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^Vi OF PRIWCf^gv.

BX 8915

.W5

THE

WORKS
or

JOHN WITH ERSPOOx\,

D. D.

SOMETIME MISISTES OF THE GOSPEL AT PAISLEY, AND LAT


PBESIDZNT OF PfilXCETOlf COLLEGE, IN

NEW

JERSEY.

COSTTAINING

ESSATS, SERMONS,

&c.

ON

niPORTANT SUBJECTS

INTENDED TO ILLUSTRATE AND ESTABLISH THE DOCTRINE O?


SALVATION BY GRACE, AND TO POINT OUT ITS
INFLUENCE ON HOLINESS OF LIFE.

TOGETHER WITH HIS

LECTURES ON MORAL PHILOSOPHY,


ELOQUENCE AND DIVINITY;
HIS SPEECHES IN

THE

AIVIERICAN CONGRESS;

AND MANY OTHEP^ VALUABLE

PIECES,

NEVER BEFORE

PUBLISHED IN THIS COUNTRY.

VOL. VIIL

EDINBURGH
TRIMTED FOR J. OGLE, PARLIAMENT-SQUARE J M. OGLEj
GLASGOW } OGLES, DUNCAN, & COCHRAN, LONDONJ

AND

T, JOHNSTON,

1815.

DUBLIN.

CONTENTS
OF

VOLUME

VIII.

Lectures on Divinity.
Pas*
Lelure

I.

II.

Preliminary,

tion of aMinifter,

III.

Learning, an important qualifica-

The

i8

Truth of the Chriftian Reli-

gion,

27

The fame fubjea continued,


33
43
The fame fubjeft continued,
55
VI. The fame fubjed continued,
63
VII. The fame fubjed continued,
71
VIII. The fame fubjed continued,
80
Trinity,
the
of
doftrine
IX. Of the
continued,
89
X. The fame fubjed
94
XI. The fame fubjed continued,
97
XII. Of the Decrees of God,
io5
XII J. The fame fubjed continued,
XIV. Of the Covenant of Works and
119
the Fall of Man,
demerit;
and
its
general,
XV. Of Sin in
and of Adual Sin, and its fcveIV.

V.

ral divifions,

ilS

^ U IN

Tl

1 r- IN

ID.
Pag,

Leaure XVI.

XVII.

Of the Covenant of Grace,


The fame fubjeft continued,

135

143

Letters on Education.
I.

165

IL

171

III.

181

IV.

190
201

Letter

V.
Letters on Marriage,
^

Letter

ai5

I.

II.

III.

Defence

234
in the

Synod of Glafgow, when accu-

fed of being the Author of the Ecclefiaftical


Charadteriftics,

An Humble
lity

246

Supplication to fuch of the Nobi-

and Gentry of Scotland as are Elders of

Church, and Members of the General


Affembly,
276
Speech in the General Affembly, on the Tranfthe

portation of

...

Dr C

zine,

Ignorance of the Britifh with refped to


rica,

283

Maga-

Letter fent to Scotland, for the Scots

293

Ame-

3^4

Addrefs to the Inhabitants of Jamaica, and


other Weft- India Iflands, in behalf of the

College of New-Jerfey,

308

LECTURES
ON

ID

LECTURE

TT
-*

young perfons determined

to the iludy of divinity.

that

f:

I.

very agreeable thinr to f^e a number of

is

I jv 1

We

to

apply themfelves

rnuM charitably hope

they are aauated by the nobleft principles

that they are reiolved

to devote their life

lents to the fervice of Chrift in the gofpel.

a good Mafter

not any
lent

inward

is

may have

confolation,

ferenity and peace,

illuftrious or

in

is

that

opu-

ofEce the

and very commonly

and as

enjoyment of

He

They have

liberty.

profpea of an

but they

fuid defirable

men

his f^zrvice

fiatteinrig

ftate

greateft

more

and ta-

much

this life,

as

of the real

any

clafs

of

v/liatever.

It is

altogether agreeable to the defigi, of this in-

f^itution,

to

have young

Vol. VIII.

men

of piety and ability

LECTURES OW

lO
fitted for

This

the public fervices of the churches.

was the very point

in

view with the worthy founders

whom

of this feminary, fome of


33 there

LesSl. I.

are yet alive

and

was never, perhaps, any feminary, the fap-,

port of which was more the efFecl of faith and de-

pendence upon God,

many

will honour

with employment

fo

be hoped that he

to

is

it

brought up

of the youth

in

it,

and fuccefs in his

in his vineyard

fervice.

If I

may

be allowed to fay any thing perfonal, I

incline to add, that

it is

peculiarly agreeable to

Nothing would give me a higher


ing inftrumental in furnifhing

proving the talents of thofe

me.

pleafure, than be-

tlie

minds, and im-

who may

hereafter be

the minifters of the everlading gofpel.

The hope

my

prefent fta-

of

it

tion.

is

indeed the chief comfort in

Notwithftanding the

many

er.couraging cir-

cumftances that haNre happened fince

my

arrival

here, and the evident fmiles of Providence upon the

College, yet

want

umfefs

have often regretted the

of a paftoral charge.

After having been for

twenty. three years conftantly employed in preaching the gofpel to a numerous, obedient, and aflectionate people, to be

employed

in a

way

of

life fo

confiderably different, muil have created fome unJuil

cafinefs.

been

fo

figure

to

long accuftomed

yourfelves, one
to preach to a

tliat

had

crowded au-

dience of from twelve to fifteen hundred fouls every

day, and
difcipline

all
;

fubje(?l:

now

to

to

my

private

overfight and

have fuch a thin and negligent

afiembly, and moftly compofed of thofe

who

trink

themfelves under no obi ;ation to^attend but when

they pleafe.

In fuch a iituation the fphere of ufe-

narrowed

fulnefs feems to be greatly

made

mortified

me
to

in

am

and dlfcernment expreffe'i

Britain

the

fee

if I

be an ample recompenfe.

will

it

as one of great zeal

hinafelf to

but

in fending out faithful labourers

inftrumental

into the harvelt,

For

It

DIVINITY.

Le<ft. I.

You

*'

will be greatly

between a fmall

difference

country fociety in America, and a large city congregation in Scotland


in

but

you be inflrumental

if

fending out minifters of the

into the great and leading

before
in

your

my

lludies,

ture

to have iliU

may

be exprefied

to unite together piety

may

pofition

mean

I defire

This

and

and

litera-

and their influence

to fliew their relation to,

one upon another


that

I chieily

view which you ought to

and which

eyes in teaching.

one fentence

what

endeavour to bring you to enter

to repeat, and

in

it

for every

a legion."

is

In this preliminary difcourfe,

have

Teflament,

a Hill more important ilation,

will be

gownfman
is

New

to guard againft

any thing

them in opof more confe-

tend to feparate them, and fet

This

one to another.

is

quence, and indeed of more diinculty than perhaps

you

will as yet be able to

however, has taught


tant light.

Some

me

is

better

view

it

in a

^experience,

moft impor-

perfons truly, and perhaps emi-

nently pious, from an

gion

to

apprehend

than

all

inward conviclion that

reli-

the learning in the world

and perhaps obferving that

ill-

principled

perfons,

more learning they have, are the more dangerous


have come to defpife learning itfelf,
to the trut-li
as if the natural talent was to blame for the moral
depravity.
Of thi)fe who profefs religion, feme
the

alfo,

from a forward

zeal^ are

impatient to

begin

LECTURES ON

12
tlie

they are

miuiilrj' before

Le(5l. I,

the charge.

for

fitted

infeniible to the hurt

Such perfons are often quite

how much

they do to the intereft of religion, and

manner of
On the other hand, there are fome

God by

they injure the truths of


handling them.

who

proaiiled very well in early

with vigour

their

but applying

life,

aiid fuccefs to their ftudies,

became too

much enamouied with human wifdom, and thought


themielvc3 fuch' great fcholars that they were too

proud
il

Intelledual pride

to be Chriftians.

we

-ps as dangerous a dillemper as any

per-

is

are liable

have often thought that great natural

abili-

ro.

ties,

and great acquired knowledge, operate as a

way

temptation, in a
ternal property

the

intoxicate

to

produce felf-fufficiency and contempt of

mifid, to

others, and to take


is

wealth or ex-

limilar to great

they are apt

away from

that humility

which

the greateO: beauty, or, if the expreliion be pro-

per, the real glory, of a Chriftian.


fore begin,

by

clear views of the

importance both of piety and

and never

literature,

fufFer

Piety, without literature,


learning, without piety,

IJMP-

and

al],

as

we

is

is

them

but

are

little

men

It is

however

fentially necelTary for a miniflcr.

that

it is

vifible

tho

divided.

profitable;

is

and

the grand con-

whatever be our
our fouls

profeflion, the falvation of

one thing needful.

be

to

pernicious to others, and

Religion

ruinous to the polTeffor.


cern to us

would thereyou to keep

earneftly befeeching

further,
1

cal-

is

the

and ef-

do not mean

ueceiTary to the being of a minifler in the

church, or to the cfllcacy of the ordinances of

o-ofpel

to

who

thofe

properly fpeaking,

receive

them.

