to be
used until 1957, where mass production was made possible through machine
punching, making a far larger manufacturing scale possible. After the Second
World War, his company, Dainihon HYPERLINK "https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/
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HYPERLINK

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%8A"Jochugiku

HYPERLINK

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%E5%A4%A7%E6%97%A5%E6%9C%AC%E9%99%A4%E8%99%AB%E8%8F
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as China and Thailand, to produce products suited to local conditions.
Based on the origin of mosquito coil, the researchers coped with instead
of using pyrethrum as the main component we used chili pepper and lemongrass
extracted oils as the main components, and also with powdered charcoal to form
a mosquito coil.

Origin Insect Repellent


The use of insect repellent compounds dates back to antiquity, when
various plant oils, smokes, tars, etc. were used to displace or kill insects. Before
the Second World War, there were only four principal repellents these are oil of
citronella, indalone which was patented in 1937, dimethyl phthalate that was
discovered in 1929, rutgers 612 which became available in 1939. In the outbreak
of World War II, the three components were combined into a formulation for use
by the military known as 6-2-2 six parts dimethyl phthalate, two parts indalone
and two parts rutgers 612. The other military repellent formulate for use on
clothing were developed during the war, but they all failed to provide desired
protection of military personnel deployed around the world. As a result, by 1956
the United States government had screened over 20,000 potential mosquito
repellent compounds.
In 1953, the insect repellent properties of N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide
(DEET) were discovered. The first DEET product was introduced in 1956. DEET
is still the most widely used mosquito repellent. It has generally been regarded as
safe, but toxic effects have been recorded, including encephalopathy in children,
urticaria syndrome, anaphylaxis, hypotension and decreased heart rate. Several
other compounds have been evaluated for repellent activity, but none have had
the commercial success of DEET. For example, N,N-diethyl phenylacetamide
(DEPA) is licensed for use as a cockroach repellent in India (Prakash et al.,
1990) and Colgate-Palmolive has released in Europe a cockroach repellent floor
cleaner

the Ajax

Expel,

the

active

ingredient

of

which

is

N-methyl

neodecanamide (MNDA). This product has been shown to cause cockroaches to


leave their harborages and cockroaches are less likely to re-infest previously

occupied areas after treatment with the cleaner (Brenner et al., 1998). Bayer AG
plans to market a mosquito repellent with the name BayRepel, the active
ingredient

of

which

is

1-piperidinecarboxylic

acid,

2-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-

methylpropylester (Picaridin) (Yap et al., 2000).


Because of this theory, instead of making an insect repellent the
researchers coped with to make an insect killer using chili pepper and
lemongrass extracted oils as the main components.
Properties of Chili pepper
Chili peppers belong to the family of foods bearing the Latin name
Capsicum. Chili peppers contain a substance called capsaicin, which gives
peppers their characteristic pungency, producing mild to intense spice when
eaten. There are hundreds of different types of chili peppers that vary in size,
shape, color, flavor and "hotness." The hotter the chili pepper, the more capsaicin
it contains. It is the capsaicin that makes chilies hot. The hottest varieties include
habanero and Scotch bonnet peppers. Jalapenos are next in their heat and
capsaicin content, followed by the milder varieties, including Spanish pimentos,
and Anaheim and Hungarian cherry peppers.
Capsaicin is being studied as an effective treatment for sensory nerve
fiber disorders, including pain associated with arthritis, psoriasis, and diabetic
neuropathy. When animals injected with a substance that causes inflammatory
arthritis were fed a diet that contained capsaicin, they had delayed onset of
arthritis, and also significantly reduced paw inflammation.
Besides capsaicin, it is also known that chilies are a good source of
antioxidants. This is also rich in vitamin A, and minerals such as iron and
potassium.

The author of The two faces of capsaicin have studied the negative effect of
capsaicin in animals, where six mice were being studied in which they developed
cancer in the stomach after their diet was changed to include more capsaicin.
Probably it is harmful in the stomach or esophagus because capsaicin itself can
cause inflammation and if anything can cause inflammation or so-called burning
effect, it must cause some cell deaths and therefore the long-term chronic
inflammation is maybe harmful." says Zigang Dong (The co-author of a 2011
review, published in the journal Cancer Research, titled The Two Faces of
Capsaicin)
With the help of this theory, the researchers will be able to know what
property of chill pepper can eliminate insects and it will help the researchers to
know what type of process they will use in order to extract the capsaicin in the
chili pepper.
Properties of Lemon grass
Lemon grass is also known as fever grass. It is a perennial plant with thin,
long leaves that is indigenous to many Asian countries. It is called lemon grass
for its smells like lemon, but it tastes milder and sweeter. Lemon grass helps in
calming muscles and nerves which help in inducing deep sleep. Lemon grass tea
has sedative and hypnotic properties which help in increasing the duration and
quality of sleep.
The oil that can be extracted from lemon grass is called citronella oil, it
can be found in dozens of registered pesticide products. In fact, the
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classifies it as a biopesticide with a nontoxic mode of action. The isolated lemon grass oil is a clear and yellow liquid and
mainly used in cheap fragrance work. Its many application include aerosol

