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CHAPTER � 2.1 FLUID PRESSURE AT A POINT Consider a small area dA in large

CHAPTER

CHAPTER � 2.1 FLUID PRESSURE AT A POINT Consider a small area dA in large mass

2.1

FLUID PRESSURE AT A POINT

Consider a small area dA in large mass of fluid. Tf the fluid is stationary, then the force exerted by the surrounding fluid on the area dA will always be perpendicular to the surface dA. Let dF is the force

acting on the area d A in the normal direction. Then the ratio of dF is known as the intensity of

dA

pressure or simply pressure and this ratio is repres,ented by p. Hence mathematically the pressure at a point in a fluid at rest is

p

=

dF

dA

If the force ( F ) is uniformly distributed over the area (A), then pressure at any point is given by

p

=

F

A

Force

=

Area ·

Force or pressure force, F= p x A.

The units of pressure arc : (i) kgf/m 2 and kgf/cm 2 in MKS units, (ii) Newton/m 2 or N/m 2 and

units. N/m 2 is known as Pascal and is represented by Pa. Other commonly used units of

N/mm 2 in ST pressure are

kPa =

kilo pascal = 1000 N/m 2

bar=

100 kPa= 10 5 N/m 2

2.2

PASCAL'S LAW

lt states that the pressure or intensity of pressure at a point in a static fluid is equal in all directions. This is proved as

The fluid element is of very small dimensions i.e., dx, dy and ds.

Consider an arbitrary fluid element of wedge shape in a fluid mass at rest as shown in Fig. 2.1. Let the width of the element perpendicular to the plane of paper is unity and P x,

35

B

P x • dy •1

e

dy

<?

.

O'.s, •7

, 35 B P x • dy •1 e dy <? . O' .s, •7 dx

dx

A C

)-x

z

Fig. 2.1

Py• il.X • 1

Forces on a fluid element.

11-

Copyrighted material

=o.

=AB= dy

(2.3)

136 Fl11id Mechartics

L

P y and J'z are the pressures or intensity of pressure acting on the face AB, AC and BC respectively. Let LABC= 0. Then the forces acting on the ele1uent are

1.

Pressure forces normal to the surfaces, a11d

2.

Weight of ele1nent in the ve1tical direction.

The forces on the faces are Force on the face AB = P x xArea of face AB

= Px X

dy X 1

Si1nilarly force on the face AC= P y x dxx 1 Force on the face BC =p . x els x l

Weight of ele1nent

=(NIass of ele1nent) x g

=(Volu,nexp)xg=

( AB x AC

2

,vhere

p= density of fluid.

Resolving the forces in x-direction, we have

or

P x X dy X

I - p (ds X l) sin (90 ° - 0)

cos 0

ds cos 0 P.r X dy X 1 - P z X dy X 1

P x x dy x1 - P z ds x 1

But frotn Fig. 2.1,

=0

=0

xl

) xpxg,

or

or

P x Si1nilarly, resolving the forces in y-direction, \Ve get

== P,

P y X dx X 1 - P z X ds X I cos (90 ° - 0) -

dxxdy

2

xl X p X g=0

P v x dx - Pz ds sin 0 -

.

dxdy

--

2

x p xg = 0.

(2.1)

But ds sin 0 == dx and also the ele1nent is very sn1all and hence 1,veight is negligible.

or

:.

P y dx - JJ, X dx == 0

P y = Pz

Fro1n equations (2.1) and (2.2), ,ve have

P x ==P y ==Pz

(2.2)

The above equation shows that the pressure at any point in x, y and z directions is equal. Since the choice of fluid ele1nent was completely arbitrary, vvbich 111eans the pressure at any point is the sarne in aU directions .

the pressure at any point is the sarne in aU directions . 2 . 3 PRESSURE

2.3

PRESSURE VARIATION IN A FLUID AT REST

The pressure at any point in a fluid at rest is obtained by the Hydro­ static Lavv which states that the rate of increase of pressure in a verti­ cally do,vnward direction 1nust be equal to the specific weight of the fluid at that point. This is proved as :

Consider a sn1all fluid elernent as shown in Fig. 2.2 Let M= Cross-sectional area of elen1ent l:lZ= Height of fluid ele1nent p = Pressure ou face AB Z = Distance of fluid ele1nent from free surface.

The forces acti11g on the fluid element are :

FREE SURFACE OF FLUID

---------

-

- -

-pxt,.A.- -_-_-_- -z---_-.

- - .

------

-------·

-------

--------I- -Z- - - -

----- ---------- f -

------A-

.

·s

- - - - - - - -- -- - - - ----- f - -

. z·------

11

-------·

C --------·

- t-------

----------

- ---------.

