CHAPTER
� 2.1
FLUID PRESSURE AT A POINT
Consider a small area dA in large mass of fluid. Tf the fluid is stationary, then the force exerted by the surrounding fluid on the area dA will always be perpendicular to the surface dA. Let dF is the force
acting on the area _{d} A in the normal direction. Then the ratio of ^{d}^{F} is known as the intensity of
dA
pressure or simply pressure and this ratio is repres,ented by p. Hence mathematically the pressure at a point in a fluid at rest is
^{p}
^{=}
dF
dA
If the force ( _{F} ) is uniformly distributed over the area (A), then pressure at any point is given by
^{p}
^{=}
_{F}
_{A}
Force
^{=}
Area ·
Force or pressure force, F= _{p} x A.
The units of pressure arc : (i) kgf/m ^{2} and kgf/cm ^{2} in MKS units, (ii) Newton/m ^{2} or N/m ^{2} and
units. N/m ^{2} is known as Pascal and is represented by Pa. Other commonly used units of
N/mm ^{2} in ST pressure are
kPa = 
kilo pascal = 1000 N/m ^{2} 
bar= 
100 kPa= 10 ^{5} N/m ^{2} • 
� 2.2
PASCAL'S LAW
lt states that the pressure or intensity of pressure at a point in a static fluid is equal in all directions. This is proved as
The fluid element is of very small dimensions i.e., dx, dy and ds.
Consider an arbitrary fluid element of wedge shape in a fluid mass at rest as shown in Fig. 2.1. Let the width of the element perpendicular to the plane of paper is unity and _{P} _{x}_{,}
35
B
P _{x} • dy •1
e
dy
<?
.
^{O'}^{.s,} •7
dx
A C
)x
z
_{F}_{i}_{g}_{.} _{2}_{.}_{1}
Py• il.X • 1
_{F}_{o}_{r}_{c}_{e}_{s} _{o}_{n} _{a} _{f}_{l}_{u}_{i}_{d} _{e}_{l}_{e}_{m}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{.}
11
Copyrighted material
=o.
=AB= dy
(2.3)
�
136 Fl11id Mechartics
L
_{P} _{y} and J'z are the pressures or intensity of pressure acting on the face AB, AC and BC respectively. Let LABC= 0. Then the forces acting on the ele1uent are
1. 
Pressure forces normal to the surfaces, a11d 
2. 
Weight of ele1nent in the ve1tical direction. 
The forces on the faces are Force on the face AB ^{=} P _{x} xArea of face _{A}_{B}
= _{P}_{x} X
dy X 1
Si1nilarly force on the face AC= _{P} _{y} x dxx 1 Force on the face BC =p _{.} x els x l
Weight of ele1nent
�
=(NIass of ele1nent) x g
=(Volu,nexp)xg=
_{(} AB x AC
2
,vhere
p= density of fluid.
Resolving the forces in xdirection, we have
or
_{P} _{x} _{X} dy X
I  p (ds X l) sin (90 ^{°}  0)
cos 0
ds cos 0 P.r X dy X 1  _{P} _{z} _{X} dy _{X} _{1}
P ^{x} x dy x1  P z ds x 1
But frotn Fig. 2.1,
=0
=0
xl
) xpxg,
or
or
P _{x} Si1nilarly, resolving the forces in ydirection, \Ve get
== P,
_{P} _{y} X dx _{X} 1  _{P} _{z} X ds X I cos (90 ^{°}  0) 
dxxdy
_{2}
xl X p X g=0
_{P} _{v} _{x} dx  _{P}_{z} ds sin 0 _{}
.
dxdy
_{}_{}
2
_{x} p xg = 0.
(2.1)
But ds sin _{0} _{==} dx and also the ele1nent is very sn1all and hence 1,veight is negligible.
_{o}_{r}
_{:}_{.}
_{P} _{y} dx _{} JJ, _{X} dx == _{0}
_{P} _{y} = _{P}_{z}
Fro1n equations (2.1) and (2.2), ,ve have
_{P} _{x} ==P _{y} ==Pz
(2.2)
The above equation shows that the pressure at any point in x, y and z directions is equal. Since the choice of fluid ele1nent was completely arbitrary, vvbich 111eans the pressure at any point is the sarne in aU directions .
_{2}_{.}_{3}
PRESSURE VARIATION IN A FLUID AT REST
The pressure at any point in a fluid at rest is obtained by the Hydro static Lavv which states that the rate of increase of pressure in a verti cally do,vnward direction 1nust be equal to the specific weight of the fluid at that point. This is proved as :
Consider a sn1all fluid elernent as shown in Fig. 2.2 Let M= Crosssectional area of elen1ent l:lZ= Height of fluid ele1nent p = Pressure ou face AB _{Z} = Distance of fluid ele1nent from free surface.
The forces acti11g on the fluid element are :
FREE SURFACE OF FLUID


 
pxt,.A. ___ z_.
  .