deodorants, household detergents and soap and a whole range of domestic and
industrial products in which a pleasant, fresh fragrance is desired.
This theory will help the researchers to know what component of lemon
grass that gives a pleasant fragrance and to identify what are the benefits that
can be found in using a lemon grass.
Conceptual Framework

Figure 1. Conceptual Framework


The input-process-system is used to describe the conceptual framework of
this study. As shown in figure 1, using Chili pepper extract, lemongrass oil,
natural binders like charcoal and water in order to create the final product,
mosquitoes and cockroaches are then gathered and collected for test purposes,
all these are the input into creating the study. This then would undergo a process
like prototyping and testing, analysing of results to understand its effectiveness,

the researchers then came up with a statistical treatment and made use of
ANOVA single factor to determine if there is a significant difference. The final
output would then result into a household insect killer which is a mosquito coil
and an insect spray that made use of organic herbs like chilli pepper and
lemongrass oil as its main components.
Statement of the Problem
This research aimed to produce household insect killer out of chili pepper
and lemongrass. Specifically, it sought to answer the following:

How can the chili pepper and lemongrass extracted oils be suitable
components for an effective household insect killer?

Why are the binders needed for the development of an organic mosquito
coil?

What makes the chili pepper and lemongrass a credible alternative for
household insect killers?

How sufficient are the chili pepper and lemongrass?

Hypothesis
H0: The household insect killer made of chili pepper and lemongrass oil extracts
has no significant difference from the commercial household insect killer.

The household insect killer made of chili pepper and lemongrass oil
extracts can kill as many mosquitoes and cockroaches.

H1: The household insect killer made of chili pepper and lemongrass oil extracts

has significant difference from the commercial household insect killer.

The household insect killer made of chili pepper and lemongrass oil
extracts can kill less or more mosquitoes and cockroaches.

Scope and Limitations


The contents of this research paper focuses on developing a household
insect killer by using a chili pepper and lemongrass extracted oils.
This study will cover through the first semester of the academic year 20162017 in Polytechnic University of the Philippines, Sta. Mesa, Manila. This is
conducted to know the effectiveness of using the extracted oils of chili pepper
and lemongrass in eliminating insects. This research will use chili pepper and
lemongrass extracted oils which will come from Pasay Market.
The researchers had only aim to test mosquitoes and cockroaches. The
binders that were used are powdered charcoal and water in the development of
an organic mosquito coil. The mixtures of chili pepper and lemongrass extracted
oil, and the amount that were used are 10&30ml, 20ml&20ml, 30&10ml on trials
1-3 respectively on the formulation of an organic mosquito coil while the insect
spray has the amount of 40&40ml, 30&50ml, 50&30ml respectively,

Significance of the Study


This product is plant-based household insect killer. Unlike other household
insect killer, it has no harmful effects to human health. It is environment-friendly
since it is made of natural ingredients. It is helpful and beneficial.
For the Community
For they use and make this product easily given the materials available

and can easily be found in their surroundings.


For the Business Sector
For they could produce this product and gain more profit from selling this
product.
For Students and Young Aspiring Researchers
For they could improve this study by using materials that could be more
effective, utilizing new ideas and improving the method used.
Definition of Terms
Cohabit - to exist or live together.
DEET - one of the most common ingredients used in insect repellents.
Extracts - is a substance that you get from something by using a machine or
chemicals.
Household Insects insects that can be found inside the houses of humans
Insect Repellent substance use to fight off and repel insects
Mosquito coil - a repelling incense, usually shaped into spiral, and typically made
from a dried paste of pyrethrum powder.
Organic - made without the use of artificial chemicals.
Pyrethrum -Insecticide made out of the dried flowers of the pyrethrum plant.

