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ES 631: Advanced Heat Transfer

IIT Gandhinagar
Quiz 1 (take home)
Due date: Monday, 21 February 2016 (9 AM)
Maximum marks: 55
Please note:
1. IIT Gandhinagar honor code applies
2. You may work in groups of two, but strictly no discussion between groups
3. Please cite clearly any outside sources that have helped you in solving the quiz
4. (10 marks) AC calorimetry method for measuring thin-film thermal conductivity: One
thin-film thermal diffusivity measurement method is to use a modulated light source
to heat up a membrane, as shown in the figure. A small temperature sensor, either a
tiny thermocouple or a micro-fabricated sensor is placed into the film. The distance
between the film and the temperature sensor is controlled by a mask that blocks
part of the light source. Amplitude and phase of the temperature response are
measured as a function of the distance L between the temperature sensor and the
edge of the light source. This is equivalent to measuring the distribution of the
amplitude and phase as a function of x. Derive an expression for determining the
thermal diffusivity on the basis of (a) phase signal and (b) amplitude signal. List all
the assumptions made in establishing this model.

5. (5 marks) Estimate the mean free path of air molecules as a function of temperature
at atmospheric pressure on the basis of (a) kinetic theory and (b) experimental data
on the thermal conductivity and specific heat of air.
6. (6 marks) Given the thermal conductivity of Si at room temperature as 145 W/m-K,
the speed of sound as 6400 m/s, the volumetric specific heat as 1.66 106 J/m3-K,
a. Estimate the phonon mean free path in Si at room temperature from the
kinetic theory. In reality, this estimation usually leads to a much shorter
mean free path (about a factor of 10 shorter) than with more sophisticated
b. Estimate the relaxation time of phonons in silicon

7. (10 marks) Electron tunneling through an energy barrier: an electron moving from
left in region I encounters a potential barrier of finite width D and barrier height
(region II) as shown in the figure. The electron has a certain probability of traversing
the potential barrier and entering region III. The objective of this exercise is to derive
expressions for the electron reflectivity and transmissivity. To complete the
derivation, go through the following steps:
a. Solve the Schrodinger equation for each region. Identify which parts of the
solution represent the incoming, reflected and transmitted waves.
b. Use the continuity of the wavefunction and its first order derivative at the
two interfaces to relate the solutions in the three regions.
c. Use the definitions of reflectivity and transmissivity that are discussed in the
example problem solved in class to derive expressions for the electron
reflectivity and transmissivity through the barrier region.
d. Examine the solutions and show that even if the incoming electron energy E
is lower than the barrier height , there is still a non-zero probability that
the transmissivity is not zero. The phenomenon than an electron with
energy lower than the barrier height can transverse the barrier is called

8. (4 marks) Plot the most probable electron distribution in a one-dimensional infinite

potential well for n = 1, 2, 3.
9. (4 marks) The fundamental vibrational frequency of the H2 molecule is 4401 cm-1
and its rotational constant is 59.32 cm-1. Determine the photon emission
wavelengths due to combined vibrational-rotational modes in H2 near the
fundamental vibrational mode.
10. (6 marks) Density of crystals: the lattice constants of germanium and gallium
arsenide (GaAs) are 5.66 A and 5.65 A respectively. Ge has a diamond structure
and GaAs has a zinc-blende structure. Calculate their density.
11. (10 marks) A BCC lattice has the following primitive translation vector:
1 = ( + + ); 2 = ( + ); 3 = ( + )
a. Construct the Wigner-Seitz cell in real space.
b. Find out the corresponding primitive translation vector in the reciprocal
space and prove that the reciprocal lattice is in FCC structure.