·

I Z   
  _{f} ^{}
A
.
·s
. z·
11
·
C ·
 t

_{} .
·  

i.lp
)  ____
_{(} _{p} +.t:.Z a.A
"z
V

·
·
^{F}^{i}^{g}^{.} ^{2}^{.}^{2}
^{F}^{o}^{r}^{c}^{e}^{s} ^{o}^{n} ^{a} ^{f}^{l}^{u}^{i}^{d} ^{e}^{l}^{e}^{m}^{e}^{n}^{t}^{.}
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i
�
Pressure and its Measurement
371
l. Pressure force
on AB = p x M and acting perpendicula ^{r} to face AB in the downv,rard direction.
L
2. _{P}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{s}_{u}_{r}_{e} _{f}_{o}_{r}_{c}_{e} _{o}_{n} _{C}_{D} _{=}_{(}_{p} _{+} _{!}_{�} LlZ) x M, acting perpendicular to face CD, vertically upward
direction.
_{3}_{.} Weight of fluid element= Density x g x Volume= p xg x (M _{x}
4. Pressure forces on surfaces BC and AD are equal and opposite. For equihbriu1u of fluid
eleu1ent, ,ve have
pM  (p + !�
M _{+} p X g X (M X
= _{0}
or
or
or
•
pM  pM  ^{:} �
LlZLlfl + _{p} X g X Llfl X 2
= 0
OJ)
_{az}

o p L\.ZM + p x _{g} x M
oz
= 0
= p X 8 X M
or
�
p
aZ
= _{p}_{x} _{g} [cancelling M
oJJ
_{a}_{z} = P x s = \11
(·:
p xg= 111)
on both sides]
(2.4)
_{w}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e} 111 = Weight density of fluid. Equation (2.4) states that rate of increase of pressure in a vertical direction is equal to vveight density of the fluid at that point. 'fhis is Hydrostatic Law. By integrating the above equation (2.4) for liquids, we get
J dp= J pgdZ
or
(2.5)
where _{p} is the pressure above atrnospheric pressure and Z is the _{h}_{e}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t} of the point from free surfaces.
_{p} = pgZ
Fron1 equation (2.5), vve have
Z=
Here Z is called 1>ressure head.
P
pxg
(2.6)
Problem 2.1 A hydraulic press has a ra,n of30 crn dia,neter and a plunger o_f 4.5 cni dicuneter. I;ind the weight li ^{ft} ed by the hydraulic press when the _{.} force applied at the plunger is 500 _{N}_{.}
Solution. Given
Dia. of _{r}_{a}_{r}_{n}_{,} Dia. of plunger, Force on plunger, Find ,veight lifted
Area of ram,
Area of plunger,
D
= 30 c1n _{=} 0.3 IU
ll = 4.5 cm = 0.045 111
F = 500 N
=W
;\ = n _{D} 2 _{=} 
^{n} 

4 
4 

_{a} _{=} n 
d ^{2} _{=} 
n 
4 
4 
(0 ^{.} _{3}_{)} ^{2} ^{=} 0.07068 _{m} ^{2}
(0.045) ^{2} = .00159 111 ^{2}
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i
,,v
'
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138 Fl11id Mechartics
Pressure intensity due to plunger
Force on plunger Area of plunger
F
w
F
500
.00159

N/m ^{2} .
=" =  =
a
         __!,_��� 
Due to Pascal's la\,v, the intensity of pressure 'Nill be equally transn1itted in aLI directions. Hence the pressure intensity at the ram
But pressure intensity at rain
=
500
=



_{}_{} _{�}_{}_{�}_{}_{�}_{}_{�}_{}_{�}_{}  ='  


Fig. 2.3
N/m
.00159 = 314465.4 N/Jn ^{2}
 Weioht Area of rain
w
A
=
.07068
PLUNGER
_{:}_{.}
_{W}_{e}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t}
lV
.07068
= 314465.4
= 314465.4 x.07068 = 22222 N = 22.222 kN. Ans.
Problem 2.2
userl.for lifting a weight 0;·30 kN. [•ind 1he force required at the plunger.
A hydraulic press has a rain of20 c,n dia1neter and a plunger of3 c,n dia,neter. Ir is
Solution. Given :
Dia. of rain,
D = 20 ctn = 0.2 1n
.
.
_{.}
Area of rain,
Dia. of plunger
A _{=} 1t 
D ^{2} _{=} 
4 
7t (.2) ^{2} _{=} 0.0314 1n ^{2}
4
_{d} _{=} _{3} _{c}_{m} _{=} _{0}_{.}_{0}_{3} _{1}_{1}_{1}
.
.
.
Area of plunger,
_{a}_{=}
_{n} _{(}_{.}_{0}_{3}_{)} ^{2} _{=} _{7}_{.}_{0}_{6}_{8}_{x} _{1}_{0}_{} ^{4} _{r}_{n} ^{2}
4
Weight lifted, See Fig. 2.3.
P ressure . 1ntens1ty .
Area By Pascal's La\.v, this pressure is transrnitted equally in all directions
W = 30 kN = 30 x 1000 N = 30000 N.
Force _{}_{}
F
a
d
eve I ope
d d
ue to p 1 unger =
f
l
Hence pressure transn1itted at the ran1= _{}
.
.
.
•
.
.
.
Problem 2.3
Force acting
on rain = Pressure intensity x Area of rarn
F
=XA=
Fx.0314
N
7.068x10 ^{4} But force acting on rain= Weight lifted= _{3}_{0}_{0}_{0}_{0} N F X .0314
_{3}_{0}_{0}_{0}_{0}_{=}
a
7.068 X 10 