This

ii?,

Popifh tenet, againfl whicli

Led.

BiviNliy.

1.

there

a queflion in the Shorter Catechifm cx-

is

prefsly levelled

Row

*'

efFe6luaI to falvation

do the facraments become

The

facraments (and

it

mud

be equally true of every other ordinance) become


effedual to falvation," &:c.

have gone into

Some weak

this miftake,

and have

enthufiafts

faid

it is

as

impofiible for an imconverted miniHer to convcr| a


foul,

as for a

fimilitude

man

dead

to beget a living child.

no argument

is

bat only an illuftration,


la this cafe
the

it is

if

by any means

grace,

proper to employ.

it is

that the

God

the neceflity ofreligion in


It

is

cer-

necedary, in the moft abfolute fenfe, to the

faithful difcharge of a minifter^s truft

fame reafon,
fuccefs.

it

True

and turn into

religion feems to

its

and for the

of the greateil importance to his

is

knowledge which

may

that

of grace fees

a minlfter, v/hen properly underftood.


t^inlj^

neither

But, on the other hand, this

away from

takes nothing

for

;.

unconverted miniller

but the power of omnipotent

the foul,

Cvonverts

the thing itfelf be juft.

wholly mifapplied

converted nor the

at all, properly fpeaklng,

give a

nrjan

that

proper for a minifter to direct

is

proper channel the knowledge he

olherwife acquire.

It

feems necefiary to

make

a minifter adive and diligent, upright and impartial^

happy and

On

this

fucceisful.

fubjed

muil give you the following

particular advices.
I.

Do

not content you.rfelves barely with found

principles,

much

lefs

turn religion into Gontroverfy^

but feek for inward vital comfort, to

you have

know

in

whom

and endeavour after the greateP

believed;,
.

B3

LECTJRE3

14

When

and tendernefs of pradice.

ftri6lnefs

you

Lel. r.

ON-

inward

to look for

vital comfort,

defirs

do not mean

you fhould wholly fufpend your pteparationj

that

for the miniftry, or immediately lay afide thoughts

of

becaufe you have not

it,

clearnefs and

(late,

that

you.

There

both defire and endeavour to attain.

fliould
is

all that

own

concerning your

Satisfaction

hardly any principle fo good, or any fo clear, but


wit-hin the reach of temptations,

it is

being
that

and capable of

Some being deeply convinced


dreadful thing to preach an unknown

perverted.
a

is

it

Saviour, and not feeing reafon to be wholly fatisfied

with themfelves, have been thrown into doubts, and


embaraiied with fcruples, and have given up wholly
that facred office, to

which they feemed both

ned and called

feems to be taking a very un-

this

happy, and a very blameable courfe.

had excited them to give


ci'iing

and election

it

all

minidry only on

diligence to

afide

cc not hope ever to be better.

much

the thoughts- of
carrj^ in

do not intend, or

It is certainly to

man

it

he die

in

an

will bring but little comfort.

would have you upon

if

this fubjedl to obferve, that

Tcal Chriftians have very different degrees of

care

the

of fome other pro-

but to the perfon himfelf,

ri'ii:;newed nate,

fort,

their

greater calamity that there fnould be

.-bad minilter, than a bad


i'.'Jion

make

feems to

this account,

a fuppofition, that they either

jublij a

If fuch fears

they would have been pro-

But laying

perly improved.
7.-e

fure,

incli-

com-

we examine the facred oracles with


and accuracy, we fhall find that what is termed
and that

Uiilirance,
"^

is
13

if

jufl the grace of

hope

in lively exer-

called the aliiiiance of hope,

Heb.

vi. 3.

DIVINITY.

Lccl. I.

15

as well as elfewhere, arid as every real bellcv^er has

fome degree of hope, which makes him


rely on Ghrift alone for falvation, as he

is

the gofpel, fo perhaps there are not very

and

rell:

offered in

many who

have Uich a degree of ileady and firm aflhrance as


to

exclude

doubting.

all

that have taken

up

it

know

as a principle,

there are

fome

make

alTa-

and

rance, even in this reflex fenie, the eflence of faith

but when
ology

it

comes

itfelf,

do not

to experience, except the phrafe-

they

find

differ

much from

others.

mentioned to you particularly, flridnefs and

This

tendernefs of practice.

ment, as the

fruit

is

of the utmoil

and evidence of

mo-

real religion.

All principles are valuable but as they produce

But

pratice.

of practice a
tendernefs
tare

where of
tender,"

little,

Kings

in

Jofiah

i>LC,

obferve, that the expreffion of

borrowed from that

is

foaird

and tendernefs

to explain flriftnefs

it

pafllige

**

it is faid,

lignifies a

of Scrip-

2 Chron.

xxli. 19.

iii.

4.

becaufe thine heart was

heart eafily fufceptible of

When

conviction, and obedient to reproof.

this is

applied to the carriage of one devoted to the fervice

of the miniftry,

think

watch fulnefs to difcover


tion to

obey the

to both.
in
is

2.

implies, i.

it

fin

The

ftricleft

and duty, and a difpoli-

didlates of confcience with refpedt

concern to avoid, not only what

itfelf direclly

and certainly

finful,

is

but whatever

but doubtful, according to the apoftolic dodrine,

" he that doubteth,"


ftain

&:c.

from lawful things,

3.
if

willingnefs to ab-

liable to exception,

or

likely to be matter of offence.


II.

fecond advice 1 w-6i>]d give

you upon

this

LECTURES ON

l6
fubjeft

that

is,

Le(5l. I.

you fhoald remember the impor^tance

of the cxercifes-of piety, and the duties of the

As

of clofet devotion
nefs,

his

clofet.

there are no forms of praj^er with us, the habit


is

neceffary to give a minifter ful-

This for

propriety, and fervency in prayer.

own

fake alfo he fhould attend to; for

it is

necef-

fary to the prefervation and improvement of the


fpiritual
flle

Pray v/ithout

life.

ceaiing,

fays the apo-

intimating that the very fpirit and temper of

upon God,

a believer f^iould be that of dependence

and deriving by faith from him every necelTary fupIn order to recommend

ply.
I

would obferve that

begun

in early life

inftances

it is

particularly to ycu,

it

peculiarly neceffary to be

perhaps there are few,

if

fervour in devotion, or attention to the duty of

advanced years, than they had


are

many

improve

meeknefs and humility,

ment,

in attention to

ciple,

in

it,

in

There

aged,^ if a real

he will improve

prudence and judg-

in

Providence,

in

purity of prin-

fubmilTion to the divine will

in devotion

but fervour

muft be begun early, while the pallions

are ftrong, and continued


habit.

youth.

in

which an

particulars in

Chriftian, will ini'enfibly


in

any

of perfons coming to a gieater degree of

Perhaps you

by the power of reafon aud

may

think

it

of fmall

moment,

vet fome very judicious and experienced Chriiiiaiis

have given
ilridily

it

as

a rule

upon

this

fubjeft, to

be

puntual and regular in point of time, and

even place.
III.

Early

fix,

and ftudy under the infiuence of

thofe principles which

fliould

animate

all

ture labours, a concern for the glory of

love for the fouls of men.

your fu-

God, and ^

If thefe are the pii:.ci-

DIVINITY.

Left. I.

17

they will keep you from miflaking

pies of ftudj,

the way, and having taken early and deep root, they

more abundantly

will bring forth fruit

Living by faith

Keeping the whole fyftem of

thefe principles.

view, will (hew

vealed truth in

in after life.

extremely proper for cultivating

is

its

moment

re-

and

what is revealed concerning the eternal


condition of men, cannot fail to fill us with a con-

particularly

cern for their welfare.

IV. Be

diligent to acquire every neceflary qua-

and yet ftudy

lification,

This

them.

felf-

denial in the

ufe

of

one of the mofl importaiU, and, at

is

the fame time, one of the moil difficult attainments.


It is comparatively eafy to avoid vain, glory, if at

we

the fame time

But

to meditate

v^hoUy

to

indulge in floth and negligence.


thefe things, to give ourfelves

upon

them, for the glory of

of fouls, without having


this

felves,

greatell

excellence,

real

is

Form

diflFiCuIty.

God

and the good

view

to ferve our-

and here

lies

the

yourfelves to a true tafle

your capacity want no immay be more ufeful, but beware

and real knowledge

provement that

in

it

it

let

of fludying only to fhine.