-----· --- --

-----

i.lp

)- - -_-_-_-_-

( p +-.t:.Z a.A-----

"z

V

-------

-----·

-------------------·

Fig. 2.2

Forces on a fluid element.

· F i g . 2 . 2 F o r c e s o n

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i

Pressure and its Measurement

371

l. Pressure force

on AB = p x M and acting perpendicula r to face AB in the downv,rard direction.

L

2. Pressure force on CD =(p + ! LlZ) x M, acting perpendicular to face CD, vertically upward

direction.

3. Weight of fluid element= Density x g x Volume= p xg x (M x

4. Pressure forces on surfaces BC and AD are equal and opposite. For equihbriu1u of fluid

eleu1ent, ,ve have

pM - (p + !�

M + p X g X (M X

= 0

or

or

or

pM - pM - :

LlZLlfl + p X g X Llfl X 2

= 0

OJ)

az

-

o p L\.ZM + p x g x M

oz

= 0

= p X 8 X M

or

p

aZ

= px g [cancelling M

oJJ

az = P x s = \11

(·:

p xg= 111)

on both sides]

(2.4)

where 111 = Weight density of fluid. Equation (2.4) states that rate of increase of pressure in a vertical direction is equal to vveight density of the fluid at that point. 'fhis is Hydrostatic Law. By integrating the above equation (2.4) for liquids, we get

J dp= J pgdZ

or

(2.5)

where p is the pressure above atrnospheric pressure and Z is the height of the point from free surfaces.

p = pgZ

Fron1 equation (2.5), vve have

Z=

Here Z is called 1>ressure head.

P

pxg

(2.6)

Problem 2.1 A hydraulic press has a ra,n of30 crn dia,neter and a plunger o_f 4.5 cni dicuneter. I;ind the weight li ft ed by the hydraulic press when the . force applied at the plunger is 500 N.

when the . force applied at the plunger is 500 N . Solution . Given Dia.

Solution. Given

Dia. of rarn, Dia. of plunger, Force on plunger, Find ,veight lifted

Area of ram,

Area of plunger,

D

= 30 c1n = 0.3 IU

ll = 4.5 cm = 0.045 111

F = 500 N

=W

;\ = n D 2 =

n

4

4

a = n

d 2 =

n

4

4

(0 . 3) 2 = 0.07068 m 2

(0.045) 2 = .00159 111 2

2 = n 4 4 (0 . 3 ) 2 = 0.07068 m 2 (0.045) 2

Copyr ghted material

i

,,v

'

,,v ' � 138 Fl11id Mechartics Pressure intensity due to plunger Force on plunger Area of

138 Fl11id Mechartics

Pressure intensity due to plunger

Force on plunger Area of plunger

F

w

F

500

.00159

--

N/m 2 .

=-----"---- = - =-

a

------
------

- - --- - - - - - - --_-_!-,_��-�-- -

Due to Pascal's la\,v, the intensity of pressure 'Nill be equally transn1itted in aLI directions. Hence the pressure intensity at the ram

But pressure intensity at rain

=

500

=

-

--

--

-- ----- - -=' - -

-------------------

--

Fig. 2.3

N/m­

.00159 = 314465.4 N/Jn 2

----- Weioht Area of rain

w

A

=

.07068

PLUNGER

:.

Weight

lV

.07068

= 314465.4

= 314465.4 x.07068 = 22222 N = 22.222 kN. Ans.

Problem 2.2

userl.for lifting a weight 0;·30 kN. [•ind 1he force required at the plunger.

A hydraulic press has a rain of20 c,n dia1neter and a plunger of3 c,n dia,neter. Ir is

Solution. Given :

Dia. of rain,

D = 20 ctn = 0.2 1n

.

.

.

Area of rain,

Dia. of plunger

A = 1t

D 2 =

4

7t (.2) 2 = 0.0314 1n 2

4

d = 3 cm = 0.03 111

.

.

.

Area of plunger,

a=

n (.03) 2 = 7.068x 10- 4 rn 2
4

Weight lifted, See Fig. 2.3.

P ressure . 1ntens1ty .

Area By Pascal's La\.v, this pressure is transrnitted equally in all directions

W = 30 kN = 30 x 1000 N = 30000 N.

Force --

F

a

d

eve I ope

d d

ue to p 1 unger =-

f

l

Hence pressure transn1itted at the ran1= -

.

.

.

.

.

.

Problem 2.3

Force acting

on rain = Pressure intensity x Area of rarn

F

=-XA=

Fx.0314

N

7.068x10- 4 But force acting on rain= Weight lifted= 30000 N F X .0314

30000=

a

7.068 X 10 -

-----

4

f l = 30000 X 7.068 X]0 -4

.0314

= 675.2 N. Ans.