4
_{f} _{l} _{=} 30000 _{X} 7.068 _{X}_{]}_{0} ^{4}
.0314
= 675.2 N. Ans.
Calculatr, the pressure due to a colurnn of"0.3 r�f'( a) water, (b) an oil oj'sJJ. gr. 0.8, and
L
(c) rnercury of"sJJ. gr. 13.6. Takr, density ofwater, p= 1000 kg!n·, ^{3} . Solution. Given :
IIeighl of Liquid colutnn,
_{Z} _{=} _{0}_{.}_{3} _{rn}_{.}
Copyr ghted material
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_{=} 0.9
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Pressure and its Measurement
3 _{9} _{1}
The pressure at any point in a liquid is given by equation (2.5) as _{J}_{>} = pgZ
(a) For water,
p = 1000 kg/ln ^{3}
.
.
.
_{p}_{=} _{p}_{g}_{Z}_{=} 1000 x 9.81 x 0.3= 2943N/Jn ^{2}
_{} ^{2}^{9} �
10
^{3} N/cm ^{2} = 0.2943 _{N} /cm ^{2} • Ans.
(b) For oil of sp. gr. 0.8, Fro1n equation ( l. lA), ,ve kno,v that the density of a fluid is equal 1nultiplied by density of water.
to specific gravity of fluid
:.
Density of oil,
_{P}_{o} _{=} _{S}_{p}_{.} gr. of oil x Density of water = 0.8 X p = 0.8 X 1000 = 800 kg/m ^{3}
(p _{0} = Density of oil)
No,v pressure,
(c) For rnercury, sp. gr.
_{p}_{=} p _{0} x g x Z
= 800 X 9.81 X 0.3 _{=} _{2}_{3} _{5} 4.4
_{=} 0.2354
= 13.6
N _{2} • Ans.
cm
N
111
2
2354.4
N
= �
10 ^{4}
Cln 2
.
L
From equation (l. lA) we kno,v that the density of a fluid is equal to specific gravity of fluid multiplied by density of water
:. Density of 111ercury,
.
.
.
_{P}_{s} _{=} Specific gravity of 1nercury x Density of water = 13.6 X 1000 = 13600 kg/111 ^{3} _{p} _{=} _{P}_{s} X g X Z
N
 13600 X 9.81 X 0.3= 40025 _{m}_{}
Problem 2.4
 ^{4}^{0}^{0}^{2} ^{5} _{=} 4.002 10 ^{4}
N
cm ^{2}
. ;\ns.
1'/ie pressure intensity at a point in a/7,uid is given. 3.924 Nlcn1 ^{2} . Find the correspond
ing height of fluid when the.fluid is : (a) 111a1er, and (b) oil of sp. _{g}_{r}_{.} 0.9.
Solution. Given
Pressure intensity,
JJ = 3.924
_{N}
Clll
_{2} = 3.924 _{x}_{1}_{0}
4N
2
ID
.
The corresponding height, Z, of the fluid is given by equation (2.6) as
(a) For water,
.
.
.
(b) For oil, sp. gr. :. Density of oil
.
Z=
P
pxg
p = 1000 kg/tn ^{3}
Z=
^{p}
pxg

3.924
X 10
4
_{1}_{0}_{0}_{0}_{x}_{9}_{.}_{8}_{1} = 4 1n of water. ,\ns.
_{P}_{o} =
_{Z} _{=}
_{0}_{.}_{9} x 1000 = 900 kg/m ^{3}
JJ
3.924 X10
4
_{}_{}_{}_{}_{}
Po xg
900 X 9.81
= 4.44 m of oil. Ans.
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140 Fl11id Mechartics
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_{P}_{r}_{o}_{b}_{l}_{e}_{m} _{2}_{.}_{5} _{A}_{n} _{o}_{i}_{l} _{o}_{f} _{s}_{p}_{.} gr. 0.9 is containecl in _{a} _{v}_{e}_{s}_{s}_{e}_{l}_{.} _{A}_{t} _{a} _{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{h}_{e}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t} _{o}_{f}_{·} oil is 40 ,n. f"ind the corresponding height of water at the point.
Solution. Given Sp. gr. of oil, Height of oil,
Density of oil, _{P}_{o} = _{S}_{p}_{.} gr. of oil x Density of \Vater=0.9x1000 =900 kg/Jn ^{3}
_{S} _{0} =0.9 Z _{0} = 40 n1
Intensity of pressure,
_{p} _{=} _{P}_{o} _{X} _{g} _{X} _{Z}_{o} _{=} _{9}_{0}_{0} _{X} _{9} _{.}_{8} _{l}
_{X} _{4}_{0}
N2
1n
:.
Co1Tesponcling height of water _{=}
�
Density of "vater x g
.
_{P}_{r}_{o}_{b}_{l}_{e}_{m} _{2} _{.}_{6}
900 X 9.81 X 40
= _{}_{}_{}_{}_{}
1000 X 9.81
_{=}_{0}_{.}_{9} x40 =36 m of ,vater. Ans.
An open tank contains waler upto a depth of 2 ni and above it an. oil _{o}_{f}_{·} _{s}_{p}_{.} _{g}_{r}_{.} _{0}_{.}_{9} _{f}_{o}_{r}
a depth of 1 111. }ind the pressure intensity (i) at the inte,face o_{ the two liquids, and (ii) al the bottorn of the tank.
Solution. Given Height of water, Height of oil, Sp. gr. of oil, Density of water, Density of oil,
Z _{1} _{=} 2 Ill Z _{2} =11n S _{0} =0.9
p I =1000 kg/111 ^{.,}
p _{2} = Sp. gr. of oil x Density of water
= 0.9 X 1000 = 900 kg/in ^{3}
Pressure intensity at any point is given by
(i) At interface, i.e., at A
_{p} =p X g _{X} Z.
p =p _{2} _{X} g X 1.0
=900x9.8lx1.0
1.0
2.0
.: .
"':
:.:: :
:
:
_{:} :::.:: _{:} :
:.�.
_
:..