CHAPTER 2
Review of Related Literature and Studies

Foreign Related Literature


Common Household Insects and Their Control
There tons of pests that have caused a major problem on many homes,
and examples of these pest are cockroaches, they are dreaded as the enemy of
all house keepers. Because of its awful stench and large amount of numbers,
they can be found almost anywhere in the world. Especially where food is stored
they are present and a colony of cockroach is established. That is why control
measures and cleanliness have been established to fight the establishment of its
colony. Ants like cockroaches, are commonly found in places where food is
stored. Ants usually move in colonies that track and gather food and are pesky
and can be found anywhere in our homes.
Mosquitoes are not only deadly when they are carrying disease but can be
annoying thru their many numbers at a given house. Mosquitoes breed in water
and can be a result of deadly disease for humans. Those that carry dengue or
malaria fever has been the topic of concern in many parts of the world, and
because they breed on water larvaes usually spend their entire life on water
either on surface or mud.
Household Pest Control
Insecticides have been invented for the purpose of convenience and
health safety for people. There are many examples of products that are invented
for this type of purpose; examples are compressed air sprayers which are
suitable for homes that has areas, cracks which is teeming with pests. According
to the Oklahoma Cooperative service for household pests, control measure and
prevention are establish to dismiss the rapid growth on the numbers of the pest

colony. Pesticide formulations often goes through oil solutions that is formulated
for household insect sprays. And that is why oil based components are mixed in
its production.
Risk of Commercial Insect Sprays
Although insecticide sprays keep insects and control their numbers some
do not sway away the facts that it might potentially endanger the human health.
Chemicals that are found in these products have what we call DEET (N, Ndiethyl-m-toluamide). Developed and tested in the 1940s and 50s as a way to
keep off mosquitoes and other bugs from soldiers in the world war. As such
popular aerosols and mosquito sprays have these chemicals in their ingredients,
DEET has raised questions on the safety of citizens. And thus DEET could affect
the central nervous system of mammal. And that is why the Center for Disease
Control has undergone measures to effectively use it at the safest way possible;
example is DEET is sprayed over clothing rather than in contact with skin.
Risk of Mosquito coils
The public was advised to watch out for the production of dangerous
mosquito coils that poses a threat to our environmental health as it might have
some hazardous chemical components, According to the Ghana Standards
Authority there have been dangerous mosquito coils flooding the market, with
numerous coils being banned by the Environmental Protection Agency.
According to Dr. Sandeep Salvi Director of the Indian Chest Research
Foundation, that modern Mosquito coils have a higher risk to an individuals
health compared to that of smoking a hundred cigarettes. And thus it poses a
great risk to our lungs as the Taiwanese institute of Medicine states that 50

percent of lung cancer related deaths are not entirely because of cigarettes but
frequent use of mosquito coils.
Harmful Chemicals in Mosquito coils have been the results of lung cancer
and potentially damage our central nervous system. Its because of chemicals
like the Octachlorodipropyl or known as S-2 a particle mix in the coil that when
burned releases a strong chemical called Bischloromethyl that can cause lung
cancer. Other chemicals like the Pyrethrum that when high doses are inhaled
would result in the damage of one central nervous system and our own immune
system.
Diseases Caused by Household Insects
Mosquitoes and Cockroaches are the most common insects in many
homes. According World Health Organization (WHO), Cockroaches are not
usually the most important cause of a disease, but like mosquitoes cockroaches
can spread disease by contaminating human food with germs they pick up in
latrines, garbage dumps and etc. They may play a supplementary role in the
spread of some diseases. They are proven or suspected carriers of the
organisms causing diarrhoea, dysentery, cholera, leprosy, plague, typhoid fever
and viral diseases such as poliomyelitis. In addition they carry the eggs of
parasitic worms and may cause allergic reactions, including dermatitis, itching,
swelling of the eyelids and more serious respiratory conditions. Mosquitoes are
the greatest menace, spreading malaria, dengue, filiariasis, and yellow fever,
which together are responsible for several million deaths and hundreds of
millions of cases every year. Malaria is endemic in 91 countries, with about 40%
of the worlds population at risk.
Local Related Literature

Chili Pepper (Capsicum Frutescens)