Calculatr, the pressure due to a colurnn of"0.3 r�f'( a) water, (b) an oil oj'sJJ. gr. 0.8, and

L

(c) rnercury of"sJJ. gr. 13.6. Takr, density ofwater, p= 1000 kg!n·, 3 . Solution. Given :

I-Ieighl of Liquid colutnn,

Z = 0.3 rn.

1000 kg!n·, 3 . Solution . Given : I-Ieighl of Liquid colutnn, Z = 0 .

Copyr ghted material

i

= 0.9

Pressure and its Measurement

3 9 1

The pressure at any point in a liquid is given by equation (2.5) as J> = pgZ

(a) For water,

p = 1000 kg/ln 3

.

.

.

p= pgZ= 1000 x 9.81 x 0.3= 2943N/Jn 2

- 29

10

3 N/cm 2 = 0.2943 N /cm 2 Ans.

(b) For oil of sp. gr. 0.8, Fro1n equation ( l. lA), ,ve kno,v that the density of a fluid is equal 1nultiplied by density of water.

to specific gravity of fluid

:.

Density of oil,

Po = Sp. gr. of oil x Density of water = 0.8 X p = 0.8 X 1000 = 800 kg/m 3

(p 0 = Density of oil)

No,v pressure,

(c) For rnercury, sp. gr.

p= p 0 x g x Z

= 800 X 9.81 X 0.3 = 23 5 4.4

= 0.2354

= 13.6

N 2 Ans.
cm

N

111

2

2354.4

N

= ---�

10 4

Cln 2

.

L

From equation (l. lA) we kno,v that the density of a fluid is equal to specific gravity of fluid multiplied by density of water

to specific gravity of fluid multiplied by density of water :. Density of 111ercury, . .

:. Density of 111ercury,

.

.

.

Ps = Specific gravity of 1nercury x Density of water = 13.6 X 1000 = 13600 kg/111 3 p = Ps X g X Z

N

- 13600 X 9.81 X 0.3= 40025 m-

Problem 2.4

- 4002 5 = 4.002 10 4

N

cm 2

. ;-\ns.

1'/ie pressure intensity at a point in a/7,uid is given. 3.924 Nlcn1 2 . Find the correspond-

ing height of fluid when the.fluid is : (a) 111a1er, and (b) oil of sp. gr. 0.9.

Solution. Given

Pressure intensity,

JJ = 3.924

N

Clll

2 = 3.924 x10

4N

2

ID

.

The corresponding height, Z, of the fluid is given by equation (2.6) as

(a) For water,

.

.

.

(b) For oil, sp. gr. :. Density of oil

.

Z=

P

pxg

p = 1000 kg/tn 3

Z=

p

pxg

-

3.924

X 10

4

1000x9.81 = 4 1n of water. ,\ns.

Po =

Z =

0.9 x 1000 = 900 kg/m 3

JJ

3.924 X10

4

-----

Po xg

900 X 9.81

= 4.44 m of oil. Ans.

x 1000 = 900 kg/m 3 JJ 3.924 X 10 4 - - - - -

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i

140 Fl11id Mechartics

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Problem 2.5 An oil of sp. gr. 0.9 is containecl in a vessel. At a point the height of· oil is 40 ,n. f"ind the corresponding height of water at the point.

Solution. Given Sp. gr. of oil, Height of oil,

Density of oil, Po = Sp. gr. of oil x Density of \Vater=0.9x1000 =900 kg/Jn 3

S 0 =0.9 Z 0 = 40 n1

Intensity of pressure,

p = Po X g X Zo = 900 X 9 .8 l

X 40

N2

1n

:.

Co1Tesponcling height of water =

Density of "vater x g

.

Problem 2 .6

900 X 9.81 X 40

=- -----

1000 X 9.81

=0.9 x40 =36 m of ,vater. Ans.

An open tank contains waler upto a depth of 2 ni and above it an. oil of· sp. gr. 0.9 for

a depth of 1 111. }-ind the pressure intensity (i) at the inte,face o_{ the two liquids, and (ii) al the bottorn of the tank.

Solution. Given Height of water, Height of oil, Sp. gr. of oil, Density of water, Density of oil,

Z 1 = 2 Ill Z 2 =11n S 0 =0.9

p I =1000 kg/111 .,

p 2 = Sp. gr. of oil x Density of water

= 0.9 X 1000 = 900 kg/in 3

Pressure intensity at any point is given by

(i) At interface, i.e., at A

p =p X g X Z.

p =p 2 X g X 1.0

=900x9.8lx1.0

=p X g X Z. p =p 2 X g X 1.0 =900x9.8lx1.0 1.0 2.0 -

1.0

X g X Z. p =p 2 X g X 1.0 =900x9.8lx1.0 1.0 2.0 - -.