V.
.

mod

Laftly,

making
the

Guard

againft the temptation that is

incident to your Hate and fuuation, particularly

the exercifes of piety and the ordinances ot

gofpel, matter of fcience and criticii'm, rather

than the means of edincation.


gin to learn

apt at

all

how

times

things ought

to,

When

(ludents be-

to be done,

be pafTmg their

they are

judgment of the

manner, indead of improving the matter of public


inflruclion ; not that it is poffible to be wholly inattentive

to

this,

but

let it

not carry

you

fo

much

LECTURES ON

l8
away,

as to hinder

Left. 1.

your teaching others as humble

them

Chrillianb, as well as difcouriing to

able

as

minifters.

LECTURE

LET

us

now

confider learning

qualification of a
after faying a

deavour
it

your

As

ing,

On

this fubje<^,

moment,

en-

1 lliall

you what branches of fludy

intereft to

greateft diligence.

its

an important

as

minifter.

few things on

to point out to

will be

li.

apply yourfeives to with

to the importance of learn-

there being no reafon for us in this age to ex-

pedt immediate or fupernatural revelation, the ac-

quiring a proper meafure of knowledge


application,

is

capacity are fufficient without this

by ftudy and

No

abfokitely necei^ar}^

or

parts

nay, fuch

the

is

wife order of Providence, that to improve a talent


is

to poflefs and fecure

There

fcarce

is

to negleft

to lofe

it.

any thing that a man could once

clo

ever fo well, but


lofe tlie faculty.

if

it

he lay

It

is

it is

afide the practice

he

v.ili

lamentable to think what a

poor s^d contemptible figure fome perfons make


advanced

life,

who had good

but fufFered them to

by

fenfuality and

ce{i\iTy to

ruft in floth,

felf-

Learning

is

ne-

keep the facred truths we are obliged

expofe

the

minirtry

cially a flumbllng bloik

to

Great weaknefs and infuf-

to thofe

perions of literature

and

even

contempt,

to

amongil the meaneft of the people

felves

in

from nature,

or to be blunted

indulgence.

handle from contempt.


ficiency

talents

but

who
tafle.

it is

are
It

efpe-

thcmis

ex-

Left.

DIVINITY.

2.

19

tremely difFxult for them to receive and

relifli

delivered in a mean, (loveniy manner.

Suppofe, tor

who

one

exanaple,

not fo

is

much

as feniible of the

fpeaking

groiTelt improprieties of ftyle,

things

hear-

in the

ing of perfons of rank, or of real knowledge


as

even a good man

and

not always wholly free from

is

vanity and atFeitation, fuppofe, too, that the fpeaker


fhould

difcourfe with high and

his

fvvell

only think

how

fuch perfons as
is

good, from

the attacks

would be the temptation

great

to

have mentioned, to neglect what

being mixed with what they fo

its

Learning

julUy defpife.

pompous

way fclentific terms

phrafes, or hard and out of the

alfo neceflary to repel

is

The

of adverfaries.

gofpel has never

been without Enemies, from without and from within

and as

make

the attack,

fome (houid be ready


ravel

it

is

learn-

neceflary that

meet them, and able

to

with which they

the fubtilty

deceive.

by means of human

ufuaily

it is

ing that they

lie in

to un-

wait to

have often thought that there was fome-

thing very admirable in the choice our Saviour

of his

firft

views upon

minifters,
this

to

fabjeft;

he chofe twelve
teach

were

illiterate

uiiited a^ainit his truths,

fiihermen,

us net to over- rate the

and led in after ages


der-rate

it,

he

ctiofe

we

more immediate
when the wife and

for the

manifeftation of divine povv^er,


great in the world

fliould

which (hould

wifdom of the wife;


be tempted to un-

one apoflle, able and learned,

and to him he gave the molf

fignal fuccefs,

he laboured more abundantly than them


honoured

to bf

th^r

made

us in adjufting our

affill

penman of

part of the code oi the

New

all,

fo that

and was

a very confiderable

Teftament.

LECTURES ON

20

But

me now

let

of ftudj

proceed to confider what branches

be your intereft to apply to with

will

it

the greateft diligence

with propriety,

and

am

{landing

and

more than

is

able to do this

you

the road,

direction

if his

will find

is

it

of

time upon

by

as well as

very wrong,

for his diflance is in-

lol^,

and his ilrength

creafed,

am

A traveller lofes

by going out of

flill

the time

if

pcriiiaded

the moft fignal fervice.


his journey

Lel. 2.

On

exhaufted.

is

this

be pleafed to attend to the following re-

fubjeifl:

marks.

There

its uTe.

If

no branch of

is

were

it

without

literature

poffible for a minifter to

be ac-

quainted with every branch of fcience, he would be

more fit for public ufefulnefs. The landerlianding


which God hath given us, and every objt<Sl; that he
hath prefented to

truly good

ufefulnefs,

may

it,

man

be improved to his glory.

grow both

does

in

by every new difcovery

him

ed,

acquired, and

therefore learning in general

alfo lay,

it

improved

holinefs and

that
is

to

made

is

and perhaps

were therefore good

to

be efleem-

if a iiiiniher

may

were a

perfon of extenfive knowledge.

But our time and

capacity are both limited, and

cannot do

we

could wiih.

On

Vv'e

all

neral, obferve, that reading a

few books well chofen,

and digelling them thoroughly, together with


frequent exercife of refitction, will

make

tiie

knowing

make what

the \torld

a learned man, or a great fcholar,

requires a

and iatelligent
calls

that

the fubjed of literature in ge-

man

but to

very general knowledge of authors, books, ^nd opiperfon of great difcernment


nions of all kinds.

may
life

perhaps obfcrve a

of epithets in our

dill nicer diitin^^ion,

own

language.

The

in

the

phrjife.

21

DIVINITY.

Lecl. 2.

a man of learnings according to its prefent acceptation in Europe, almoft always fuppofes and includes
tafte

in the belles

A great fcholar,

lettres.

or a

man of erudition, always carries in it the idea ot


much reading t'fie firft always fuppofes genius, the
other may condft with very moderate talents.
A
;

pretty large circle of the fciences


f.hools and colleges

and though

extenlive, yet fomething

may

whole

taught in our

is

many

think

it

too

of the principles of the

be underftood by a perfon of capacity

and diligence

his

knowledge may be true and

though not minute.

man may

juft,

not be a mathe-

matician or an adronomer, and yet un^erfland fometiiing

He may

of the true fyftem of the univerfe.

u.iderfland

many

more deeply

and write of them, and fo a


nefs and confiftency within

thing he fays of
cular branch

them

his

to

may

fpeak.

fpeak with polite-

own

of fcience, and to

upon that branch that

who

Ikilled,

in

line,

but to excel

comprehend

far as to

fciences fo

the reafoningof.thofe

know

be known,

every

any parti-

in

every thing
the v.'ork

is

Grammar^ mathematics, aftronomy,

of a lifetime.

oratory, hiflory, law, phyfic, poetry, painting, ftatuary, architefture, mufic


viiions of

fome of thefe

botany, chenpiiiry, are

ploy a

life to

carry

all

them

nay, the fubordinate di-

fciences, fuch as,

anatomy,

of them fufficient to

to perf*e6lion.

It is

there-

fore

plainly in irfelf improbable, that almofl

man

can attain a high degree of perfedion in

indeed
is

in

many

of thefe branches of ftudy.

even fomething more to be obferved

who addicts himfeif


Vol, VIII.

to

any one of thofe


"^

emany

all,

or

There

the perfon
ftudxes,

fo

LECTURES ON

22

to be an adept, or really a

;is

Lel. 2.

complete mailer

in it,

cannot be a man of exteniive knowledge, and

but feldom that he can be a

man

it is

of a liberal or noble

turn of mind, becaufe his time

is

confumed by the

and his mind narrowed by attending to


one particular art. He is likewife apt to efteem his
peculiarities,

favourite ftndy fo

and even

much,

as'

all capacity to

to confine all excellence,

it.

profound botanift,

imitten with the love of fiowers and herbs,

meets

w^ith

man

know

that does not

if

he

one from

another, and does not value a ranunculus or ane-

common

rnone more than a pile of


a fovereign

contempt

of

fuch

fpear-grafs, has

an

underOanding.

Swift takes notice of a curious exprellion this

Dean
way of

a dancing-mafler, at w^hofe fchool the famous

Harley, Earl of Oxford, had been

when be was made

wondered what the Queen could


j'or

he was one

in

his

youth

Secretary of State, he faid, he

of the

fee

greateft

man,

that

in

dunces he ever

taught.

Hence you may

obferve, that

all

who

are devoted

to the particular ftudy of one fmall branch, are generally confidered as pedants, and indeed commonly
are fuch as are

underRood by that exprefHon.

