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com

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FREE Software
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our prices.

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rect has a PLC to match


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or details and restrictions. Copyright 2015 AutomationDirect, Cumming, GA USA. All rights reserved.

CPU w/5 comm ports:

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The Productivity2000 PLC is our newest PLC and is designed to offer you the best
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input #1 at www.controleng.com/information

PLC Lifetime
Year 1

Year 2

Year 3

Traditional PLCs AutomationDirect


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* See our Web site for details and restrictions. Copyright 2015 AutomationDirect, Cumming, GA USA. All rights reserved.

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input #2 at www.controleng.com/information

* See our Web site fo

DO MORE WITH

YOUR DATA

Introduce real-time industrial data to your cloud-based business


systems with Kepwares industry-leading communications platform.

Kepware Technologies provides a portfolio of software solutions


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operations and decision making.
Visit us online to learn more about our communications platform
thats enabling the Internet of Things.
input #3 at www.controleng.com/information

NOVEMBER 2015

Vol. 62
Number 11

C OV E R I N G C O N T R O L , I N S T R U M E N TAT I O N , A N D A U TO M AT I O N S YS T E M S W O R L D W I D E

46

26
Features

Cover image courtesy: AutomationDirect

56

COVER STORIES ON CONTROLLERS: 26-44

26
30
34
38
42
44

Convergence of PACs, PLCs, IPCs


Six steps to choose between PLC and DCS for process industries
PLC vs. PAC vs. IPCs
Control logic fundamentals
How to rank controllers
All-in-one panels versus PACs: Which is right for your application?

46
48
52
54
55
56
57
58
60

Developments in wireless communication for industrial use


Practical considerations for selecting an industrial wireless sensor network
Five tips for improving hydraulic control in a mechatronic system
How IIoT improves operations: Impact of OPC UA
Water, raw aluminum produce steam, hydrogen, alumina
Connectivity, security, mobility: Integrating modern controls
Process control system upgrades
Manufacturing Day
Hannover Messe in 2016

CONTROL ENGINEERING (ISSN 0010-8049, Vol. 62, No. 11, GST #123397457) is published 12x per year, Monthly by CFE Media, LLC, 1111 W. 22nd Street, Suite #250, Oak Brook, IL 60523. Jim Langhenry, Group
Publisher /Co-Founder; Steve Rourke CEO/COO/Co-Founder. CONTROL ENGINEERING copyright 2015 by CFE Media, LLC. All rights reserved. CONTROL ENGINEERING is a registered trademark of CFE Media, LLC used under
license. Periodicals postage paid at Oak Brook, IL 60523 and additional mailing offices. Circulation records are maintained at CFE Media, LLC, 1111 W. 22nd Street, Suite #250, Oak Brook, IL 60523. E-mail: customerservice@
cfemedia.com. Postmaster: send address changes to CONTROL ENGINEERING, 1111 W. 22nd Street, Suite #250, Oak Brook, IL 60523. Publications Mail Agreement No. 40685520. Return undeliverable Canadian
addresses to: 1111 W. 22nd Street, Suite #250, Oak Brook, IL 60523. Email: customerservice@cfemedia.com. Rates for nonqualified subscriptions, including all issues: USA, $150/yr; Canada/Mexico, $180/yr (includes
7% GST, GST#123397457); International air delivery $325/yr. Except for special issues where price changes are indicated, single copies are available for $30.00 US and $35.00 foreign. Please address all
subscription mail to CONTROL ENGINEERING, 1111 W. 22nd Street, Suite #250, Oak Brook, IL 60523. Printed in the USA. CFE Media, LLC does not assume and hereby disclaims any liability to any person
for any loss or damage caused by errors or omissions in the material contained herein, regardless of whether such errors result from negligence, accident or any other cause whatsoever.

NOVEMBER 2015 CONTROL ENGINEERING www.controleng.com

input #4 at www.controleng.com/information

Keep Your Instrument Processes


Make the
Right Down Tight.
Locked

Safety Choice.

You depend on your cars


safety devices to provide
reliable protection when you
need it the most. Have the same
amount of condence in your Safety
ety
Instrumented Systems instruments
ts with
the FS Functional Safety Series from Moore Industries.
Products including the new STZ Dual Input Smart HART
Temperature Transmitter have been designed and
built from the ground up to strict IEC 61508 standards,
ensuring safe and reliable function particularly in
environments where hazardous or emergency situations
are likely to occur.

2015
FINALISTS

Demand Moore Reliability

input #5 at www.controleng.com/information

To learn more about our Functional Safety


y Dual Input
p Smart HART
Temperature Transmitter, go to: www.miinet.com/safetyseries
Or call 800-999-2900

Demand Moore Reliability

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C OV E R I N G C O N T R O L , I N S T R U M E N TAT I O N , A N D A U TO M AT I O N S YS T E M S W O R L D W I D E
CI2

H2

CI2

H2

Anolyte
215 g/l NaCl

H
-

CI

NA
CI

INSIDE PROCESS
appears after page 61; If not, see the Digital Edition: www.controleng.com/DigitalEdition
Catholyte
32% NaOH

OH

OH

Ultra pure brine


305 g/l NaCl

Caustic
30% NaOH

CI2 + 2 e-

Anode reaction: 2CICathode reaction: 2H + 2 e+

H2

P1 Maintaining stable gas pressure

for hydrochloric acid production


In a chlor-alkali membrane process, hydrogen and chlorine gases are
produced using electrolyzers. Maintaining stable pressure on both sides
of the membrane is critical for safety and equipment life.

P5 Critical decisions when selecting


pressure transmitters

There are many considerations when it comes to selecting a pressure


transmitter, and few are examined in school. Heres advice to avoid
tough lessons as you learn on the job.

P12 Inside Process Products

Submersible level transmitter; HART-enabled transmitters; Coriolis mass


flowmeter; electromechanical cylinder; pressure transmitter; and
dissolved oxygen analyzer

PRODUCT EXCLUSIVE

departments

news

8 Think Again

18

Software development is becoming more efficient, vertical

20

Smart data and 5G are critical


to enable the Industrial Internet
of Things

21

Universal programming software


allows control of robots, servos,
drives

22

OSHA safety violations increase


in 2015; video

23

Online Headlines: events and


more news

How to select a controller

10 Apps for Engineers


Remote data collection

12 Product Exclusive

PRODUCTS

Iconics V10.9 software saves time


and integrates with the Internet of
Things (IoT), cloud storage, and
mobile devices.

14 Research
Six IIoT, Industry 4.0 key findings

16 Control Engineering
International
Automation enterprises invest in
cloud technologies

products

80 Back to Basics
Wireless intrusion detection systems
and wireless intrusion protection
systems protect a wireless network
(and in some cases a wired network) from
unauthorized users.

www.controleng.com

78

Image processing board for


inspection, machine-vision applications; Inductive proximity sensors with microprocessor-based
design; Multifunctional illumination switching element.
See more products
on P12 and P13.

CONTROL ENGINEERING NOVEMBER 2015 5

More resources posted daily at:

NOVEMBER

Trending

www.controleng.com

New Products

Control Systems

Process Manufacturing Discrete Manufacturing

Top 5

articles, weekly
Articles about the Leaders Under 40,
Engineers Choice finalists, methane
regulations, storing solar energy as
hydrogen, and power quality for
mission critical facilities were
Control Engineerings five most
clicked articles from Oct.. 12-18.

Ensuring power
quality in mission
critical facilities
The latest Energy Automation eNewsletter included the following articles:
 Storing solar energy as hydrogen:
Photovoltaic systems for plants
 Develop an effective industrial
equipment SCCR strategy
 Keeping enclosures conditioned
 Driving greater efficiency through a variable speed future.

System Integration

Networking & Security

Info Management

Education & Training

On-demand webcasts
Control Engineerings webcast series is always available on demand at any
time. The year is coming
to a close and if you need additional
continuing education credits, now is
the time to meet your requirements.
www.controleng.com/webcasts.

Oil & Gas Engineering


October issue
Oil & Gas Engineering

OCTOBER 2015

provides industry-specific

www.oilandgaseng.com

solutions designed to
maximize uptime and
increase productivity
through the use of indus-

Cyber security
cost effcient
for industrial
control systems
Extracting full value
from operational data

Managing cyber security risks

25

try best practices and


new innovations.

A supplement to Control Engineering


and PLANT ENGINEERING magazines

Read these articles at


www.oilandgaseng.com:

 Cyber security is now more cost


efficient for industrial control systems

Point, click, watch


VIDEO: Three ways to advance diversity
in STEM: Interview with Dr. Irving Pressley
McPhail (NACME)
Dr. Irving Pressley McPhail, president and CEO of the National
Action Council for Minorities in Engineering (NACME), speaks
about advancing diversity in engineering.
Go to: www.youtube.com/user/ControlEngineeringTV
or scan the QR code to the right.

NOVEMBER 2015 CONTROL ENGINEERING www.controleng.com

operational data

 Protecting industrial control systems.

Read this on your tablet


The tablet and digital
editions of this publication have unique content
for digital subscribers. This
month, page 75, find:
Integrating cyber-physical security into design;
The coming changes to
Ethernet (TSN); CAN FD:
from Theory to practice;
and links to five additional online extra articles on wireless,
industrial networking, IIoT, operations
workflow, and career advice.

APR15 A&C Snipe (CE)_Layout 1 3/13/15 2:33 PM Page 1

www.controleng.com

CTL1511_MAG_Cover_V4msREVIEW.indd 2

Keep up with the latest industry


news by subscribing to Control
Engineerings 14 newsletters at
www.controleng.com/enewsletters.

 Extracting full value from

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Choose from topical


and industry based
newsletters

11/2/15 9:31 AM

Unbeatable Control,

Precision, and Flexibility

Lowering cost, increasing productivity, and shortening design times are


just some of the challenges industrial engineers face. The graphical system
design approach combines productive software and reconfigurable I/O (RIO)
hardware to help you meet these challenges. This off-the-shelf platform,
customizable to solve any control and monitoring application, integrates
motion, vision, and I/O with a single software development environment
tobuild complex industrial systems faster.

>> Accelerate your productivity at ni.com/industrial-control-platform

800 453 6202


2015 National Instruments. All rights reserved. LabVIEW, National Instruments, NI, and ni.com are trademarks of National Instruments.
Other product and company names listed are trademarks or trade names of their respective companies. 23874

input #6 at www.controleng.com/information

NI LabVIEW system
design software offers
flexibility through FPGA
programming, simplifies
code reuse, and helps
you program the way
you thinkgraphically.

editorial

THINK AGAIN

1111 W. 22nd St. Suite 250, Oak Brook, IL 60523


630-571-4070, Fax 630-214-4504

Content Specialists/Editorial

How to select
a controller

Applications and controller options vary


widely. Take care in selection, especially in
the overlapping areas. Functionality matters
more than a name.

ontroller options vary almost as


widely as the applications they control. More than one type of controller
often can serve any particular application. Is the application best suited for a programmable logic controller (PLC), programmable
automation controller (PAC), industrial personal
computer (IPC), or distributed control system
(DCS)? Names are less important than functionality. Experts can help sort it out.

Table of options

PLCs continue to be a popular choice


for machine control and for simple process
control applications, said Jeff Payne, automation controls group product manager at
AutomationDirect. Their ladder logic programming is well-suited for control simple
and complex automated sequences, but is
lacking when it comes to control of analog
variables and data handling, Payne said;
IPCs and PC-based controllers have the most
programming options and best opportunities
for integrating motion, vision, and humanmachine interface.

Flowchart helps

For the process industries, manufacturers of PLCs are promoting an idea that the
combination of PLC and supervisory control
and data acquisition (SCADA) can deliver the
same functionality that a DCS provides, said
Shady Yehia, the instrumentation, control,
and automation proposals and engineering
manager in a process technology integration company. Yehias six-question flowchart
helps with selecting between a PLC and DCS.

Criteria matrix

There is no clear cut fast rule about when


to use a PAC, PLC, or IPC; factors include
budget, size, support, complexity, and future
expansion, said Ryan Williams, project manager at Stone Technologies, a system integrator. Selection factors may include existing
programming licenses owned, maintenance

and engineering training and familiarity, and


regional contractor support for the system.
When unclear, create a selection matrix with
weighted criteria and grade each.
Ability to change

Easier access to control logic is important.


Daniel B. Cardinal, an electrical engineer and
control system integrator, said that manufacturers can reduce costs with improved abilities to change design information to affect
actively running PLC programs. The real
value to manufacturers comes from less chaos
and more access, so support personnel understand how to interact with control systems.

Less integration

Programmable controllers are a better fit


for applications where extremely fast scan
times, very large input/output (I/O) counts,
or high performance redundancy are critical,
said Vibhoosh Gupta, product management
leader, GE Intelligent Platforms.
24-core processing

PC-based controls have more flexibility


in form factor, said Reid Beilke, a product
specialist at Beckhoff Automation. A 24-core
control platform is available, a 36-core version is available soon, and programming
software can optimize that power to upgrade
functions and capabilities.
Think again about controller selection: Six
articles in this issue offer details, each with
more information online. ce

More advice
See the control systems tab atop
www.controleng.com.
Do you have some controller tips to offer?
www.controleng.com/contribute

Mark T. Hoske, Content Manager


630-571-4070, x2214, MHoske@CFEMedia.com
Peter Welander, Content Manager
PWelander@CFEMedia.com
Amanda Pelliccione, Director of Research
631-320-0655, APelliccione@CFEMedia.com
Joy Chang, Digital Project Manager
630-571-4070 x2225, JChang@CFEMedia.com
Chris Vavra, Production Editor
CVavra@CFEMedia.com
Eric R. Eissler, Oil & Gas Engineering, Editor-in-Chief
630-571-4070 x2224, EEissler@CFEMedia.com

Contributing Content Specialists


Frank J. Bartos, P.E., braunbart@sbcglobal.net
Jeanine Katzel, jkatzel@sbcglobal.net
Vance VanDoren, Ph.D., P.E., controleng@msn.com
Suzanne Gill, European Editor
suzanne.gill@imlgroup.co.uk
Ekaterina Kosareva, Control Engineering Russia
ekaterina.kosareva@fsmedia.ru
Wojciech Stasiak, Poland, Editor-in-Chief,
wojciech.stasiak@trademedia.us
Luk Smelk, Czech, Editor-in-Chief
lukas.smelik@trademedia.us
Aileen Jin, Control Engineering China
aileenjin@cechina.cn

Publication Services
Jim Langhenry, Co-Founder/Publisher, CFE Media
630-571-4070, x2203; JLanghenry@CFEMedia.com
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630-571-4070, x2204, SRourke@CFEMedia.com
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630-571-4070, x2205, TKelly@CFEMedia.com
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Infogroup Targeting Solutions
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Letters to the editor: Please e-mail us your opinions to
MHoske@CFEMedia.com or fax us at 630-214-4504.
Letters should include name, company, and address,
and may be edited for space and clarity.
Information: For a Media Kit or Editorial Calendar,
email Trudy Kelly at TKelly@CFEMedia.com.

Reprints
For custom reprints or electronic usage, contact:
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Mark T. Hoske, Content Manager


MHoske@CFEMedia.com

NOVEMBER 2015 CONTROL ENGINEERING www.controleng.com

630-571-4070, x2221
Stuart Smith, International
Tel. +44 208 464 5577

MHatcher@CFEMedia.com
stuart.smith@ssm.co.uk

Its About (up)Time.

Upgrade to More Uptime.


When you choose a PROFINET network, the comprehensive diagnostics are baked in the protocol.
PROFINET diagnostics uniquely help prevent and reduce unplanned downtime. Scalable network redundancy
is as easy as running the cable. Because its about time.

Welcome to The PROFINET of Things...Weve Been Waiting for You.


input #7 at www.controleng.com/information

apps for

ENGINEERS

www.controleng.com/appsforengineers

Remote data collection


Complete
Automation
Solutions for the
Process Industry

CFE Medias Apps for Engineers is an interactive directory of engineering-related applications


for Apple iOS and Android operating systems
from various companies. Apps are organized by
category, company, and type. These remote data
collection applications are listed in the app as of
November 2015.

ExakTime Mobile
iOS 2.2 +, Android 2.3+
Cost: Free
Company: ExakTime
Website: www.exaktime.com

Pilot Valves

ExakTime Mobile turns smartphones or tablets into a time-tracking device.


 Accurate time and labor tracking
 Clock-in for individual employees with PIN code
 Track hundreds of work activities and cost codes
 On-screen selections in a choice of three languages
 GPS location stamp on every time punch
 Front camera biometrics feature eliminates buddy punching.

Process Valves

Hobo Mobile
iOS 8.0+, Android 4.4+

Cost: Free
Company: Onset Computer Corp.
Website: www.onsetcomp.com
Hobo Mobile is designed to communicate wirelessly via Bluetooth Smart to the
Hobo MX data loggers. The user can configure and start the data logger, download the recorded data, store, and analyze the data. The data can be viewed in
graphical and list formats and exported and shared to other programs including
Microsoft Excel and Hoboware.

Control Cabinets

LogMeIn
iOS 7.0+, Android 4.0.3+
Cost: Free
Company: LogMeIn Inc.
Website: www.logmein.com

Remotely access PCs and Macs with LogMeIn. It works with an account
subscription of LogMeIn Pro on a computer, which also includes access from a
desktop and Web browser, providing mobile access to everything thats needed.

SmartGlance
iOS 7.0+, Android 4.0+

Cost: Free
Company: Schneider Electric
Website: www.software.schneider-electric.com/products/wonderware

For more information:


Call: 1-800-Go-Festo
1-800-463-3786

Wonderware SmartGlance brings real-time data to mobile devices, anywhere,


anytime. Use SmartGlance to get proactively notified with configurable and personalized alerts related to manufacturing and industrial facilities, processes, and
equipment. SmartGlance mobile apps display reports using the Wonderware
SmartGlance Mobile Reporting Connector (MRC) desktop application.

www.festo.us
input #8 at www.controleng.com/information
Global manufacturer of process control
and factory automation solutions

10

NOVEMBER 2015 CONTROL ENGINEERING www.controleng.com

Reliable Detection
For Your Application

You cant afford not to know. See it all at thinkallied.com/sensors

1.800.433.5700
Allied Electronics, Inc 2015. Allied Electronics and the Allied Electronics logo are trademarks of Allied Electronics, Inc.

input #9 at www.controleng.com/information

An Electrocomponents Company.

EXCLUSIVE

product

Automation software
for manufacturing,
industrial applications
Iconics V10.9 of advanced automation
software saves time and integrates with
IoT, cloud storage, and mobile devices.

he Iconics V10.9 product suite provides the most advanced


automation software for industrial, manufacturing, building automation, and energy management, the company
said. Based on industry standards such as OPC UA, BACnet,
Microsoft .NET and Microsoft Azure, Iconics Genesis64, AnalytiX, MobileHMI, and Hyper Historian products integrate with
the Internet of Things (IoT), cloud storage, and mobile devices.
With more than 500 new features, Iconics V10.9 product
suite introduces many new timesaving capabilities and several
groundbreaking technologies unseen in other human-machine
interface/supervisory control and data acquisition (HMI/SCADA)
or visualization products. Genesis64 is now Microsoft Windows 10 ready. New capabilities include asset-based technology
improvements, a new project-based Workbench, recipe management, alerts, native Esri integration, unified search, and more.
Iconics AnalytiX solutions introduced the concept of asset-based

fault detection and diagnostics. Improvements to MobileHMI


V10.9 allow for greater user control in mobile displays while
creating seamless transitions to the desktop. Iconics KPIWorX
self-service dashboards require no pre-authoring, use a responsive design technology, and can run on any tablet or smartphone.
Finally, the brand new ReportWorX 365 is a Microsoft Office
App that works with Microsoft Power BI and Office 365. ce
Iconics
www.iconics.com
Input #209 at www.controleng.com/information

Go Online
www.controleng.com/products has more products. See the product section in this print/digital edition of Control Engineering.
Interested in introducing a product to the world here? Contact Mark T.
Hoske, Control Engineering content manager, mhoske@cfemedia.com.

input #10 at www.controleng.com/information

Gear Up for
Reduced Downtime

BaldorDodge gear reducers bring a level of quality


and reliability to your machines that give you one
less thing to worry about. For OEM designs or inthe-field replacement, theres a BaldorDodge gear
reducer perfect for your application, close by and
ready to get to work.
Reduce your downtime stress a notch or two by
choosing from the family of gear reducers that tackle
the toughest challenges industry can throw
at themday after day after day.
baldor.com

479-646-4711

input #11 at www.controleng.com/information

2015 Baldor Electric Company

Unmatched Quality
Superior Reliability
Energy Efficient
Stock and Custom Orders

Top 3 bonus
compensation criteria
60.8%

research

23.0%

22.5%

2015 IIoT, INDUSTRY 4.0, INFORMATION INTEGRATION STUDY:

Six IIoT, Industry 4.0


key findings

espondents to the Control Engineering 2015 Industrial Internet


of Things (IIoT), Industry 4.0,
Information Integration Study identified
six high-level findings regarding IIoT
and Industry 4.0 and their impact on the
industry today:
1. Familiarity: Fifty-nine percent of
respondents identified as being very
or somewhat familiar with the IIoT
framework, compared to 29% being not
very familiar and 12% not at all familiar.
Only one-third of respondents identified
as being very or somewhat familiar
with the Industry 4.0 platform, compared
to 36% being not very familiar and 31%
not at all familiar.
2. IIoT attributes: According to
respondents, the most useful IIoT framework attributes to their organizations
are interoperability and open standards
connecting people, processes, and data
(79%); as well as security (75%).
3. Industry 4.0 attributes: Realtime capabilities (83%), interoperability

Company
C
Personal
Product
profitability performance profitability
Source: Control Engineering 2015 Career Survey

(80%), and modularity (78%) are the


most useful Industry 4.0 platform attributes, according to respondents.
4. Implementing IIoT attributes:
Interoperability and open standards has
been implemented by 14% of respondents facilities, with 38% progressing
and 26% just beginning; compared to
security having been implemented by
18%, with 35% progressing and 29%
beginning to employ.
5. Implementing Industry 4.0 attributes: Only 10% of respondents facilities have fully implemented the real-time
capabilities, interoperability, and modularity attributes of Industry 4.0.
6. Funding levels: On average,
respondents expect funding levels to
increase 32% as a result of IIoT and
Industry 4.0 discussions.
View more information at
www.controleng.com/2015InfoStudy.
- Amanda Pelliccione is research
director at CFE Media,
apelliccione@cfemedia.com.

Expected funding level increase


Percentage of responses

25%
%
20%
%

IIoT

10%
%
5%
%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

70%

80%

All graphics courtesy: CFE Media

www.controleng.com/ce-research FOR MORE RESEARCH INFORMATION

44%

of facilities expect
their information integration activity will very slowly increase over
the next few years. Source: Control
Engineering 2015 IIoT, Industry 4.0,
Information Integration Study

3 out of 4

end users are concerned about


the vulnerability of their organizations historians and connections.
Source: Control Engineering 2015
Cyber Security Study

More research

Expected % funding increase, 2015 to 2016

14

of system integrators work on an average of 10


projects or less each year. Source:
Control Engineering 2014 System
Integration Study

Industry 4.0

15%
%

55%

NOVEMBER 2015 CONTROL ENGINEERING www.controleng.com

90% 100%

Control Engineering surveys its


audience on five topics each
year: cyber security; career survey;
system integration; IIoT, Industry
4.0, information integration; and
mobility, Ethernet, and wireless.
All reports are available at
www.controleng.com/ce-research.