2.0

g X Z. p =p 2 X g X 1.0 =900x9.8lx1.0 1.0 2.0 - -. :
- -. : -. "': :. :: : : : : -: -: :.:-: :

--.: -.

"':

:.:: :

:

:

: -:-::.:-: : :

:.�-.

_

:.-.

-

-·-·· ·- · -

oil

"·-·-·-·· ·-·-·-·- ·

-.

-:

_

- .

-·-·-·-·-·-·- -··

- -::. -::.-::.-::. -::.-::. -::. A:_--

-------- ----------- ---

-------------------- -::WATER::::-

-

-::.::::.:: ::.:: ::.:: .- B

-- - -- - -- -

-

Fig. 2.4

N

2

8829

10

4

= 8829

2

= 0.8829 N/crn . Ans.

C

=

1n

(ii) At the botto1n, i.e., at B p = P 2 x g Z2 + P, x g x z, = 900 x 9.81 x 1.0 + lOOO x 9.81 x 2.0

Problem 2.7

=8829 + 19620 = 28449 N /Jn 2 =

28449

10

4

N/c1n 2 =2.8449 N/cm�. Aus.

1

1'he clia,neters of a srnall piston and a large piston ofa hydraulic jack are 3 cn1. and

10 cm respectively. A force of 80 N is applied on the sniall piston. f"ind the load lifled by the large

on the sniall piston. f"ind the load lifled by the large piston �vhen : ( a)

piston �vhen :

(a) the pistons are at the sa,ne level. (b) s,nall piston is 40 crn above the large piston. The tlensi ty o/ the liquid in tJu, jack is given as 1000 kglrn. 3 .

Solution. Given Dia. of s1nall piston,

d = 3 crn

.

.

Area of s1uall piston,

a=� d 2 =

4

x ( 3 ) 2 = 7.068 cn1 2

4

. • . Area of s1uall piston, a=� d 2 = 4 � x ( 3

Copyr ghted material

i

= w.

= w. � Pressure and its Measurement 4 1 1 Dia. of large piston, D =

Pressure and its Measurement

411

Dia. of large piston,

D = 10 ctn

Area of larger piston,

Force on small piston, Let the load lifted

A =

x (10) 2 = 78.54 ctn 2
4

F= 80 N

(a) When the pistons are at the sa1ne level

Pressure intensity on s1nall piston

F

-

a

- -

80

-N/c1n 2

7.068

This is transn1itted equally on the large piston.

.

.

. Pressure intensity on the large piston

. Force on the large piston

80

7.068

= Pressure x Area

. Force on the large piston 80 7.068 = Pressure x Area F i g .

Fig. 2.5

80

- --

7.068

x 78.54 N =888.96 N. Ans.

SMALL

PISTON

(b) \-Vhen the small piston is 40 c1n above the large piston

Pressure intensity on the sn1all piston

:.

Pressure intensity at section A A-

= Ii' - = a

80 --

7.068

N

c1n 2

=

a

+ Pressure intensity due to height of 40 c1n of liquid.

But pressure intensity due to 40 cm of liquid =p X g X h =1000 X 9.81 X 0.4 N/m 2

- 1000 x9.8lx.40 N/c1n2 = 0.3924 N/crn 2

10

4

x 9 . 8 l x . 4 0 N/c1n2 = 0.3924 N/crn 2 10 4
x 9 . 8 l x . 4 0 N/c1n2 = 0.3924 N/crn 2 10 4

--------

8 l x . 4 0 N/c1n2 = 0.3924 N/crn 2 10 4 -------- . .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Pressure intensity at section A-A

- 8-0 -

- + 0.3924

7.068

= 11.32 + 0.3924= ll.71 N/cn, 2

Pressure intensity transrnitted to the large piston = 11.71 N/c1n 2

Force on the large piston = Pressure x Area of the large piston =11.71 XI\= 11.71 X 78.54= 919.7 N.

Fig. 2.6

F

+

. 7 1 XI\= 11.71 X 78.54= 919.7 N. Fi g . 2 . 6 F

-

-

-

- --

A

2.4

ABSOLUTE, GAUGE, ATMOSPHERIC AND VACUUM PRESSURES

The pressure 011 a fluid is 1neasured in two different syste1ns. In one system, it is measured above the absolute zero or con1plete vacuu1n and it is called the absolute pressure and in other syste1n, pressure is 1neasured above the at1nospheric pressure and it is called gauge pressure. Thus i\hsolutepressure is defined as the pressure which .is 1neasured vvith reference to absolute vacuutn pressure.

2. Gauge pressure is defined as the pressure ,vhich is 1neasured with the help of a pressure 1nea­

suring instrument, in which tl1e annospheric pressure is taken as datu1n. The annospheric pressure on the scale is marked as zero.