Their

thoughts have taken fuch a courie, and their ideas


themfelves taken fuch a tin6lure from their favourite
iludy, that they fee every thing through

that

me-

dium, and are apt to introduce the exprelTions belonging to

it,

upon every fubje6l and occafion.

Mr

Addifon, in one of his Spectators, cbferves, that

every

man whofe knowledge

ticular fubjecl

a6lor, a

is

is

a pedant, as a

mere merchant,

&.c.

confined to one par-

mere

foldier, a

mere

but that the learned

^3

DIVINITY.

Left. 2.

mod

pedant, though generally

laughed

of all

at, is

generally
others the mod tolerable, becaule he has
to communicate that is wcrth hearing.

fomething

But

and
obferve, that the moft reafonable pedants,
hearts
whole
whofe
thofe
are
blamed,
be

the leaft to

upon v/hat

are fet

is

There-

their bufmefs for life.

fpeak withfore, though a fchoolmafter cru fcarcelj


indulged ;
be
out citing Virgil or Hor'ace, he is to

and though he

may

not

make

figure in public or polite

generation, and

fit

yet he

life,

is

ufeful in his

the difcharge of his truft.

for

Therefore a minifter that


acquainted v/ith

the moft diftinguiftied

is

mere

tbrologiar., well

the Scriptures, though with few

other books, or books upon other fubjedh, and

is

mailer of the controverfies that belong to divinity,


properly fo called,

is

much more to be
much Ikilled in any other

certainly

pardoned, than one ever fo


fcience

without

who

thofe

this.

But what
duty

miftake their

fo

fiiall

v/e fay of

very much,

for that which

be chiefly dilHnguiftied
leaft to do with ? I have

was

much

medicine

to

a phyfician

who

greater connoiffeur -in mufic than in

much more famous

and a divine,

counts and calculation


therefore, in

known

as

they have

my

than for preaching.

for acIt

is

opinion, not any honour to a mini-

Oer to be very famous in any branch that is wholly


unconnefted with theology ; not that knowledge cf

any thing, properly fpeaking,


or ground of reproach
dec;>

knowledge of fome

is

duty.

it,

man

to fiicw a

particular fubjecl,

difcovers that he hath beftowed

upon

either a difadvantage

but for a

plainly

more time and pains

than he had to fpare from his necefiary


It is alfo.

ufual in

all

fuch cafes, that the

f-i-

^4

LECTURES

Left. 2.

0>7

vourite purfuit infufes fuch a quantity of phrafes and


allallons into his lanjjuanre, as renders

it ilifF

and

iin-

proper, and fometiaies ridiculous.

Agreeably

to thefe

affillant ftudies to
.1.

Languages.

remarko

obferve, that the

Moral Phiiofophy.

2.

and profane.

facred

theology aie chiefly the following:


3.

Hiftory,

Eloquence, including the

4.

belles lettres ftudy in general.

Languages.

Thefe, indeed, ufed.to be reckon-

ed eirentiaily ncceifury to learnhig in general,


diately after the revival of learning in

Greek and

but

works ihould

liiice

this has

the

Ail authors who cspecled

live

any time, wrote in Latin

the cultivation of the languages of

Europe,

been gradually difcontinuqd, and, except in

feme few
fed.

Europe

languages were ftudied univerfaily,

L-.nin

and with great care.


their

imme-

fcientific

However,

now wholly

writings, has

cea-

as the remains of the ancients are

fUil the llandard or taile, all literary perfons Ihould

make

themfelves acquainted with

It is to

many

be lamented that

the languages.

fpend a great part

of the time of their education in learning Latin and

Greek, and yet few ever

attain

them

to that per-

fedion which alone can make the learning of a lan-

guage of great moment,

fo that

authors with pleafure and

which they contain.

by almoS any

effect

alfo, in

this

and reading over

bell critics

improving ftudy.

ment

for the

This might be

matter

eafily attained

ftudent after his grammar-rchool and

other education

feme of the

they can read the

profit,

upon

Books of

Greek and

way.

tliem,

tlie claiTics

would be

with

a very

hiltory and entertain-

Latin, would have a

The Hebrew

happy

language, alfo,

is

DIVINITY.

Lc6i. 2.

23

very proper and ufeful for a divine, being the lan-

guage

which a great part of the Scriptures were

originally written,

caufe

we have but few

and the language

all,

and not difHcuii to acquire, bewriting'i in that

itfelf is

language at

To

not copious.

only add the lludy of the French language

both ufeful and ornamental.

There

is

thefe
;

it is

hardly any

fuch thing as a learned education in Britain, where

French language

the

poliilied of all the

ving been at
this

re^e6t

mc

omitted.

is

was the

It

-lern languages of

firft

Europe, ha-

years before the Englifti in

leaft fifty

and though there are fome branches

of writing in which there are Englith authors not

any of the French that

inferior to

with, yet, in general, there


purity, fimplicity,
tliors,

than

divines

in

me

difpofes

is,

am

acquainted

be found a greater

to

is

and precifion in the French au-

the Englifn.

But what indeed chiefly

recommend the French language

to

to^

on account of the found, calvini Hie, refor-

mation divinity.

There are many more able and

elegant writers

in

that language

there

fome admirable pradical

are

alfo

written by the Popifh divines

by

the Janfenifts of the

janfenifts

treatifeij

French, as well as

in

Roman

than in Englilh

cutholic

communion,

and Molinifts in the church of Rome, are

juft the farpe as Califts

and Arminians among Pro-

tectants.
II.

fant aad

maid
li^fs

The connexion

Moral Philofophy.

with divinity will be

eafily ^ct:n.

improving ftudy

It is a

in itfelf, or

to the Chriftian morality

upon that fubjed, which are

C3

of this

very plea-

a good hand-

and the controverall

modern, ftand

lectures on

cl6

in

Left. 2.

immediate connection with the

which

verfies,

is

it

himfelf mailer

deift'cal

contro-

make

neceflary for a divine to

There are few of the ancient

of.

much value upon that fubje6V, excepting


Plato among the Greeks, and Cicero among the Latins, efpecialij the latter.
The remains of Socratis,
writers of

(to be colledled from the writers of his country, but

from Xenophon) the works of Epittetus,


Marcus Antoninus,, and Seneca, contain many mo-

chiejly

ral fentiment?,

but

ples of morals.

little

think the moll beautiful moral

writer of the ancients,

As

ture of Cebes.

princi-

or nothing of the

is

to

the author of the Tabla-

any thing contained

ancients relative to the truth of theology,

in

the

will be

it

almctt univerfally colle6led in Cudworth's

found

Intelleaaai Syllem.

and proiirable

ihould be a

man

As

clergyman

of liberal knowledge, and

converfation and fociety of

men

a fludy

is

by a peculiar

and,

happinefs of this age, faihionable.

fit

for the

of rank and letters,

necelTary that he be well acquainted with hi-

it is

llory
his

This

Hiflorr, facred and profane.

III.

eafy, pleafant,

if

he

is

not,

he will be often ready to betray

ignorance before perfons

who

his inferiors in point of fludy.

much

fhould be

you

Belides,

fee a

great part of the facrtd writings, both of the Old

Teftament and the


things

are

more

New,

confills

of hiflory

and few

necelTary to the jufl and critical

ftudy of the Scriptures than an acquaintance with


hiilory, v;ith the original ftate
ftf

human

fler's

fped

fociety.

It

and gradaal progrefs

adds greatly, too, to a mini-

knowledge of the human heart


it

may

be faid to be ihe

way

in that re-

to that

know-

DIVINITY.

Left. 3.

^7

may be

ledge of the world which

obtained at lead

expence, and with perfe6l fafety.

IV.

Laftly, Eloquence

commonly called the


is more plain than
,

Public fpeaking

that

is

compofi-

to fay,

including the whole of

tion and criticifm,

belles lettres ftudy.

the neceffity of
to

is

be the

chief,

chief parts of a minifter's bafinefs for

what is
Nothing
fcience.

this

or one of the
I ihall

life.

enlarge on this, having occafion tafpeak on

it

not

at great

length in another department, which you have had, or

may have

an opportunity to hear.

fhould have

more mention of books


the particular defire of fome of the
but as

lars, a
in

lift

of the principal and

every branch of fcience,

for

any that

defire

to

it,

fubjeift

laft

will be

it

year's fcho-

man

every good

truth of the gofpel, from

on

his

own

we

are

now

to enter, is
I

am

fen-

has a convi6lion of the


its

power and

heart, dillincl from,

efficacy

up-

and fuperior to

That deep and

fpeculative reafoning.

lilt.