Nothing like it in the U.S.


Plug-in to next years technology this year at Germanys Hannover Messe

Come to the 2016 Hannover Messe


and expand your world of business.
Jack Nehlig, President, Phoenix Contact U.S.A.

You can wait for it to hit the U.S.


or you can see it first at Hannover Messe.
This massive German technology trade
fair is unlike any trade show youve ever
attended. English is the spoken language,
so you can enjoy meaningful technological
discussion as you tour incredible
multi-tiered booths.
Phoenix Contact will be there, too,
spotlighting electrical engineering,
electronics, and automation systems,
components, and solutions.
The USA is the 2016 partner country:
Access foreign investment
Make contacts to expand your
export business

Read five reasons why American


manufacturers should attend
Hannover Messe, April 25-29, 2016.

2015 PHOENIX CONTACT

Download it for free at:


www.phoenixcontact.com/GoMesse
input #12 at www.controleng.com/information

INTERNATIONAL

Automation enterprises invest


in cloud technologies
Facing new demands from manufacturers and the latest developments in the Internet
of Things, enterprises in industrial automation begin to invest in cloud technology.

W
Aileen Jin

Editor-in-chief,
Control Engineering
China

Go Online
This was translated and
edited for
Control Engineering from
Control Engineering China.
www.cechina.cn
See other international
coverage.
www.controleng.com/international

Consider this...
Will major automation
vendors see value in collaborating in the cloud,
or will there be multiple,
incompatible platforms?
16

ith the popularization of cloud


storage technology in commercial
fields, consumers are accustomed
to enjoying information in the
cloud in smart phones, tablet PCs, and laptops.
The cloud provides flexible and convenient information transmission. It works like an invisible
USB with unlimited capacity.
Just like commercial fields, the recognition of
the cloud by the manufacturing industry is also
quietly changing. The industry went from having doubts and concerns over safety of using a
cloud platform to realizing value in cloud-based
asset management, historical data analysis, industrial business flow optimization, remote
real-time access, better energy efficiency
management, more cost cutting, and efficiency improvements.
IDC, a market research organization,
said the global cloud-computing infrastructure grew by 25.1% and reached
$6.3 billion in first-quarter 2015. The
expenditure of private cloud and the
expenditure of public cloud grew by
24.4% and 25.5% respectively, year
over year.
Relevant data from the China Ministry of Industry and Information Technology indicated that the fastest growing
information technology service industry
of China in the first half of 2015 was
service business with cloud and big data as representatives. The growth rate reached 22.1%. It was
undoubtedly a new blue ocean as far as new normality of Chinas economy was concerned.
Growing demand from manufacturers

Facing the new demands from manufacturing


users, leading enterprises in industrial automation
also are giving increasing attention to cloud services. As a promoter of the concept of Industrial
Internet of Things (IIoT), GE formally declared a
plan to enter into the cloud service market through
the Predix cloud, an industrial Internet cloud platform exclusively developed for Predix. It is said to
be the first cloud solution developed and designed
exclusively for collection and analysis of indus-

MONTH 2013
NOVEMBER
2015
2015
CONTROL
CONTROL
ENGINEERING
ENGINEERING
www.controleng.com
www.controleng.com

trial data. Jeffrey Immelt, CEO of GE, indicated


that GE would provide higher-level services in
the industrial field through the Predix cloud and
helped users to capture and analyze massive highspeed running and diversified data generated by
various machines in a highly safe industrial cloud.
Siemens is constructing an open cloud platform, which aims to provide industrial users with
big-data-based services such as predictive maintenance, assets analysis, and energy data management. Other automation enterprises have launched
cloud-based products and services in recent years.
For example, Wise-cloud platform of Advantech,
Proficloud of Phoenix Contact, Electric cloud
Energy Efficiency management platform of
Schneider, and a cloud-computing-based solution
from Rockwell Automation also draw attention.
As a domestic, long-established industrial
automation enterprise, Hollysys is also actively
researching and developing industrial cloud.
All technologies for construction of a cloud
platform are basically mature in terms of content.
The challenges are information security and depth
of industrial application, said Shi Hongyuan, vice
president of Hollysys Group. Hongyuan continued, China has many medium- and small-sized
industrial enterprises. It will seem very uneconomical if they organize their own teams to establish [a] private cloud system. Hollysys has nearly
10,000 industrial customers among which there
are lots of medium- and small-sized customers.
The Hollysys cloud platform service helps customers and Hollysys.
Today, industrial enterprises are starting to adopt
cloud technologies for big-data-based intelligent
manufacturing through data sharing, assets management, remote monitoring, and information analysis.
It is estimated that more traditional manufacturing
enterprises will join the cloud, offering continuous improvements in safety and reliability. How
to provide customized professional cloud services
for industrial enterprises will become an important
question for the cloud-service industry. ce
-Aileen Jin, editor-in-chief, Control Engineering China. Edited by Joy Chang, digital project manager, Control Engineering,
jchang@cfemedia.com.

work smarter

Discover How Honeywells New SmartLine


Transmitters Make Life Easier So You Have More Time
to Focus on the Important Stuff.
Honeywells new SmartLine level, pressure and temperature
transmitters increase efficiency in your plant, no matter how complex
it may be. Smarter features make your work and your life easier. SmartLine transmitters deliver
smart performance with best-in-class accuracy, repeatability, and response time resulting in up
to 50% reduction in calibration costs. Likewise, its smart design minimizes complexity, thanks
to its modular construction. Downtime is reduced by up to 30%, with savings on maintenance
costs of up to 40%, and spare parts inventory to nearly 70%. Offering a unique smart user
experience, its efficient design software, fully pre-configured transmitters, and advanced ability
to integrate with Honeywells Experion PKS reduces design and operator errors by up to 10%.
It also allows for fast and timely intervention, reducing process upsets by up to 5%.
Discover SmartLine Transmitters. So Smart, They Make Life Easy.

input #13 at www.controleng.com/information


Discover how Honeywell SmartLine Transmitters can make you work smarter at
www.honeywellprocess.com/smartline
2015 Honeywell International, Inc. All rights reserved.

industry

NEWS

See more news daily at www.controleng.com/news

Software development is becoming


more efficient, vertical
The words vertical, integration,
and efficiency, came up often during
the presentations at the 2015 Software
User Conference in Chicago on Oct. 20.
The keynote presentation, Transforming
the Industrial Software Market by Dr.
Ravi Gopinath and Rob McGreevy from
Schneider Electric emphasized these
points consistently.
Gopinath, executive vice president for
Schneider Electrics Software Business,
discussed how scalability and diversity are very important in todays global
marketplace. He said that it is vital to be
in constant contact with customers in a
global market and that a return on assets
(ROA) and achieving high efficiency will
result in greater returns.

Go Online
www.controleng.com has more on this and
other news at 2015 User Software Conference.

I want
safety
straight
out of
the box

Gopinath said, It is critical that our


software integrates more and more effectively. If software doesnt work to specifications, then it will cause problems and
headaches for everyone involved. While
having good assets is important, thats
not the only factor to consider.
Its not just about making assets
perform, but in todays world assets are
more and more connected, Gopinath
said. The information being sent offers
a whole new world of complexity. He
said it is important to present information
through the software so the people using
the software can make the right decision.
Condensing abstract information is getting easier, but synthesizing and interpreting information can be a challenge.
McGreevy, vice president of operations for asset and information, said that
there is a growing need to be vertical as
well as horizontal. Being horizontal and

Rob McGreevy, vice president of


operations for asset and information for
Schneider Electric, talked about software
development becoming more vertical and
specific in industry operations at the 2015
Software User Conference in Chicago.
Image courtesy: Chris Vavra, CFE Media

invested in a number of different industries is great, but it doesnt mean anything if the technology used in these
industries only scratches the surface of
what needs to be done.
- Chris Vavra is production editor, Control Engineering, cvavra@cfemedia.com.

Introducing the One Series


Safety Transmitter
Now plant safety pros get simple setup and faster,
safer performance, right from the start all
at a more affordable price. Instead of a costly,
overcomplicated process transmitter that must
be adapted for safety use, the One Series Safety
Transmitter is the first SIL-certified transmitter
designed solely for safety system applications.
Only the One Series Safety Transmitter comes
with an internal high-speed switch for the fastest
emergency shutdown. And that simple design
means fewer nuisance trips for greater safety,
productivity and throughput. Drop in the One Series
Safety Transmitter and your safety work is done!

LEADERS IN SAFETY, ALARM & SHUTDOWN

input #14 at www.controleng.com/information

www.ueonline.com/st

input #15 at www.controleng.com/information

NEWS

industry

Smart data and 5G are critical to enable


the Industrial Internet of Things
By 2050, about 50 billion devices will
be connected, most wirelessly, yet 85%
of embedded devices today are not connected, according to Richard McDonell,
technical director, Americas, at National
Instruments (NI).

To shed light on one of the greatest challenges in todays industry, the


NI Days 2015 Chicago kicked off with
keynote speeches highlighting the latest advances in platform-based technologies and fifth-generation mobile wireless

Think Inside the Box.


Complex logic, multi-axis motion, visualization & IT connectivity
all in one multi-core enabled controller.

technology (5G) research to overcome


escalating complexity and create the
Internet of Things (IoT). Smart data was
a main focus at the event, including ways
to better save data for analysis and future
applications. The traveling one-day event
from National Instruments was held on
Oct. 15 at Navy Pier, Chicago.
Five key areas of IIoT

John Graff, vice president of corporate marketing at National Instruments,


said there are five key areas where IoT
is implemented in the industrial sector,
where the concept is called the Industrial
Internet of Things (IIoT):
 Smart measurements
 Smart test systems
 Smart grid
 Smart machines
 Smart power generation.

Smarter measurements, machines

Smart measurement is important especially in mechanical and electromechanical systems due to the large amount of
data created in the process.
Using traditional measuring, only
22% of the data collected during the process is good enough to be analyzed, and

VOTE NOW:

Engineers Choice Finalists

For a limited time, the


official Engineers
Choice ballot is open
for voting for Control
Engineering North
American print and
digital edition subscribers. At
www.controleng.com/
VOTE2016, vote for
the best Engineers
Choice finalists of
111 entries across 27
categories after logging into the website.
Details and photos
are available for each product. Winners
and honorable mentions will be featured
in more detail in the February 2016
issue of Control Engineering.

2016

input #16 at www.controleng.com/information

20

NOVEMBER 2015 CONTROL ENGINEERING

only 5% of the data is actually analyzed.


With the small portion of analyzed
data, critical decisions and business analysis are difficult to make. To use big analog data more efficiently, smart measurements need to be enabled.
The first step to enable smart measurement is to save and identify measurable data from machines. With the rising complexity of wireless tests due to
the increasing use of 5G, Cellular, global
position systems (GPS), near-field communication (NFC), Bluetooth (IEEE
802.15.1), and IEEE 802.11 wireless
local area networks, smart wireless test
systems, and software are needed.
With the right architecture, the smart
testing system will look like a set of
systems of systems that accommodates
multiple standards, ports, and devices
that allow data to flow among machines,
testing tools, smart grids, the computers,
cloud, and smart phones.

SmartMeasurement:
Richard McDonell,
technical director,
Americas, at National
Instruments, explains
the five key areas of
IIoT and smart measurement methods.
Courtesy: Joy Chang,
CFE Media

Smart power grid

Another important area of IIoT


is Smart Grid and power generation.
McDonell said there is a strong correlation between the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita of a country and its
electricity consumption per capita. Smart
data and smart measurement enable
better scheduling of the power grid
machines uptime and freezes machines
at peak power consumption to achieve
higher utilization of energy.
An example in India using such a
power grid allows 100 MW to serve
250,000 homes. Its an example of taking
existing grids, applying smart measurements, and optimizing them to get better results. To show the impact of energy
efficiency improvement, McDonell stated that 1% of industry efficiency savings
means the saving of $66 billion in equipment fuel, $27 billion in rail productivity,
$90 billion in oil and gas capital expenditure, or $30 billion in aviation fuel.
The need for 5G

IoT development includes the 5G network. The industry is focusing on four


vectors of 5G research: massive multiple-input and multiple-output, wireless
networks, physical layer enhancements,
and mmWave. National Instruments partnered with research institutes and network companies on 5G advances.
- Joy Chang is digital project manager, CFE Media, jchang@cfemedia.com.

CONTROL ENGINEERING NOVEMBER 2015 21

input #17 at www.controleng.com/information

industry

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input #18 at www.controleng.com/information

NEWS

OSHA

safety violations
increase in 2015
Preliminary OSHA top 10 violations
for 2015 showed little overall movement. Fall protection was once again the
number one violation. Patrick Kapust,
deputy director of OSHAs Directorate of Enforcement Programs, presented
the Top 10 at the 2015 National Safety
Council (NSC) Congress & Expo, the
worlds largest gathering of safety professionals. NSC president and CEO Deborah A.P. Hersman said, The OSHA Top
10 list is a roadmap that identifies the
hazards you want to avoid on the journey
to safety excellence.
From 2014 to 2015, the only movement in ranking was ladders and electricalwiring methods, which swapped
the seventh and eight spots. There were
34,436 violations overall in 2015, a 4%
gain from 2014. Lockout/tagout violations were up 11% in 2015. The only violations that showed any decrease were in
the category of electricalwiring methods and electricalgeneral requirements.
Below, see the top 10 for FY 2015, the
OSHA hazard standard citation, and, in
parenthesis, the 2014 total and ranking:
1. Fall Protection (1926.501)
6,721 (6,143, 1st)
2. Hazard Communication
(1910.1200) 5,192 (5,161, 2nd)
3. Scaffolding (1926.451)
4,295 (4,029, 3rd)
4. Respiratory Protection
(1910.134) 3,305 (3,223, 4th)
5. Lockout/Tagout (1910.147)
3,002 (2,704, 5th)
6. Powered Industrial Trucks
(1910.178) 2,760 (2,662, 6th)
7. Ladders (1926.1053)
2,489 (2,448, 8th)
8. Electrical Wiring Methods
(1910.305) 2,404 (2,490, 7th)
9. Machine Guarding (1910.212)
2,295 (2,200, 9th)
10. Electrical
General Requirements
(1910.303) 1,973 (2,056, 10th)
- Chris Vavra is production editor,
CFE Media, cvavra@cfemedia.com.
Go online for more safety stories.
22

NOVEMBER 2015 CONTROL ENGINEERING

When an overhead crane accidentally dropped a


steel pipe 15 feet onto an IceStation, workers were
relieved to find the pipe had not been damaged.

What was less surprising was the fact that the IceStation - along with the computer and monitor inside it
remained completely unharmed. All ITSENCLOSURES are constructed out of 14-gauge steel and built to last
forever and a day. Should one of our enclosures ever actually fail due to manufacturer defect, we will replace it!
As fast as humanly possible so your business does not skip a beat. Built to meet NEMA 12 standards, IceStation
TITAN protects computer systems from harmful dust, dirt, and splashing fluids. With a large viewing window
designed to accommodate up to 24 wide screen monitors, a retractable keyboard drawer, oversized work
surface, and a track record of 29 years of experience protecting electronics, ITSENCLOSURES is the one name
you can trust. To learn more about IceStation TITAN, call 1.800.423.9911 or visit ITSENCLOSURES.com.

25

input #19 at www.controleng.com/information

NEWS

industry

Universal programming software


allows control of robots, servos, drives

Robots and motion controls from


Yaskawa can be programmed with one
software, rather than with separate packages. The Yaskawa Singular Control
concept was shown at Pack Expo 2015
in Las Vegas. Courtesy: Mark T. Hoske,
Control Engineering, CFE Media

Yaskawa MotionWorks IEC Pro


Machine Controller software, part of
the MotionWorks IEC development
platform, can operate Yaskawa Motoman brand robots, Yaskawa servos, and
variable-speed drives and related logic
for each without need for a specialized
robot programmer. The company calls
this unified programming environment
Yaskawa Singular Control. It uses IEC
61131-3 programming languages and
motion function blocks that conform to
PLCopen standards. The software was
shown in a demonstration of the Yaskawa Case Packing Toolbox and Yaskawa
Motoman brand robots on an example
robotic case-packing application.
In
a
discussion
with
Control Engineering prior to the show,
Doug Meyer, Yaskawa motion project manager, explained, The Singular Control strategy brings three main

Yaskawa product lines together, robots,


servo motors, and ac drives, all controlled by one controller in one environment to increase usability and flexibility and to reduce costs.
The work cell demonstration eliminates the need to manage multiple controllers, incompatible software, and
competing control vendors. Development is said to be faster and easier with
Yaskawas Case Packing Toolbox application function blocks, which allow
engineering work to be completed in
less time without losing the freedom
to customize an application to specific
case-packing needs, the company said.
Application Toolbox function block
packages continue to be developed for
other applications.
- Mark T. Hoske, content manager, CFE Media, Control Engineering,
mhoske@cfemedia.com, with additional
source material from Yaskawa.

Go Online

Universal UPS and battery


management modules for
powering fail-safe industrial
systems.

Designing HMIs:
For the big screen
or a phone?
VIDEO: Operator consoles are
moving to larger screens and 4K
resolution for massive graphics with
astonishing detail. Screens also are
being designed for smartphones and
tablets. Design concepts differ for
each. Honeywell Process Solutions
has identified itself as a mobility
first company. In a video interview
at Honeywell User Group 2015,
Pieter Krynauw, vice president, HPS
Projects and Automation Solutions,
discusses what the thought process
means, and what a company should
think about as it considers adopting
new HMI graphic approaches.
- Peter Welander, contributing content specialist, Control Engineering,
pwelander@cfemedia.com.

input #20 at www.controleng.com/information

Reliable. Available. Now.

Read this story online with additional images


from Pack Expo 2015 discussing the Yaskawa
Singular Control concept as well as other stories from the event.

tracopower.com

24

NOVEMBER 2015 CONTROL ENGINEERING

HEADLINES ONLINE
See www.controleng.com/news for daily
coverage including the items below.
Industry events
At www.controleng.com, on the right side,
click into the events box and scroll by month
to see related industry events including:
 20th Annual Arc Industry Forum, Orlando,
Feb. 8-11
www.arcweb.com/events/
arc-industry-forum-orlando
 4th USA Science & Engineering Festival,
Washington, DC, April 15-17
www.usasciencefestival.org

See more news daily at www.controleng.com/news

different departments. Use these five highlevel questions to improve the sanitary
design of the plant.
Researchers build next-generation
flexible digital displays
Professors Bernard Kippelen and Seth
Marder of the Center for Organic Photonics
and Electronics (COPE) at Georgia Tech
are developing light-emitting diodes (LEDs)
using organic elementsprincipally car-

bon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogenthat


abound in Earths biosphere.
Bridging the racial gap
in STEM education
VIDEO: Early education, parenting, and
industry support: More than 500 children and
parents, mostly from African American and
Latin American communities in the Chicago
area, attended the 2015 ChiS&E orientation
at the University of Illinois-Chicago.

 CSIA Executive Conference, Puerto Rico,


April 19-22
www.csiaexecutiveconference.org/
 Hannover Messe 2016, Hannover, Germany,
April 25-29
www.hannovermesse.de
 Offshore Technology Conference and Exhibition, Houston, May 2-5
http://2016.otcnet.org/

Top 5 Control Engineering articles


Oct. 12-18: The most visited articles included
the Leaders Under 40, Engineers Choice
finalists, Methane regulations, Storing solar
energy as hydrogen, and Power quality for
mission control facilities.
PMI continues slide due to global
economic concerns
PMI fell to 50.2% in September, down from
Augusts 51.1% reading, though still growing.
Inspiring cyber-physical security
Visualizing the relevance of cyber-physical
systems in applications shows why new
approaches to security are required.
Internet of Things specification released
The Open Interconnect Consortium Inc.
(OIC) announced the public availability of its
candidate Internet of Things (IoT) specification, which is a cloud-native architecture for
the IoT documented in a formal specification.
Flexible battery market set to grow as
wearable technology develops
A report by IDTechEx indicates that the flexible battery market will grow dramatically with
growth in wearable technology.
IoT groups agree to collaboration
for interoperable connectivity
The EnOcean Alliance and the Open
Interconnect Consortium (OIC) agreed to
cooperatively work on an energy harvesting
wireless standard.
Flexible machine learning for
image classification
MIT researchers have developed a way of
doing machine learning that enables semantically related concepts to reinforce each
other and improve image classification.
5 key questions to answer during
hygienic food plant design
Food safety is a shared responsibility among
CONTROL ENGINEERING NOVEMBER 2015 25

input #21 at www.controleng.com/information

cover story | controllers

Convergence of

PLCs, PACs, IPCs

There are three common types of machine or process controllers:


PLCs, PACs, and IPCs. Heres how to select the best one for your application.
Key
concepts
 Much of the innovation
accompanying the PAC
stemmed from advancements in PCs and other
commercial technologies
such as cellular phones in
the mid-1990s.
 The industrial personal
computer (IPC) has actually been around longer than
the PAC, at least since the
mid-1980s.

ivergent is defined as tending to be


different or developing in different
directions; its common for companies to strive for differentiation
from competition, often in trivial
ways. For industrial controllers, convergent is
the word best describing the state of the market
and available features.
Convergent is defined as coming closer
together, especially in characteristics or ideas.
This more aptly defines the relationship among
programmable logic controllers (PLCs), programmable automation controllers (PACs), and industrial PCs (IPCs) in todays industrial automation
market. Lets take a closer look at how this convergent trend is expressed among types of industrial controllers.

Figure 1: This AutomationDirect P2000 is an example of a PLC-based PAC as


it combines the power of a PAC with the form factor and reliability of a PLC.
All images courtesy: AutomationDirect
26

NOVEMBER 2015 CONTROL ENGINEERING www.controleng.com

Controller background, history

First, there was the PLC invented by Dick


Morley. The PLCs invention and the creation of
Modicon demonstrate true entrepreneurial genius
and forever changed the way machines are controlled. This relay replacer has taken on many
faces over the past 45 years, growing from a simple logic solver to a true multitasking central core
for many automated systems.
The PAC, a term coined by ARC Advisory
Group in 2001, provided some distinction in the
market from the PLC. On one end of the market, there were still many legacy controllers that
were more similar to the units Morley speaks
of in his memoirs. However, on the other end
of the industrial-control spectrum, there was a
wave of new technology being introduced into
the controls realm.
Much of the innovation accompanying the
PAC stemmed from advancements in PCs and
other commercial technologies such as cellular phones in the mid-1990s. These areas were
advancing rapidly during this time, and consumer-driven markets were suddenly playing a part
in the production of smaller, cheaper, and faster components that also were suitable for industrial controls. Initially, many components were
not considered to be industrial quality, but this
changed quickly.
The IPC has actually been around longer than
the PAC, at least since the mid-1980s. The first
IPCs were quite large and expensive, as with
IBMs version which was the size of a 50-hp
motor and cost about $10,000. But as time progressed, the form factor and price of an IPC
approached, or even improved upon, that of a
PLC or PAC.
An issue with IPCs was the operating system, as desktop versions of Microsoft Windows
werent robust or deterministic enough for realtime control. The answer was the creation of a
host of real-time operating systems, which turned
the IPC hardware into a high-performance control
engine suitable for industrial applications.