Chili pepper is known in our country because of its spiciness. Chili pepper
known as Siling Labuyo in our country. The Filipinos are lovers of spicy foods.
Many areas in the Philippines are known for eating foods with the mixed of chili
pepper such as coconut milk (gata), porridge (sinigang), bicol express (bikol
express) and etc. The chili pepper is can be find in the market in a very
affordable price. It can be also plant and cultivate in the yard of the houses. Chili
pepper is abundant here in the Philippines.
In 2015, Department of Agrarian Reform (DAR), in collaboration with the
Catholic Relief Services (CRS), offered agrarian reform beneficiaries in Hacienda
Luisita for farming alternative vegetable production. They found out that the crops
best suited to soil of Hacienda Luisita are red chillies, string beans, squash and
sweet potatoes.
According to Department of Agrarian Reform (DAR) that they conducted a
market studies and went to Balintawak, Divisoria and in Urdaneta a market in
Pangasinan. They find out that there is a big demand on chilies. The land was full
of garbage before. After planting chilies within two months farmers are earning
P10,000 a month. Their capital is cheaper and after two months the chilies are
ready for harvesting and selling. Chilies takes eight to ten months before it dies.
Harvesting is continuous every four to five days when the plant is alive. In one
harvest in a 500 square meter plot yielded a twenty five kilos of chilies. Farmers
of Hacienda Luista are now earning a good profit, they are now planning on
expanding their business by planting more chilies and etc.
Lemongrass (Cymbopogon Citratus)

Lemongrass is abundant in the country that is why it is one of the most


widely used herbs for pharmaceutical purposes. The essential oil of this plant can
be used for aromatherapy, it is abundance in the Philippines is planted because
of its sweet fragrance and has different ways it can benefit the individual.
Citronella Oil has a therapeutic property for anti-bacterial, anti-amoebic, and etc.
Thus the lemongrass essential oil can be used as an effective way to fight
against flu or colds,
There wide pharmaceutical used in the country is mainly because of its
essential oil that can be used for commercial production. Lemongrass essential
oil is extracted through steam distillation it is carried out by a specific temperature
and pressure. Steam distillation is done through which the plant is separated in
another boiler through an open coil then its oil is extracted. This process is
commercially viable.
According to a review on cuisines in Manila it is rated as one of the major
flavoring ingredient in the country. Cuisines like lechon or roasted chicken are
wrapped with lemongrass to add flavor and strong lasting aroma. Its abundance
in the country would benefit our society as a whole, given the plants have a wide
variety of purpose it can be used as a product of export worldwide.

Household Insects that Plague our Homes


Pest controls in the Philippines have been established to counter and
create preventive measures on common household insects. Mosquitoes are one
of the most common pests that plague our homes. And thus there are three
primary members of mosquitoes that spread human diseases. These types of

mosquito species are anopheles, culex, and aedes. Anopheles mosquitoes are
the only species known for carrying malaria. Culex mosquitoes are known for
carrying encephalitis and filariasis. Aedes mosquitoes are known for carrying
yellow fever and dengue. Mosquitoes are attracted in exhaled carbon dioxide,
body odors, temperature and movement. Because of the Philippines awareness
of mosquitoes carrying dengue disease it has been a major epidemic and many
government and private facilities have been working together for its prevention.
Similarly cockroaches lurk in corners and areas that are breeding grounds of
their kind, and are one of the most common pest in manila where you can find
almost anywhere. They would be a nuisance to almost any home because of
how they eat almost anything. Because of them reproducing rapidly pest control
manila has taken different measures to establish homes that counter their rapid
growth.
Through pest control manila cockroaches and mosquitoes tend to be the
most pests that carry deadly disease on humans, and thus it has been a major
concern for health officials.

Disease Caused by Household Insects


Filariasis is an infection caused by microscopic threadlike worms
called filarial worms. This parasitic disease is transmitted to people through the
bite of an infected mosquito which develops into adult worms in the lymphatic
vessels. It causes great damage and overwhelming swelling known as

lymphoedema. Filariasis is a condition characterized by painful, distorting


swelling of the legs and genital organs. In Philippines, Filariasis is also one of
ongoing public concern in our country. According to Department of Health (DOH)
the elimination program was started in 2001.
Dengue fever has been the subject of most mosquito related disease in
the Philippines. Mainly because viral disease like this are associated with the
urban environment which manifest by the sudden onset of fever and severe
headaches.
Household Insecticides in the Philippines
Dengue cases in the Philippines has continue to grow rapidly thus it has
been stated by the Department of Health that anti-dengue campaign and
programs have been their outmost priority, and the introduction of pests controls
and preventive measures to make. Brands like Baygon, Lion-Tiger and their
insect mosquito coils are most commonly used in slum areas where large
numbers of mosquitoes have been accounted. Insect sprays are introduced in
the Philippines as an effective way to fight off cockroaches and mosquitoes alike.
Its designed chemical formula has been for killing pests.