··· · _{·} 
oil
"····· ···· _{·}
.
:
_
 .
······ ··
 ::. ::.::.::. ::.::. ::. A:_
  
� ::WATER::::

::.::::.:: ::.:: ::.:: . B
     

Fig. 2.4
^{N}
2
8829
10
4
= 8829
2
= 0.8829 N/crn . Ans.
C
=
1n
(ii) At the botto1n, i.e., at B p _{=} _{P} _{2} _{x} g _{Z}_{2} _{+} _{P}_{,} x g x z, = 900 _{x} 9.81 x 1.0 + lOOO x 9.81 x 2.0
Problem 2.7
=8829 + 19620 = 28449 _{N} /Jn ^{2} =
28449
10
4
N/c1n ^{2} =2.8449 N/cm�. Aus.
1
1'he clia,neters of a srnall piston and a large piston ofa hydraulic jack are 3 cn1. and
10 cm respectively. A force of 80 N is applied on the sniall piston. f"ind the load lifled by the large
piston �vhen :
(a) the pistons are at the sa,ne level. (b) s,nall piston is 40 crn above the large piston. The tlensi ty o/ the liquid in tJu, jack is given as 1000 kglrn. ^{3} .
Solution. Given Dia. of s1nall piston,
d = 3 crn
.
•
.
Area of s1uall piston,
a=� d ^{2} =
4
_{�} _{x} ^{(} _{3} ) ^{2} = 7.068 cn1 ^{2}
4
Copyr ghted material
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_{=} w.
�
Pressure and its Measurement
_{4}_{1}_{1}
Dia. of large piston,
D = 10 ctn
Area of larger piston,
Force on small piston, Let the load lifted
A =
x (10) ^{2} = 78.54 ctn ^{2}
4
F= 80 N
(a) When the pistons are at the sa1ne level
Pressure intensity on s1nall piston
F
^{}
a
 
80
N/c1n ^{2}
7.068
This is transn1itted equally on the large piston.
.
.
. Pressure intensity on the large piston
. Force on the large piston
80
7.068
= Pressure x Area
_{F}_{i}_{g}_{.} _{2}_{.}_{5}
80
^{} 
7.068
x _{7}_{8}_{.}_{5}_{4} _{N} =888.96 N. Ans.
SMALL
PISTON
(b) \Vhen the small piston is 40 c1n above the large piston
Pressure intensity on the sn1all piston
:.
Pressure intensity at section A A
= Ii' ^{} = a
80 
7.068
N
c1n ^{2}
=
a
+ Pressure intensity due to height of 40 c1n of liquid.
But pressure intensity due to 40 cm of liquid =p X g X h =1000 X 9.81 X 0.4 N/m ^{2}
^{} ^{1}^{0}^{0}^{0} ^{x}^{9}^{.}^{8}^{l}^{x}^{.}^{4}^{0} N/c1n2 = 0.3924 N/crn ^{2}
10
^{4}

.
.
.
•
.
.
.
.
.
Pressure intensity at section AA
^{} ^{8}^{}^{0} ^{}
^{} + 0.3924
7.068
= 11.32 + 0.3924= ll.71 N/cn, ^{2}
Pressure intensity transrnitted to the large piston = 11.71 N/c1n ^{2}
Force on the large piston = Pressure x Area of the large piston _{=}_{1}_{1}_{.}_{7}_{1} XI\= 11.71 X 78.54= 919.7 N.
Fig. 2.6
F
+
^{}
^{}