There are some unique characteristics among


these platforms, but as weve seen in the past few
years, the lines that divide them are increasingly
blurring boundaries.
Recent technology has made the PLC a much
more capable controller than the original relay
replacers designed more than 45 years ago. The
table shows generalized data that does not necessarily represent the features of each controller
within its respective category, but does offer a fair
assessment of categories in general.
In its most basic form, the PLC is the workhorse of many industrial control applications,
commonly operating for 10 or more years with
little maintenance. Often built with purposedesigned gate array processors and with proprietary communication, these controllers continue
to be a popular choice for machine control and
for simple process control applications such as
water/wastewater pump stations. Their ladder
logic programming is well suited for controlling
simple and complex automated sequences, but is
lacking when it comes to control of analog variables and data handling.
PLCs work well in applications where space is
at a premium due to their small fixed or modular
form factor. While there are limited expandability options, their low cost hardware and programming software make them a popular choice for
original equipment manufacturers (OEM) and
other applications.
Even though the program memory is typically
in the low to mid-range, PLCs can be integrated
with motion and vision systems to provide more
sophisticated control.

low-cost machine control to complex control of


large systems with many
input/output (I/O) points.
The great PLC-based
PAC enabler is todays
new technologies, which
allow suppliers to make a
better controller at a lower
cost as compared to legacy control systems. The
technology inside these
controllers is also becoming more compact, making it a perfect fit for many
machine control and other
OEM applications.
Many
of
these
machines require moderately fast scan times to
meet design specifications set forth by OEMs
in highly competitive markets. In the past,
machine builders were often faced with using a
PLC that met requirements for I/O requirements
and form factor, constraints, and compromise on
performance.
The alternative was to make the switch to a
high-end PAC or IPC, often necessary to accomplish the goals set forth by the design engineers.
In many cases, these larger controllers were overkill and drove up the cost of the overall design
by requiring a larger enclosure, along with higher hardware and software costs. But an answer
emerged in the form of the PLC-based PAC,
which provided the required performance in a
compact form factor and at competitive cost.

Convergence to PLC-based PACs

Stepping up control with the PAC

PLC baseline

Although PLCs have been around since the


1960s, todays electronics advancements provide
an atmosphere favorable for the development of
a new class of controllers (see Figure 1). Components are smaller, faster, cheaper, and more reliable than ever before. This provides the ability to
increase the capabilities of the PLC without driving the cost too high and to lower the cost of a
typical high-end control system without sacrificing performance, thus creating the PAC from the
bones of the PLC.
Because the PAC grew from the PLC and possesses many of its best characteristics such as
reliability and a compact form factor, it makes
sense to refer to it as a PLC-based PAC. This is
the perfect example of convergence of technology in the industrial realm. These controllers can
satisfy many applications ranging from simple,

In addition to machine control, todays PLCbased PAC is also often a good fit for quite complex applications. For examples, a modern PAC
could scan hundreds of analog channels and log
data points to a file on an integrated memory port
and then allow access to those files via a standard web browser through its built-in Web server
(see Figure 2).
These more capable PAC controllers typically include a general purpose processor. They also
are offered with a wide-range of standard communication protocols, enabling connection to a
variety of devices. And with access to multiple
programming languages as defined in the IEC
61131-3 standard, they have extensive control
capabilities. These medium-to-large form factor,
rack-based systems also provide medium to high
expandability for I/O count and memory.
www.controleng.com

Figure 2: This PAC controller provides a wide


range of capabilities and is
thus suitable for simple to
complex machine and process control applications.

Technology
inside PACs is
also becoming
more compact,
making it a
perfect fit for
many machine
control and
other OEM

applications.

CONTROL ENGINEERING NOVEMBER 2015 27

cover story | controllers


Table: General PLC-PAC-IPC comparison
Capabilities

PLC

PAC

IPC / PC-based control

Processor

Purpose-designed gate array

General purpose processor

Multicore processor

Communications

Proprietary communications, limited


standard protocols

Standard protocols

Most any protocol, limited only by those requiring


specialized hardware

Programming

Ladder logic, possibly function


block

Access to multiple languages (IEC


61131-3)

IEC 61131-3, PC-based control languages (flow


chart, etc.), computer languages (C++, VB, etc.)

Form Factor

Small/medium, modular,
rack-based

Medium/large, rack-based

Field I/O attached via bus coupler

Expandability

Limited

Mediumhigh

Limited only by the bus specs

Software Cost

Freelow

Mediumhigh

Highest

Hardware Cost

Lowmedium

Mediumhigh

Highest

Program Memory

Lowmid

Midhigh

High & expandable

Integrated Motion

Good

Better

Best

Integrated Vision

Good

Better

Best

Integrated HMI

n/a

n/a

Best
Courtesy: AutomationDirect

Figure 3: Only the largest and most complicated applications required


the capabilities of the
IPC, the most capable
but also the most expensive of the controllers
covered in this article.

Go Online
Read more on this topic with
this article online:
www.controleng.com
28

These capabilities do make


the hardware and programming software more expensive
than a PLC, but the PLCbased PAC delivers the higher
level of performance required
in certain applications.
For example, its large
memory capacity makes
it ideal for creating 1D or
2D arrays to track products
through an exhaustive application requiring the tracking
of quality attributes, shipping
data, customer information,
etc. The tag-name capability of the PLC-based PAC also eases interface to
human-machine interface/supervisory control
and data acquisition (HMI/SCADA), OPC servers, database ERP software, and motion and vision
applications.
Highly capable IPC

For the more specialized areas of automation


and integration, an IPC environment can provide
unique benefits (see Figure 3). Advanced motion
control and vision are two good examples, as one
can benefit from an IPCs built-in motion control
capability to accomplish multiple coordinated
axis control. If there is a need to design a vision
application with one programming environment,
the advantages can be seen.
IPC processors are typically PC-based, multicore processors, and the communication options
are open in nature and only limited by protocols
requiring specialized hardware. Ethernet is by far
the most popular connectivity option, with many
protocols supported, such as EtherNet/IP, Modbus TCP, and Profinet (supported by ODVA, The

NOVEMBER 2015 CONTROL ENGINEERING www.controleng.com

Modbus Organization, and PI North America,


respectively).
IPC programming capabilities are the most
extensive of any controller. Not only are the IEC
61131-3 languages available, so are PC-based
software languages, such as C++ and the Microsoft .NET framework. And because of its PC
roots, a PC-based HMI can reside on the same
chassis and run on its dedicated processor in a
multicore system.
An IPC is usually connected to I/O points
through a bus coupler, creating a distributed control system. Their design also makes them the
most expandable option on the market, usually
only limited by the bus specification.
These extensive control capabilities and high
performance come with a correspondingly high
cost for both the hardware and programming
software. In return, the IPC provides a great deal
of program memory, which can be expanded as
needed, and provides best-in-class integrated
motion and vision capabilities.
There are many applications crossing the lines
of these classifications, but some specialized
requirements often exist that tend to favor one
control platform over another. The PLC and PAC
have much in common, and new hardware technology just strengthens this overlap as it made the
PLC-based PAC a reality, along with the IPC. ce
- Jeff Payne is the automation controls group
product manager at AutomationDirect. Edited by
Eric R. Eissler, editor-in-chief, Oil & Gas Engineering, eeissler@cfemedia.com.

Consider this...
The PLC and PAC have much in common, and new hardware technology just strengthens this overlap as it made
the PLC-based PAC a reality, along with the IPC.

2015 Siemens Industry, Inc.

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input #22 at www.controleng.com/information

Digital Factory

cover story | controllers

PLC or DCS
for process industries?
Six steps to choose between PLC and DCS: A step-by-step technology selection process
can help plant designers and system buyers identify which automation technology would
best fit a particular plant application for the process industries.
Key
concepts
 A PLC and SCADA combination can work in some
applications normally
served by a DCS.
 A series of questions can
help determine if a PLC or
DCS is a better choice.
 Reasoned analysis to
justify controller purchase
is wise.

n striving for larger market share and to conquer new areas of applications, manufacturers of programmable logic controllers (PLCs)
are promoting an idea that the combination of
PLC and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) can deliver the same functionality
that a distributed control system (DCS) provides.
PLC and SCADA can replace DCS because of:
 Increasing memory size and processing
speed of central processing units (CPUs) that
allow for more regulatory control loops to be
handled
 Providing higher reliability and availability,
implementing redundancy on various levels
that almost matches DCS redundancy
 Adding functionality of shared variables
database between PLC and SCADA, which
allows for a unified engineering environment
for logic and the human-machine interface
(HMI) in some cases.
On the other hand, DCS manufacturers are
pushing back to protect their market share, especially in petrochemical industries, where dominant,
while trying to expand into less-sophisticated process industries where PLCs are used, such as water
and wastewater treatment. DCS manufacturers are:
 Raising the bar for process control features
by adding advanced process control techniques, such as neural networks, adaptive
tuning, or model predictive control (MPC)
 Increasing discrete control functionalities, by
complying with the IEC 61131-3 standard
for programming languages, same as PLCs
 Significantly adjusting hardware pricing to
match that of high-end PLCs.
Manufacturers have allowed some interchangeability between each, up to a certain level, both
systems cannot serve every application.
PLC/DCS selection process flowchart

The flow chart introduces a six-step PLC or


DCS selection process to help determine which

30

NOVEMBER 2015 CONTROL ENGINEERING www.controleng.com

technology best suits a specific application. Each


step is a question, and the answer to that question
either provides an answer or moves to the next
question. Details on each step follow.
Step 1: Does the process require implementation of advanced process control (APC)?
No doubt, the vast majority of process control
applications can be handled sufficiently with traditional regulatory control using proportional-integral-derivative (PID) technique, or by combining it
with other traditional regulatory control functions,
such as feedforward, cascade, split range, and
ratio control. Yet, as industrial process plants keep
demanding higher levels of stability and minimization of process variability, especially for control
problems involving multivariables and long process delays, the need for APC techniques, such as
neural network, adaptive tuning, model predictive
control, and others is growing steadily. DCS manufacturers have been leading the way in integrating
APC functionalities; PLCs are limited to traditional control methods. If a process demands one or
more APC technique, DCS is the natural choice.
Step 2: How many regulatory control
loops does the process include?
Although high-end PLCs are perfectly capable
of handling multiple PID loops and other regulatory control functions, the question of how many
loops a PLC can handle can limit PLC use as an
alternative to DCS in process industries.
PID loops consume a significant amount of
memory and dramatically increase the PLC program execution time. This can increase to a degree
that would hinder effective execution of PLC logic.
On the other hand, a DCS is designed to address
this issue as it distributes the execution of the control program on several CPUs while allowing
information to be shared among several CPUs.
If the PLC vendor cannot demonstrate that a
PLC can handle the required number of loops with
room for execution of discrete logic functions, then
DCS is the answer.

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input #23 at www.controleng.com/information

cover story | controllers

The flowchart introduces a


six-step PLC or DCS selection process to help determine
which technology best suits a
specific application. Each step
is a question, and the answer
to that question either provides an answer or moves to
the next question. This article
provides details on each step.
Source: Shady Yehia

Go Online
With this article online, find
more information and links to
related articles at
www.controleng.com.

Consider this...
Selecting logical selection
criteria for controllers may
be as important as selecting the controllers.
32

Step 3: Does the nature of the process require


an operator control room?
Detailed process information visualization
and frequent operator interaction are
central to DCS functionality. PLCs
are about logic execution and process sequencing and need a SCADA/
HMI to gain the ability to visualize
the same information about the process, usually with fewer details. If
the process does not require an operator to interact or monitor 24/7 from
a control room, then a PLC with a
local HMI or a panel-mounted industrial PC (IPC) with SCADA software is sufficient. Using a DCS in
this situation is neither cost justifiable
nor practical considering that the answer for
the first two questions is
NO. Examples of such
processes are skid mounted or packaged systems.
If
the
operation
requires a full control
room, both DCS and a
PLCSCADA combination are viable options,
even if there are only
few control regulatory control loops to
manage.
Step 4: Is high-speed discrete control required?
When it comes to discrete control-logic execution, a PLC has no match; a powerful PLC can
execute a program for several thousand input/output (I/O) signals in one-tenth of a second without a
problem. This is the reason why it is always selected for emergency shut-down systems. DCS, on the
other hand, is not that fast when it comes to discrete control, as it focuses its processing power to
the continuous control loops.
If the process requires high-speed execution,
then PLC is the technology of choice. If the answer
to question one or two was YES, so a DCS is a
must, then two separate systems should be considereda DCS for the process control and a PLC
for discrete logic and safety related systems.
Step 5: Does the process require frequent
modifications?
Both PLC and DCS allow for programming,
program modifications, re-programming, and even
initialization to factory settings to start over. Yet,
while the possibility exists, applying such modifications to a PLC and SCADA combination can be

NOVEMBER 2015 CONTROL ENGINEERING www.controleng.com

a real headache. Unlike DCS systems that deploy


one database for logic, HMI, alarm, and historian
variables, PLC, and SCADA variables usually are
served by separate databases, sometimes with an
OPC server database in the middle. This makes
modifying logic or adding a piece of equipment to
the plant time consuming. It also increases the risk
of configuration errors.
If the process doesnt require frequent modifications to the equipment or the logic, then PLC
is the right choice; if frequent modifications are
required, then DCS should be considered, but only
after answering the last question.
Step 6: Does the plant employ staff capable of
modifying the system?
Hardware costs arent considered in the technology selection process. Most PLC and DCS
manufacturers have proven the ability to lower
prices on project bases if they like. And costs are
extremely important to consider when discussing
future control-system modifications, as part of the
total cost of ownership (TCO) of the system.
PLC vendors are in the business model of
empowering partners; every PLC manufacturer
has system integrators who are well-trained on the
vendors PLC, SCADA/HMI, and any other related automation products. Most DCS manufacturers
are in the business of selling engineering and integration services. Hiring a system integrator to carry
out modification work can cost as low as $300 or
$400 per day, while most DCS vendors would
charge $1,000 per day or more to do similar work.
Formal DCS training for in-house staff has a
cost, but in the long run, it is proven to be more
cost-effective and more performance-efficient. If
DCS is only considered because the process will
need frequent modifications and the in-house staff
is incapable of doing so, then the PLC and SCADA
combination is the more economical way to do it.
Justify controller purchases

While DCS and PLC technologies are growing


in lots of similarities in the recent years, thorough
analysis for each process application requirement
usually shows the areas where one automation
technology would fail to satisfy all the process current or future requirements and where the other
technology would prevail. ce
- Shady Yehia, founder and author of The Control Blog, a CFE Media content partner, is the
instrumentation, control, and automation proposals and engineering manager in a process technology integration company based in Qatar and
operating in the EMEA region. Edited by Mark
T. Hoske, content manager, CFE Media, Control
Engineering, mhoske@cfemedia.com.

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input #24 at www.controleng.com/information

kyland.com

cover story | controllers

PLCs vs. PACs vs. IPCs

Know the features, limits, and compatibilities to select the right controller: programmable
logic controller (PLC), programmable automation controller (PAC), or industrial PC (IPC).
Choosing the correct control platform from the beginning will increase the odds that the
project will be a success. A system integrator can help with controller selection.
Key
concepts
 PLCs, PACs, and IPCs
serve various control
applications.
 Making a matrix of
weighted criteria can help
in deciding which is best.
 A combination of controllers and vendors may
be used.

ontrol systems today are more powerful, more flexible, easier to configure and program, and easier to
communicate with. The vast number choices can cause some paralysis
when trying to determine the right make and model
of controller for a project. By understanding features, limitations, and compatibilities of different
offerings, an engineer can make an educated decision when choosing among programmable logic
controllers (PLCs), programmable automation controllers (PACs), or industrial PCs (IPCs).
Controllers replaced relays

Choosing
the correct
control
platform
from the
beginning
will increase
the odds that
the project
will be a
success.

34

Until the late 1960s, control systems consisted


of relays controlling discrete functions and independent loop controllers controlling analog functions. This posed many challenges including the
consumption of very large spaces for the relays,
expensive and time consuming changes, and often
monumental troubleshooting efforts.
In the early 1970s the PLC was created and
began to be widely used in industrial applications
replacing relay systems. The first PLCs were large
(though much smaller than the walls of relays), and
programming was done with dedicated terminals
and a very limited instruction set.
In the late 1970s, distributed control systems
(DCSs) began replacing individual loop controllers and centralizing the process analog control
environment. A DCS typically consist of multiple
input/output (I/O) racks near the end control devices and a PC-based visualization and engineering
station. The graphics or engineering screens are an
integral part of the DCS and used to interact with
the process or tune loops. In the early 1980s PLC
systems began to take the path of DCSs and contained distributed components and racks.
PLCs have seen many advances including
increased processing power, increased memory,
increased bit handling, and decreased size among
others. These advances have pioneered several
classifications of automation systems beyond the
original PLC concept. Two classifications include
process automation controllers (PACs) and industrial PCs (IPCs). While PLCs retain the same basic

NOVEMBER 2015 CONTROL ENGINEERING www.controleng.com

concept that they did in the early 1970s, PACs and


IPCs add new capabilities and functionality that
sets them apart from the basic PLC concept.
PLCs

PLCs remain the basic building block for


many smaller automation projects. Todays PLCs
are very powerful and capable controllers. Common uses include original equipment manufacturer
(OEM) machines, such as packers, fillers, palletizers, and small process skids. PLCs are typically
paired with a machine-level, human-machine interface (HMI) package for visualization and alarming.
PLCs are capable of handling very high-speed I/O,
sequencing, proportional-integral-derivative (PID)
control, digital and analog I/O, and instruction
sets well beyond the original PLCs of the 1970s
and 1980s. Depending on the make and model of
PLC, there are often a whole host of other specialty modules available for high-speed counting, network interface, motion control, and other options.
Nearly all PLCs have some built-in field-,
device-, or Ethernet-level communications. These
include networks, such as EtherNet/IP, Profibus,
Profinet, Foundation Fieldbus, or Modbus TCP.
These networks allow for peer-to-peer (PLC-toPLC) communications, distributed I/O capabilities,
and HMI/SCADA communications. While they are
very powerful compared to PLC systems of many
years ago, todays PLCs still have limitations. To
keep pricing down in this competitive arena there
is a limit to the amount of I/O that they can handle
as well as the amount of logic that can be installed.
PACs

Larger projects requiring several distributed


racks or very large applications typically require
more processor power and memory than a basic
PLC package. PACs contain all capabilities of the
PLC systems listed above plus additional features.
PACs are designed for much larger distributed
control such as applications like large packaging
lines, discrete manufacturing control systems, and
process control of larger skids or plant processes.
The instruction sets available are more advanced
and purpose-built, such as process control,

input #25 at www.controleng.com/information

cover story | controllers

Controller decision matrix table


Objective

Technology 1

Technology 2

Technology 3

Technology 4

Weight (x/4)

% Met

Total

% Met

Total

% Met

Total

% Met

Price

90

270

50

150

100

300

10

Total
30

Speed

75

300

100

400

100

400

25

100

Expandability

100

200

75

150

100

200

50

100

Spare parts

100

200

50

100

100

200

50

100

System integrator support

50

200

50

200

50

200

25

100

Third-party support

75

225

75

225

75

225

75

225

Criteria 7

100

300

80

240

90

270

50

150

Criteria 8

100

200

90

180

100

200

25

50

Criteria 9

100

200

10

20

20

180

10

20

Total

2095

1665

2175

875
Courtesy: Stone Technologies

Table is a technology selection matrix


example, where the
yellow section ranked
highest. Creating an
objective table helps
remove some subjectivity from the decision
about PLC, PAC, or IPC.
Such a table is useful
when customers do not
have a standard in place
or when the standard
leaves room for a system
integrator to recommend
a solution type and
brand. Courtesy: Stone
Technologies

sequencing, batching, and device control. Some


manufacturers go so far as to build and publish
industry-specific instruction sets for oil and gas,
nuclear, brewing, and other specialty areas. These
special instruction sets are typically very powerful and processor-intensive, which require the
increased capabilities of the PAC field to execute
correctly. PACs often are used with enterprise-level
supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA)
systems for plantwide control and data collection.
The advancement of PAC instruction sets and
corresponding HMI libraries has blurred the lines
between PACs and DCSs. Much of the functionality, power, and integration of a DCS are now being
provided by the PAC manufacturers. PACs can
perform advanced control, historically reserved
for large DCSs, such as model-predictive control
(MPC) and fuzzy logic, which are used in otherwise unstable or complicated closed-loop control
where PID is inadequate.
IPCs

Go Online
See the control system pulldown menu and more advice,
references, and images in a
longer version of this article
posted at
www.controleng.com.
Stone Technologies was a
Control Engineering System
Integrator of the Year in
2010.
www.controleng.com/SIY

Consider this...
Configuration and startup
are very painful times to
realize the chosen control
platform isnt suited for the
application.
36

Industrial PCs got their start in the 1990s with


automation companies designing software emulating a PLC environment that runs on standard PCs.
These first attempts at using PCs for automation
were often unreliable as they were subject to the
stability issues of the host operating system (OS)
and failure rates of nonindustrialized computers.
Since then, there have been many advances in
the IPC field including the use of hardened industrial computers, more stable operating systems,
and even some manufacturers have created their
own purpose-built IPC with real-time kernel for
the automation environment. This real-time kernel allows the automation to be separated from the
operating system environment and take priority
over the OS for priorities, such as I/O interfacing.
Because IPCs run on PC platforms, they contain more modern processors and more memory
than standard PLCs. IPCs often can run the HMI

NOVEMBER 2015 CONTROL ENGINEERING www.controleng.com

application on the same machine as the automation program and decrease cost. IPCs uses include
OEM machines, skids, and space-limited projects.
Select the right control system

There is no clear cut fast rule about when to


use a PAC, PLC, or IPC. Many factors come into
play, such as budget, size, support, complexity,
and future expansion. Careful attention needs to
be paid to processes and systems requiring safety integrity level (SIL) certification for safety and
mean time between failure (MTBF) times.
Often the customer (internal or external) determines, at least, the brand(s) of control system that
is being provided. This is typically due to existing
programming licenses owned, maintenance and
engineering training and familiarity, and regional
contractor support for the system.
Unclear? It can help to create a selection matrix
with weighted criteria and then grade each technology. Weigh more important criteria or needs higher than wants or than less-important criteria. (See
table.) An objective table helps remove some subjectivity from the decision. Such a table is useful
when customers do not have a standard in place or
when the standard leaves room for a system integrator to recommend a solution type and brand.
A solution also could be a hybrid mix of PLCs,
PACs, and IPCs. Industrial networks allow for a
tightly integrated plant floor even with multiple
controllers spread out across multiple brand lines.
An experienced systems integrator should be
able to assist in making the correct decision for a
project based on the needs and wants of the customer. Choosing the correct control platform from
the beginning will increase the odds that the project will be a success. ce
- Ryan Williams is a project manager at Stone
Technologies, a control system integrator. Edited
by Mark T. Hoske, content manager, CFE Media,
Control Engineering, mhoske@cfemedia.com.