IIL

the truth of the Chriilian religion.


fible that

writers

more complete,

have copies of that

on which

made

have written, at

mod valuable

LECTURE

THE

all

heart-felt

of the corruption and weaknefs of our nature,


and of the power of indwelling fm, which is infepairable from the reality of religion, and the perception

fenfe.

of the admirable

fitnefs

God

of redemption by the crofs


to exalt the grace

of

to give confolation to the finner, while

it

to abafe the pride of

changes the heart

>

man, and

is

highly fatisfying to a confi-

23

LECTURES ON
the fame time a fcrious

derate, if at

own

that, for his

gard to

Nay,

all

Lci5l. 3.

fake, he

the foolilh cavils of

there

men

fomething more

is

perfon

would pay but

little

fo

re-

of corrupt minds
the whole fyllem

of the gofpel, as depending upon and having conftant


reference to the crofs,

is fo

contrary to the tafte of

a carnal mind, and fo far from carrying in

human wifdom,

the marks of

fuppofe

it

we may

that

it is

any of

it

impoflible to

a cunningly devifed fable, and therefore

embrace and rely upon it as the


power of God unto falvation. One thing more I
would fay by way of introdul;ion that the cuftoni
of fome minifters, of conftantly entertaining their
cordially

Iiearers

with a refutation of

every fubjeci,

is

not

much

upon

objefticns

infidel

commended.

to be

This

feem3 to proceed upon a fuppoiition, that a great


part of their audience

is

many others

but there are

There

inclined to infidelity.

are times and places v;hen that

proper,

is

in whicli

unneceffury, or even hurtful, as

it is

admit

either quite

tending to bring

people acquainted with what would perhaps never


otherwife have fallen in their way.
certain, that lince,

in

It is

modern times

however

efpecially, this

controverfy has been greatly agitated, and indeed of


late

almod

all

en account of

other controverfies have been dropped


it,

or loft in

it,

faould be well informed upon

endeavour to
iiefs as I

am

will admit.
differently,

flate

able,

it

to

a ftudent of divinity

you with

as

much

and as much brevity as

The fubjed muft be


as we fuppofe we have

therefore

I vviil

it.

diftin6l-

its

nature

taken up a

little

do with

diffe-

to

rent adverfaries-^-atheifts and theiils.

The

controverfy with the

firfl

perhaps

it

is

un-

DIVINITY.

Let. 3-

necelTary to treat with

not

much

29

length, becaufe

it

plead the caufe of infidelity upon this footing

feme of the

Hume,

is

and becaufe there are but few ihac

difficult,

yet

David

lateil infidel writers, particularly

has raifed fuch objections as feeni chiefly to

The

point this way.

endeavoured

we have

boundlefs fcepticifm he has

would weaken the

to introduce,

in the Deity,

as

tnuch as

belief

the gofpel

and, indeed, as he feldom attacks particulars, (ex-

cept

the cafe of mirscies)

ill

his

enmity feems to

be againli religion in general, and not againfl the

The fame

gofpel.

Helvetius,
deals very

thing may' be faid of Voltaire,

and other foreigners, though Voltaire

much

in particular cavils,

and of the moil

fdly kind.

In the

deiftical controverfy,

the way,

is

This

be proved from the

to

is

what commonly leads

the necellity of revelation in general.


(fate

of the heathen

world before the coming of Chrift.

The

cumftances to be taken notice of are,

i.

ignorance.

human

Their abfurd notions of God, as of

many

fhape, with

vices.

3.

cularly

2.

facritices.

multiplicity of gods.
It

is

to

pailions,

4.

parti-

Their great immorality.

5.

to the barbarous nation^,

there was any difference,

it

nently the cafe with thofe

improved and

and Romans.

were

rites,

Their polytheifm and

be particularly obferved, that thefe things

were not confined

moll;

and the worft of

Their impious and fbocking

human

chief cir-

Their grofs

chiefly

who were

civilized, the

The

tirit

employed

reafon ai a guide to

in

man

but, if

was rather more emi-

infidel

thought the

Egyptians, Greeks,
writers in Europe,

(hewing the fufliciency of


in his

condu6l

-,

of whoui

LECTURES ON

30

Le<51:.

3.

Lord Herbert of Cherburg was one of the moft early,


i^nd

one of the moil eminent.

ing

is

very

faliacioiis

for

Their way of arguthey avail themfelves

owe

of that very improvement of reafon which they


to revelation, in order to

ibew revelation to be

neceilary.

The iublime and

God

Father of

as the

which, after they are

fpirits,

difcoveredj can ealliy be fhewn

boafted of as

but the

fair

to

be rational, are

prodnftions of unbiafled reafon

the

way

of deciding the queftion

to thofe nations that

wanted revelation

fhall fee

ages,

what

more here than


is

reafon, in

was able to do
is

in

apply

that

is

to

and there

the courfe of rt^^ny

There

fad.

commonly

to

is

fay, the Jewifli and Chrillian revelation,

we

iin-

noble conceptions of

attended to

the greateft p'robability, that

the

likewife

is
;

for there

fmall meafure

of truth which was mixed v^^ith the heathen fables,


was not the difcovery of reafon, but handed down
by traditions. It is well known that the Egyptian
theology, and their literature, v;hatever

kept a

fecret,

it

was, was

and was handed down from one to

another by their priefts, and

it is

as certain that the.

earlieft Grecian philofophers never expe(5led

that

they could, nor pretended that they bad difcovered

any of
to

their opinions

Egypt and

home

by

reafon,

as information

in particular,

it

which they had received from


This was the cafe of

the fages of thofe countries.

Thales

but they travelled

the eailern countries, and brought

and after him of Pythagoras.

Several ingenious writers have endeav^oured to fhew,


that the heathen
fpe6ls,

mythology

contains,

in

many

le-

a partial and adulterated view of the Scrip.

ture hiilory.

See on this

fubjeiSt,

Abbe

B^iuer's

Led.

DIVINITY.

3.

31

Mytliology of the Ancients, with regard to the


Greeks and Romans, and Abbe Pluche's Hiftory of
the Heavens, with regard to the Egyptians.

But with refped


general,

what feems

to the neceffity of revelation in

particularly deciiive

a fair examination of the matter,

confent of

men

nations,

&li

in a (late of

ther of original fm or inherent pollution,

be denied that there

So true
elfe

much moral

is

human
by faying men

than the hiftory of

would evade

faid,

this,

ei-

cannot

it

evil in the world.

that the hiftory of the world

is this,

bv

nature are

Whatever may be

qhargeable with guilt.

that

is,

and the univerfal

is little

They

guilt.

that

are only imperfed,

do not obferve that they are guilty of fuch crimes

condemned by

"s are llrongly

Now, whether

)nfcience.

of

their

there

is

own

reafon and

any forgivenefs

and place for repentance, and

if at all, upon
what terms, can never be determined but by an exlin

prefs revelation.

Guiit

guilt.

is

God

now, whether
he

may inilid

liirnfeif,
it

and,

This

is

implied in the nature of

a liablenefs to juft puniihment

will remit a punifliment wdiich

with juftice, mufl red ultimately with

no rcafoning can decide upon

it.

Try

wiio will, every argument brought in favour of

tJie remiiiion, will militate againll

the juliice of the

This appears from the very language

pimilhraenJ:.

of perfons difpoftd to fuch fentiments, for they can-

not lielp uying, and indeed tliey have nothing elfe


to fay, but that

to fuppofe that

it is

probable, for

every tranfgreflion

ed with divine vengeance.


tliis

way

juftice

of fpeaking

liatd

On

would be hard

it

fliould

But pray

where

is

the contrary,

let

be punifhus conlider

the hardfliip
it

is

Is

glorious and

LECTURES ON

32
amiable.

I confefs

it is difficult

and

tures, to confefs,

and

both in this

curie,

come

it

fin

from the

deferves God's wrath

and that which

life

is

to

whole fyftem of Scripture

There you have

encomiums upon

in

every page, the higheft

mercy and compaffion of God.

the

Thefe are

all

truth, if

would have been the

it

finful crea-

difficult

however, the neceffary confequence,

is,

not of one, but of the


truths.

for us,

more

flill

heart to believe, that every

Lel:. 3,

without meaning, and contrary to

God

of the righteoufnefs of

to

leaft

have

impeachment

fuffercd the pe-

the word

nalty to take place.

Pardon,

Hood, muft be

Benignity and goodnefs to the

innocent,

free.

wholly

is

a part of the character of the

is

mercy

natural religion, but

to

under-

Deity

in

the guilty belongs

Accordingly

to revelation.

point that

if

it

is

upon

this

the heathen religions have turned.

all

Expiation feems to have been the great purpofe of


all religion,

fhail I

come

of revelation

heathens

whether true or

falfe.

**

Wherewith

Lord*?" 6ic. The neceiTity


was acknowledged by many of tlie

before the

in their writings.

Of

thefe, the faying of

Socrates to Alcibiades was a remarkable example


that

it

was reafonable

into the world,


error,

to expect

to deliver rnen

God would

fend one

from ignorance and

and bring tliem to the knowledge of liim-

felf.

i\i:c;

vf. 6, :.