 
A
2.4
ABSOLUTE, GAUGE, ATMOSPHERIC AND VACUUM PRESSURES
The pressure 011 a fluid is 1neasured in two different syste1ns. In one system, it _{i}_{s} _{m}_{e}_{a}_{s}_{u}_{r}_{e}_{d} _{a}_{b}_{o}_{v}_{e} the absolute zero or con1plete vacuu1n and it is called the absolute pressure and in other syste1n, pressure is 1neasured above the at1nospheric pressure and it is called gauge pressure. Thus i\hsolutepressure is defined as the pressure which .is 1neasured vvith reference to absolute vacuutn pressure.
2. Gauge pressure is defined as the pressure ,vhich is 1neasured with the help of a pressure 1nea
suring instrument, in which tl1e annospheric pressure is taken as datu1n. The annospheric pressure on the scale is marked as zero.
1
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Copyr ghted material
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142 Fl11id Mechartics
3. Vacuu1n 11rcssurc is defined as the pres
_{w}
_{g;}
The relationship bet\veen the absolute pressure, (/)
w
a:
sure belov,1 the atmosphe1ic pressure.
gauge pL"essure and vacuun1 pressure arc shown in Fig. 2.7. Mathen1atically :
(i) Absolute pressure _{=} Aunospheric pressure + Gauge pressure
^{o}^{r}
Pab ^{==} Patm + Pgauge
A
·
_{'}
GAUGE PRESSURE
ATMOSPHERIC
PRESSURE
_{/}
1l'�
ABSOLUTE
PRESSURE
_{}_{=}_{}_{}
 VACUUM PRESSURE
 • 
B
ABSOLUTE ZERO PRESSURE
(ii) Vacuu1n pressure = Atn1ospberic pressure  Absolute pressure.
Fi _{g} . 2.7
Relationship between pressures.
L
Note. (i) The ahllospheric pressure at sea level at 15 ^{°} C is 101.3 kN/tll ^{2} or 10.13 N/ctll ^{2} in SI unit. In case of MKS units, it is equal to 1.033 kgf/c1ll ^{2} . (ii) The atrllospheric pressure head is 760 mm of mercury or 10.33 111 of ,vater.
Problem 2.8 What are the gauge pressure an.d absolute pressure at a point 3 m belo,v the free su1face of a liquid having a density of 1.53 x 10 ^{3} kg!m ^{3} ij' the atniospheric pressure is equivalen1 10 750 n1.n1 of ,nercury ? The specific gravity of·,nercury is 13.6 and density of �va.ter == 1000 kg!m ^{3} .
Solution. Given Depth of liquid, Density of liquid, Atmospheric pressure head,
_{2} _{1} =3 lU p _{1} = 1.53 x
2 _{0}
10 ^{3} kg/Jn ^{3}
= 750 01111 of Hg
.
.
_{.}
where
and
.
.
.
Atn1ospl1eric pressure,
=
750
_{}
1000
= O _{.}_{7}_{5} Ill Of 1fg
_{p}_{a}_{t}_{m} _{=} _{P}_{o} _{x} _{g} _{x} _{2}_{0}
_{p} _{0} = Density of Hg= Sp. gr. of 1nerctu·y x Density of water= 13.6 x 1000 kg/n1 ^{3} Z _{0} = Pressure head in tenns of ,nercuJy.
/J _{a}_{t}_{m} = (13.6 X 1000) == 100062 N/n1 ^{2}
X 9.81 X 0.75 N/m ^{2}
_{(}_{·}_{:}
_{Z} _{0} = 0.75)
Pressure at a point, \vhicb is at a depth of 3 1n from the free surface of the liquid is given by,
Gauge pressure, _{N}_{o}_{w} _{a}_{b}_{s}_{o}_{l}_{u}_{t}_{e} _{p}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{s}_{u}_{r}_{e}
p=p _{L} xgxZ _{1} = (1.53 X 1000) X 9.81 X _{3} _{=} _{4}_{5}_{0}_{2}_{8} _{N}_{/}_{t}_{n} ^{2}
_{p} _{=} _{4}_{5}_{0}_{2}_{8} _{N}_{/}_{1}_{n} ^{2} _{•} _{A}_{n}_{s}_{.}
== Gauge pressure + Atmospheric pressure =45028 + 100062= 145090 N/n1 ^{2} • Ans.
2.S
MEASUREMENT OF PRESSURE
The pressure of a fluid is 1neasured by the following devices
2. Mechanical Gauges. Mano,neters are defined as the devices used for measuring the presstu·e at
a point in a fluid by balancing the colun1n of fluid by the sa,ne or another column of the fluid. They are classifiecl as :
l. Nlano1neters
2.S. I
Manometers.
(a)
Sitnple Manometers,
(b) Differential M.anorneters.
Copyr ghted material
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(cl)
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Pressure and its Measurement
431
2.5.2 Mechanical Gauges.
the
cal pressure gauges are :
pressure by balancing the fluid
Nlechanical gauges are defined as the devices used for measuring
colu 1nn by the spring or dead
\Neight.The cornrnonly used rnechani