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input #26 at www.controleng.com/information

cover story | controllers

Control logic
fundamentals
Controller manufacturers have made significant enhancements to controller
programming environments. Today, programmers are using generic tag names
to describe ladder logic instructions, simplifying programming, and making it easier
to convert design information to control programming.
Key
concepts
 Programmers today are
using generic tag names
to describe ladder logic
instructions.
 This feature enables
designers to discard the
referencing of ladder logic
instructions using fixed
memory addresses.
 Some automatic code
generation schemes rely
solely on a library of
template-based design
standards.

rogrammers today are using generic tag names to describe ladder logic
instructions. This feature enables
designers to discard the referencing of ladder logic instructions using
fixed memory addresses. New applications
promise to automatically convert design information into ladder logic applications. Like flow
chart programs, these applications have had limited success creating mostly state-based ladder
logic applications.
As a way to measure success, some manufacturers expected the application to regenerate the
control applications automatically after someone
deliberately deleted the controllers entire program.
Even if it were possible, would self-generating
applications improve ongoing machine support?
Some new applications have come close, but none
have ever claimed real-world success for a large
number of different types of machines.
What are the real obstacles to automatically
producing reliable control applications for many
types of machines and conveyors? If system strategists do not recognize movement detection to
be the foundational building block for all control
applications, designs will fail, meaning they were
unable to generate all needed logic from elemental
design information.
Four design terms

Once strategists recognize the importance of


movement detection, they must focus on providing applications that integrate associated triggers using various design methodologies. The
following terms help to describe various design
methodologies:
 Design spec sheet: a document that identifies the critical properties that are critical to a
design methodology.

38

NOVEMBER 2015 CONTROL ENGINEERING www.controleng.com

 Template-based design: a development


technique that relies on the repeated use of a
predefined set of working logic circuits.
 Rule-based design: a development technique that requires rules for generating the
elements of logic circuits from root informational sources.
 Table-based design: a development technique that requires rules for expanding, contracting, and formatting data access and
shift-register applications.
Some automatic code generation schemes rely
solely on a library of template-based design standards. Designers simply cut and paste grouped circuits from the library to assemble needed control
applications. Most designers would not think that
this copying process qualifies as a way to generate code automatically. Although machine suppliers practice this approach regularly, manufacturers
only realize small cost savings. Copying does not
improve operational support capabilities.
Strategists can recognize table, rule, and template-based design methodologies by how each
approach produces machine controller logic. The
table-based approach creates logic that is responsible for moving data among applications, systems,
and stations.
Matrix structures help

Designers use matrix structures to define: 1) the


order of data, 2) data field formats, and 3) where
interlocks will pass data to other logic modules.
The table-based technique produces logic that is
nothing more than template-based logic for defining data. The template method uses a logic replication process to create applications that need
connections to other logic. Controls designers

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cover story | controllers

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produce rule-based logic applications by constructing many


interdependent circuits using detailed design information
described in design spec sheets.
Design spec sheets are critical to all three of the design methodologies. For rule-based designs, there is a separate spec sheet
for: 1) detecting an objects actuator, 2) specifying criteria for
operating mode circuits, 3) enabling an output device, and 4)
interlocking logic modules. The spec sheet used to detect an
objects actuator identifies the mechanical, electrical, and logical characteristics of an applied movement detection scheme.
The spec sheet used to specify operating mode criteria identifies the conditions for constructing a mode-specific circuit. The
spec sheet used to enable an output device defines the opposing motion output signal, required operating modes, and special
control characteristics needed to activate and deactivate movement. For table-based designs, a spec sheet defines data pattern
and structure requirements. For template-based designs, a spec
sheet defines the template type, required external input and output signals, and the rules for replicating it.
Many control system strategists define control applications to
be hierarchical. Some strategists use a multi-layered pyramid to
represent the hierarchy of controller applications. The number of
layers and assigned application type can differ among strategists.
Control system pyramid

input #28 at www.controleng.com/information

DRIVEN TO PERFECTION

En

Se
r

Drives
vo

Figure 1 shows a control system pyramid. It is important to


recognize that the boundary shown between each layer does not
imply an exclusive interface. Applications in each layer have
access to certain types of information found in other layers. The
layered order shows the importance of each application. More
importantly, the pyramid shows a foundational trigger layer.
The trigger layer in the pyramid is a rule-based design tier that
includes the circuits used to arm and fire one-shot signals. The
circuits in this layer are extremely important and the main topic
of this article. The next highest infrastructure layer is a rule-based
design layer that contains a defined set of circuits that enable

der
co

Communication driver
drive
System application
applicatio
Data exchange
exchang

o
Serv Mot

s
or

Diagnostic
Control
Contro
Infrastructure
Infra
Trigger

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input #29 at www.controleng.com/information

Figure 1: The figure shows a control system pyramid. It is


important to recognize that the definitive boundary shown
between each layer does not imply an exclusive interface.
Courtesy: Daniel Cardinal
40

NOVEMBER 2015 CONTROL ENGINEERING

external circuits and operating mode signals. The


control layer is above the infrastructure layer. The
control layer contains circuits produced using the
rule-based design methodology. This layer includes
the circuits that are in command of mechanical
movements, equipment behaviors, and associated
user interfaces. The pyramid shows the diagnostic
layer to be above the control layer. This layer also
includes rule-based circuits designed to be compatible with the circuits in the control layer.
As a result, the diagnostic layer has a seamless connection with the control layer. Above the
diagnostic layer is the data exchange layer. This
table-based design layer contains the circuits used
to control the variable nature of control and diagnostic circuits. The need to translate system-provided information that affects the circuits found in
this layer. When necessary, the data exchange layer
includes the circuits used to keep information synchronized with moving parts.
The data exchange layer is the next highest system-based application layer. The system
application layer is a template-based design layer
that contains the application circuits that collect
and deliver system information. Designers place
the circuits that interact with readers and other

devices used to enable system applications in this


layer. This layer is only applicable if resident circuits can examine one-shot signals enabled in the
trigger layer. The topmost communication driver
layer is a template-based design layer that includes
the circuits used to establish and maintain communications with upper-level system components.
Manufacturers will realize true cost savings
when support personnel can interact with all layers of the control system pyramid. This is possible
when support personnel have the improved abilities to change design information to affect actively running programmable logic controller (PLC)
programs. The real value to manufacturers comes
from minimizing chaos by having support personnel understand how to interact with all control system applications. To do this, support personnel
must have the ability to change logic circuits by
interacting with rules, design specifications, and
table-based configuration information. ce
- Daniel B. Cardinal works as an engineering
consultant for Insyte Inc., implementing integrated scheduling and part identification applications
in the automotive industry. Edited by Joy Chang,
digital project manager, Control Engineering,
jchang@cfemedia.com.

On a quarterly basis, Control Engineering conducts


research studies on the industries and topics
covered by the publication
System Integration
Machine Control
Process Control
Information Control
Sustainable Engineering
Manufacturing IT
Safety and Security

Visit www.controleng.com/media-library/research
to download the Control Engineering Editorial Research Studies

Go Online
Read other parts of the
support-focused enterprise
controls series at
www.controleng.com by
searching support-focused
enterprise controls.

Consider this...
Are your support personnel
able to interact with all layers of the control system
pyramid?

cover story | controllers

How to rank controllers


With the growing number of controller choices available to automation engineers,
finding the best device for a particular application can be difficult.

hether debating an industrial PC (IPC), programmable


logic controller (PLC), or programmable automation con Numerous computationtroller (PAC), each of these
ally intensive tasks can
devices performs essentially the same function
be handled by one powerequipping machines with control and automation
ful hardware controller
functions. However, one should always heed the
without overburdening
good, better, best scale when ranking them.
the CPU.
So how does one differentiate between the
 PC-based controls have
above choices and come to the correct decision
much more flexibility in
to meet the requirements of a particular applicaform factor.
tion? If designing a project from scratch, it is best
to begin with this question: Will the application
remain the same and never need an upgrade over
the entire life of the machine? If so, then a lowcost PLC or PAC may be an option.
Most companies will need to improve, upgrade,
Go Online
and make changes to applications to suit changing
With the online version
plant requirements repeatedly over the course of
of this story, see a photo,
a machines lifecycle. It is the IPC that represents
more advice, and link to an
the advanced, powerful, and a forward-compatible
article about the future of
choice. PC-based control platforms are the flexithe PLC by reading: Future
of the PLC.
ble alternatives for integrators who demand a manageable migration path, and higher levels of power
www.controleng.com
and precision from a
control system. Flexibility and upgradeability comes from the
way in which machine
control is implemented
in an IPC.
Functions previously handled by dedicated hardware are created
in automation software
as function blocks or
other forms of code.
These function blocks
Using Intel Xeon technology, it is now possible
and code can be easto have a 24-coremany-core control platform, and ily moved, changed,
very soon a 36-core version will represent the top
upgraded, or altered to
end in PC-based control performance. Of course,
meet evolving needs.
as technology advances, so will the number of
Replacing
or
processor cores; with this in mind, TwinCAT 3 softupgrading
hardware
ware from Beckhoff Automation is already capable
units is just as simof running on PC hardware with up to 256 procesple of a process, as the
sor coreswhen the technology becomes availprogram can simply be
able. Image courtesy: Beckhoff Automation
downloaded onto the

Key
concepts

42

NOVEMBER 2015 CONTROL ENGINEERING www.controleng.com

new machine controller or changed by swapping


compact flash cards, bringing the machine back up
after modification or service in a matter of minutes.
Expandability for machine control is assured via
peripheral component interconnect express (PCIe),
PCI slots, and multiple hard disk drive (HDD) slots
with motherboards that are enabled with redundant
array of independent disks (RAID). One IPC can
run a machine in a centralized control architecture.
Numerous computationally intensive tasks
can be handled by one hardware controller without overburdening the CPU by assigning specific
major control functions and tasks to specific cores.
Software: as important as hardware

Enhancing this performance, flexibility, and


openness, is the usual suite of standard PC- and
Ethernet-based connections on all PC-based controllers, optimized for industrial use. An added
benefit of these devices is that any remote access,
set-up, and connection to the IPC through a secure,
encrypted Internet connection require no special features, programming, or hardware. The
IPC has connectivity tools that are more difficult
and expensive to implement with a PLC or PAC.
Using protocols such as OPC-UA, manufacturers,
machine builders, and integrators can create cloudbased databases and implement a robust big data
management systemall standard with PC-based
control platform without managed hardware or
dedicated black-box equipment.
These features deliver a direct positive impact
on production by dramatically reducing the need
for scheduled downtime as well as the frequency of unplanned downtime. Better still, PC-based
controls have much more flexibility in form factor.
With advanced chip designs in use, it is now possible to have a 24-core control platform, and very
soon a 36-core version will represent the top end
in PC-based control performance.
Hardware PLCs and PACs can get the job done,
but can be difficult to change or upgrade. With a
PC-based platform, controls engineers gain access
to PLC and PAC benefits with greater flexibility to
cost-effectively change and upgrade functionality
as plant demands necessitate. ce
- Reid Beilke is a Beckhoff Automation product
specialist. Edited by Eric R. Eissler, editor-in-chief,
Oil & Gas Engineering, eeissler@cfemedia.com.

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input #30 at www.controleng.com/information

cover story | controllers

All-in-one panels vs. PACs:

Which is right for


your application?
All-in-one automation panels can offer deterministic, real-time control as traditional
programmable controllers for many applications, especially for low- to mid-range
applications that require a dedicated operator interface (OI).
Key
concepts
 For some applications
all-in-one control panels
can perform as well as
and offer advantages over
other options.
 Benefits include easier
configuration and better OI
performance.
 Use a separate controller
when very fast scan times,
large IO counts, or redundancies are critical.

Go Online
See additional information
on each point, when to use
a separate controller, and
related articles with this
posting at
www.controleng.com.

Consider this...
Integrated devices may
save time to startup and
can provide better performance.
44

ompanies seek control architectures


that help them design better machines
and plants, operate them smarter, and
redefine the interaction with equipment. They are looking to understand
the industrial Internet and how it can improve production processes and revenue streams.
A traditional original equipment manufacturer
(OEM) machine uses a programmable automation
controller (PAC) with distributed input/output (I/O)
capabilities, a touchscreen operator interface (OI)
with data logging, and an industrial security router
to enable remote maintenance. The PAC, OI, and
router each have their own processor, installation
requirements, and software configuration.
While this traditional distributed architecture
is necessary for complex, redundant applications,
advancements in computing power have now
made it possible to combine these functions into
one device for OI and control. An all-in-one automation panel streamlines the system and simplifies
system development, communication, and maintenance. It can facilitate Industrial Internet connectivity. One point of connectivity allows OEMs
to perform remote diagnostics and configuration
that reduce bottom-line support costs and improve
overall production-line uptime.
The latest all-in-one operator panels include
IEC 61131 programming languages (Ladder,
Structured Text, Function Block Diagram, Sequential Function Chart, and Instruction List) and builtin secure connectivity for remote access. Think of
these as PACs with a built-in OI, rather than just
an OI that performs control. Having a unit can provide benefits for small machine OEMs.
With advances in control technology, how do
you decide if an all-in-one automation panel or
PAC is the best choice for an application?
 Cost savings: All-in-one automation panels
reduce hardware costs. Combining the controller, OI, and secure remote connectivity in one unit
means fewer devices to purchase, install, and con-

NOVEMBER 2015 CONTROL ENGINEERING www.controleng.com

figure. This saves money on production time and


panel space.
 Simplified maintenance: Maintaining one
device is less work than maintaining three, especially when the automation system is shipped to an
end user hundreds or thousands of miles away. Just
cutting the number of spares is a huge maintenance
cost savings. With an all-in-one automation panel,
the OI and logic program can be backed up onto
a memory card or USB stick. If the end user has
separate files for the OI and controller and needs
to restore one or both programs, loading different
revisions can result in a nonworking system.
 Improved OI performance: It sounds counterintuitive, but combining the PAC and OI into
one device can improve the update times for the
OI in many applications. This is because the main
CPU task for a traditional OI is communications
with the controller. When todays operators press a
button on the OI screen, they expect an immediate
response for the equipment and immediate feedback on the graphic screen. The biggest reason for
delays in that response is the need for a communication driver translating between the OI panel and
the PAC.
 Intuitive user experience: Most panels on
the market today use a resistive touchscreen that
require customized navigation menus for moving
between screens. The latest all-in-one automation
panels have the same capacitive touchscreen technology and user experience as todays personal
devices, such as phones and tablets.
For low- to mid-range applications that
require a dedicated OI, all-in-one automation
panels provide a simplified architecture with
easy remote connectivity options and lower total
cost of ownership. ce
- Vibhoosh Gupta is product management
leader, GE Intelligent Platforms. Edited by Mark
T. Hoske, content manager, CFE Media, Control
Engineering, mhoske@cfemedia.com.

Less means more!

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input #31 at www.controleng.com/information

2016
FINALISTS

As easy as that.

wireless trends

Wireless communication
for industrial use
Radio technologies are available to meet the latest industry standards and provide
value-added features for specific industrial use cases.
Key
concepts
 The improved data
throughput offered by new
wireless standards is not
always a key factor for
adoption in the industrial
space.
 The next big wave in
Wi-Fi is IEEE 802.11ac,
which brings the promise
of improved gigabit performance.

odays industrial Wi-Fi networks


are primarily 2.4-GHz deployments. These wireless networks
were designed before the widespread
acceptance of 5-GHz chipsets. The
low cost of the 2.4-GHz designs found in countless client devices make it the common denominator for existing Wi-Fi.
Many 2.4-GHz technologies can be found in
operation in addition to Wi-Fi at industrial sites.
Active radio-frequency identification (RFID) in
vehicle toll collection and vehicle fleet identification systems operate in the 2.4-GHz range. IEEE
802.15.4 includes ZigBee, a low-bandwidth wireless mesh used for monitoring applications, also
operates in the ISM 2.4-GHz band. Many IEEE
802.11b/g access points are deployed for different
industrial applications. This band may be shared
by enterprise and guest networks and by industrial
monitoring and control networks. IEEE 802.11 is a
collection of wireless local area network standards.
Many legacy industrial control networks that
employed the IEEE 802.11b standard are particularly problematic. When these access points and
clients transmit on channels shared with other
higher speed networks such as IEEE 802.11n, they
have the effect of slowing down everything sharing

Figure 1: Industrial environment creates multipath interference, as shown


in this diagram with the
Moxa AWK-1127 wireless
access point. For wireless
radios that support media
access control (MAC)
cloning or MAC transparency this feature, such
as the Moxa AWK-1127,
the radio will recognize
the attached device on
its LAN port on boot up
and will clone its MAC
address on the wireless
network. Courtesy: Moxa
46

NOVEMBER 2015 CONTROL ENGINEERING www.controleng.com

the channel. In fact, the performance of the highspeed network sharing the channel can be reduced
to a crawl by just one client connecting frequently
and transferring at 1 MB/sec.
There are only three non-overlapping channels
on a 2.4-GHz band. If one of these IEEE 802.11b
networks is on an overlapping, adjacent channel, there will be significant performance issues
caused by collisions on the overlapping channels.
It also can be an enormous challenge fixing issues
on existing deployments since networks can be
managed by different individuals or departments.
These are among reasons why most wireless local
area network (WLAN) professionals do not recommend 2.4-GHz for new deployments.
IEEE 802.11n: throughput, productivity

The move away from the 2.4-GHz band has


been going on for quite a while and began with
the adoption of the IEEE 802.11a standard, which
was primarily used for industrial applications and
saw low adoption in the commercial space. Now
with the proliferation of IEEE 802.11n and the low
cost of 5-GHz chipsets, the industry is seeing a significant move toward all 5-GHz technology for
enterprise and industrial applications. The 5-GHz
channels are relatively clean with little interfer-

ence. The channels are planned so there are no


overlapping 20-MHz channels.
IEEE 802.11n improved throughput. IEEE
802.11a allows a maximum data rate of 54 Mbps.
With IEEE 802.11n, one 20 MHz channel and single spatial stream can provide a data rate up to
72 Mbps. That is a modest improvement. IEEE
802.11n also enables use of multiple antennas
(MIMO: multiple in, multiple out), transmit and
receive chains, and the use of 40 MHz wide channels to allow up to 600 Mbps theoretical max, an
impressive data-rate improvement. Care must be
taken to not overlap these wider channels, so planning is critical to avoid the same kind of issues that
earlier 2.4-GHz deployments faced.
IEEE 802.11ac: Gigabit

The next big wave in Wi-Fi is IEEE 802.11ac,


which brings the promise of gigabit performance
as well as other improvements. To take advantage
of the technology sooner, the industry has been
deploying the IEEE 802.11ac standard in phases.
The deployment of the first wave or generation
of IEEE 802.11ac-based technology was in 2014.
Unlike IEEE 802.11n, which supported 2.4
GHz and 5 GHz, IEEE 802.11ac is 5 GHz only. It
supports 20-MHZ and 40-MHz channels but also
supports much higher data rates with an 80-MHz
channel width. While allowing for much higher
data rates, it also reduces available channels in the
spectrum; channel planning must be done to avoid
overlapping. IEEE 802.11ac also provides a higher
density modulation technique, called QAM-256, to
achieve its high performance. Because it requires
a very high signal-to-noise ratio, the client must
be very close to the access point to use this modulation scheme, especially in the presence of any
interference or high-noise floor.
The next generation or wave 2 is available
this year and introduces 160-MHz channel width
for even higher bandwidth and multi-user MIMO,
or MU-MIMO, which allows several clients to be
served at a time.
Industrial applications

The improved data throughput offered by new


wireless standards is not always a key factor for
adoption in the industrial space. IEEE 802.11n
should continue to offer strong value for industrial users and has become the common denominator
due to its fitness for industrial applications. Wireless often is used in industrial settings for monitoring or supervisory control and data acquisition
(SCADA) applications. The amount of data sent
from a client is relatively small and could be less
than a few hundred bytes. This data also is polled

at a low frequency. Support for block transfers at


high speeds, which would be a benefit when transferring large files, essentially is irrelevant for these
types of applications. Of more relevance to industrial users would be the optimization of data transfer times over the channel, so that more clients can
be supported within a channel.
One feature of IEEE 802.11n that also has great
relevance to industrial users is the ability to reconstruct signals in environments with a lot of multipath interference. In industrial environments,
metal structures can create significant multipath
interference. Since typical IEEE 802.11n-capable
radios contain two antennae in a 2x2 configuration,
they can support multiple spatial streams and signal reconstruction of multipath reflections.

Figure 2: Bus depot


diagram shows elements
of typical intelligent, wireless transportation (electronic bus or eBus) applications. Shown here are
Moxa AWK-4131A, an
IEEE 802.11n IP68 wireless access point, and
Moxa AWL-3131A IEEE
802.11n wireless clients.
Courtesy: Moxa

Redundancy, loop protection

In addition to the basic technologies provided


by chipset manufacturers, industrial applications
sometimes require special features to ensure optimal and reliable performance for different applications. In rail applications, where train-to-wayside
communication is required, system designers want
more than one active wireless connection to the
wayside for redundancy. This requires multiple
radios and creates problematic network loops from
the train to the ground. A redundancy and loop
prevention protocol must be used. Spanning tree
protocols have been used in the past to address
this, but they do not perform well in this environment due to the lossy nature of wireless (meaning
it attenuates or dissipates) and the constant reconvergence that can occur during roaming.
Overall, developments in wireless technology
for industrial applications go beyond the chipset
innovations that are agreed upon by the industry
standards organizations. Radio technologies meet
the latest industry standards and provide valueadded features for specific industrial use cases. ce
-Mike Werning, Moxa Americas, field application
engineer. Edited by Eric R. Eissler, editor-in-chief,
Oil & Gas Engineering, eeissler@cfemedia.com.
www.controleng.com

Go Online
This article online includes
extra information about fastroaming technology, MACaddress cloning, transportation connectivity, and links to
related articles at
www.controleng.com.

Consider this...
Many applications place a
much higher importance
on the reliability of the
wireless link rather than on
throughput.