Lea.

DiviNiTr.

4.

LECTURE
On

the

IV.

Truth 0/ the Chrijlian Religion,

T T AVING
*- -*-

33

endeavoured to eftabliih the truth of

revelation in general,

we come

this are fo

many, and

down

laid

to the truth of

The

the Chrillian religion in particular.

proofs of

fo differently,

ac-

cording as the adverfaries of the truth have fhifted


their ground,

that

it

is

impoffible

them, and indeed not eafy to

clafs

enun^erate

to

them.

There

one introduclory way of reafoning, which


called comparative,

on the

to refle6t

rence between the Chrillian and


revelations.

is

may be

infinite diffe-

other pretended

all

If the neceflity of revelation has

been

properly and fully eflablifhed, then comparifons be-

tween the feveral pretences


and even conclufive.

Now

to
I

it

feem

think

to

be

jufl,

does not ad-

it

mit of hefitation, that with refpedl to purity, conCdency, fublimity, dignity, and every excellence

which

a manifeflation of the true

God

pofed to have, the Chriflian religion

The heathen

^v^Tj other.

now

fo

much

as an advocate.

mull be fupis

fuperior to

fuperflltions
Infidels

have not

do not

now

plead for Jupiter, Juno, Mars, and Apollo, but for


the fufHciency of human reafon ; and, indeed, an age
or two after the publication of the gofpel, that whole
corrupt fyllem, which had been fupported fo long

by ignorance and credulity, fell to the ground.


PaiTmg from this detached and preliminRry con*
fideration,

the

Vol. VIII.

proofs- of the Chrillian religion are

LECTURES ON

34

Led.

4.

very commonly divided into evidence internal and

By

external.

the

firft

we

of thefe

are to uuderlland

the excellency of the dodtrinc, as agreeable to the


dictates of reafon and confcience, and

dency

head

produce the happieft

to

efFe6ts.

Under

this

comes the charaScr of the Founder of the

alfo-

Chriftian

and every thing conneled with

faith,

we

By

former particular.

this or the

dence,

having a ten-

the external evi-

are to underftand the miracles

wrought

in

atteftation of the truth of the doftrine, the nature

and fubjeft of thefe miracles, the


and every thing

"witnefles,

teftimony.

It is difficult,

of the

crifdibility

neceflfary to fupport

however, to

this

collect the

evidence under thofe heads, without often intermixwith the

one

the

snor

other.

have therefore

thought the evidences of the truth of the


religion,

might be

Chriitiaii

Firft, into two heads under the following

i.

Collateral,

And

way.

as well divided in a diflerent

and,

2.

titles

Dire6t and politive

two

again, to divide the collateral into

and take tke one of them before, and


the dired evidence, under the

ti:les

tine

proof.
parts,

other after

of prej'utnpthe

and confcquential.
I.

Let us confider the prefumpiive evider.ces of

tht truth of xhe Chriftian religion, or thofe circumfiances that

recommend

it

to our efteem and love,

and are of the nature of Itreng probabilities

Thefe we may,

favour.

fuch as relate, i.

perfon

The

who

is

To

ths

circumftances

in its

for order fake, divide into

the do6lrine taught.

Author and Subject of


attending

its

2.
it.

publication,

The
3.

and

other probabilities.
1.

The

do^trin^i tauqht.

When

this is confliered

Lea.

DIVINITY.

4.

way

in the

of an argument for

upon

refts

God

aftual truth,

its

it

that every do<5irine that

principle,

this

comes from
if

35

muft be excellent

the dodrine did not appear of

that therefore,

itfelf to

be excel-

it would be rejedted without further examinabecaufe not worthy of God ; and, on the con-

lent,

tion,

trary, that if

appears excellent, amiable, ufeful,

it

fome prefumption that the claim of a divine


It is a juft refieclion on Chrill'j
original is juft.

it

is

**

do6lrine,

like this

man,"

as

No man can do the miraexcept God be with him."

the following, "

well as

thou

that

cles

Never man fpake


doft,

Under this great head of excellence, or a doctrine


worthy of God, may be confidered Separately i. Its

Sublimity.

4. Plainnefs.

3. Efilcacy.

2. Purity.

Confiftency.

5.

The dodrlnes

Sublimity.

I.

ture concerning

God,

his

his relation to

them,

is

contained in Scrip-

works, and creatures, and

what mufl

aecelTarily

have

the approbation of unpr*^jndiccd reafoc, and indeed


is.

mod

the

noble that can be conceived.

ritual nature,
ter,

The

infinitely

His

incapable of grofliiefs, and of fenfual indulgence.

unity of

tinients
feitly

God,

fo contrary to the prevailing fen-

under heathenifh darknefs, yet

rational.

how mani-

Strange, indeed, that the

world fhould have been

in a miftake

and the Jews, a defpifed nation,

in

on

whole

this fubjeft,

an obfcure corner

of Pale (line, fiiould alone have difcovered and

braced

it.

The immenfity

and earth with his pretence.


creating all things
tice,

fpi-

removed from inadive mat-

by

bis

God,

of

em-

heaven

His omnipotence, in

word.

goodaefs, and truth.

filling

To

His holinefs, jufthele

we may

add^

LECTURES OK

36

tel. 4.

the conftant influence of his providence, as the Lord


all.

Very

Can any of

the va-

of nature, the Witnefs and the Judge of


beautifully the prophet fays,

**

nities

of the Gentiles caufe rain ?" fo the apoftle

Paul,

'*

Neverthelefs he

witnefs," &.c.

left

taught in Scripture,

is

fuffering to be followed

teous retribution.

great patience and long-

by a time of holy and righ-

The mixture

plainly to be obferved,

is

of God, as

exceedingly rational and fa-

tisfying, reprefenting his

that

not himfelf without a

The moral government

of good and evil


is

by

means

this

clearly explained, and fully accounted for.

On

the

lablimity of the Scripture dodlrines, fome are fond

of dwelling upon the majefty of God, and the fublimity of the Scriptures in fentiment and language,

Upon

as well as matter.

this

part of the fubjeft

things have been faid, and the controverfy taken

on

religion,

We

footings.

different

up

have one adverfary to

Lord Shaftefbury, who has been

at

much

pains to vilify the Scriptures on the fubjet of ftyle

and compofition, and

work
its

to pretend, that if

of infpired writers,

it

manner, fuperior to every

anfwer to

this prelence,

it

were the

would be evidently,

in

human

In

there

prodii<5lIon.

was a book written,

Blackwall's Sacrd Claffics, comparing the Scriptures with

there

is

the ancient writers, and Ihewing that

not any blemiOi in writing to be found in

the Scriptures, but


preffions in the

there

is

may

mod

be

juftified

approved

no beauty in the

claific

by

claffics,

fimilar ex-

and that

authors, in whick

This
they are not outdone by the facred penmen.
book, T think, is well worth reading by every fcholar or divine.

Dr Warburton

has.

been pleafed to

Lea.

DIVINITY.

4.

condemn

this

37

of juftifying the Scriptures, and


that ;alie is a thinjr fo local and va-

way

even to afiirm,

have any

to

was a thing impofllble

riable, that it

an
book defigned for all mankind, to anfwer fuch
nay,
idea as Lord Shafteibuvy feems to have formed;
nato deny that there is any fuch thing in
propriety
and
tafte
of
ftandard
permanent
a

he feems
ture as

bat that there

in writing,

is

Oriental,' and another for the

one manner for the

Wellern

writers,-

and

comparifoii
that fuch have their excellencies, and no
not chute
would
I
can take place between them.

wholly

to join

plain, that

it

It is, I think,

witli either of thefe.

was not the dcfign of the Scriptures-

to be a ilandard

for elonaence, nor does

appear

it

any way connected with the end of revealing divine


on the contrary,, it feemb-^to be the purpofe
truth
;

of

Oa

lencj.
13

to bri4ig us

God,

from glorying

the other bund,

as I

in

am

human

excel-

perfuaded there

taile, fo T
a permanent llandard of propriety and

am

fully

are rpany examples of

cor.vinced, there

fublimity and majtfly

in

the Scriptutes, fuperior to

any uninfpired writings whatfoever.


2. -The next thing to be obferved of the doctrine
that is to fay, having an evident tenis its purity
;

dency

to

embrace

in

promote holinefs
it.

That

this

Chriilian doftrine,

exprefs

purpose, to fet

who

believe and

the dtiign and tendency

is

of the

all

is

fin

very plain.

It is its

and immorality

the

recommend,
raoft odious light, and net barely to
holinefs,
in all
of
neocffity
abfolute
the
but to lliew
manner of converfation.