Risk of Commercial Mosquito Coils


There are tons of big name companies that sells mosquito coils out there,
although it may have served its purpose to kill and repel mosquitos carrying
deadly diseases. It in turns, poses a threat to our environmental health mainly
because it is added with deadly chemical components that are mixed to create
that coil. And the danger of this is that these ingredients are not even labeled in

the product, with which the consumer might continue to be ignorant of.
According to a data by the FDA (Food and Drugs Administration) it warns
the public that mosquito coils have a higher health risk compared to inhaling
smoke from cigarettes. The damage done through your lungs by frequent
inhaling of these mosquito coils is equivalent to that of 100 cigarettes.
Its smoke surpasses the air safety levels, this are ways to understand how
polluted the air currently is done thru air monitors. Pollutants released by
mosquito coils exceed normal air safety levels thus it poses a threat to our
environment.
Pyrethrum chemicals that are used in the production of mosquito coils are
extracted from a chrysanthemum flower, reports states that when higher doses of
these chemicals are inhaled it might potentially damage the Central nervous
system or our own Immune system.

Foreign Studies
Studies about the Component of Chilies named Capsaicin
Capsaicin is the compound in hot peppers that give it the "hot" taste that is
enjoyed by many humans. Capsaicin kills insects by causing membrane damage
and metabolic disruption. It also affects the nervous system of invertebrates.
Capsaicin as an active ingredient of pesticide products. It is used to kill

insects. According to the Environment Protection Agency (EPA) that capsaicin


has no significant concerns regarding the toxicity to humans. The agency
believes capsaicin can be used without causing unreasonable adverse effects in
people or the environment.
From the national pesticide information center (NPIC), Capsaicin are the
main substance that are inside the chili pepper that is used as a natural insect
killer against mosquitoes and some insects. Thus because of its purpose the
Environmental Protection Agency of the US has considered it to be a biochemical
pesticide to help fight against insects that plague our homes.

Synthesis
Multi-insect sprays or mosquito coils made from organic herbs have had great
benefits to pests infested homes and places wherein rapid growth of dengue and
malaria disease is at peak. These are the ultimate means of fighting of these
deadly insects, and that is why tons of companies all over the world have been
on the rise into manufacturing an effective and environment friendly insect killer.
In Manila alone, dengue and malaria is one of the major causes of death and will
continue to rise.
As stated by Gonzalo O. Catan Jr., president on the manila pest control company
phils. He stated on his book on agricultural and household life that flies,
mosquitoes, and rats are a danger to the Philippines every year we read and
hear of a Filipino who gets sick or die from diseases carried by these insects.
This goes to show that pests carrying deadly diseases had attracted major
concerns nationwide, that is why DEET and Pyrethrum chemicals having an antimicrobial properties have been introduced on the market as insecticides, inorder

for the extermination of these pandemic. But these chemicals have its own
disadvantage, as effective as it might be in killing insects, it poses a danger to
human health and to the environment. These chemicals released a microbial
agents that are dangerous to the human health, and DEET has been used as a
chemical warfare way back in World War 2, Pyrethrum when high doses are
inhaled could damage the central nervous system.
That is why organic herbs having insecticidal properties have been introduced in
many commercial insecticides. They are used in the formulation of either insect
killers or insect repellants. Chili pepper oil is a natural insect killer mainly
because of capsaicin and lemongrass oil which is a pleasant aroma that works
as the nullifier and scent for the production of a household insect killer. The goal
is to have a health and environment safety product. Because many mosquito
coils today can be a result of pollutant due to harmful chemical ingredients added
into it, contributing to lung related disease, its dangerous chemicals like the
Pyrethrum are a major cause of Lung cancer when high doses are inhaled.
Biocoil or Organic insect spray may not last much longer compared to synthetic
chemical spray but it works just as effective while not harming an individuals
health and the environment, mainly because the ingredients are purely organic,
safe, green and without any use of dangerous chemicals.