(a) Diaphrag1n pressure gauge,
(c) Deadweight pressure gauge, and
(b) Bourdon tube pressure gauge,
Bello,vs pressure gauge.
2.6
SIMPLE MANOMETERS
A si1nple 1nano 1neter consists of a glass tube having one of its ends connected to a point where pressure is to be 1neasured and other end rernains open to annosphere. Cornrnon types of sirnple n1a no111eters are 1. Piezorneter,' 2. Ul11be Mano1neter, and
3. Single Colu 1nn Nlanorneter.
2.6.1 Piezometer. lt is the sitnplest for1n of 1nanon1eter used for
1neasuring gauge pressures.One end ofthis rnanon1eter is connected to the point "vhere pressure is to be measured and other end is open to _{t}_{h}_{e} _{a}_{t}_{1}_{n}_{o}_{s}_{p}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e} as sho,vn in Fig.2.8. The rise of liquid gives the pressure head at that point. If at a point A, the height of liquid say water is h in piezorneter tube, then pressure at A
=pxgxh
N
m
2 ^{•}
Fig. 2.8
JJiezometer.
L
2.6.2 Utube Manometer. It consists of glass tube bent in Ushape, one end of which is
connected to a point at which pressure is to be rneasured and other encl remains open to the
atmosphere as shown in Fig. 2.9. The tube generally contains n1ercury or any other liquid
\vhose
specific gravity is greater than the specific gravity of the liquid whose pressure is to be 1neasured.
h1
Iz
· ···
A
_{A}
(a) For gauge pressure
(b) For vacuum pressure
Fig. 2.9
Utube Manometer.
(a) For Gauge Pressure. Let B is the point at which pressure is to be 1neasured, whose value is p. The daturn line is A A.
Let
h _{1}
h _{2} =Height of heavy liquid above the datum line
S _{1} =Sp.gr.of Light liquid
=Height of light liquid above the datun1 line
p 
_{1} = Density of light liquid = 1000 x S _{1} 
S 
_{2} =Sp.gr.of heavy liquid 
_{p} 
_{2} = Density of heavy liquid = 1000 x S _{2} 
Copyr ghted material
i
(2.7)
_{} ;.·1
::::::
�
144 Fl11id Mechartics
L
As the pressure is the sa1ne for the horizontal surface. Hence pressure above the horizontal datu1n line AA in the left colurnn and in the right column of Utube 1nano1neter should be satne.
Pressure above A A in the left colutnn
Pressure
Hence equating the two pressures
above AA in U1e right colun1n
:.
_{=} _{p} _{+} _{p} _{1} _{x} _{=}_{p} _{2} _{x} _{g} _{x}
_{g} _{x} _{h} _{1}
_{h}_{2}
_{p} _{+} _{p} _{1}_{g}_{h}_{.} _{1} = _{p} _{2}_{g}_{h}_{2} _{p} = (p2gh2  P t x g x h 1) .
(b) For Vacuun1 Pt·essure. For measuring vacuun1 pressure, the level of the heavy liquid in the
1nano1neter will be as shown in Fig. 2.9 (b). Then
Pressure
Pressure head in the 1jght colu1nn above A A ^{:}^{.}
above A A
in the left colu1nn
_{=}_{p} _{2}_{g}_{h}_{2} _{+} _{p} _{1}_{g}_{h}_{1} _{+} _{p}
_{=}_{0}
Pz8h2 _{+} P _{t}_{8}_{h}_{1} _{+} P = 0
.
.
.
(2.8)
Problem 2.9 The right lilnb of a si,nple Ulube ,nanomeler containing mercury is open to the ahnosphere �vhile the left limb is connected to a pipe in which a fluid of sp. gr. 0.9 is .flo�ving. The _{c}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{r}_{e} _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{p}_{i}_{p}_{e} is 12 crn belo�v the level of mercury in the right lirnb. Find the pressure offluid in _{t}_{h}_{e} pipe if the difference of mercury level in the t1vo lirnbs _{i}_{s} 20 cm.
or
Solution. Given
Sp. gr. of fluid,
_{S} _{I} =0.9 _{P} _{i} _{=}_{S} _{1} x 1000 = 0.9 x 1000 = 900 kg/Jn ^{3} _{S} _{2} =13.6
_{p} _{2} ^{=}
_{h}_{2} =
13.6 X 1000 kg/Jn ^{3} 20 ctn= 0.2 111
h _{1} = 20  12 = 8 Clll = 0.08 JU
.
.
:.
Density of fluid,
. Sp. gr. of mercury, Density of mercury, Difference of 1nercury level, Height of fluid fron1 A A,
_{L}_{e}_{t} _{p} _{=}_{P}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{s}_{u}_{r}_{e} of fluid in p.ipe Equating the pressure above A A, ,ve get
= = =
P ^{+} P _{1}_{g}_{h} 1 = P2gh2 p + 900 x 9.81 x 0.08 = 13.6 x 1000 x 9.81 x .2
_
� � � .
r
12
j
T
20 cm
·· 
1 