CONTROL ENGINEERING NOVEMBER 2015 47

wireless trends

Selecting an industrial
wireless sensor network
Choosing a wireless network requires evaluation of communication protocols,
device availability, and present and future user needs. See wireless network
criteria comparison tables, online.
Key
concepts
 Industrial wireless sensor networks help connect
sensors with logic devices.
 Standards-based wireless sensor networks may
reduce risk.
 Certification testing
helps ensure device
interoperability.

ireless sensor technologies


are now being used in countless situations where it is necessary to monitor remote,
difficult, and costly to reach
locations, or moving applications. When choosing the best wireless approach, there are many
technology tradeoffs and vendors to consider.
See online tables, which offer means to compare network selection criteria according to
application needs.
A search of technical publications and websites will turn up a variety of technical comparisons of industrial wireless sensor networks
(IWSNs), which provide detailed analysis valuable to large end users or engineering firms
with dedicated resources to evaluate technical
nuances. But many potential end users lack such

resources, have a less formal selection process,


and are perhaps not sure of the key differentiators when evaluating various options.
Engineers making a selection typically use
mixes of similar factors. They assign weights based
on the use case, but the factors typically include:
 Availability of the communication link
 Security
 Scalability
 Connectivity to desired devices
 Hazardous location rating
 Power options to meet desired
publication period
 Ease of use
 Integration with control systems
 Stranded investment risk
 Other practical factors specific
to a given site.
Two-step wireless selection

Devices on IWSNs function as sensors, sensors with routers, and gateways.


Sensors communicate only with gateways (star network), but they can select
multiple gateways (hybrid star-mesh) if necessary to overcome network disruptions. Sensors with routers serve to pass data on a hop-by-hop basis for
other devices in the network. Communication paths change as necessary to
adjust for network disruptions (mesh network).
Courtesy: Yokogawa Corporation of America
48

NOVEMBER 2015 CONTROL ENGINEERING www.controleng.com

The IWSN selection process involves two


steps: selection of a networking protocol, followed by selection of vendors and individual
devices. The protocol determines how the network will operate, and device selection will be
driven by the specific applications. Both must
work together. A protocol meeting all desired
networking requirements is great, but if the
devices needed to solve the individual applications are not available, it cant be used.
Some selection criteria may be absolute and
therefore disqualify some possible sources. For
example, if Class 1 Div. 1 hazardous location
approvals and ingress protection rating of IP67 are
required, solutions lacking those approvals would
either be eliminated or require the additional cost
and space of a properly rated enclosure.
Some users may insist an IWSN worthy of
consideration builds on an international standard rather than a proprietary, single-sourced
solution. The risk of stranded investment, limited scalability, less vetted security, and limited

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wireless trends

Open,
standardsbased solutions
are much
more likely to
evolve and
be supported
by IIoT
applications,
such as asset
management
systems than
proprietary,
single-sourced
solutions.

Go Online
www.fieldcommgroup.org
www.isa100wci.org
See the wireless page under
the networking and security
pull-down menu and see
more on this topic with this
article online, including
discussion of multi-vendor
support, and two tables to
help with wireless protocol
selection at
www.controleng.com.

Consider this...
Is integration easier with
adoption of interoperable
standards?
50

product offerings from one vendor may rule out


a proprietary solution.
ISA100 and WirelessHART are IEC standards. They have been heavily scrutinized for
security and are supported by multiple global
process automation vendors, so vendor viability
does not increase risk of stranding an investment.
ISA100 and WirelessHART will pass most, if not
all, common selection criteria, but key differences remain, which the following factors highlight.
IWSN design flexibility

Mesh networks offer many benefits including ability to self-form, self-heal, and manage
routing of communication packets. They also
offer multiple takeout points (gateways) for
redundancy and scalability. Their self-administering capabilities depend on complex algorithms used to determine the network design or
topology.
They must constantly evaluate communication paths assigned to each hop between wireless sensors, along with the signal quality of
each hop, avoiding hops resulting in more
retries due to higher packet-error rates. For
IWSNs with adequate mesh density (meaning
enough nodes to provide multiple communication paths), the topology of a given network is
typically stable.
A mesh network relying solely on its ability to self-organize may not meet determinism
requirements for monitoring or control applications unable to tolerate longer latencies or deviations in latency (jitter). Some wireless mesh
networks allow users to set the maximum allowable number of hops from a sensor to a takeout
point (mesh depth), but flexibility in designing
a specific network following a desired structure
is often beneficial (see image).
WirelessHART only supports a mesh topology, which requires all wireless devices to operate as sensors with routers. ISA100 supports
three possible configurations: wireless routers;
sensors with routers; sensors only with no routing capability, but with the ability to select multiple routers or gateways for self-healing in the
event of a network disruption.
ISA100 supports a fixed point-to-multipoint
network (star or extended-star with repeaters),
mesh, or combination of star and mesh.
Wireless network performance

ISA100 flexibility allows designers to


improve availability of an IWSN by designing
it to provide optimum signal quality and meet
latency requirements in more dense networks,
without requiring more takeout points (ISA100
backbone routers or WirelessHART gateways).

NOVEMBER 2015 CONTROL ENGINEERING www.controleng.com

Another consideration for IWSN design


flexibility is support of different device communication rates or publication periods. Some
sensors may require monitoring every one to
five seconds, for example a pressure or temperature transmitter, while other sensors can
be monitored less frequently or their data can
be transmitted over longer, continuous timeslots, such as waveforms from vibration sensors. ISA100s flexible timeslots allow wireless
devices with different publication rates to coexist in one network, extending battery life for
slower publication rate devices and reducing
network bandwidth use.
The flexibility of a star or combination network provides tools to manage power consumption and battery life. A device configured with a
slow reporting rate can have a very long battery
life since it sleeps for extended periods. With
mesh networks, every device has to be available
to function as a router to support the network
when called upon, so all devices consume power
to serve that function regardless of reporting rate.
Future-proofing networks, IIoT

Minimizing stranded investment risk is very


important for any major investment, including
IWSNs. While few process automation investments are truly future-proof, the odds of some
wireless technologies being available in the future
and adaptable for new applications arising from
trends, such as the Industrial Internet of Things
(IIoT), are greater for some than for other IWSN
technologies. Open, standards-based solutions are
much more likely to evolve and be supported by
IIoT applications, such as asset management systems than proprietary, single-sourced solutions.
Even the standards-based IWSN protocols offer
varying degrees of future-proofing.
WirelessHART is as its name implies: HART
master/slave command communication over a
wireless network. ISA100, on the other hand, is
designed to support many protocols as its communications are object-oriented and as various
protocols can tunnel, or be passed through, the
ISA100 networkincluding HART and other
common process industry protocols like Modbus.
ISA100 supports Internet Protocol version 6
(IPv6), addressing to each device in the ISA100
network. An IWSN using the HART protocol to
communicate with HART devices will clearly
not support future applications such as the IIoT,
which is inherently IP-based. ce
- Kevin Zamzow is product manager,
Yokogawa Corporation of America. Edited by
Mark T. Hoske, content manager, CFE Media,
Control Engineering, mhoske@cfemedia.com.

CFE Medias

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Integrator Database

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community of global end-users and system integrators hosted by
Control Engineering, Plant Engineering, and our global partners in Asia and
Europe. Through this database you will be able to connect with System Integrators by
searching their corporate profiles which highlight: industries served,
engineering specialties, product experience, geography, and other pertinent data.
Find and connect with the most suitable service provider
for your unique application.

Start searching the Global System Integrator Database now!

www.controleng.com/global-si-database

mechatronics design

Hydraulic control
in a mechatronic system
Five tips for improving hydraulics: Advanced machine designs and new Industry 4.0 technologies combine mechanical motion with electronic controls in a mechatronics synergy.
Key
concepts
 Most electromechanical
drives use a velocity feedback sensor, tightly integrated into the function of
the drives controller.
 Using observer-based
damping, a simplified
mathematical model of
the drive exists within the
controller.
 Force control is an
increasingly important
requirement in hydraulic
drives.

n certain areas of industrial production,


hydraulics technology is still king, by virtue of the speed, force, and power density
available. In those applications it is unlikely that electromechanical drives will effectively displace hydraulics, given foreseeable
technologies. These tips can improve functionality and performance when using hydraulic
drives in a machine design.

TIP 1: Use velocity to stabilize


and improve performance

Nearly all electromechanical drives incorporate some type of velocity feedback sensor
which is tightly integrated into the function
of the drives controller. The result is a welldefined velocity-per-unit-signal (velocity gain)
for the drive. However, in a hydraulic drive,
velocity of the actuator is a function of the

command signal and also is strongly influenced


by the load on the actuator.
This change in velocity has a direct effect on
the loop gain of the drive and ultimately affects
stability and/or accuracy of the motion. Adding a
velocity feedback sensor to the control can eliminate this problem, but is rarely done, especially
by controls engineers who may be unfamiliar with
hydraulic drives. To achieve full system capability,
the controllers used with the hydraulic drives must
have features that compensate for changes in system gains. These features usually incorporate some
sort of velocity estimator to calculate estimated
velocities and stabilize the overall gain.
Specialized filters, or an observer can use the
available feedback signals and derive an estimated
velocity signal to use in the control. An observer
uses a simplified mathematical model of the system to derive the calculated velocity signal.

TIP 2:

Use control-based damping

Damping is critical in modern high-performance drive systems. When using an electromechanical drive, embedded torque and velocity
loops within the drives controller provide a high
level of stiffness and damping for the drive.
Hydraulic drive fluid compliance, or springiness, when combined with the load inertia or mass,
results in a relatively low-frequency spring-mass
system, with low-inherent damping. The drive system may have a tendency to oscillate as the performance requirements are tightened.
Control technology can provide advanced
methods of damping for hydraulic drives in three
categories: transducer-based, observer-based and
real-time derivation. In transducer-based damping, transducers are added to the drive. These can
be velocity, acceleration or pressure sensors, or a
combination. Using electronic filtering techniques,
these sensors measure undesired motions resulting from the onset of instability, and then offset the
undesired motion by applying corrective signals.
Adding transducers adds cost and complexity.

Figure 1: Using an observer can enhance control


capability. All graphics courtesy: Bosch Rexroth
52

NOVEMBER 2015 CONTROL ENGINEERING www.controleng.com

Using
observer-based
damping, a simplified mathematical model of the drive
exists within the controller. This model includes the
resonances and inherent
low damping of the drive.
Using available feedback
signals (generally a position transducer), the observer predicts the presence of
undesired motions and provides compensating signals to remove them (Figure
1). Most standard-performance computer numerical
controls (CNCs) and programmable logic controller
(PLCs) do not incorporate
advanced capabilities, so
there are advantages to using
high-performance controllers engineered specifically
for hydraulics.

TIP 3: Manage force (pressure)


with specialized hydraulic controls

Force control, whether alone or associated with


a positioning control, is an increasingly important
requirement in hydraulic drives. In a typical application that uses a conventional controller, such as
a press, the full press force would be available up
to the given positioning point. While suitable in
some applications, the ability to control or limit
force (or torque) based on various process requirements is becoming a key requirement. As flexible
production cells become more common in Industry
4.0 factories, being able to change and control different levels of applied force based on production
application requirements (and control velocity and
position), will be a must have for many systems.

TIP 4: Remember that hydraulic drives


are non-linear devices

Control of hydraulic actuators is often not linear. Control valves are resistive devices, similar
to an electrical resistor, where the flow (current)
is a function of the pressure drop (potential drop)
across the device. Flow is proportional to the supply pressure (Ps) minus the load pressure (Pl).
Therefore flow for a given valve command will
vary as the load and supply pressures vary. In addition, many hydraulic control valves do not have
a linear flow vs. signal characteristics (Figure 2).
The result is a control loop gain for the hydraulics axis that can vary widely. Advanced controllers designed to work with hydraulics will have the
ability to compensate or linearize the valve characteristics to greatly improve system performance.
Additional control capabilities also monitor load
forces or pressures and adaptively adjust the controller gain to maximize available performance.

TIP 5: Position integrators can help


optimize endpoint accuracy

When a hydraulic actuator is being positioned


by a controller, fundamental control characteristics
can change. A valve-controlled hydraulic positioning system is characterized as an integrating term
while moving. This means a change in control
signal to the valve results in a change in actuator
velocity. Therefore position is defined as:
X= (signal input) dt
However, as the actuator reaches its desired
position, the control characteristics will change
from an integral to proportional control. This is
due to internal leakage flows within the hydraulic valve. The result is that the desired position
may never be reached. Additionally, the greater
the load, or force required at the final position, the
greater the potential positioning error.
Using an integrator for the positioning control
allows the final position to be achieved with high
accuracy, but can also cause significant instability
during motion portions of the move. The solution
is to use a control that can dynamically precondition and switch on an integral term in the control during a small window around the positioning
point, and off during other portions of the move.
This greatly improves accuracy of the final positioning without instability during the movement.
The switching point of the integrator is generally based on several conditions, which are selected to optimize the control. This option is available
when using modern high-performance controllers
designed for hydraulic axis control. ce
- Paul Stavrou is manager applications engineering at Bosch Rexroth. Edited by Eric R.
Eissler, editor-in-chief, Oil & Gas Engineering,
eeissler@cfemedia.com.
www.controleng.com

Figure 2: Many hydraulic


control valves do not
have a linear flow vs. signal characteristics, so the
control loop gain for the
hydraulics axis can vary
widely, resulting in poor
performance or instability
when not understood.
Courtesy: Bosch Rexroth

Go Online
More details on each tip, a
sidebar of advice, and photos accompany this article
online, with relevant links to
more information.
www.controleng.com

Consider this...
Hydraulics can provide
some unique advantages. They are increasingly being teamed up
with advanced controls to
match electromechanical
drives in accuracy and
flexibility.

CONTROL ENGINEERING NOVEMBER 2015 53

OPC integration

How IIoT improves operations:

Impact of OPC UA

The Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) will change many aspects in manufacturing as
well as the rest of the industries of the world, including how we conduct day-to-day life.
Managing asset models is one of the parts of the industry that is already adopting the
change the IIoT brings with it.
Key
concepts
 Manufacturers are
embedding OPC UA in
many devices, sensors,
and controllers, helping
accelerate the IIoT revolution by expanding the data
sharing space.
 Sharing and analyzing
more data can facilitate
condition-based maintenance, helping to avoid
costly unscheduled downtime.

Go Online
For more articles on
this topic read this article at
www.controleng.com
See VIDEO: Where should the
cloud connection take place?
See the IIoT webcasts:
www.controleng.com/webcasts

Consider this...
Not only will IIoT revolutionize the manufacturing
industry, but it will change
the world, too.
54

nitiatives for harnessing the power of data


associated with the Industrial Internet of
Things (IIoT), Industrie 4.0 (Europe), and
Internet Plus (China) are expected to transform not only the manufacturing industry but
the global economy, as well. One estimate, based
on a report by Accenture written earlier this year,
estimated the technology could add $14.2 trillion
to the world economy over the next 15 years.
Impact on industry will be profound, but only
those who take a holistic view of its potential will
benefit the most. IIoT is not just a new technology;
it is a catalyst for fundamental change in the way
companies operate and individuals work.
In traditional asset models, businesses buy
equipment with a warranty insuring against failure within a particular period, which is supported
by scheduled maintenance. The ability to share and
analyze more data from deeper in the shop floor,
such as detecting rising lubricant temperature as a
sign of increased friction on bearings in real time,
can facilitate businesses towards condition-based
maintenance, helping the company avoid costly
unscheduled downtime.
IIoT has the potential to radically decentralize decision-making within plants, with high levels of information and context no longer restricted
to a central control room. It argues for a shift from
task-based workers to value-finding workers,
with technology augmenting rather than replacing
workers thinking, giving them deeper insight and
broader context into the plant and processes.
The connectivity challenge

Reliable, secure connectivity is central to these


efforts and is the function of the OPC Unified
Architecture (OPC UA) protocol.
A key part of the Industrie 4.0 foundation, OPC
UA runs on servers; networked sensors; mainstream operating systems, such as Linux and
Microsoft Windows; real-time operating systems
(RTOSs); or devices without any OS. OPC UA
enables the connectivity and data sharing between

NOVEMBER 2015 CONTROL ENGINEERING www.controleng.com

the devices and systems that provide the deepshop-floor visibility required by digital enterprises.
As expected, manufacturers are embedding
OPC UA in devices ranging from small networked
sensors to controllers, helping accelerate the IIoT
revolution by expanding the data sharing space.
The scale of transformation suggests that the adoption of OPC UA (and the move to an effective
IIoT architecture) will take time; businesses have
large investments in legacy architectures that cannot simply be replaced wholesale. An easy, coordinated migration path to IIoT technologies, such as
OPC UA is a key for device vendors and end users.
Users need to be able to tie in existing infrastructure (often based on classic OPC) and manage
their existing assets while being able to feed that
information into the IIoT space.
The answer for systems using classic OPC is
the use of OPC UA proxies or UA wrappers: technologies enabling new OPC UA enabled client
applications to communicate with classic OPC
servers, and classic OPC clients to communicate
with new OPC UA servers. For example, a humanmachine interface (HMI) that is still using classic OPC could be adapted to interface with UA
devices. As a result, operators can continue to use
their current systems, while gaining the additional
insights and connectivity with UA-enabled devices
as they are added.
Bridging technologies between legacy OPC and
OPC UA systems will facilitate the scale and rate
of change IIoT technologies bring to industry by
helping companies balance the added value that
new technologies bring while extending return on
investment on existing investments. Over time,
traditional systems will steadily be phased out, but
right now the UA Proxy and UA Wrapper technologies give businesses valuable time to form their
responses to the IIoT revolution. ce
- Darek Kominek is product director at
Matrikon, part of Honeywell Process Solutions.
Edited by Eric R. Eissler, editor-in-chief, Oil &
Gas Engineering, eeissler@cfemedia.com.

integrating OPC

Water, raw aluminum


produce steam,
hydrogen, alumina
All subsystems of a technology innovation project called Enerclean are
communicating through the centralized supervision system, and all are connected
via OPC Unified Architecture. Conditions for its industrialization are very good.

roduction of hydrogen and electricity


is possible at zero emissions thanks
to the combustion of aluminum.
OPC Unified Architecture (OPC UA)
helped integrate systems. A number
of companies participated in the technology innovation project called Enerclean, coordinated by
the department of science and engineering, University of Modena and Reggio, Italy. The project
involves the production of clean energy and hydrogen through the natural process of combustion of
aluminum powder on contact with water. The goal
is to get a high-efficiency energy system and nearzero environmental impact.
The project uses raw aluminum and water to
produce steam, which drives a turbine, and the
waste product is hydrogen and alumina. Hydrogen is stored for vehicles powered by hydrogen
(via a fuel cell); the second is fully recyclable to
produce new aluminum.
The project, still experimental, gave the desired
results, and the system prototype was successful-

ly completed. The group of participating companies was coordinated by professor Ing. Massimo
Milani, Department of Engineering Sciences and
Methods Faculty of Engineering, received specific
development objective, skills, know-how, and market technologies.
We needed a system that could connect to
its own data at any level, said professor Milani. Thats why we focused on the OPC UA standard, able to be managed either by control devices
and telemetry systems and supervision, and in the
future for any further level integrated systems,
such as enterprise resource planning systems used
by the operators.
While the project is still in the experimental
stage, the conditions for its industrialization are
very good. ce
- Ing. Daniele Suffritti is a consultant at
Progea. Edited by Mark T. Hoske, content
manager, CFE Media, Control Engineering,
mhoske@cfemedia.com.

Key
concepts
 An innovative process
generates steam and
electricity without harmful
wastes.
 OPC Unified Architecture
is used to integrate subsystems and higher level
systems.

Go Online
Many more details and
another image are with this
article posted online at
www.controleng.com.

Progea is among companies participating in the


technology innovation
project called Enerclean,
coordinated by University of
Modena and Reggio, Italy.
Control systems for raw aluminum powders and cutters
are from Bosch Rexroth.
Beckhoff Automation TwinCAT TC1000 controller is
used for boiler, turbine, storage and retrieval systems,
and 10 connected PLCs.
Progea Application Platform
technology, NExT, a nextgeneration platform based
on OPC UA was used,
including for field communications. Courtesy: Progea
www.controleng.com

CONTROL ENGINEERING NOVEMBER 2015 55

integrating OPC

Connectivity, security, mobility:

Inside modern controls


OPC Unified Architecture (OPC UA) when built into automation software, eases
integration with other systems and enhances security for a better expansion of
Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) and Industry 4.0 concepts.
Key
concepts
 Automation software
includes tools that make
integration with other
devices and systems
easier.
 Security can be
enhanced through use of
OPC Unified Architecture
(OPC UA).
 Mobility software also
benefits from OPC UA integration, especially when
certified.

odern automation and control


systems should implement the
latest advances in communications connectivity, security, and
mobility to keep pace with the
latest innovations in Industrie 4.0 [German] and
the Internet of Things (IoT). The latest humanmachine interface (HMI) and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) and building
automation software includes universal connectivity with many data sources such as OPC, BACnet, and SNMP, databases and Web services, and
enhanced compatibility with OPC Unified Architecture (OPC UA).
Multiple enhancements to the alarm technology in HMI/SCADA software allow for access to
many more data sources using OPC UA clients.
Powerful middleware makes it easy to visualize, via OPC UA clients, virtually any equipment,
process, operation, or business data.
OPC UA clients can securely access:

 Data from any IoT device or equipment


 Registers and data from programmable
logic controllers (PLCs) or distributed
control systems (DCSs)
 Equipment maintenance records and work
orders from maintenance management
systems
 Energy data from any metering system
 Incoming order data from any enterprise
resource planning (ERP) system.
A close look at security, mobility

Due to an increasing number of highly visible


breaches in recent years, corporations now have a
renewed focus on making sure that their systems
adhere to the strictest security standards. OPC
UA server/client interactions meet these requirements in different ways including user authentication, security certificates, and data encryption.
The need for remote access to data and remote
collaboration will increase, along with the number of widely dispersed assets and mobile workers. Mobile solutions should connect to OPC
UA, BACnet, SNMP, Modbus TCP/IP, and Web
services and tap into the IIoT. Mobile HMI and
dashboard software also can integrate with OPC
UA technology. With such connectivity, mobile
apps enable operators, field service workers,
managers, executives, and others to securely visualize, analyze, and store data from a multitude of
geographically dispersed assets.
OPC Foundation provides OPC UA Client Lab
Certification for automation and other software. ce
- Melissa Topp is director of global marketing,
Iconics. Edited by Mark T. Hoske, content manager, Control Engineering, mhoske@cfemedia.com.