1

L

pressure is taken as datu1n. The annospheric pressure on the scale is marked as zero. 1

Copyr ghted material

i

142 Fl11id Mechartics

3. Vacuu1n 11rcssurc is defined as the pres-

w

g;

The relationship bet\veen the absolute pressure, (/)

w

a:

sure belov,1 the atmosphe1ic pressure.

gauge pL"essure and vacuun1 pressure arc shown in Fig. 2.7. Mathen1atically :

(i) Absolute pressure = Aunospheric pressure + Gauge pressure

or

Pab == Patm + Pgauge

A

-·-

'

GAUGE PRESSURE

ATMOSPHERIC

PRESSURE

/

1-l--'------

ABSOLUTE

PRESSURE

--=--

- VACUUM PRESSURE

- -

B

ABSOLUTE ZERO PRESSURE

(ii) Vacuu1n pressure = Atn1ospberic pressure - Absolute pressure.

Fi g . 2.7

Relationship between pressures.

L

Note. (i) The ahllospheric pressure at sea level at 15 ° C is 101.3 kN/tll 2 or 10.13 N/ctll 2 in SI unit. In case of MKS units, it is equal to 1.033 kgf/c1ll 2 . (ii) The atrllospheric pressure head is 760 mm of mercury or 10.33 111 of ,vater.

Problem 2.8 What are the gauge pressure an.d absolute pressure at a point 3 m belo,v the free su1face of a liquid having a density of 1.53 x 10 3 kg!m 3 ij' the atniospheric pressure is equivalen1 10 750 n1.n1 of ,nercury ? The specific gravity of·,nercury is 13.6 and density of �va.ter == 1000 kg!m 3 .

Solution. Given Depth of liquid, Density of liquid, Atmospheric pressure head,

2 1 =3 lU p 1 = 1.53 x

2 0

10 3 kg/Jn 3

= 750 01111 of Hg

.

.

.

where

and

.

.

.

Atn1ospl1eric pressure,

=-

750

-

1000

= O .75 Ill Of 1-fg

patm = Po x g x 20

p 0 = Density of Hg= Sp. gr. of 1nerctu·y x Density of water= 13.6 x 1000 kg/n1 3 Z 0 = Pressure head in tenns of ,nercuJy.

/J atm = (13.6 X 1000) == 100062 N/n1 2

X 9.81 X 0.75 N/m 2

(·:

Z 0 = 0.75)

Pressure at a point, \vhicb is at a depth of 3 1n from the free surface of the liquid is given by,

of 3 1n from the free surface of the liquid is given by, Gauge pressure, N

Gauge pressure, Now absolute pressure

p=p L xgxZ 1 = (1.53 X 1000) X 9.81 X 3 = 45028 N/tn 2

p = 45028 N/1n 2 Ans.

== Gauge pressure + Atmospheric pressure =45028 + 100062= 145090 N/n1 2 Ans.

2.S

MEASUREMENT OF PRESSURE

The pressure of a fluid is 1neasured by the following devices

2. Mechanical Gauges. Mano,neters are defined as the devices used for measuring the presstu·e at

a point in a fluid by balancing the colun1n of fluid by the sa,ne or another column of the fluid. They are classifiecl as :

l. Nlano1neters

2.S. I

Manometers.

(a)

Sitnple Manometers,

(b) Differential M.anorneters.

as : l. Nlano1neters 2.S. I Manometers. (a) Sitnple Manometers, (b) Differential M.anorneters. Copyr ghted material

Copyr ghted material

i

(cl)

Pressure and its Measurement

431

2.5.2 Mechanical Gauges.

the

cal pressure gauges are :

pressure by balancing the fluid

Nlechanical gauges are defined as the devices used for measuring

colu 1nn by the spring or dead

\Neight.The cornrnonly used rnechani­

(a) Diaphrag1n pressure gauge,

(c) Dead-weight pressure gauge, and

(b) Bourdon tube pressure gauge,

Bello,vs pressure gauge.

2.6

SIMPLE MANOMETERS

A si1nple 1nano 1neter consists of a glass tube having one of its ends connected to a point where pressure is to be 1neasured and other end rernains open to annosphere. Cornrnon types of sirnple n1a­ no111eters are 1. Piezorneter,' 2. U-l11be Mano1neter, and

3. Single Colu 1nn Nlanorneter.

2.6.1 Piezometer. lt is the sitnplest for1n of 1nanon1eter used for

1neasuring gauge pressures.One end ofthis rnanon1eter is connected to the point "vhere pressure is to be measured and other end is open to the at1nosphere as sho,vn in Fig.2.8. The rise of liquid gives the pressure head at that point. If at a point A, the height of liquid say water is h in piezorneter tube, then pressure at A

=pxgxh

N

m

2

T h
T
h

Fig. 2.8

JJiezometer.