A 
A 
Fig. 2.10
_{p} _{=} _{1}_{3}_{.}_{6}
X 1000 X 9.81 X .2  900 X 9.81 X 0.08
= 26683  706 = 25977 N/n1 ^{2} _{=}_{2}_{.}_{5}_{9}_{7} N/cm ^{2} • Ans.
A sim.ple Utube manometer containing mercury is connected to a pipe in 1'lhich a
fluid oj'sp. gr. _{0}_{.}_{8} and having vacuum pressure isflowing. The other end of the ,nanometer is open to alinosphere. Find the vacuum pressure in. pipe, �f the difference of mercury level in the t,vo linibs is 40 crn and the height of fluid in the left from the centre of pipe is 15 Cl'l'l below.
Problem 2. 10
Solution. Given
Sp. gr. of fluid, _{S}_{p}_{.} gr. of mercury, Density of fluid, Density of mercury,
s, _{=} 0.8 _{S} _{2} = 13.6 _{p} _{1} =800 _{P}_{2} _{=} 13.6 x 1000
;::;;� 
= = = 
 
l
15 cm
T
40cm
Difference of 111ercury level, _{h}_{2} = 40 cn1= _{0}_{.}_{4} _{1}_{1}_{1}_{.} _{H}_{e}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t} _{o}_{f} _{l}_{i}_{q}_{u}_{i}_{d} _{i}_{n} _{l}_{e}_{f}_{t} _{l}_{i}_{m}_{b}_{,} _{h}_{1} _{=} _{1}_{5} _{c}_{1}_{n} _{=} 0.15 111. Let the pressure in pipe= p. Equating pressure above datum Line AA, we get
A
_L
_{F}_{i}_{g}_{.} _{2}_{.}_{1}_{1}
A
Copyr ghted material
i
�
Pressure and its Measurement
4 _{5} _{1}
.
p =  [ P28h2 + Pt8h.L] [13.6 X 1000 X 9.81
_{=} _{}
X 0.4 + 800 X 9.81 X 0.15]
=  [53366.4 + 1177.2] =  54543.6 N/m ^{2} _{=} _{} _{5}_{.}_{4}_{5}_{4} _{N}_{/}_{c}_{m} ^{2} • Ans.
_{P}_{r}_{o}_{b}_{l}_{e}_{m} 2.11 A UTube mano,neter is used to measure the pressure o.f' water in a pipe line, H1hich is in excess of ahnosph.eric pressure. The right limb of the manometer contains mercury and is open to atmosphere . The contact between •,vater and rnercury is in the le.ft lirnb. Deterrnine the pressure _{o}_{f} water in the rnain line, if the difference in level o.f' rnercury in the limbs o.f' Utube is JO crn and the free surface of mercury is in level 111ith the centre of the pipe. If the pressure of �vater in pipe line is
98IO Nim2, calculate the ne111 difference in the level o.f' mercury. Sketch the arrangem.ents
reduced to
in both cases.
Solution. Given Difference of 1nercury = 10 cm = 0.1 m 'fhe iurangement is shov,n in Fig. 2.11 (a)
1st Part
Let p _{1}_{1} = (pressure of water in pipe line
Tbe points B and C lie on the sa1ne horizontal line. Hence pressure at B should be equal to pressure
(i.e., at point A)
at C. But pressure at B _{=} Pressure at A _{+} Pressure due to 10 cn1 (or 0.1 n1) of water
RIGHT LIMB
where
= p _{1}_{1} + p xg x h
p = 1000 kg/Jn ^{3}
_{a}_{o}_{d} _{h} _{=} _{0}_{.}_{1} _{n}_{1}
= _{P}_{A} _{+} _{1}_{0}_{0}_{0} _{X} 9.81 X 0.1
= _{P}_{A}
_{+} 981 N/1n ^{2}
(i)
Pressure at C = Pressure at D + Pressure due to 10 cn1 of 1nercury
WATER
LEFT LIMB
10 cm
D
= 0 +Pox gx h. _{0} = 13.6 x 1000 kg/rn ^{3}
where _{P} o for 1nercury
and
h _{0} _{=} 10 c,n = 0.1 m _{P}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{s}_{u}_{r}_{e} _{a}_{t} _{C} _{=} _{0} + (13.6 x 1000) x 9.81 x 0.1
_{:}_{.}
= 13341.6 N
(ii)
B _
MERCURY
C
But pressure at B is equal to pressure at C. Hence equating the equa
tions (i) and (ii), we get
_{P}_{A} _{+} 981 = 13341.6
Fig. 2.11 (a)
.
_{p} _{11} _{=} 13341.6  981
Th1d Part
= 12360.6
N
m
_{2} • Ans.
L
Given, _{P}_{A} = 9810 N/m ^{2} Find new difference of n1ercury level. The atTange1nent is shO\Vn in Fig. 2.11 (b). In this case the pressure at A is 9810 N/Jn ^{2} which is less than the 12360.6 N/111 ^{2} • Hence 1nercury in left limb will rise. The rise of n1ercury in left lin1b \Vill be equal to the fall of mercury in right li1nb as the total volu1ne of n1ercury ren1a1ns same. Let x = Rise of n1ercury iu left lin1b iu c1n Then fall of 1nercury in 1ight Ii111b = x c1n The points B, C and D sho,v the initial conditions ,vhereas points B*, C* and D* sho"v the final conditions.
Copyr ghted material
i
�
146 Fl11id Mechartics
_{o}_{r}
or
or
or
or
or
.
.
•
.
The pressure at B* = Pressure at C* _{P}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{s}_{u}_{r}_{e} at A + Pressure due to (10  x) cn1 of ,vater _{=} Pressure at D* + Pressure clue to _{(} _{1}_{0} _{} 2x) cm of 1nercury
_{J}_{)}_{A} ^{+} _{p}_{I} ^{X} ^{g}
^{X} h I = pD* + P2 X g X h _{2}
1910 + 1000 X 9.81 _{X} _{(} ^{l}^{O}^{}^{.x}^{)}
100
= 0 + (13.6 X 1000) X 9.81 X ( ^{1}^{0}^{}^{2}^{.}^{x} )
100
Dividing by 9.81, we get
1000 + 100 
IOx= _{1}_{3}_{6}_{0} _{} _{2}_{7}_{2x}
272.x IOx= 1360  1100
262x = 260
260
_{x} =  = 0.992 cn1
262
New difference of mercury = 10  2x cm =10  2 x 0.992
Fig. 2.11 (b)
= 8.016 CID. ,\.ns.
Problem 2.12
Fig. 2.12 shows a conical vessel having if.s outlet at A to which a Utube n1anonieter
L
is connected. 1"he reading of . the ,nano,neter given in the figure sho111s 1vhen the vessel is e,npty. Find the _{.}
reading _{o}_{f}_{·} the rnanonieter when the vessel is co,npletely filled 1vith 1vater.
Solution. Vessel is em1>ty. Given Difference of 1nercurv level
Let h _{1} = Height of \.Yater above X X
_{h}_{2} _{=} _{2}_{0} _{c}_{t}_{n}
Sp. 
gr. of mercury, 
S _{2} = 13.6 