Go Online
Mobile manufacturing human-machine interface software puts information in workers hands where needed for smarter, faster decision making.
Along with Genesis64, Iconics launched Version 10.9 of its MobileHMI and
KPIWorX mobile apps, which also integrate with OPC UA technology. Mobile
apps enable operators, field service workers, managers, executives, and
others to securely visualize, analyze, and store data from a multitude of geographically dispersed assets. Courtesy: Iconics
56

NOVEMBER 2015 CONTROL ENGINEERING www.controleng.com

See related product information linked to this article


online, including: Integrated connectivity tools enable
human-machine interface software.
www.controleng.com

Consider this...
Shouldnt automation software include structure and
code to enable easier integration with other systems?

system integration

Process control
system upgrades
Easier process control system integration requires knowledge of standards,
experience with operational and functional requirements, device and system
application knowledge, and meeting the needs of operator, maintenance,
quality, and management.

riginal equipment manufacturers


(OEMs) of process control automation systems have made continuing
strides over the years to enable the
deployment of their hardware and
software platforms for easier integration. Some
OEMs have worked hard to broaden the operational scope of their automation systems by adding components, such as robust data historians
and event historians, software libraries of process
objects, networkable variable frequency drives,
and instrumentation, and network switches quickly deployable in a secure environment. In addition,
controller software is becoming aware of devices
on the input/output networks as well as their complete characteristics and operating parameters.
Guide, analyze, report

Suppliers of todays process control automation systems provide design and configuration
tools that the suppliers endorse to guide the system integrator or system designer through the system configuration process; then analyze the design;
then report on the designs probable performance
and robustness metrics. These process control system platforms offer the designer and integrator an
opportunity to provide the customer (the plants
production department) an unprecedented level
of effective process control and the ability to efficiently troubleshoot and support production.
New control system platforms are robust and
efficient. The successful system designer or integrator has knowledge, experience, and credentials
and fully understands the subtleties and nuances of
deploying many new process control technologies.
Four system integrator attributes

To drive these newer process control systems,


the designer or integrators need to:
1. Know programming standards, such as
ISA88, Batch Control Systems, operator graphics
best practices, such as High Performance HumanMachine Interface (ISA101, HMI), S-95 for enter-

prisewide control systems (ISA95, Enterprise/


Control Integration Committee), CPwE (Converged Plantwide Ethernet) for networking, and
SANS for system and network security.
2. Develop background and experience to
create operational and functional requirements
required by the client to make the production
environment more effective and able to meet the
requirements of the clients objectives.
3. Have an appreciation and sharp senses to
address the needs of the operator, maintenance,
quality, and management.
4. Properly apply and know when to apply
the technological components and tools the
automation system suppliers provide. A good
system integrator know how to make the most
effective use of the technologies and combine
those with the integrators sense and understanding of process control to deliver a process control
automation system that makes production run better, faster, and produce higher quality products.
The results can be stunning when an automation project combines the effective and efficient
platforms and tools provided by many suppliers
with the process knowledge and project execution
experience of a well-qualified and certified integrator. On the flip side, disaster can occur when the
same automation platforms and tools are applied
by the integrator who does not have the process
knowledge, does not have the experience, or has
not made the investment to have qualified and certified resources on system deployment teams.
Process control automation requires qualified
high performance systems and operators. System
integrators should have the technical knowledge,
credentials, experience, and a sense of what it takes
to successfully complete an automation project. ce
- Stephen J. Malyzsko is president and CEO
of Malisko Engineering Inc., which is a 2015
Control Engineering and Plant Engineering System Integrator of the Year. Edited by Mark T.
Hoske, content manager, Control Engineering,
mhoske@cfemedia.com.
www.controleng.com

Go Online
See additional advice:
n Video: How automation
projects succeed
n Year 2020 outlook from
Malisko Engineering: Connectivity, modularity, and
predictive support
n System integration
research

CONTROL ENGINEERING NOVEMBER 2015 57

IN FOCUS
U.S. Sen. Ron Johnson (R-Wis.) tours
the Miro Tool & Mfg. in Waukesha on
Oct. 2. The tour was one of many events
around the U.S. on Oct. 2 to mark Manufacturing Day. Image courtesy: Miro
Tool & Mfg.

Manufacturing Day
touts strong jobs,
technology
Students and community leaders get
a firsthand view of U.S. plants.
By Bob Vavra
Content Manager, CFE Media

anufacturing opened its doors


to America on Oct. 2 to give the
nation a fresh look at how the
nations plants operate today,
and what they will need to continue to
grow for the future.
The 2015 Manufacturing Day was
marked with visits to plants across the
country from curious high school students
and various political leaders. The goal at
each location was the same: to show the
present state of U.S. manufacturing and to
emphasize the needs for technology and
for the people to operate that technology.

58

Modern manufacturing is highly


sophisticated with many opportunities for advancement, yet there is often
a misconception that these jobs are
undesirable, said Roger Nielsen, chief
operating officer for Daimler Trucks
North America at his companys event
in Cleveland, N.C. By participating
in Manufacturing Day, we are able to
directly connect with students and start
to shift the perception about manufacturing today.
More than 100 students from two local
high schools joined Congresswoman
Virginia Foxx (R-N.C.), at the Daimler truck facility, which manufactures
Freightliner and Western Star Class 8

NOVEMBER 2015 CONTROL ENGINEERING www.controleng.com

truck models. The visitors received a


tour of the plant and an opportunity to
hear about manufacturing future needs.
In Leonmister, Mass., Lt. Gov. Karyn
Polito joined local and regional government officials and area high school
students on a tour of the 588,000-sq ft
AIS plant, which manufactures office
furniture. The Sentinel & Enterprise
newspaper reported that Polito told the
students it was up to a joint effort of government and business leaders to continue
manufacturings growth curve. Its our
jobs to make sure more jobs like this are
available to you, Polito told students.
Manufacturing is a key part of growing
our economy.
And the students came away
impressed. I thought it was phenomenal, said Jeremy Dassau, a Leominster
High School senior told the Sentinel &
Enterprise.
In Wisconsin, U.S. Sen. Ron Johnson
visited the Miro Tool & Mfg. in Waukesha, a contract manufacturer specializing in metal stamping, fabrication, and
machining. The visit highlighted not just
Manufacturing Day, but also the states
manufacturing month.
After touring the 42,000-sq ft facility,
Johnson told the employees, The purpose of Wisconsin Manufacturing Month
is to highlight how much manufacturing contributes to our stateespecially
how manufacturing offers well-paid jobs
across a wide range of skill levels and
interests. It is encouraging to see Wisconsin education officials joining state
agencies and Wisconsin Manufacturers
and Commerce in spreading this message during the month.
Citing his experience in the manufacturing sector, Johnson also touted the
message of workforce development.
We need to overcome the attitude that
work in manufacturing is second-class
and that working in the skilled trades
is undesirable. All work has value and
provides the dignity of earning ones

own success, Johnson said. From my


31 years as a manufacturer, working with
skilled, dedicated Wisconsin employees,
I can attest that careers in manufacturing
are a great way to make a living.

A promising salary report

Supporting that message, the U.S.


Department of Commerce released a
report on Oct. 2 showing that manufacturing workers earn about 9% more than
the average worker, and that margin
increases when other factors are taken
into consideration.
The report found:
 Based on hourly wages and salaries,
manufacturing workers earn from
2% to 9% more on than the average worker.
 When hours worked in a week or
over the course of a year are taken
into consideration, the estimated
premium increases. Estimated
premiums using weekly or annual
pay data are as high as 32%. This
larger premium is because manufacturing employees work more hours
per week and per year on average.
 Both new hires and the existing
workforce enjoy a pay premium in
the manufacturing sector, with new
hires earning a larger premium than
other workers.
 The size of the premium also varies
greatly depending on the occupation. Some manufacturing workers
earn less than workers overall. At
the other extreme, manufacturing
workers in sales occupations earn
64% more than their counterparts
in non-manufacturing sales occupations throughout the economy.
Together, this work has refined our
understanding of manufacturing jobs
and shown that manufacturing in the
U.S. is alive and well, the U.S. Commerce Department said in a press release
announcing the report.
The U.S. Census Bureau had similarly upbeat data. Manufacturing is the
fourth-largest U.S. employer, with 11.3

million jobs, trailing only health care,


retail trade, and food services, and the
$54,300 average annual salary is higher
than any of those sectors.
In 2013, manufacturing generated
60% of all U.S. export dollars, accounting for almost $840 billion in exports.

A day for enthusiasm

As the fourth annual Manufacturing


Day gains momentum and visibility, its
also gaining some enthusiastic manufacturing companies eager to showcase
their business to their community. At
its McPherson, Kansas facility, Viega
LLC participated for the second year.
Its events included facility tours, a job
fair and demonstrations, attracting more
than 100 students and community leaders. The company also was asked to
participate in continuing career days at
area schools.
Viega is proud to be part of the growing manufacturing process in Kansas,
said company COO Robert Boots.
At its Florence, Ky., facility, Balluff
also welcomed students and community
leaders and offered demonstration on
what manufacturing really looked like
in an effort to provide a realistic view
of modern manufacturing.
We were excited to participate in
our first Manufacturing Day event and
invite local students to see how manufacturing plays an important role in
our community, stated Will Healy III,
strategic marketing manager for Balluff.
Looking to the future of manufacturing, we need skilled and excited people
www.controleng.com

Students attending Manufacturing Day


activities at Balluffs Florence, Ky., plant
received a firsthand view of what a modern manufacturing facility looks like.
Image courtesy: Balluff

for automation. This demands that we


encourage and invest in manufacturing
events in our community and science,
technology, engineering, and math
(STEM) programs at schools to help
develop the next generation.
Manufacturing Day is co-produced by
the Fabricators & Manufacturers Association, International (FMA), the National
Association of Manufacturers (NAM),
the Manufacturing Institute (MI), the
National Institute of Standards and
Technologys (NIST) Hollings Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP),
and guest producer Industrial Strength
Marketing (ISM). ce

INFORMATION
Fore more about Manufacturing Day
activities and how to keep discussing
manufacturing in your community, go to

www.mfgday.com.

CONTROL ENGINEERING NOVEMBER 2015 59

THE ROAD TO

HANNOVER MESSE2016

19 47
Harting works with
U.S. customers to
make connections

2015

By Bob Vavra, Content Manager, CFE Media

Harting USAs annual customer event at Hannover Messe in


Germany provides a chance for the company to bring U.S. manufacturers to the worlds largest industrial trade show.
The feedback we get from our people who attend Hannover
is, We had no idea such a place existed, said Jon DeSouza,
president and CEO of Harting USA at one of a series of customer
road shows to promote Hannover Messe 2016 and the United
States status as Partner Country on April; 25-29, 2016. Our
customers can see the latest of every single type of component.
CFE Media is designated as Official Media Partner for Hannover Messe 2016.
Im really excited about the U.S. as Partner Country, said
DeSouza at an event at Harting USAs Elgin, Ill., manufacturing
headquarters. Were really committed as a company to promote
the fair and to exhibit.
Hartings global president, CEO, and general partner Dietmar
Harting is believed to be one of only two people who has attended
every Hannover Messe since the first event in 1947. DeSouza said
Harting was the third company to join Hannover Messe, and the
company has been a board member at Hannover Messe for decades.
When we found out the U.S. was going to be Partner Country,
we talked to Mr. Harting and said we need to do everything we can
to make sure the U.S. realizes this is a great opportunity, DeSouza
said. Thats why were hereto talk about how important it is.
As a global company, it is the place we go to bring new customers in to showcase new technologies. Its not just a trade show;
its a place for our customers as well.
Marc Siemering, senior vice president of Hannover Messe, said
the road shows connect the show with American customers associated with longtime Hannover exhibitors. Harting is the company
most connected with Hannover Messe from the beginning. They have
been one of the most loyal and trusted exhibitors, Siemering said.
60

Figures 1 and 2: Hartings connection with Hannover Messe dates


back to its booth at the first trade show in 1947. In 2015, Harting
welcomed German chancellor Angela Merkel and Indian Prime
Minister Narendra Modi to its booth. Images courtesy: Harting

Under the 2016 theme of Integrated IndustryDiscover


Solutions, Siemering said Hannover Messe would will focus
on the emerging topics of digital factory factories and industrial automation. He said the American pavilion at Hannover
Messe will include not just companies such as Harting, with a
German headquarters and a U.S. operation, but also major U.S.
companies with a global presence, including Microsoft, Cisco,
SAP, and IBM.
Weve had decent success in North America, but there are
differences between the German market and the U.S. market. In
order for us to tell them to change technologies, we need to tell
them why they need to change technology. That doesnt happen
just by talking, but by providing educational tools, DeSouza said.
As part of that process, this spring the company debuted its
Harting U online training in the U.S. The company also has
launched a traveling technology truck that made its maiden voyage in September to New York.
We want to become not just a connector manufacturer, but
also a trusted advisor to our customers, DeSouza said.
The Harting Roadshow Truck includes multimedia touchscreens inside and out, along with samples of all product lines:
standard and modular inserts for industrial connectors, cable and
connectors for industrial communications, Ethernet switches,
board-level connectivity, I/O connectors, current sensors, radiofrequency identification (RFID) products, and custom 3D circuit
board fabrication. More than 200 engineers toured the vehicle
from Sept. 18 to Oct. 7, DeSouza said. ce

NOVEMBER 2015 CONTROL ENGINEERING www.controleng.com

Hannover Messe in 2016: 5 reasons to attend


By Jack Nehlig, Phoenix Contact USA

The industrial global village has its city center, and its in
Hannover, Germany.
Each year more than 250,000 of the worlds brightest technical talents gather at Hannover Messe, to advance the art of
worldwide manufacturing.
As the U.S. leader of Phoenix Contact, I have learned firsthand the value of an annual pilgrimage to Hannover Messe
each April. And because of its importance to the manufacturing
world, we annually host a select group of our customers and
distributors to share the excitement that the Hannover Messe
experience provides.
So in the spirit of sharing, here are my five reasons American
manufacturing engineers, manager or executive ought to attend
Hannover Messe:
1. One-stop shop: It truly is a global gathering of the worlds
manufacturing industry. Nowhere else can you experience such
a comprehensive display of companies in one place. And this is
no slimmed down U.S. tradeshow. The companies that exhibit
have expansive booths with in-depth product displays, and they
are staffed by their best and brightest.
2. Its a manufacturing innovation fashion show: Just as
Paris is the place where the trendiest clothing fashions debut
each year, Hannover Messe is where the industrial world puts its
latest fashions on display. Its no secret that Germany is a world
leader in manufacturing technology, so theres no better place
to hold a manufacturing innovations fashion show. Companies
take great pride in displaying their Next Big Things for the
first time, and actively compete for the Hermes Award, given
to the best innovations of the year.

3. Connections for export: This is a great benefit for small


and medium enterprises (SMEs) with limited resources. Since
Hannover Messe is a global gathering, it is easy to make connections with like-minded companies and channel partners looking
for expansion. And it is not just EU connections; people from
Asia and Latin America flock to the show as well.
4. Learning: While you can certainly learn about new products
through firsthand visits to the thousands of exhibitors booths,
you can also attend many educational events focused on the
newest industry trends. Of course this year, the hot topics of
Industrie 4.0 and the Industrial Internet of Things will be on
full display. So confirm a hunch, learn more about a technology,
or simply scout out your competition! Nothing beats firsthand
interactive learning.
5. The energy: It only takes one time and youre hooked!
Each year I attend the fair and come home excited about being
in a technology career, and excited about the future of manufacturing. The icing on the cake is that Germany is a beautiful
country, and the people of Germany are gracious hosts. And did
I mention the best beer in the world?
So I hope these reasons have been enough to convince you
to attend Hannover Messe this year. But there is one more for
2016! The U.S. is going to be the Partner Country, which means
special attention will be given to American industry trends and
the re-emerging manufacturing environment in the U.S.
And a last bit of advicebook your tickets and hotels early.
The most convenient accommodations go fast, so if Ive convinced you, Id act now. ce
Jack Nehlig is president of Phoenix Contact USA, a partner
with CFE Media for Hannover Messe 2016.

As Partner Country, U.S. to showcase manufacturing strength, growth


In its debut as the Partner Country at Hannover Messe on April
25-29, 2016, the United States will be showcasing its manufacturing strength as the worlds largest manufacturing economy at the
worlds largest industrial technology event.
Deutsche Messe officials have worked for years to forge a partnership between U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Commercial
Service, the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, SelectUSA, and the
U.S. Embassy in Germany to bring this event to pass. The 2016
Hannover Messe is expected to bring the largest contingent from
the U.S. to Hannover, and showcase the efforts the U.S. has led in
the past several years to grow its manufacturing base.
President Obama has committed himself to strengthening
Americas domestic industry. The modernization of Americas
industrial sector and the digital integration of its production plants
and equipment are proceeding there at a rapid pace, said Dr.
Jochen Kckler, member of the managing board at Deutsche
Messe, in a press release. The goal of the U.S. government is to
regain its status as one of the worlds leading production locations,
which predestines the United States as next Partner Country at
Hannover Messe.

Another significant goal for both the U.S. and German representatives are to demonstrate the importance of strong foreign trade
between the two nations. The Hannover Messe 2016 will offer
unique opportunities for investment attraction and trade promotion at
the worlds largest industrial trade show, show officials said in a press
release. Using Hannover Messe as a platform will help state and
local economic development agencies to achieve the USAs expressed
goal of furthering global trade, attracting foreign direct investment,
increasing export activities, and opening global marketsultimately
generating more business, more growth, and more jobs.
For those who have not attended Hannover Messe in the past,
the trade show venue itself is unlike anything seen in the U.S.
With more than 30 halls spread across 5.3 million sq ft of indoor
exhibition space and another 624,000 sq ft of open air space, Hannover Messe is the worlds largest trade show exhibition center.
By comparison, Chicagos McCormick Place has 1.2 million sq
ft of primary exhibition space.
The show annually attracts more than 6,500 exhibitors and
220,000 attendees, including 2,400 members of the global trade
press. ce

www.controleng.com

CONTROL ENGINEERING NOVEMBER 2015 61

inside process

Maintaining stable gas


pressure for hydrochloric
acid production
In a chlor-alkali membrane process, hydrogen and chlorine gases are produced
using electrolyzers. Maintaining stable pressure on both sides of the membrane
is critical for safety and equipment life.

Key
concepts
 Chemical processes
often have unique critical
variables that must be
regulated precisely.
 Controlling upsets in
various forms can call for
creative engineering.
 Startups and shutdowns
are critical times in all
processes and deserve
careful planning.

roduction of hydrochloric acid (HCl)


involves combining hydrogen and
chlorine gasses in a burner. The gasses used as feedstocks are created
using a chlor-alkali process, where
brine (NaCl) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) are
broken down by electrolysis in reactors called
electrolyzers. The main components of an electrolyzer are the anode and cathode, separated by
a membrane. The membrane is very sensitive
to differential pressure fluctuations on its sides
between the hydrogen and chlorine gas headers,
so one of the most important process variables
is controlling gas pressure in both headers to
maintain a desirable differential pressure across
the cathode and anode. This must be maintained
at all times to maximize membrane life while
avoiding any potential process safety incidents
because of an upset (see Figure 1).

It is essential to control and maintain not


only the pressure of the chlorine and
hydrogen headers feeding the burner units
but also differential pressure across the
electrolyzer membranes.

The desired differential pressure of about 8 in.


WC across the membrane in the electrolyzer cell
room has to be maintained constantly. Typically,
the chlorine header pressure is 112 in. WC while
the hydrogen header pressure is 120 in. WC, creating the desired differential. This is stabilized
using a differential pressure controller. If the differential pressure exceeds safe limits or chlorine
P1

NOVEMBER 2015 CONTROL ENGINEERING www.controleng.com

pressure gets too high, the cell room will be shut


down. Excessive chlorine pressure is relieved by
releasing gas to the waste gas de-chlorination
system or emergency vent scrubber (EVS) system. Similarly, gas relief to the stack prevents
excessive hydrogen pressure (see Figure 2).
The gas streams from the electrolyzer are
treated and then pass to the HCl synthesis burner unit. Gas feed pressure for the synthesizer (a
Mersen unit is typical) should be between 77
and 80 in. WC.
Challenging startups and shutdowns

Rapid startups or shutdowns of HCl burner units can create pressure disturbances in the
header often capable of tripping alarms causing the process to shut down in a matter of seconds. Consequently, it is essential to control
and maintain not only the pressure of the chlorine and hydrogen headers feeding the burner
units but also differential pressure across the
electrolyzer membranes. Units with multiple
burners increase the level of complexity.
The flow diversion concept is a way to
minimize pressure disturbances. If a burner trips and shuts down, diverting the exact
amount of gas being used by that burner to
some other destination, typically the EVS
for chlorine and atmospheric vent stack for
hydrogen, can mitigate or eliminate pressure
disturbances in the headers.

Basic control description

The basic strategy uses the flow measurement of the gas to the burner and positions a
throttling control valve on a line to a safe area,
so that a flow through that partially open control valve matches the flow to the burner. Flow

CI2

H2

CI2

H2

Anolyte
215 g/l NaCl

H
CI

Catholyte
32% NaOH

NA
CI

OH

OH

Ultra pure brine


305 g/l NaCl

Caustic
30% NaOH

Anode reaction: 2CI-

CI2 + 2 e-

Cathode reaction: 2H+ + 2 e-

through the throttling valve is prevented by a


second upstream fail-closed on-off valve. The
on-off valve is electrically connected to the
burner safety shut-off valves, so that when
the burner trips and the burner safety shut-off
valves close, the on-off valve on the diversion
line opens. After the flow is diverted and stabilizes, the throttling valve closes slowly, giving the normal pressure control systems time
to adjust to the new flow rates while wasting a
minimum amount of feedstock.
Detailed control description

Each HCl burner unit has a corresponding


throttling valve and on-off valve diversion set on
each supply. Figure 2 shows a setup for two HCl
burners, so there are two diversion valve sets for
each feedstock. Burner startup, normal operation,
and shutdown modes are critical, so let us consider these sequences in greater detail.
Burner startup modeTypically,
sequence includes the following steps:
n Enable sequence
n Nitrogen purge
n Demineralized water flow/air flow/
recirculation acid flow established
n Pilot flame
n Main flame/hydrogen flow ramping
n Air flow replaced with chlorine, and
n Process stabilizes at normal levels.

the

H2

Once the sequence is enabled, the hydrogen throttling valve ramps open to their pre-set
positions, and the on-off valve remains open
since safety shutoff valves close to the burner
are closed. This step establishes hydrogen flow
from the hydrogen header to the vent stack.
This is the flow required during the main flame
step for the burner.
During the main flame step, the hydrogen
safety shutoff valve opens, and the hydrogen
flow control valve opens to a pre-set position
to get the minimum hydrogen flow required to
maintain main flame. Once the safety valves
open, the diversion on-off valve closes, diverting the hydrogen flow from the stack to burner.
Normal operationOnce everything is stabilized and the HCl burners are functioning normally, the on-off valves on the hydrogen and
chlorine diversion lines remain closed. The
throttling valves track the hydrogen and chlorine
flows and position their openings to match. This
follows a basic math function:
Cv = F / (K * SQ RT dP (P))
The equation incorporates the variables, flow,
available pressure drop (dP), upstream pressure
(P), and the throttling valves Cv value. Hopefully, the pressure remains steady enough that
constant compensation adjustments for varying
pressure and differential pressure are not necessary. Initially, the math function should not
incorporate pressure or differential pressure compensation. This makes the Cv versus flow relationship much simpler. Using the flow value used
in the control valve sizing calculations, the resultant Cv allows determination of the K factor,
which can then determine the throttling valve Cv
www.controleng.com

Figure 1: The main


components of an electrolyzer are the anode
and cathode, separated
by a membrane. The
membrane is very sensitive to differential pressure fluctuations, so one
of the most important
process variables is
controlling gas pressure in both headers to
maintain an 8 in. WC differential pressure across
the cathode and anode.
All graphics courtesy:
Neelesh Shah

Initially, the
math function
should not
incorporate
pressure or
differential
pressure
compensation,
which makes
the Cv
versus flow
relationship
much
simpler.