CHAPTER 3
Research Design and Methodology
Research Design
The purpose of this study is to test the development of chili pepper and
lemongrass extracted oils as a main component in making household insect
killer. The concerns of this study were to make an alternative household insect
killer that is not as harmful to the environment and human health unlike the
commercialized one.
The researchers used experimental design to determine the development

of chili pepper and lemongrass as a main component in making household insect


killer. This design allows the researchers to make inferences about the
relationship between independent variables and dependent variables. This
design is the most applicable design to use in this study because it will
determined the effects of the chili pepper and lemongrass through different levels
manipulated in the experiment.
Research Method
The research methods used in this study are experiments, observations,
and collecting of mosquitoes and cockroaches. The researchers conducted the
experiment to determine the effectiveness of chili pepper and lemongrass as a
main component in order to make a household insect killer. The researchers
provide prototypes which underwent different testing procedures to determine the
effectiveness of chili pepper and lemongrass as its main component. It was also
used to determine the right amount of mixtures to produce in every household
insect killer. The researchers also wanted to determine if the research product
does or does not have significant difference from the commercial household
insect killer.
Instrumentation
The following tools and equipment were used to gather the data needed:

Mosquito Trap

Catching of Cockroaches

Net Cage

Observation

Data Gathering Procedure


The household insect killer made of chili pepper and lemongrass was

tested through burning and spraying test. The researchers prepared the net cage
for testing the sample products. The household insect killer (mosquito coil), put
the mosquito coil inside the net cage after that lit the tip of mosquito coil then put
the mosquito trap to net cage and let the mosquitoes fly around the cage. By
direct observation of this test count the number of mosquitoes died and alive.
The household insect killer (insect spray), put the collected cockroaches inside
the cage then use the insect spray to the cockroaches. By direct observation of
this test count the number of cockroaches died and alive. This two different type
of test we can determined if the household insect killer made of chili pepper and
lemongrass has no or has significant different in terms of killing the insects.
In these procedures, efficiency of the research product was analyzed. The
significant difference of the household insect killer made of chili pepper and
lemongrass and commercial household insect killer may also be determined.

Statistical Treatment of Data


The collected data from the observation of the researchers were tallied
and the tabulated results were presented using graphical representation, the pie
chart. Percentage of the answers was determined using the formula:

Where:
Data Collected by Researchers
P = percentage
f = frequency
n = the total number of insects
The researchers used single factor analysis of variance (ANOVA), which
was done through Microsoft Excel, as statistical treatment to find out if there is a

significant difference between the qualities of household insect killer made of chili
pepper and lemongrass extracted oils from the commercial household insect
killer in terms of insects to be killed. Single factor analysis of variance (ANOVA)
was used to determine if there is a statistically significant difference between two
products.

CHAPTER 4
Presentation, Interpretation and Analysis of Data
Data Gathered from the Experiment
The researchers conducted an experiment from September 16 to
September 17 regarding the effectiveness of killing insects using a household
insect killer that is purely organic namely chili pepper extract and lemongrass oil
as its main component. The experiment was conducted in Bicutan on the City of
Paranaque, NCR. Each trials had a various contents on their ingredients in order
to test and examine which prototype has the best result, the experiment had
made use of three trials for every mosquito coil and insect spray. Mosquito coil
content mainly consists of chili pepper extract and lemongrass oil, the contents
are; 20ml&20ml, 30&10ml, 10&30ml on trials 1-3 respectively. And on the insect
spray the contents were 40&40ml, 30&50ml, 50&30ml respectively, each and

every strata were then compared to their commercial counterpart, to analyze its
percentage of effectiveness when killing insects.

Treatment of Insect Spray #1


Amount description:

40 ml Chili pepper oil extract


40 ml Lemongrass oil extract
Physical Structure: Liquid Form

Figure 2: Percentage of treatment #1

In figure 2 above we can conclude that the percentage of treatment #1


shows that with the amount of description provided, same content of Chili pepper
and lemongrass oil that is mixed resulted in a higher percentage of cockroaches
being alive than on the percentage that has been killed.

Treatment of Insect Spray #2


Amount description:

50 ml Chili pepper oil extract


30 ml Lemongrass oil extract
Physical Structure: Liquid Form

Figure 3: Percentage of treatment #2

In figure 3 above we can conclude that the percentage of treatment #2


shows that with the amount of description provided, as chili pepper content was
increased in the formulation and lemongrass oil was reduced, it resulted on an
equal percentage on both alive and dead cockroaches.

Treatment of Insect Spray #3


Amount description:

30 ml Chili pepper oil extract


50 ml Lemongrass oil extract
Physical Structure: Liquid form

Figure 4: Percentage of treatment #3

In figure 4 above we can conclude that the percentage of treatment #3


shows that with the amount of description provided, as chili pepper is reduced
and lemongrass oil is increased in the formulation this resulted in a lesser
percentage of cockroaches dead and a higher chance of them alive.