L

2.6.2 U-tube Manometer. It consists of glass tube bent in U-shape, one end of which is

connected to a point at which pressure is to be rneasured and other encl remains open to the

atmosphere as shown in Fig. 2.9. The tube generally contains n1ercury or any other liquid

\vhose

specific gravity is greater than the specific gravity of the liquid whose pressure is to be 1neasured.

T T h2 *-· h1 l -·- A A
T
T
h2
*-·
h1
l
-·-
A
A
is to be 1neasured. T T h2 *-· h1 l -·- A A h1 Iz -
is to be 1neasured. T T h2 *-· h1 l -·- A A h1 Iz -

h1

Iz

-·- ··-·

A

T T h2 *-· h1 l -·- A A h1 Iz - · - · ·

A

(a) For gauge pressure

(b) For vacuum pressure

Fig. 2.9

U-tube Manometer.

(a) For Gauge Pressure. Let B is the point at which pressure is to be 1neasured, whose value is p. The daturn line is A A.-

1 neasured, whose value is p. The daturn line is A A.- Let h 1 h

Let

h 1

h 2 =Height of heavy liquid above the datum line

S 1 =Sp.gr.of Light liquid

=Height of light liquid above the datun1 line

p

1 = Density of light liquid = 1000 x S 1

S

2 =Sp.gr.of heavy liquid

p

2 = Density of heavy liquid = 1000 x S 2

1 S 2 =Sp.gr.of heavy liquid p 2 = Density of heavy liquid = 1000 x

Copyr ghted material

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(2.7)

- ;.·1

::::::

144 Fl11id Mechartics

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As the pressure is the sa1ne for the horizontal surface. Hence pressure above the horizontal datu1n line A-A in the left colurnn and in the right column of U-tube 1nano1neter should be satne.

Pressure above A A- in the left colutnn

Pressure

Hence equating the two pressures

above A-A in U1e right colun1n

:.

= p + p 1 x =p 2 x g x

g x h 1

h2

p + p 1gh. 1 = p 2gh2 p = (p2gh2 - P t x g x h 1) .

(b) For Vacuun1 Pt·essure. For measuring vacuun1 pressure, the level of the heavy liquid in the

1nano1neter will be as shown in Fig. 2.9 (b). Then

Pressure

Pressure head in the 1jght colu1nn above A -A :.

above A A-

in the left colu1nn

=p 2gh2 + p 1gh1 + p

=0

Pz8h2 + P t8h1 + P = 0

.

.

.

+ p = 0 Pz8h2 + P t 8 h 1 + P = 0 .

(2.8)

Problem 2.9 The right lilnb of a si,nple U-lube ,nanomeler containing mercury is open to the ahnosphere �vhile the left limb is connected to a pipe in which a fluid of sp. gr. 0.9 is .flo�ving. The centre of the pipe is 12 crn belo�v the level of mercury in the right lirnb. Find the pressure offluid in the pipe if the difference of mercury level in the t1vo lirnbs is 20 cm.

of mercury level in the t1vo lirnbs i s 20 cm. or Solution . Given Sp.

or

Solution. Given

Sp. gr. of fluid,

S I =0.9 P i =S 1 x 1000 = 0.9 x 1000 = 900 kg/Jn 3 S 2 =13.6

p 2 =

h2 =

13.6 X 1000 kg/Jn 3 20 ctn= 0.2 111

h 1 = 20 - 12 = 8 Clll = 0.08 JU

.

.

:.

Density of fluid,

. Sp. gr. of mercury, Density of mercury, Difference of 1nercury level, Height of fluid fron1 A A,-

Let p =Pressure of fluid in p.ipe Equating the pressure above A A,- ,ve get

= = =

P + P 1gh 1 = P2gh2 p + 900 x 9.81 x 0.08 = 13.6 x 1000 x 9.81 x .2

_

-� -� .

r

12

j

T

20 cm

 

·-·-

1

A

A

-� -� . r 12 j T 20 cm   · - · - 1 A

Fig. 2.10

p = 13.6

X 1000 X 9.81 X .2 - 900 X 9.81 X 0.08

= 26683 - 706 = 25977 N/n1 2 =2.597 N/cm 2 Ans.

A sim.ple U-tube manometer containing mercury is connected to a pipe in 1'lhich a

fluid oj'sp. gr. 0.8 and having vacuum pressure isflowing. The other end of the ,nanometer is open to alinosphere. Find the vacuum pressure in. pipe, �f the difference of mercury level in the t,vo linibs is 40 crn and the height of fluid in the left from the centre of pipe is 15 Cl'l'l below.