CONTROL ENGINEERING NOVEMBER 2015 P2

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Capital Project Execution in the Oil and Gas Industry.
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E M E R S O N . C O N S I D E R I T S O LV E D .
input #33 at www.controleng.com/information

inside process

Figure 2: The two gas streams from the electrolyzer are treated separately and then brought together at the synthesis burner
unit. The diversion valves can send both gases to safe areas to avoid pressure spikes in the gas headers.

for any flow. The output can convert the percentage open to a 4-20 mA output.
Shutdown or tripAs soon as a burner shuts
down or trips, the safety shutoff valves and flow
control valves on the burner close, and the flow
diverter on-off valves open. The flow diverter
throttling valves are already in the correct position because they have been continuously maintaining their positions based on chlorine and
hydrogen flow going to the burner before trip.
This helps minimize any pressure disturbances
that might move upstream and disrupt the electrolyzer. ce
- Neelesh Shah, P.Eng., is a senior instrumentation and control engineer for Molycorp Inc. He has 20 years of instrumentation
and control engineering experience. Edited by
Peter Welander, contributing content specialist,
pwelander@cfemedia.com.

When the burner shuts down or trips, the safety


shutoff valves and flow control valves on the
burner close, the flow diverter on-off valves
open, and the flow diverter throttling valves are
already in the correct position.

Go Online
Link to related articles providing similar process control
details, with this article posting at:
www.controleng.com

Consider this...
Control system design details can help avoid any potential process safety incidents. Are you aware of the details
in your control processes?
www.controleng.com

CONTROL ENGINEERING NOVEMBER 2015 P4

inside process

Critical decisions
for selecting
pressure transmitters
There are many considerations when it comes to selecting a pressure transmitter, and few
are examined in school. Heres advice to avoid tough lessons as you learn on the job.

Key
concepts
 Pressure sensors are
the most widely deployed
industrial measuring
devices.
 There are countless configurations designed for
specific applications.
 Making an appropriate selection depends on
understanding the needs
of the process.

Figure 1: An
in-line pressure
transmitter has
a single process
connection. All
graphics courtesy:
Emerson Process
Management
P5

any of todays smart process


transmitters are multitalented devices. They can provide
a great deal more information
and perform more functions
beyond simply providing a pressure reading.
This extra data can include temperature,
device history, calibration information, diagnostics, and more. A smart transmitter can detect
internal problems, be recalibrated and re-ranged
remotely, and in some cases even spot process
anomalies such as plugged impulse lines.
In addition to measuring pressure values
directly, pressure measurements can be used to
determine or infer flow rates, fluid levels, product density, and other parameters. As a result,
pressure
transmitters
are
deployed more widely than
any other type of process
instrument.
Wireless technology
adds another layer of
capability to pressure
transmitters, making
it possible to measure
and gather information
in locations that previously were not economically feasible to reach due to
the costs associated with conduit,
cable input/output (I/O) cabinets,
and other infrastructure needed for
wired transmitters.
With this additional ability to
measure anything, anywhere,
an engineer has to decide what
needs to be measured and why.
What justification is there for a
given measurement, and which
device is best suited to meet his or her
goals?

NOVEMBER 2015 CONTROL ENGINEERING www.controleng.com

This article suggests a series of questions and


other considerations to help guide a designer
charged with making critical decisions regarding
pressure applications and transmitter selections.
The pressure is on

The first questions to ask should include:


 What is the normal operating pressure of
the application? Select a transmitter that is
optimized for that range.
 What are the highest and lowest pressures
expected during normal operation? Accuracy can generally degrade somewhat at
the extremes, but the device must remain
repeatable under these conditions and
must not suffer any damage nor require
recalibration.

 What maximum pressure will the device


experience under the worst conditions?
For safety reasons, the transmitter must
be able to withstand a pressure as high as
the pressure rating of the vessel or pipe to
which it is attached without bursting. All
attached piping, flanges, manifolds, and
other accessories that will be exposed to
the same maximum pressure must be rated
to this threshold. Some devices can continue to operate after an overpressure incident
and retain accuracy, while others may need
recalibration or even replacement, but the
primary consideration here is safety.
Connecting to the process

Because pressure transmitters are also used


in flow and level applications, they are often
integrated with other components, such as orifice plates for measuring flow or another pressure sensor for monitoring level in a tank. Three

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inside process

Figure 2: A coplanar
mounted transmitter has
two process connections.

types of mountings are available to


connect transmitters to components
or the process: 1) in-line, where the
transmitter is mounted directly to a
single process penetration; and 2)
coplanar; and 3) biplanar, where the
transmitter connects to the process via
two connections.
An in-line mounted transmitter (see
Figure 1) has a single connection, usually at
the bottom of the unit, for measuring gage or
absolute pressure. In-line mounted transmitters are usually lightweight and do not often
require a mounting bracket.
A coplanar mounted transmitter (see
Figure 2) has two process connections for
differential pressure (DP) on the bottom
of the unit. This transmitter is lightweight and is usually installed
on a single process flange.
The coplanar connection
enables measurement of differential, absolute, or gage pressure-type applications.
A biplanar configuration is a more traditional way of connecting to the process and has two

ports on the side of the lower part of the unit


(see Figure 3). This is the traditional process
connection used for DP measurement, and it
also supports gage and absolute pressure. It is
heavier and more challenging to connect than
in-line or coplanar designs. A transmitter used
in a DP flow application can also be mounted
directly to a flange containing an orifice plate.
When considering a connection type, consider if there is an existing connection point
or if it will it be necessary to create a new tap
into the process. Either of these may require
a process shutdown, which can be costly and
potentially dangerous. It is also possible to
hot tap a process and add a transmitter while
running, but this requires highly trained personnel. Other things to consider regarding the
connection are:
n Can a flange be added to make the
connection? If so, what type of flange
is appropriate for the application?
n What threading is present?
n Is a manifold already installed?

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input #35 at www.controleng.com/information

All of the mounting considerations for a monitoring point also apply to a control point. But for
control, a connection that is more maintainable is
ideal. For example, if there is sediment buildup,
it is important to be able to clean out and purge
the connection point. By adding a three- or fiveway manifold, or a bleedable flange, you can
easily purge any buildup.
Remote seals

Connections to a pressure transmitter often


involve impulse lines that run from the process
tap to the transmitter. These can plug up with
sediment or freeze in the winter. One solution
to plugged impulse lines is a remote seal and
capillary system, where process pressure is
transmitted to the pressure sensor via an oilfilled capillary.
The system acts as an extension of the pressure transmitter and protects its diaphragm
from hot, cold, or corrosive processes, as well
as from viscous materials or those containing
suspended solids that might plug impulse piping. In hygienic applications, remote seals also
make it easier to clean process connections
and prevent contamination between batches,

as well as avoid the maintenance often needed


with wet-leg and dry-leg
installations.
There are also electronic remote sensor
arrangements for measuring tank level. Instead
of having a single DP
transmitter installed with
impulse line connections to the
bottom and top of the tank, two
transmitters are used. One
is located at the bottom of
the tank, with the other one
located at the top. The two sensors are connected electronically, instead of via a wet leg/dry leg
or capillary (see Figure 4). This is
useful for tall tanks because it eliminates the need for long impulse lines. A caveat
to this method is that accuracy is impacted in
tanks with high static pressures relative to the
DP measurement for level. When considering
such an arrangement, it is best to consult a factory expert to help select the best technology.

Figure 3: A biplanar
connection, with two
ports on the side, supports gage, differential,
and absolute pressure
measurements.

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input #36 at www.controleng.com/information

inside process

Environmental considerations

The environment in which the pressure transmitter will be operating is important. Questions
to ask include:
n What is the operating temperature? If using
a remote seal system, be sure to choose
a fill fluid compatible with both the process temperature and the ambient temperature. At low temperatures, impulse lines
can freeze, or the fill fluid can gel. At high
temperatures, the fill oil in a remote seal
system can boil or degrade. There are fill
fluids specially formulated to meet a wide
range of temperatures.
n Will there be significant mechanical vibration? Transmitters should always be
installed to minimize vibration, shock, and
temperature fluctuations.
n Does the process involve significant pressure pulsation? A transmitter installed at the
discharge end of a positive-displacement
pump can be damaged by rapid pulsations,
degrading measurement accuracy and
shortening sensor life. A pulsation damper or snubber may be required. It can be as
simple as a porous metal filter or an adjustable needle valve inserted in the impulse
piping.

Figure 4: An electronic connection


between two pressure transmitters
eliminates the need
for impulse lines
that can clog with
sediment or freeze
in the winter.

P9

NOVEMBER 2015 CONTROL ENGINEERING www.controleng.com

n Will the device be used in a hazardous area? If so, what approvals will be
required? Relevant approvals can include
ATEX, IECEx, CSA, and FM. Many devices are available with combination approvals that make them suitable for a variety of
hazardous areas.
n What about washdowns? In food, beverage, and pharmaceutical applications, the
transmitter may be subjected to washdowns with hot and aggressive chemicals
and must be rated for such service.
Its also important to know how often the
transmitter will need recalibration, and what
will be involved in performing this task. It
may require that the device be physically
removed and sent to an instrument laboratory,
which may require a process shutdown. If the
transmitter can be isolated with shutoff valves,
the disruption will be considerably reduced.
In addition, some transmitters now offer longer stability specifications, thus reducing
maintenance costs since they require fewer
calibrations.
Choices of communication protocols

The simplest and most common way for a


transmitter to deliver its output is analog, via
a 4-20 mA current loop: 4 mA indicates the
devices lower range value, and 20 mA indicates its upper range value, which might,
for example, indicate an empty and full tank,
respectively. A current loop requires that each
transmitter have wiring leading back to the control room (a distance that can reach a mile or
more, in some facilities), plus its own input
point in the control system, which can increase
significantly the cost of adding measurement
points to a process.
In the 1980s, the HART protocol became
available. HART superimposes a low-level, digital
signal on the 4-20 mA output allowing two-way
communication between the control system and
the transmitter at a speed of 1,200 bits/s. The
digital signal contains information from
the device including device status, diagnostics, measured or calculated values,
and others. HART has the advantage
of using the existing 4-20 mA field
wiring, which makes it simple and
inexpensive to set up.
An alternative wiring architecture
uses a digital data bus interface such
as EtherNet/IP, Foundation fieldbus, or
Profibus PA. These bus protocols allow
much more flexible installation, as its no

input #37 at www.controleng.com/information

inside process

While the first wireless networks in plants were


used almost exclusively for asset monitoring purposes, the advent of IEC 62591 (WirelessHART)
and other wireless instrumentation protocols
made wireless delivery of process-variable information increasingly common for
monitoring and control applications. This
system takes the form of a self-organizing
mesh network, with a gateway as its connection point to the plants main control
system via a digital bus.
Wireless instrumentation network protocols
use a variety of approaches to move data from the

longer required to wire each transmitter back to the controller since multiple transmitters can exist on one drop
of wires. They also permit large amounts of
information to be transmitted at relatively
high rates of speed.
The wireless option

One way to reduce wiring costs


substantially for transmitters is to
skip all wired connections, analog
or digital, and use a wireless system.
Alternatively, wireless can be used to
add capabilities to an existing wired
system. While HART is an industry standard, of the 30 million wired installed HART
instruments, fewer than 10% have remote access
to secondary data. Technicians use HART to check
and re-range transmitters via handheld units.
There are now wireless adapters that can
be plugged into a HART-equipped 4-20 mA
transmitter to make it part of a wireless
networkthus providing configuration data, status information, calibration dates, and process data, including
the main pressure value and other data,
such as temperature.

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Figure 5: A wireless instrumentation network


makes it easy and economical to add data points
across an organization.

individual devices to a gateway. (See another article on


this topic in this issue.) With WirelessHART, each transmitter (see Figure 5) constitutes a network node that
acts as both a source of data and as a router. A message
from one node is passed from node to node until
it reaches the gateway, and a message from the
gateway to a particular node can be similarly
passed via multiple paths in the mesh until it
reaches its intended recipient. This redundancy provides for reliable communication because data movement does
not depend on one path.
A wireless network makes it possible to expand a plants
instrumentation without running any wiring at all. One simply
connects the gateway to the control system. Wireless transmitters can be battery-powered or powered locally with hard-wiring,
becoming nodes on the network.
Wireless pressure transmitters make it possible to measure
pressure, flow, and level in locations once deemed economically unfeasible. With this capability, engineers can consider using
wireless transmitters for control, monitoring, or safety reasons
just about anywhere in a process plant.
Given the complexity of device selection and deployment,
dont be afraid to ask for help from industry vendors. Many of
the application engineers working for instrumentation manufacturers have years of industry experience and have dealt with a
range of challenging measurement situations. They often can provide what amounts to free consulting services in terms of technology selection. ce
- Wally Baker is the global pressure content marketing
manager for Emerson Process Management. Edited by Peter
Welander, contributing content specialist, Control Engineering,
pwelander@cfemedia.com

Go Online
Read more: www.EmersonProcess.com/Rosemount-3051S

Consider this...
Are you aware of the features to optimize your process?
P11

NOVEMBER 2015 CONTROL ENGINEERING

PRODUCTS

inside process

Submersible level transmitter


for wastewater monitoring

HART-enabled transmitters
for harsh conditions, environments

GP:50 NY Ltd.s Model 311M351 submersible level transmitter is designed to ensure


reliability within challenging
wastewater lift-station monitoring applications. The corrosionresistant design is submersible
to 1,100 ft WC. Model 311M351 features a 3-in. diameter,
clog-resistant, sensing diaphragm and a corrosion-resistant, protective bafe plate,
which eliminates process
clogging and facilitates
high-accuracy-level depth
measurements within
heavy sludge or foam
conditions. The bafe
plate reduces risks of efuent sensor damage. Applications include process sumps, wet wells,
water tanks and reservoirs, ponds, and
municipal wastewater environments.
GP:50 NY Ltd., www.gp50.com

United Electric Controls One Series 1XTXSW transmitter


line integrates HART 7 compatible 4 to 20 mA output and two
solid-state programmable relays for monitoring temperature or
pressure in safety, alarm, and emergency shutdown applications.
The transmitters are designed to operate in hazardous and harsh
monitoring conditions that involve temperature extremes and high
pressures that rapidly change, exhibiting pulsations, water hammer and
thermal cycling, and other wear-inducing conditions. They include a
discrete diagnostic output for remote monitoring from a controller.
United Electric Controls, www.ueonline.com

Bosch Rexroths second-generation EMC electromechanical cylinder has


IP65 protection and is suitable for applications with frequent cleaning
cycles in the food industry. The EMC100-XC-2 increases the power density for feeding forces of up to 56 kN for applications in forming
technology. An optional force sensor allows decentralized
process controls without a higher-level control system. Drive
units consist of anodized aluminum proles in ISO standard
dimensions, with an integrated ball screw drive. They cover
variable-length strokes of up to 1,500 mm.
Bosch Rexroth, www.boschrexroth-us.com

Input #200 at www.controleng.com/information

Input #202 at www.controleng.com/information

Input #201 at www.controleng.com/information

Electromechanical cylinder for food, hygienic applications

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input #39 at www.controleng.com/information

inside process

PRODUCTS
Coriolis mass flowmeter for chemical, oil and gas applications
Krohnes Optimass 6400 is a twin bent tube Coriolis mass owmeter designed for liquid and gas applications in the chemical and petrochemical, oil and gas, pharmaceutical, food and beverage, and energy and
power industries. It is equipped with a signal converter that features advanced device and process diagnostics.
It has been approved for custody transfers of both liquids and gases, making it ideal for process industries and
specialist applications like LNG, CNG, or supercritical gases in terminal or storage/bunkering, along with
custody transfer applications. It can operate up to 752 F (400 C) and down to -328 F (-200 C).
Krohne Inc., www.us.krohne.com
Input #203 at www.controleng.com/information

Pressure transmitter series


for hazardous locations
Omegas PX51-IS/
PXM51-IS Series of
pressure transmitters
are designed, tested,
and FM certied for
hazardous locations.
These transmitters
offer an all stainless
steel construction and rugged, thick-lm
sensing element, suitable for the harshest
environments. It is available in gage,
absolute, and sealed gage models with a
wide selection of outputs and dual tting.
The list of locations requiring intrinsically safe devices is extensive. Most
process control applications should use
FM approved instrumentation.
Omega Engineering, www.omega.com
Input #204 at www.controleng.com/information

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Dissolved oxygen analyzer


for rugged industrial process
environments
Electro-Chemical
Devices (ECD)
DO90 Trace DO2
Analyzer provides continuous
measurement and
alarming of trace
dissolved oxygen levels in boiler feed
water supporting electric power generation steam turbine systems. Oxygen
should only be present in trace quantities
in boiler feedwater for steam-turbine systems because excessive concentrations of
oxygen can result in corrosion damage
to the components of the boilers steam
cycle. To remove the oxygen, the boiler
feedwater is pretreated by thermally
or chemically degassing it to achieve
oxygen-free water.
Electro-Chemical Devices (ECD)
www.ecdi.com
Input #205 at www.controleng.com/information

P13

NOVEMBER 2015 CONTROL ENGINEERING

digital edition

EXCLUSIVE

www.controleng.com/DigitalEdition

Control Engineering

Digital Edition Exclusives, Online Extras


Benefits of the Control Engineering Digital Edition include tablet-friendly viewing
(HTML5), exclusive content in every issue; headlines link to the longer version posted
online; links are live where a URL is provided; and an email link arrives when ready.
In addition, link to additional Online Extra articles.
DIGITAL EDITION EXCLUSIVES

DE-1 Inspiring cyber-physical security into design

Visualizing the relevance of cyber-physical systems in applications provides background for why new
approaches to security are required.

DE-3 Webcast answers:

The coming changes to standard Ethernet

Digital Edition Exclusive: Questions and answers follow related to The coming changes to standard
Ethernet webcast. Additional audience questions provide added advice about topics such as the Internet of Things (IoT), standardization, and Time Sensitive Networking (TSN).

DE-5 CAN FD: from theory to practice

The international standardization of CAN FD is settled. The next step is the development of recommendations and specifications, how to design CAN FD networks.
ONLINE EXTRAS

(Click on the headlines below, or search www.controleng.com.)

Securing industrial wireless networks

The information ages arrival in manufacturing is significant not only for what data you can access in
your manufacturing operations but also how you can access it.

Increasing plant-level awareness of the industrial network:


Extra answers from the webcast

Michael Vermeer, Panduit Corp. senior business development manager, speaker in this webcast,
answered additional questions after the Oct. 13, 2015, live presentation of Increasing Plant-level
Awareness of the Industrial Network.

The building blocks of IIoT

Clicking components together like Legos is one vision for how smarter factories will evolve.

Single part or multiple part operations:


Whats best for your company?

When multiple parts being machined at one operation at the same time is required for production rates,
that rate needs to be maintained throughout the series of operations that produces a complete part.

What employers want

Learn to balance both your technical and interpersonal skills to become a better employee and person.
www.controleng.com

CONTROL ENGINEERING NOVEMBER 2015 75

digital edition

EXCLUSIVE

Integrating cyber-physical
security into design
Visualizing the relevance of cyber-physical systems in applications provides
background for why new approaches to security are required.
Key
concepts
 Information technology (IT) and operations
technology (OT) need to
communicate better with
one another to prevent
potential attacks.
 Understanding the future
of cyber-physical systems
security will pay off in
terms of keeping a plant
safe.

t wasnt that long ago when a well-known


industrial control system (ICS) security professional was feeling down because of the
influx of information technology (IT) security people invading the industrial sector.
There are just too many people in here
now that dont know a PLC [programmable
logic controller] from a solenoid trying to offer
advice to people who want to do the right thing.
But these people dont know how to separate
fact from fiction, the pro said.

Who could disagree?

While the IT-OT schism remains an immediate cause for concern, after attending the mainly
IT-centric Blackhat USA 2015 security conference a couple of weeks ago, it appears the IT
side of the house wants to start understanding
the importance and differences of what industrial security is all about. The level of importance
for securing the critical infrastructure keeps
rising every day, and the more intelligence the
IT environment gets about the operations technology (OT) side, the better off all manufacturing automation companies will be. After all, IT
does have an excellent track record for security,
and they have been at it for quite a while, albeit
from a different angle.

IT security professionals need to know the


importance of availability. They need to know the
system cannot go down for a couple of hours to
work on a few things. They have to stay up and
running for years at a time in some cases.

Yes, IT security professionals need to know


the importance of availability. They need to
know the system cannot go down for a couple of
hours to work on a few things. They have to stay
up and running for years at a time in some cases.
There was a glimmer of hope, though. At the
preconference event by Invincea, Kim Zetter,
author of Countdown to Zero Day, and Vikram
Thakur, a senior researcher from Symantec,
DE-1

NOVEMBER 2015 CONTROL ENGINEERING www.controleng.com

discussed the importance of the Stuxnet attack


and what it all meant. Granted the talk had an
IT slant and didnt really get into the importance
of breaking into a nuclear plants control system,
but the panelists did have a long discussion about
the attack.
Whether anyone agreed or disagreed with
the panelists, it was clearly a shout out for the
industrial control system environment.
Chemical plant hack

Then there was a talk on how to break into a


chemical plant.
Marina Krotofil, senior security consultant at
the European Network for Cyber Security, gave
a talk before a packed room titled, Rocking the
Pocketbook: Hacking Chemical Plants for Competition and Extortion.
The interesting thing is Krotofil gave a quick
basics course on the manufacturing automation
industry and the importance of keeping systems
up and running because of the dangerous possibilities of a successful hack.
Understanding the future of cyber-physical
systems security will pay off in terms of keeping a plant safe, Krotofil said.
Another talk focused on Globalstar satellite
transmissions used to monitor water pipelines
and drilling applications for oil and gas that can
end up compromised to alter messages.
Hackers can inject data into systems. These
are 20-year-old systems built before security
was thought of, said Colby Moore, a security
researcher at Synack. Sound familiar?
In these old systems, There is no encryption
and everything is done in plain text, Moore
said. That may have been the case years ago,
but there is no excuse today.
From oil and gas devices to tracking fleets to
consumer products, there are millions of devices deployed, Moore said.

Shamoon revisited

Another talk focused on Shamoon, the brutal


attack that took down 35,000 computers at oil
giant Saudi Aramco in 2012.