Commercial Household Insect Spray


Amount description: Not specified (bought from the market)
Physical Structure: Liquid Form

Figure 5-7: Percentage of Commercial products


In figure 5-7 above we can conclude that the percentage of commercial
household insect spray shows that with the use of chemicals into their
ingredients it resulted into a higher level of effectiveness when killing
cockroaches.

Treatment of Mosquito Coil #1


Amount description:

20 ml Chili pepper oil extract


20 ml Lemongrass oil extract
25 ml Water

60 ml Charcoal
Physical Structure: Stick Form

Figure 8: Percentage Treatment of Mosquito Coil #1

In figure 8 above we can conclude that the percentage treatment of


mosquito coil #1 shows that with the amount of description provided, as chili
pepper and lemongrass oil have the same content on the formulation, this
resulted in a lesser percentage of cockroaches dead and a higher chance of
them alive.

Treatment of Mosquito Coil #2


Amount description:

30 ml Chili pepper oil extract


10 ml Lemongrass oil extract
25 ml Water
60 ml Charcoal
Physical Structure: Stick Form

Figure 9: Percentage Treatment of Mosquito Coil #2


In figure 9 above we can conclude that the percentage treatment of
mosquito coil #2 shows that with the amount of description provided, as chili
pepper is increased and lemongrass oil is reduced, this resulted in a higher
percentage of effectiveness as more mosquitoes were killed compared to a
lesser percentage of mosquitoes alive.

Treatment of Mosquito Coil #3


Amount description:

10 ml Chili pepper oil extract


30 ml Lemongrass oil extract
25 ml Water
60 ml Charcoal
Physical Structure: Stick Form

Figure 10: Percentage Treatment of Mosquito Coil #3


In figure 10 above we can conclude that the percentage treatment of
mosquito coil #3 shows that with the amount of description provided, as chili
pepper is reduced and lemongrass oil is increased, this resulted in a lower level
of effectiveness as mosquitoes alive has a higher percentage than on the

percentage that was killed.


Commercial Mosquito Coil

Amount description: Not specified (bought from the market)


Physical Structure: Mosquito Coil

Figure 11-13: Percentage of Commercial Mosquito coils

In figure 11-13 above we can conclude that the percentage of commercial


mosquito coil shows that with the introduction of various chemicals into their
ingredients it resulted into a higher level of effectiveness when killing mosquitoes,
and lower percentage of them not affected by it.

Results from the Testing


Anova: Single Factor

SUMMARY
Groups

Count

Sum

Averag
e

Varianc
e

Organic Insect Spray

12

Commercial Insect
Spray

27

SS

df

MS

P-value

F crit

37.5

37.5

75

0.5

0.000978
09

7.708647
42

ANOVA
Source of Variation
Between Groups
Within Groups

Total

39.5

Cockroaches Killed

Table 1.ANOVA table of cockroach killed

Based on the table 1, F>Fcrit 75 > 7.70864742. Since F is greater than F


crit, we reject the null hypothesis and also Based on the table 1 our P-value is
less than 0.05, 0.00097809<0.05 we would then reject the null hypothesis.
Based on the comparisons of the organic household insect spray samples
and their commercial counterparts, it is shown that each variety of contents
mixed in to the formulation had significant difference from one another. And on
every trial that had a higher chili pepper extract used in the ingredients, the

percentage were higher compared to increasing lemongrass oil and reducing chili
pepper, see trial #2 on insect spray having 50ml. This then implies that the higher
the chili pepper extract used, the higher the percentage of its effectiveness.
Which is significantly different compared to its commercial counterpart.
Anova: Single
Factor

SUMMARY
Groups

Count

Sum

Average

Variance

16

5.333333
33

2.333333
33

34
11.33333
33

0.333333
33

Organic
Mosquito Coil
Commercial
Mosquito Coil

ANOVA
Source of
Variation

SS

df

MS

P-value

F crit

Between Groups

54

54

40.5

5.333333
333

1.333333
33

0.003125
59

7.708647
42

Within Groups
Total

59.33333
333

Mosquitoes Killed

Table 2.ANOVA table of cockroach killed

Based on the table 2, F>Fcrit 40.5 > 7.70864742. Since F is greater than

F crit, we reject the null hypothesis and also Based on the table 2 our P-value is
less than 0.05, 0.00312559<0.05 we would then reject the null hypothesis.
Based on the comparisons of the organic mosquito coil samples and their
commercial counterparts, it is shown that each variety of contents mixed into the
formulation, had significant difference from one another, each trial shows that
when a chili pepper extract is reduced the percentage of effectiveness is also
affected. It is shown on trial #2 on the treatment of mosquito coils having 30ml of
chili pepper extract had a significant difference on the percentage of mosquitoes
killed. This implies that the main component in the mixture of mosquito coil which
is capsaicin, is the main ingredient responsible for affecting the percentage of
mosquitoes killed. The commercial counterpart all had a higher percentage of
killing mainly because it made use of various chemicals.