It

is

pretended by feme

fandity
infidel writers, that gravity and apparent

D3

is

LECTURES ON

38

LeS.

the efTence of impoftors, and that

all

deliver a fyftem of g^ood morals.

But there

4.

impoftors do
is

not

only an excellence in the Chriftian morals, but a


manifeft fuperiority in them, to thofe which are derived from any other fource, and that in three re-

fpeds
only

That they

I.

many

kind.

That there

2.

are free

from mixture, not

things good, but nothing of a contrary

precepts in the Chriftian

are

morality, and thofe of the mofl: excellent kind, very

any thing refembling which,

little, if

The

in uninfpired moralifts.
lity of n^ind

The

ferred confequentially,

but

it

is

mind,

no where

lignify

Englifh

and the
be in-

with that pro-

obligation on the crea-

is

Humility of
wholly pecu-

obferved by feme, that there

is

no

it.

Greek nor Latin languages, to


Humilitas in Latin, from whence the

is

derived, has a different meaning, and fig-

word, neither

in the

nines low and bofe.


U^aoTr.i

in

Manfuetudo

an'imi

in

Greek, are the neareft to

are far from being that


iuries,

firft

ftated

as reprefented in the gofpel,


It is

humi-

God may

in the facred Scriptures.

it is

liar to it.

and

love of

from many of the heathen

priety and fulneft as the


ture, as

to be found

God

the forgivenefs of injuries

love of our enemies.

writers

is

love of

Latin,
it,

but

even the forgivenefs of in-

and the love of our enemies, are rather con-

trary to

the heathen virtue

and modern infidels

have exprefsly pretended that the Chriftian religion,

by

its

precepts of humility, and meeknefs, and paf-

five fubmifTion to injury,

has banifhed that heroifm

and magnanimity v^hich gives fuch an air of dignity


The third
to the hiftories of Greece and Rome.

particular in

which the ChriUian morals exceed

all

DIVINITY.

Lecl. 4.
others,

is

the excellence of the principle from which

The law

they ought to flow.

God

of

is

not con-

governing the outward condud:, but

into

tracted

39

reaches to the very heart, and requires further, that

our obedience fhould flow, not principally from a


regard to our

own

own

happinefs, far lefs to our

honour, but from a principle of fubjedlon in the


'

creature to the Creator, and a fingle eye to the glory

of God.
3.

The

excellence of the

pears from
it

its efficacy.

hath over the mind, and

producing that bolinefs

Scripture doctrine ap-

mean

B}^ this I

it

its

power

the

aClnal influence in

recommends.

There are

feveral things that deferve conlideration on the

cacy of the Scripture dolrine.

It contains the

i.

greateft and moft powerful motives to duty,


fitted

to

confefs,

eflS-

and the

work on our hopes and fears. Thefe, I


are much the feme in general that always

have been propofed

dud, yet they

are

in the Scripture,

no where

makes

nity there

as inducements to a

moral con-

opened with a fulnefs and force


elfe to

be found.

tament difcoveries, we are told that

life

brought to light by them.

the greateft authority with

it.

parti-

and immor2.

The

New Tef-

cularly with refpeft to the gofpel and the

tality are

Eter-

a very awful appearance

It carries

principles of

duty are more clearly and fully enforced by the proper authority than any where elfe

God, from

creation, to the obedience

of his .creatures

his additional title

which ought

beneficence

ftians, the

right acquired

which

is

to

the right of

and fubmiffion

from continual

to be added,

by

by redemption

further to be added, the di -ir

Cliri-

to all

ar.tare it-

LECTURES ON

4
our pattern.

felf, as

vided

3.

in the Scripture

The

Leil:. 4-

pro-

efFe<5\ui\l affirtance

dodtiine,

to

deliver us froni

the bondage of corruption, and bring us to the glo-

God.

rious liberty of the children of

more confequence than

This

of

is

commonly apprehended

is

defpair of fuccefs breaks the powers of the mind,

and takes away

power

once the will

at

whereas

to perform,

The

oppofite effecl.

taking

doctrine

iingly in this view,

it

men

lated to animate

to

attempt, and the

juU the

effectual aid has

is

Koiy

of the

mod

to diligence,

Spirir,.

happily calcu-

and infpire them

with courage and refolution, and feems generally

to

ihew the efHcacy of the Chiiftian dextrine.

Another excellence of the Chriltian do6^rIhe

4.

plainnefs
all

is

level to all capacities, well fitted for

it is

and poor,

ranks, rich

v-ife

and unwife.

It rs

given as one of the marks of the Melliah*s coming,

and

one of the glories of the gofpel, that

is

preached

to the pOG^.

ed for

mankind

all

therefore

Religion was plainly deiigntheir interelt in

muft be plain and fimple

it

other wife, whatever fy ftem


reafoning, and

is

of the vulgar,

is,

is

built

the fame,

it is
;

whatever

upon

evidently above the compreheniioii


for that

very reafon,

even fomething more

is

unfit for the-r

and duties.
ftill

It

is

from

plainer.

writings

is

upon the

fall

hiftory

lirft

itfelf.

in the limplicity

the gofpel, than barely the plainnefs of

fads

is

abilr^d:

fervice, and carries a mark of faluhood upon

Thepe

it is

its

to lafl founded

cf

truths

upon

great part of the infpired

the Old Teftament

of man, and

is filled

is

founded'

up with the

hif-

tory of Providence, or God's conduct to his chofen

people

and the

New

TeRament

coiitains the birth,

DIVINITY.

Left. 4.

41

and death, the refurreftion and

life,

of

afcenfion

So material a part of the do6lrine do thefe

Chrift.

things comprife, that the charafter of the apoftles


juft that of being witnefies of Chrill's refurrec-

is

tion.

The

5.

laft

excellence to be taken notice of

the Chriftian dodrine,

in

confiftency

maj

ferent lights

is its

coniiftencj.

firft, its

confiftencj with itfelf.

remarkable that the Chriftian revelation


iingle fyftem that

creation,

downwards

ment, or rather, taking


lafl

in

It

extends

mo-

the prophecies, to the

day and confummation of

all

things.

and,

It confifts

particularly,

different difpenfations of providence

The one

grace.

It is

not a

to the prefent

of feveral different revelations,

two grand

is

was, or might be fuppofed to be

the cccafional produlion of one man.

from the

This

be viewed to advantage in two dif-

of thefe

and

perfefUy conliftent with,

is

and fuited to the other.

It is

not eafy to fuppofe

an impoftor either willing to perform, or able to


execute any thing of that kind.
fider the creation,

difpenfation,

and the

fall

But when we con-

of the Old Teftament

and the prophets of the

diftant ages, confpiring to

different

and

forward one great defign,

and the appearance of the long promifed Saviour

at

the fulnefs of time fo exaftly correfponding to

it,

it

takes

away

the pofTibility of a concert, and there-

fore the fufpicions of an impofture.


liftent

we

with the adual

find

ftate

It is alfo

two things very remarkable,

depravity and wickednefs.

con-

of the world, in which

Men may

i.

great

fpeak and

write what they pleafe, upon the beauty, excellence,

and dignity of human nature, taking their ideas


from the dictates of confcience, as to what we

LECTURES ON

4^
ought
if

But

to be.

wc

it is

beyond

Le6l. 4.

all

controverfy, that

take mankind from the faithful records of

hiftory, and

examine what they have been, we

(hall

have no great reafon to admire the beauty of the

What

pidture.

the fame of the greateft heroes

is

of antiquity

lawgivers

Conquerors give clear teiHmony

not that either of conquerors cr

Is it

wickednefs of man, by

to the

the earth with blood,

filling

and fhewing us what havock has been made, in

man

ages, of

And what

man.

b}"

all

law-

that

is it

givers have done, but diftinguiflied themfelves

by

the bed means of repelling violence, and reftraining

Now

the ungoverned lufls and appetites of men.


the Chriftian religion

is

the only one that gives

human

clear and confident account of

traces

it

depravity, and

This

very original fource.

to its

confift-

ency of the do6lrines of religion with the actual

ftate

of the world, and prefent condition of the nature of

man,

way

very convinciig hi the

is

The

prefumptive proof.

of collateral or

other particular remark-

able in the ftate of the world

is,

the univerfal

valence of the offering of faciifices

among

nations,

all

ming of Chriih

and which continued

Thefe

facrifices

pre-

a thing found
till

were a

the co-

confeffion.

of guilt, for they were always coniiJered as an expiation.

But

belides this,

does not appear

it

they could have occurred, even


they had been at

handed down
with them
It

firft

in their difperfion

does not appear

any atone meat

tradition, and carried

over the whole world.

how ^ny body

away

how

view, unlefs

a matter of revelation, and

mankind by

gined, that taking

in that

the

for the (in of

life

could have ima-

of a beall fliculd be

a man

much

lefs does.

DIVINITY.