For those who dont remember, Shamoon


was a computer virus that attacked computers
running Microsoft Windows. Shamoon was
capable of spreading to other computers on the
network, through exploitation of shared hard
drives. Once a system suffered infection, the
virus continued to compile a list of files from
specific locations on the system, erased files,
and then sent information about the files back
to the attacker.
Virus overwrites master boot record

Finally, the virus overwrote the master boot


record of the system to prevent it from booting.
Saudi Aramco, RasGas, and SAFCO all fell victim to the attack. It was a two-pronged attack
during Ramadan, Christina Kubecka said. Over
half of Microsoft Windows systems were affected, and the virus corrupted 35,000 systems.
Kubecka, who gave the Shamoon talk titled,
How to Implement IT Security after a Meltdown, really focused on the IT side, but also
understood the differences between IT and OT.
What IT doesnt understand is a power
plant cant do a quick reboot to start the sys-

tem, she said. ICS was separated (during the


attack), and that was fantastic.
While Saudi Aramcos production did not
suffer from the attack, the aftermath was a
problem for the entire country.
Tanker trucks were lined up for miles waiting to get refined gasoline, Kubecka said.
Seventeen days after the attack there were
gasoline shortages around Saudi Arabia. ICS
and IT networks remained isolated. There were
no e-mails, no phones, and no fax machines.
Are IT and OT on the same page? No way.
But they are in the same book. That is a positive that came out of the conference. While
there will still be doubters and naysayers about
IT working in the ICS spaceand it will take
years to get on the same pagethere remains
hope IT and OT will be able to forge a good
working relationship.ce
- Gregory Hale is the editor and founder
of Industrial Safety and Security Source (ISSSource). ISSSource is a CFE Media content
partner. Edited by Joy Chang, digital project
manager, CFE Media, jchang@cfemedia.com.

Go Online
Read more at the cyber
security channel, under networks and security:
www.controleng.com

Consider this...
What other measures
can you take to prevent
a potential cyber security
attack?

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digital edition

EXCLUSIVE

Webcast answers:

The coming changes


to standard Ethernet
Questions and answers follow related to The coming
changes to standard Ethernet Webcast. Additional audience questions provide
added advice about topics such as the Internet of Things (IoT), standardization,
and Time Sensitive Networking (TSN).
Key
concepts
 A Webcast explained
about an IEEE standards
effort to add significant
deterministic, high-speed
capabilities to Ethernet.
 This Time Sensitive
Networking (TSN) Ethernet
may simplify industrial
communications.

dditional answers related to the The


coming changes to standard Ethernet: Industrial IoT convergence with
the control system webcast are
provided below. Todd Walter, National Instruments, AVnu Alliance Industrial segment chair
and board of directors provided answers.
Q: What has changed between
AVB and TSN?

ing and production models where data can be


shared more flexibly between layers of the control system and where technology for Internet
of Things (IoT) can be applied into production
environments.
Q: Why so much buzz about industry 4.0
and industrial IoT? Isnt this stuff us automation people have been doing for a long
time? a) Is this truly something new? b)
What will make industrial IoT really viable
from a customer benefit perspective?

Todd Walter: Standard Ethernet continues to


expand its range, functionality, and applications with the Audio Video Bridging (AVB) Walter: The IoT covers a very large set of applistandard evolving into Time Sensitive Net- cations and markets. To help clarify, I find it
working (TSN) to enable next generation con- useful to subdivide the discussion into consumer IoT and Industrial IoT
trol systems. TSN builds
(IIoT). For the IIoT or Indusupon the AVB specifications
TSN promises,
try 4.0, there is currently a
to expand the range, funclot of development and a lot
tionality, and applications of
through standard
of deployment. Industrial
the standard. TSN is the new
silicon, to converge
processes have been intername for the same IEEE
connected with embedded
802.1 task group that develthe previously
decision making for decades.
oped AVB. The new capadisparate technologies
The IIoT is giving engibilities of TSN provide the
neers who are building and
industrial community with
needed for standard,
maintaining these systems
the ability to use standard
deterministic, higha greater variety of options
Ethernet to support highly
speed Ethernet
and better data visibility
reliable and precise synchrowhen they are maintaining
nized networking appropricommunications.
the processes. We are seeing
ate for industrial control.
the fastest adoption in areas
TSN promises, through
standard silicon, to converge the previously of industrial monitoring where new options for
disparate technologies needed for standard sensing and data analytics can help with preEthernet communication, for deterministic dictive maintenance. We are also seeing investhigh-speed data transfer, and for high accura- ment in new control applications for power
cy time synchronization. These developments grid, micro-grid, and smart city infrastructure.
With pending new capabilities for standard
will allow convergence of low latency control traffic and standard Ethernet traffic on the Ethernet, we are expecting IIoT adoption for
same network for demanding applications like control applications to ramp up quickly. Develmulti-axis motion control. They will provide opments to standard Ethernet will create a coma foundation for more advanced manufactur- mon foundation that will impact numerous

DE-3

NOVEMBER 2015 CONTROL ENGINEERING www.controleng.com

applications and markets ranging from machine


control and asset monitoring to outfitting test
cells and vehicle control.
Q: Is there a trend to standardization of
industrial Ethernet? a) How to simplify IoT
connectivity b) How to achieve full standardization for interconnectivity of parts? c)
Ecosystem: There will be a need for application software to handle schedule distribution, establishing redundant paths, etc.;
where will this ecosystem come from?
Walter: Many industries have invested heavily in the creation of protocols and standards
for their applications. Many of these focus on
vertically specific features such as data encapsulation and device profiles which may be difficult to merge into one universal standard. For
instance, it would be technically challenging to
fully merge the capabilities of a power grid protocol such as IEC 61850 with the streaming and
performance of the GigE Vision standard.
AVnu Alliances expectation and hope for
IIoT is that we will create a common foundation

for data transport and secure connection between


devices that thin application protocols can run on
top. This type of layered approach, with common
infrastructure and shared services, is how the IT
industry is built today, and it provides both high
coexistence/interoperability and mechanisms for
optimization and innovation. ce
- Edited by Peter Welander, content specialist, CFE Media, Control Engineering,
pwelander@cfemedia.com.

Go Online
For more information on these topics, read the online version and download The coming changes to standard Ethernet: Industrial IoT convergence with the control system
webcast at www.controleng.com/webcasts.

Consider this...
Would one standards-based Ethernet that could replace
multiple Ethernet protocols or other networks help to
simplify industrial communications?

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digital edition

EXCLUSIVE

CAN
FD:
from theory to practice
The international standardization of CAN Flexible-Data Rate (FD) is settled.
The next step is the development of recommendations and specifications,
or how to design CAN FD networks.

Key
concepts
 The CAN FD data link
layer soon will be published as the ISO 11898-1
standard.
 Longer data frames will
be available for communications.
 Future work is underway
for implementations.

he CAN Flexible-Data Rate (FD)


data link layer submitted to the international organization for standardization (ISO) has passed the Draft
International Standard (DIS) balloting without
negative votes. This means, after implementing
the observed comments, the ISO 11898-1 standard will be published. More than 100 comments, mainly of editorial nature, are already
observed and implemented. Now, it is just a
matter of time, for the ISO 11898-1 document
to be published as the International Standard.
This standard also specifies a part of the
physical layer, the physical coding sub-layer,
according to the open system interconnection
(OSI) reference model. The CAN FD physical

media attachment (PMA) sub-layer describing


the transceiver characteristics is internationally
standardized in ISO 11898-2. This document has
been submitted for DIS balloting. It also comprises the optional low-power mode (formerly in
ISO 11898-5) and the optional selective wakeup functionality (formerly in ISO 11898-6).
System-related specifications have been deleted.
The new ISO 11898-2 standard specifies just the
transceiver characteristics. The physical media
dependent sub-layer is not in the scope of ISO
11898 series. It is highly application-specific
and might be specified by other ISO standards or
other associations (such as CiA, IEC, or SAE).
ISO also standardizes the conformance
test plans for ISO 11898-1 and ISO 118982 implementations. The related
standards, ISO 16845-1 and ISO
16845-2 are under development.
ISO 16845-1 has been submitted
for DIS balloting, and ISO 168452 is in committee draft (CD) voting. The test houses C & S Group
and IHR are already developing
conformance test prototypes. Most
of the automotive chipmakers are
in the process to integrate CAN
FD cores into their micro-controllers. Many of them have licensed
the IP module from Bosch. There
are also several vendors providing a self-implemented CAN FD
ASIC/FPGA. Engineering samples
of CAN high-speed transceivers
qualified for 2 Mbit/s and 5 Mbit/s
are already available from several
companies.

Figure 1: The CAN data link and physical sub-layers are standardized in the ISO 11898
series with the AUI as interface (TxD and RxD) between a CAN controller and transceiver
and the MDI as interface between transceiver and bus-wires. All graphics courtesy:
CAN in Automation (CiA)
DE-5

NOVEMBER 2015 CONTROL ENGINEERING www.controleng.com

Next: Using longer data


frames

The standardization of the CAN


FD data link layer and physical

Figure 2: The proposed


protocol structure for
commercial vehicles
complies with Autosar
(Source: CiA 602-2).

layer is settled. Even the first higher layer protocols (transport layer and application layer)
make use of the longer CAN FD data frames.
This includes the so-called ISO transport layer
as standardized in ISO 17765-2. The first implementations by Vector and Volkswagen were
tested in October during a CAN FD plugfest
organized by CAN in Automation (CiA). Also
the XCP calibration protocol version 1.2 specified by the nonprofit ASAM association makes
use of the 64-byte data fields. The automotive
open system architecture (Autosar) version 4.2.1
also supports CAN FD.
The CiA CANopen special interest group
(SIG) application layer currently develops the
CiA 301 version 5.0, which will be based on the
CAN FD data link layer. Most of the CANopen
protocols will remain as they are for more than
20 years. However, the public domain operating
system (PDOS) will be prolonged to 64 bytes.
The number of mapping entries will be still 64.
This means it is not possible to map more than
8 byte bit-wise. Byte-wise mapping is preferred.
The bigger change regards the SDO protocol.
It will be completely changed: The Universal SDO protocol will be structured better and
will be easier to implement. It is still under
development.
The SAE is discussing, in its J1939 CAN

FD task force, how to make use of the longer


frames. In parallel, the CiA IG (interest group)
commercial vehicles prepare the CiA 602-2
application layer proposing a mapping of J193971 parameter groups into CAN FD data frames.
It provides an optional safety/security field.
The CAN identifier contains the source address
as specified in SAE J1939-21. It is intended to
reuse the 8-byte parameter groups as specified in
J1939-71. In the future, longer or shorter parameter groups could be specified and mapped into
frames as specified in CiA 602-2.
Design a physical CAN FD network

Specifying higher layer protocols using the


longer CAN FD frames is simple compared to
the design of physical networks with transmission speeds higher than 1 Mbit/s. Do not underestimate the challenges in designing multidrop
networks running at higher bit-rates. Already 1
Mbit/s is a challenge. The automotive industry
has not used Classical CAN networks with the
maximum bit-rate in cars and trucks. Some truck
makers use 667 Mbit/s, or even 800 kbit/s.
If two nodes communicate and all physical
layer elements (input/output (I/O) ports, connectors, cable, etc.) provide an impedance matching to the termination at both ends, there are no
disturbances on the bus-lines. Of course, the
www.controleng.com

Specifying higher
layer protocols
using the longer
CAN FD frames is
simple compared
to the design of
physical networks
with transmission
speeds higher
than 1 Mbit/s.

CONTROL ENGINEERING NOVEMBER 2015 DE-6

digital edition

EXCLUSIVE
network will need connectors and cables. The
limitation is just the speed of light, or more precisely, the maximum speed of electrical pulses
in the cable. Theoretically, you can reach 10
Mbit/s at about 100 m.
If there are more nodes communicating,
things become more complex. In theory, busline topologies terminated at both ends with
very short unterminated stubs are the optimum.
Star and hybrid topologies are more challenging, increasingly with higher bit rates. From
first experiences, star topologies with just a few
branches are possibly running with 2 Mbit/s. In
this case, the star center should be terminated
with two 30- resistors.
Topology is just one topic when designing
a physical CAN FD network. It all starts with
the tolerance of the CAN controllers oscillator. The ISO 11898-1 standard provides five
requirements, which you have to meet when
calculating the allowed tolerance of the oscil-

Figure 3: Sampling of a recessive bit at the transmitting node with and without TDC (Source: CiA 601-1).

Figure 4: The ringing suppression circuitry specified in CiA 601-4 can be


integrated into ISO 11898-2 compliant transceivers or can be used as a
stand-alone chip (Source: CiA 601-4).
DE-7

NOVEMBER 2015 CONTROL ENGINEERING www.controleng.com

lator. To make it simple: Up to transmission


speeds of 4 Mbit/s, the same tolerance as in
Classical CAN guarantees a robust communication. For higher speeds, more precise and more
expensive oscillators are needed. In any case, it
is specified in ISO 11898-1 that the frequency
of the oscillator shall be 80 MHz, 40 MHz, or
20 MHz. When the oscillator is implemented by
means of configurable cascaded phase locked
loop (PLL) circuitries, the user should take care
to configure them in a way that the tolerance
requirements are met.
Configuring the bit timing

Configuring the bit-timing is the next topic.


Of course, the configuration of the arbitration
bit-time is the very same as in Classical CAN.
You have to set the bit-rate prescaler, the propagation segment (always one time quantum), the
propagation and phase segment 1 (often just
one setting), the propagation segment 2, and the
synchronization jump-width. To
minimize the quantization error,
when switching to the higher bitrate, the number of time quanta
per bit should be large enough.
Boschs M-CAN module allows
385 time quanta per bit.
The detailed parameter setting for dedicated bit-rates is
not in the scope of ISO 11898-1.
CANopen FD (CiA 301 version
5.0) and CiA 602-1 (CAN FD
physical layer for commercial
vehicles) will provide such specifications for different bit-rates.
Also, SAE 2284-4 will specify
the CAN FD bit-timing for passenger cars as well as some other
details of the CAN FD physical layer design.
The document is still under development.
The data-phase bit timing, which is independent of the arbitration bit-timing, uses the same
parameters as mentioned above plus the transmitter delay compensations (TDC) and the TDC
offset. The CiA 601-1 CAN FD physical layer
design specification recommends the enabling
of the TDC function.
The CiA 601-1 document provides some physical layer design rules for CAN FD nodes. The
access is limited to CiA members. However, interested parties willing to review and comment on
the specification may request a personalized copy
from the CiA office. The confirmation of sample
points for both bit-rates should be the very same
in all nodes. This increases the robustness of the
communication. It is also recommended to configure the bit-timings with a resolution, meaning
the maximum possible number of time-quanta, in

order to reduce the quantization error. This leads to


an increased phase margin. CiA also recommends
using transceiver chips qualified for higher bitrates. They feature less asymmetry, which remains
more phase margin for the ringing caused by the
chosen topology and other physical layer effects.
The transceivers feature different loop delays
for the recessive-to-dominant and the dominantto-recessive transitions. The symmetry of these
two loop delays depends on the symmetry of
the internal transceiver delays and on the resistive and capacitive busload. The asymmetry of
the transceiver loop delay shortens or expands
the bit in the arbitration phase and the data
phase. Towards higher bit-rates, the symmetry
becomes more and more important. The ISO
11898-2 specifies minimum/maximum symmetry values for 2 Mbit/sec (-65 ns/+40 ns) and for
5 Mbit/s (-45 ns/+15 ns).
The symmetry of the RxD signal on the
receiving node is defined by the symmetry performance of the transmitting and receiving node.
To guarantee a robust communication between
two or more nodes in a network, the transceiver Tx delay symmetry of the transmitting
node and the transceiver Rx delay symmetry of
the receiving node must be very accurate. The
loop delay symmetry cannot cover this in total.
It is possible that one device in the network has
a transceiver with a very symmetric transmitter part and an asymmetric receiver part. The
behavior of a transceiver from another supplier
may behave vice versa. Therefore, in the CiA
601-1 specification, additional parameters were
defined for the transmitter and receiver symmetry
(e.g. tREC(RxD)min = 110 ns and tREC(RxD)max =
225 ns for 5 Mbit/sec).
The document also describes how to calculate the jitter-bit length seen by the receiving
node. These values consider only the influence
of the transceiver. Additional effects such as
clock tolerance and the phase shift of the network are discussed in /CiA601-3/, which is still
under development.
The phase margin depends also on the oscillator frequency and some nonbit-rate reasons.
This includes the bit asymmetry caused by the
transceiver and other physical layer elements
and the unstable RxD signal caused by the ringing. The ringing on the bus lines comes from the
used bus topology.
Network designers should also consider
temperature-depend effects. For example, the
isolation material of cables can change the
impedance depending on the temperature. In the
CiA 602-1 CAN FD physical layer specification for commercial vehicles, it is not recom-

mended to use PVC


cables. Asymmetric,
printed circuit board
(PCB) layouts or connectors can also cause
ringing.
Therefore,
the CiA 602-1 specification for CAN FD
physical interface for
commercial vehicles
proposes that the
untwisted length of
the wire in the area
should be as short as
possible (in maximum
50 mm).
There are more recommendations given regarding electrical connector
parameters. Even the pinning of angular connectors is an issue at higher bit-rates. The CAN_H and
CAN_L pins should have the same length.
To suppress ringing in star and hybrid topologies, special circuitries could be used. Densos
has submitted its ringing suppression technology to CiA for standardization and submission
to ISO. It is described in CiA 601-4, which is
under development. The basic idea is to change
the impedance of some nodes dynamically. It is
switched on for a short part of the bit-time and
then switched-off again. In CiA 601-4, the maximum start time is specified with 50 ns and the
end-time between 200 ns and 410 ns.
General Motors prefers another solution:
a bus-line topology with all nodes terminated
locally. In March 2015, the intended GM wiring
harness was tested successfully during the CAN
FD plugfest in Detroit organized by CiA. GM
likes to use 24-m, bus-line networks with 20
nodes and not terminated stub-lines. The maximum stub-line is 1.7 m.

Figure 5: Typical interface of engine control


units (ECUs) for commercial trucks as proposed in CiA 602-1 (C1
= 100 nF).

More experiences are necessary

CiA will organize the next CAN FD plugfest,


when new products are launched or additional
network approaches are submitted for testing.
Additionally, CiA will collect experiences and
organize the exchange of knowledge within the
IG CAN FD and the IG commercial vehicles.
Additional participants are welcome. CAN
FD Tech Days update newcomers with Classical CAN background in CAN FD technology.
Several papers related to CAN FD topics were
presented at the 15th international CAN Conference in Vienna on Oct. 27 and 28. ce
- Holger Zeltwanger is managing director,
CAN in Automation, a CFE Media content partner. Edited by Joy Chang, digital project manager, CFE Media, jchang@cfemedia.com.
www.controleng.com

Go Online
See related articlse from CiA
online at:
www.controleng.com

Consider this...
Can volunteering on standards committees give you
company an advantage
with implementation?

CONTROL ENGINEERING NOVEMBER 2015 DE-8

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Guidelines Overview
Content For Engineers. Thats what CFE
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We welcome content submissions for all
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CONTROL ENGINEERING NOVEMBER 2015 79

back to

BASICS

Wireless intrusion detection


and protection systems
Keeping a wireless network safe from attack from unauthorized users requires vigilence
and the right software strategy. See more wireless tutorials online.
Key
concepts
 WIDS and WIPS are used
to continuously protect a
wireless network.
 WIDS and WIPS operate
24/7 and generally require
no management or admin
involvement.
 While useful, WIDS and
WIPS is only as good as
the security network and
the people operating that
network.

Go Online
Read more than 40 wireless tutorials from Daniel
Capano:
www.controleng.com/blogs

Consider this...
What else can you use on
top of a WIDS and WIPS to
enhance your cyber security network?
80

ireless intrusion detection systems


(WIDS) and wireless intrusion protection systems (WIPS) are used
to continuously protect a wireless
network and in some cases, a wired network, from
unauthorized users. In a WIDS, a system of sensors is used to monitor the network for the intrusion of unauthorized devices, such as rogue access
points. In a WIPS, the system detects unauthorized
devices and takes steps to mitigate the threat by
containing the device and detaching it from the
wireless network.
WIDS and WIPS operate 24/7 and generally
require no management or admin involvement.
They constantly guard the wireless local area network (WLAN) and listen to all radio traffic within
the WLANs operating frequencies. WIDS and
WIPS have similarities, and most systems currently available act as a WIPS because they are
designed to detect and prevent wireless intrusion.
A typical WIPS has three components: a server,
a management console, and distributed sensors.
The WIPS server can be hardware- or softwarebased. The server performs system management
and configuration tasks, signature, behavior and
protocol analysis, and radio frequency (RF) spectrum analysis to detect intrusion.
Signature analysis monitors traffic for patterns
associated with known attacks, such as denial of
service (DoS) and man-in-the-middle attacks.
Behavior analysis looks for anomalies in message behavior such as the use of purposefully malformed management frames that allow an attacker
to observe the networks resulting behavior. This
behavior may reveal flaws in security or application programming that would allow intrusion.
While signature analysis looks for known attack
patterns, behavioral analysis looks for anomalous
patterns that could indicate a new attack. Behavioral analysis also compares historical usage metrics
to anomalous traffic to indicate unusual traffic that
may be an attempt to probe vulnerable systems.
Protocol analysis is used to inspect and disassemble layer-2 informationthe MAC protocol
data unit (MPDU)to discover anomalies in the
frame header and trailer. Protocol analysis is also
used to dissect the data in Layer 3 to 7 in the frame

NOVEMBER 2015 CONTROL ENGINEERING www.controleng.com

body, which contains the payload. This is referred


to as the MAC service data unit (MSDU). MPDU
and MSDU data are analyzed for spurious data
that could be leveraged to compromise the system
security or medium arbitration functions.
WIPS architecture types

There are three types of WIPS architecture


defined as of this writing: overlay, integrated, and
integration-enabled.
Overlay systems use independent and dedicated sensors to monitor the spectrum continuously
on the 2.4- and 5-GHz bands. The sensors do not
provide any WLAN connectivity; they operate in
the background monitoring all system traffic. This
approach is applicable to independent access point
(AP) systems and to controller-based systems and
requires additional cost for sensors apart from the
APs. An overlay system is well suited for integration into existing or older systems.
Integrated systems usually are controller-based
systems employing thin or lightweight APs, which
are used as WIDS/WIPS sensors, as well as providing their primary communication function. This
function is integrated into the overall communication system regimen; the APs function alternately
as WIPS sensors and APs on a time-division basis.
It is possible to convert controller-based APs
into fulltime sensors, with the loss of WLAN
capabilities. While efficient and ultimately less
expensive than an overlay system, time division of
AP functionality can cause problems. An attacker
with the knowledge that a firm is using part-time
sensors can launch an attack brief enough to fall
between the times the AP is scanning.
Depending on the sophistication of the WIDS/
WIPS, continuous monitoring and/or intruder mitigation is available, and there are systems to fit all
budgets and levels. WIPS requires more sophistication, capabilities, and expense; a full site survey
should be completed before deployment. ce
- Daniel E. Capano, owner and president,
Diversified Technical Services Inc. of Stamford,
Conn., is a certified wireless network administrator (CWNA); dcapano@sbcglobal.net. Edited
by Chris Vavra, production editor, CFE Media,
Control Engineering, cvavra@cfemedia.com.

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