Sp. 
gr. of water, 
_{S} _{1} _{=} _{1}_{.}_{0} 

Density of mercury, Density of water, 
p _{2} = 13.6 p _{1} = I000 
x 1000 

Equating the pressure above daturn line _{X} _{X}_{,}_{} 
we have 
or
_{P}_{2} X _{g} X _{h} _{2} = _{p} _{I} X g X h _{1}
13.6 X 1000 X 9.81 X 0.2
= 1000 X 9.81 X _{h} _{1}
_{h} _{1} = 2.72 m of water. Vessel is full of \Vater. Wben vessel is fuU of water, tbe
I.2 + M
1

3M
20 cm
x t
.
h
X 1
1
Fig. 2.12
pressure in the right lirnb will increase and mercury level in the right Ji1nb ,vilJ go down. Let the
be, y c1n as shov. 1 n in Fig. 2.13. The
distance
1nercury will rise in the left by a distance of y c1n. Now the datum line is ZZ. Equating the pressure above the datun1 line ZZ.
through which mercury goes down in the right limb
Pressure in left limb = Pressure in right li1nb 13.6 X 1000 X 9.81 X (0.2 _{+} 2y/100)
= 1000 X 9.81 X (3 + h _{1} + y/100)
Copyr _{g}_{h}_{t}_{e}_{d} material
i
�
Pressure and its Measurement
4 _{7} _{1}
or 
13.6 X (0.2 + 2y/100) = (3 + 2.72 + y/ 100) 
_{(} 
or 
2.72 + 27.2y/100 = _{3} + 2.72 + y/100 

or 
(27.2yy)/100 _{=} _{3}_{.}_{0} 

or 
26.2y = 3 X 100 = 300 
.
•
.
y = 
300 = ll.45 cn1

26.2
The difference of 1nercury level in two li1nbs
h _{1} = 2.72 cm)
_{1}_{.}
y
.L
Z  ·
^{.} _{,}_{'}
==1
_{} 

_{} 

h,

f�c:: �Jx (2T+ 2y) cm 1
1. 
I··
y 
1· z
j_
_{F}_{i}_{g}_{.} _{2}_{.}_{1}_{3}
= (20 + 2y) c1n of 1nercury
_{=} _{2}_{0} + _{2} X 11.45 = _{2}_{0} _{+} _{2}_{2}_{.}_{9}_{0}
= 42.90 c1n of 1nercury
Reading of rnanorneter = 42.90 cn1. Ans.
:.
Problem 2.13
A pressure gauge consists of t1110 cylindrical bulbs Band C each
_{o}_{f}_{'}_{J}_{O} sq. c,n cross
L
sf'ctional arPa, which are connected by a U tube �vith vertical lirnbs each of0.25 sq. Cl'n crosssectional area. A red liquid(>/JJJecific gravity 0. 9 is _{.} fillecl into C and cfPar ,vater is filled into B, the sur_{acP o.l
separation being in the linib attached to C. r�ind the displace,n.en.t of'the surface oj'separation �vhen the pressure on the surj'c1ce in C is greater than that in B by an amount equal to 1 c,n head oj'111ater.
Solution. Given
Area of each bulb B and C,
Area of each vertical li1nb,
Sp. gr. of red Liquid
_{L}_{e}_{t}
;1 = 10 cm ^{2}
a= 0.25 Cll1 ^{2}
= 0.9
.
lts density = 900 kg/Jn ^{3}
X X = Initial separation level
he= Height of red liquid above X X
h _{8} = Height of water above XX
Pressure above XX in the left lin1b = _{1}_{0}_{0}_{0} x 9.81 _{x} h _{8}
_{P}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{s}_{u}_{r}_{e} above x�x in tbe right li1nb = 900 x _{9}_{.}_{8}_{1} _{x} _{h} _{e} Equating the two pressure, ,ve get
1000 x 9.81 x hn
= 900 x 9.81 x he
.
•
.
h _{8} =0.9hc
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