Problem 2. 10

Solution. Given

Sp. gr. of fluid, Sp. gr. of mercury, Density of fluid, Density of mercury,

s, = 0.8 S 2 = 13.6 p 1 =800 P2 = 13.6 x 1000

---;::;;-

= = = --------

- -

l

15 cm

T

40cm

Difference of 111ercury level, h2 = 40 cn1= 0.4 111. Height of liquid in left limb, h1 = 15 c1n = 0.15 111. Let the pressure in pipe= p. Equating pressure above datum Line A-A, we get

in pipe= p. Equating pressure above datum Line A-A, we get A _L F i g

A

_L

in pipe= p. Equating pressure above datum Line A-A, we get A _L F i g

Fig. 2.11

A

in pipe= p. Equating pressure above datum Line A-A, we get A _L F i g

Copyr ghted material

i

Pressure and its Measurement

4 5 1

.

p = - [ P28h2 + Pt8h.L] [13.6 X 1000 X 9.81

= -

X 0.4 + 800 X 9.81 X 0.15]

= - [53366.4 + 1177.2] = - 54543.6 N/m 2 = - 5.454 N/cm 2 Ans.

Problem 2.11 A U-Tube mano,neter is used to measure the pressure o.f' water in a pipe line, H1hich is in excess of ahnosph.eric pressure. The right limb of the manometer contains mercury and is open to atmosphere . The contact between •,vater and rnercury is in the le.ft lirnb. Deterrnine the pressure of water in the rnain line, if the difference in level o.f' rnercury in the limbs o.f' U-tube is JO crn and the free surface of mercury is in level 111ith the centre of the pipe. If the pressure of �vater in pipe line is

98IO Nim2, calculate the ne111 difference in the level o.f' mercury. Sketch the arrangem.ents

reduced to

in both cases.

Solution. Given Difference of 1nercury = 10 cm = 0.1 m 'fhe iurangement is shov,n in Fig. 2.11 (a)

1st Part

Let p 11 = (pressure of water in pipe line

Tbe points B and C lie on the sa1ne horizontal line. Hence pressure at B should be equal to pressure

(i.e., at point A)

at C. But pressure at B = Pressure at A + Pressure due to 10 cn1 (or 0.1 n1) of water

RIGHT LIMB-

where

= p 11 + p xg x h

p = 1000 kg/Jn 3

aod h = 0.1 n1

= PA + 1000 X 9.81 X 0.1

= PA

+ 981 N/1n 2

(i)

Pressure at C = Pressure at D + Pressure due to 10 cn1 of 1nercury

WATER

l
l

LEFT LIMB-

10 cm

D

= 0 +Pox gx h. 0 = 13.6 x 1000 kg/rn 3

where P o for 1nercury

and

h 0 = 10 c,n = 0.1 m Pressure at C = 0 + (13.6 x 1000) x 9.81 x 0.1

:.

= 13341.6 N

(ii)

B _

MERCURY

C

But pressure at B is equal to pressure at C. Hence equating the equa­

tions (i) and (ii), we get

PA + 981 = 13341.6

tions (i) and (ii), we get P A + 981 = 13341.6 F i g .

Fig. 2.11 (a)

.

p 11 = 13341.6 - 981

Th1d Part

= 12360.6

N

m

2 Ans.

L

Given, PA = 9810 N/m 2 Find new difference of n1ercury level. The atTange1nent is shO\Vn in Fig. 2.11 (b). In this case the pressure at A is 9810 N/Jn 2 which is less than the 12360.6 N/111 2 Hence 1nercury in left limb will rise. The rise of n1ercury in left lin1b \Vill be equal to the fall of mercury in right li1nb as the total volu1ne of n1ercury ren1a1ns same. Let x = Rise of n1ercury iu left lin1b iu c1n Then fall of 1nercury in 1ight Ii111b = x c1n The points B, C and D sho,v the initial conditions ,vhereas points B*, C* and D* sho"v the final conditions.

C and D sho,v the initial conditions ,vhereas points B*, C* and D* sho"v the final
C and D sho,v the initial conditions ,vhereas points B*, C* and D* sho"v the final

Copyr ghted material

i

146 Fl11id Mechartics

or

or

or

or

or

or

.

.

.

The pressure at B* = Pressure at C* Pressure at A + Pressure due to (10 - x) cn1 of ,vater = Pressure at D* + Pressure clue to ( 10 - 2x) cm of 1nercury

J)A + pI X g

X h I = pD* + P2 X g X h 2

1910 + 1000 X 9.81 X ( lO-.x)

100

= 0 + (13.6 X 1000) X 9.81 X ( 10-2.x )

100

Dividing by 9.81, we get

1000 + 100 -

IOx= 1360 - 272x

272.x- IOx= 1360 - 1100

262x = 260

260

x = -- = 0.992 cn1

262

1360 - 1100 262x = 260 260 x = -- = 0.992 cn1 262 New difference

New difference of mercury = 10 - 2x cm =10 - 2 x 0.992

Fig. 2.11 (b)

= 8.016 CID. ,\.ns.