CHAPTER 5
Summary of Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations
Summary of Findings

From the surveys conducted by the researchers, the test insects which are
cockroaches and mosquitoes where prepared in three treatments having three
trials and with varying amount of substance, the number of mosquitoes killed in a
10-minute observation would then yield the results on each treatments, all the
trials made use of the organic mosquito coil and insect spray to compare with its
commercial counterpart. The results where then witnessed that the number of
mosquitoes killed by the organic insect killers either mosquito coil or insect spray
where less than that of the commercial ones. But the researchers identified that
the organic insect killer produced a more pleasant aroma and was generally
more green and safe as it did not use any chemical substance.
From the analysis and through comparisons made from different contents
of the organic household insect killer, content of chili pepper oil mixed and binder
materials had affected the quality of the Organic household insect killer. It is
specified that the higher the content of chili pepper oil induced in the formulation
would result in a stronger level of effectiveness on insects killed, which was
observed in the testing of each organic mosquito coil as one trial had 20ml of
chilli pepper oil and the other had 30ml in each organic mosquito coil and an
80ml of insect spray on treatment B having the highest chili pepper oil which was
50mL. That is why the researchers then concluded that the higher the content of
the capsaicin mixed in the substance resulted in a higher number of test insects
killed, as witnessed in the trials of treatment A, B, C on both mosquito coil and
insect spray the highest which is 30mL and 50mL respectively, this contents
prove to have the highest number of mosquitoes killed out of all three treatments.
As the formulation of chili pepper oil gets higher, the level of effectiveness is
greatly affected, and thus capsaicin is the main ingredient that kills household
insects.

And on the results obtained from the organic household insect killer on the
trial of effectiveness, it is identified that the level of the content of lemongrass oil
that is supplemented in the substance would not change anything regarding its
aroma. and that lemongrass scent serves as a means to balance the strong odor
of chili. Therefore, it can be concluded that the organic household insect killer
produced by the researchers had different levels of effectiveness.
The researchers had then answered the statement of the problem
provided by the summary of findings, stated in the following:

Chili pepper and lemongrass oil both have an insecticidal property, the
capsaicin of chili pepper is a natural insect killer while lemongrass oil has
citral and geraniol, citral is for fighting off insects mainly because of its
lemony aroma, and geraniol has cytotoxic properties that eliminates
dangerous pathogens.

Charcoal powder is used as a binder for the development of an organic


mosquito coil, mainly because it would light up the coil and would absorb
odors and toxins in the air

The organic household insect killer made out of chili pepper and
lemongrass oil are purely organic and uses natural insecticidal properties
in eliminating household insects, without the use of dangerous chemical
ingredients in its formulation.

Chili peppers and lemongrass can be easily bought in the market and
given that it grows abundantly in our country.

Conclusions

The researchers had identified the effectiveness of Lemongrass oil


(Cymbopogon citratus) and Chili pepper extracted oil (Capsicum frutescenz) as
an alternative household insect killer, which is clean, green and purely made from
organic substance.

The organic household insect killer made of lemongrass oil and chili
pepper extract had a significant difference in aroma and health safety from
other commercial household insect killer.

Increasing the content of chili pepper extract used per piece of mosquito
coil and an 80ml spray on its formulation, would result into a stronger
aroma and a higher level effectiveness on killing insects.

Content of lemongrass oil added in the mixture. Remains the same odor

Different amount of chili pepper oil and lemongrass oil formulated on both
insect spray and mosquito coil, resulted in different levels of effectiveness
of test insects killed.

Recommendations
For future researchers who would make a research related to organic
household insect killer, with lemongrass oil and chili pepper oil as the main
component. The researchers would then recommend the following:

Find another suitable organic substance to be mixed in the formulation,


that would aid in the level of effectiveness and compare better to
commercial counterparts.

Upgrade the process of production for ideas of mass production of


Organic household insect killer.

Find other Molder materials to aid in the physical durability of the coil

Develop methods to strengthen the effectiveness of the household insect


spray by adding another compound mixture into the formulation.