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SECTION B.

2
REPORT BY CEMENT LINING CONSULTANTS LTD.

CEMENT LINING CONSULTANTS LTD.

Cement Mortar Lining Maintains


Thickness, Surface Profile and
Healing Quality for Long Term

Typical characteristics of cement mortar lining are shown in the


attached photo. A 27 year old SWCC lining retains 13 mm lining
thickness; retains smooth lining surface; cracks caused during
installation have healed autogenously; there is no metal loss of the steel
pipe.

Taken From
AUTOGENOUS HEALING OF CEMENT PASTE
by
Kenneth R. Lauer and Floyd O. Slate
"The hypothesis of the formation of the calcium carbonate crystals is that the free
calcium oxide in the cement-, and the calcium hydroxide liberated by the hydration
of the tricalcium silicate of the cement, is carbonated by the carbon dioxide in the
surrounding air and water. The carbon dioxide reacts with a solution of calcium
hydroxide on the surfaces of the cracks. As the concentration of calcium
hydroxide is reduced at the surfaces, more will migrate from the interior of the
paste. Likewise, as the concentration of the soluble carbonates and bicarbonates
(furnishing the carbon dioxide) is reduced in the crack, more will diffuse in from
the water phase. Calcium carbonate crystals precipitate and grow out from the
surfaces of the cracks. The rate of diffusion of the carbonates is much greater into
the crack than into the solid, relatively nonporous paste; therefore, the calcium
carbonate crystals accumulate in the crack and on the exposed surfaces of the
specimen. The strength developed may be caused by the mechanical
interpenetration of the crystals and the surface of the paste, by the Interlacing of
crystals, by their twinning, and by the establishment of polar and Van del Waal
forces between the crystals and the surfaces of the paste and aggregate.
The availability of calcium hydroxide for centers of crystallization and of carbon
dioxide for carbonation must control the resulting crystal growth. Water will
provide a much higher concentration of carbon dioxide, both as a dissolved gas
and as a bicarbonate solution, than an atmosphere of 95 percent relative
humidity, where the amount of available carbon dioxide will be limited to that
dissolved in surface films of water ..........

CEMENT LINING CONSULTANTS LTD.

CONDITION OF RAYMOND CENTRILINE


LINING ON SWCC JUBAIL ROYAL COMMISSION
PIPELINE AGE 27 YEARS @ SEPT. 2006

(Note autogenous healing of cracks)

CEMENT LINING CONSULTANTS LTD.

FBE LINING IS ONLY A THIN MECHANICAL


BARRIER. PINHOLES, CRACKS OR SCRATCHES
TO THE FBE LINING WILL NOT AUTOGENEOUS
HEAL CORROSION WILL RAPIDLY SPREAD
LEADING TO METAL LOSS, CORROSION LAKES
AND EVENTUALLY LEAKS.

CEMENT LINING CONSULTANTS LTD.


FAILED FBE COATING