Problem 2.12

Fig. 2.12 shows a conical vessel having if.s outlet at A to which a U-tube n1anonieter

L

is connected. 1"he reading of . the ,nano,neter given in the figure sho111s 1vhen the vessel is e,npty. Find the .

reading of· the rnanonieter when the vessel is co,npletely filled 1vith 1vater.

when the vessel is co,npletely filled 1vith 1vater. Solution . Vessel is em1>ty. Given Difference of

Solution. Vessel is em1>ty. Given Difference of 1nercurv level

Let h 1 = Height of \.Yater above X X-

h2 = 20 ctn

Sp.

gr. of mercury,

S 2 = 13.6

Sp.

gr. of water,

S 1 = 1.0

Density of mercury, Density of water,

p 2 = 13.6 p 1 = I000

x 1000

Equating the pressure above daturn line X X,-

we have

or

P2 X g X h 2 = p I X g X h 1

13.6 X 1000 X 9.81 X 0.2

= 1000 X 9.81 X h 1

h 1 = 2.72 m of water. Vessel is full of \Vater. Wben vessel is fuU of water, tbe

-I.--2 -+ M

of \Vater. Wben vessel is fuU of water, tbe -I .-- 2 -+ M 1 --

1

--

3M

20 cm

x-- t

.

fuU of water, tbe -I .-- 2 -+ M 1 -- 3M 20 c m x
fuU of water, tbe -I .-- 2 -+ M 1 -- 3M 20 c m x

h

X 1

1

Fig. 2.12

pressure in the right lirnb will increase and mercury level in the right Ji1nb ,vilJ go down. Let the

be, y c1n as shov. 1 n in Fig. 2.13. The

distance

1nercury will rise in the left by a distance of y c1n. Now the datum line is Z-Z. Equating the pressure above the datun1 line Z-Z.

through which mercury goes down in the right limb

Pressure in left limb = Pressure in right li1nb 13.6 X 1000 X 9.81 X (0.2 + 2y/100)

= 1000 X 9.81 X (3 + h 1 + y/100)

13.6 X 1000 X 9.81 X (0.2 + 2y/100) = 1000 X 9.81 X (3 +

Copyr ghted material

i

Pressure and its Measurement

4 7 1

or

13.6 X (0.2 + 2y/100) = (3 + 2.72 + y/ 100)

(

or

2.72 + 27.2y/100 = 3 + 2.72 + y/100

or

(27.2y-y)/100 = 3.0

or

26.2y = 3 X 100 = 300

.

.

y = -

300 = ll.45 cn1

-

26.2

The difference of 1nercury level in two li1nbs

h 1 = 2.72 cm)

1.

y

.L

Z - ·

. ,'

---=-=-1

- -

--

- -

-

- - - - 3m T
- - - -
3m
T

h,

-

fc-:: J-x (2T+ 2y) cm 1

1.- -

I·-·

f � c -:: � J - x ( 2 T+ 2y) cm 1 1. -

y -

1· z

j_

Fig. 2.13

= (20 + 2y) c1n of 1nercury

= 20 + 2 X 11.45 = 20 + 22.90

= 42.90 c1n of 1nercury

Reading of rnanorneter = 42.90 cn1. Ans.

:.

Problem 2.13

A pressure gauge consists of t1110 cylindrical bulbs Band C each

of'JO sq. c,n cross­

L

sf'ctional arPa, which are connected by a U -tube �vith vertical lirnbs each of0.25 sq. Cl'n cross-sectional area. A red liquid(>/JJJecific gravity 0. 9 is . fillecl into C and cfPar ,vater is filled into B, the sur_{acP o.l

separation being in the linib attached to C. r�ind the displace,n.en.t of'the surface oj'separation �vhen the pressure on the surj'c1ce in C is greater than that in B by an amount equal to 1 c,n head oj'111ater.

in B by an amount equal to 1 c,n head oj'111ater. Solut i on . Given

Solution. Given

Area of each bulb B and C,

Area of each vertical li1nb,

Sp. gr. of red Liquid

Let

;1 = 10 cm 2

a= 0.25 Cll1 2

= 0.9

.

lts density = 900 kg/Jn 3

X -X = Initial separation level

he= Height of red liquid above X -X

h 8 = Height of water above X-X

Pressure above X-X in the left lin1b = 1000 x 9.81 x h 8

Pressure above x�x in tbe right li1nb = 900 x 9.81 x h e Equating the two pressure, ,ve get

1000 x 9.81 x hn

= 900 x 9.81 x he

.

.

h 8 =0.9hc