Lel. 4.

appear,

it

how every body

43

iliould

imagining that fame thing.

But

have agreed in
if

you take

conjundion with the truths of the gofpel,

ment appears
is

manifeft, and

tiited

and ordained of God,

were

facrifices

as typical

it

ia

agree-

prevalence

univerfal

its

Thefe

ealily accounted for.

its

iiirti-

of the great

propitiatory facrifice to be offered in the fulnefs of

time by Ghriil upon the crofs.

LECTURE
J I.

'^'KT^
^

now

proceed

this head,

V.

to the fecond branch of

to conlider the prefumptive

proof of the truth of the Chriftian religion, arifmg

from the Perfon who

is

the Founder of

indeed not only the Founder of


it

for the

may

whole

fon and undertaking.

condder feparately
niion
4.

The

i.

His ch^racler.

3.

The

fpirit

bably genuine narratives,

meek and

us here

let

2.

His

ficu-

of his religion.
it.

This, as painted in the gof-

pels, in their limple, unaffected,

xnofl

is

be faid to relate to his per-

nieafures he took to promote

I. His character.

He

it.

but the Subjedl of

For order fake,

and hopes.

it,

gentle, the

is

and therefore pro-

truly

admirable

the

moil tender-hearted, the

mofl truly benevolent, and adtive without ollentatlon,

and the whole crowned and illuftrated by for-

titude and patience, and the moft unconditional fub-

jedion to divine Providence.

go

It is

unnectffary to

through, at length, tlic various exctliencies that

adorned the

man

Chrift jefus.

quainted with the gofpel

Tiiofe

who

liiilory, will fee

are ac-

the beauty

LECTURES OK

44

LeiSt. 5.

and propriety of the apoftle John's expreflion,

ill

And

the

chapter of his gofpel, and 14th verfe,

Word was made

fiefh,

and

dweh among

*'

us."

It is

not improper to adduce here the evangelifts' authorities,

fuppofed interefled parties


witnefTes

upon

whom we

from

And

this fubjedJ:.

ployed in giving a
life,

may be

becaufe they were his difciples, and

full

for they are the only

can

exped

a teftimony

them

confidering

as

em-

account of his charaler and

however they might be fuppofed

to difguife or

add, they could not wholly conceal a chara6ler fun-

damentally wrong
than one,
to

it

would have been impoilible

for

have avoided inconllftencies and clafhing,

had not kept


if

and as there are more of them

to the truth in point of faft,

not of charadter

they

at leaft,

and indeed their whole hiftories

are fats without

if

them

any laboured encomiums, which

carry the cleareft internal marks of fincerity of any


hiftories extant

among men.

There feems not only no defign to embellifh their


Matter's chara6ter, but none to conceal the defeds
of their own.

med

It is

including his
rice, pride,

writers

own

and

among

praife of Jefus.
it

from the partizans of Moham-

what they have

only, and

lull.

Add

am

we

to this,

the heathens
i

recited of his hiftory*

writings, that

feniible,

learn his ava-

that indifferent

have fpoken to the


however, and think

befl to inform you, that feveral of the

writings

taken notice of- by fome of the ancient fathers, are


probably fpurious, as the letters from Agbarus,

king of EdelTa, to Chrift, and the letter in anfvver


Eufebius tells the ftory
it fro:.n Chrift to him.

to

of Agbarus havipg heard of Chrift's faoif, and fend-

Lea.

DIVINITY.

5.

ing to

him

:;>

come and cure him.

to

Eufebiiis in this

cafe feems really to have given credit to

it,

on the

memorials prefented to him by the church oi EdeiTa.

But the language given

Agbarus

to

is

too like that

of a Chriftian, and the anfwer of Jefus Chrift

is

mif-

See

quoting, as well as mifinterpreting Scripture.

Dupin's

The

Ecclefiaftical Hiftory.

letters faid to

be from the Virgin Mary, are evident forgeries of a


liite

date.

The

be from Pilate to Ti-

letter faid to

not fo univerfally acknowledged to be

berias,

is

falfe.

Bifbop Pearfon has largely and learnedly de-

fended

it,

and

it is

very poditble there might be fome

Rome

account fent from Pilate to


Chrift's

be feen

crucifixion,
ftiould not

the time of

at

even though the

letter

There

be genuine.

is

now

to

alfo a paf-

fage of Jofephus, and in all the manufcripts of that

author, very favourable to the character of Chrift-

However, without going further


filence of jofephus,

enemy

who

is

to the Chriftian faith,

had nothing

into thefe, the verv

known
is

to

have been an

an evidence that he

to objedl againft the charafler of Chrifl,

as he certainly

would have done

it

willingly, and in

the hiftory of the Jews had fo fair an opportunity.

The

chara<3;er, then, of Chrift,

lefs

but amiable.

prefumption

This

is

was not only blame-

certainly a confiderable

His credentials deferve

in his favour.

to be confidered with care, and his pretenfions to be

weighed with impartiality


gotten here, that his

nor ought

own

iincerity

the moft unqueftionable manner.

teftimony with his blood.

demned, and

it

to be for-

was proverxia

He

That he was

fealed
tried,

crucified for his pretenfions,

VoL.VIIL

is

his

conabfc-

LECTURES ON

46
lutely certain.

This

is

one of

fadis in the hiftory of the

admit of any doubt,


with

it,

LeCl. 5.
iroft

tl":?

golpel,

and

important

it

does not

enemies reproach him

for his

and his friends affirm and glory in

We

it.

may depend upon ir, therefore, that he was lincere.


He woulcl never forfeit all that could be dear on
earth, and fuifer an ignominious death, for

knew

be

to

what he

falfe.

Let us next confider his finiation and hopes.

2.

In any great and hazardous Gndertak,ing, elpecially


in an impoilure, there

bable

way

mud

In this cafe there

ceiver.

be fome poflible or pro-

of accounting for the motives of the deis

nothing that can lead

us to fuppofe, or that can well admit the fappoiidon,

He

of his contriving a cnnmngly devifed fable.


-was of that rank in life
fpire that refolution

tion that could not

fit

tice, or give the leaft

he

fliould attewQpt

did at

all

that,

when

called

firft,

carpenter's

it.

fon,

which could not readily

he was of that

him

fort of

in-

educa-

for carrying it into prac-

probable hopes of fuccefs,

When
him

his enemies,

as

the carpenter, and

if

they
tl.e

they did not obferve the force of

impartial'y confidercd.

One'of no higher-

capacity and inflruciion, could neither be fuppofed


lit

to conceive or execute fo noble a defjgn.

he, fuppoling

have the

him a

leafl

n'vere

man,

Could

in that fphere of life,

e5:pedation of prevailing over the

power and wifdom of th;i world combined againit


him ? Whoever weighs this v^ich impartiality, will
find

it

3.

very fatisfying and convincing to the mind.


It

receives, however,

from the next


<'io:i,

great additional force

particular, viz. the fpirit of his reii-

and that fcheme-of do^irine and fyilcm of duty

DivrNiTY.

Lefl. 5.

47

which he promulgated and fupported.

was dt-

It

place, to the prejudices

reclly oppoied,

in the

of the Jews.

Could we even fuppofe, which

tirft

otherwife fo difHcult, that

the whole concordant fucceffion of

penfations, and
Jt'-vvilli

prophets, and the general perfuanon of the

Jews and the

eailern part of the world

(telVified

come from

that country,

a lafting dominion,

by

was

heathen hiftorians) that a ^reat prince

the

is

the preparatory dlf-

all

to

and lay the foundation of

happened by chance.

Could

we

next fuppofe, that a cunning impoflor, finding things


in this lituation,

of

was willing

to take the advantage

and pafs himfelf upon the world for the ex-

it,

pected prince

he would no doubt have formed his

plan upon the views which the Jews had, and mull

have founded
circumftance.

his

hope of

They

fuccefs entirely

upon

this

a temporal prince,

expe6l:ed

and he came an humble teacher, and fufFering Sa-

By

viour.

this

means he had not only the

difpofi-

bed

tions of the corrupt, but tbe prejudices of the

part of his

countrymen

fcheme of human contrivance

He

a flrange

had no reafon to

he could coavince men, and he taught that

ttiiiik

was unlawful
ported

from

What

to Oppofe.

to force

by experience.

This reasoning

them.

it

fup-

is

In fa6^, during the period

Chrift's death to the deftruclion of Jerufalem,

there were

many

impoilors

who

mad;i their appear-

ance, and they every one took the meafures

defcribed above.

The Jews

have

expeeled a mighty con-

queror, and they always appeared at the head of a

band of lighting m.en.

Every impoftor would

the fame part in a limilar cafe.


V.

as

oppofed to the prejudices of

Again, as
tl.e

Jews,

act

his plan
fo-

indeed

LECTURES ON

4^
it

Lect. 5.

was oppofed to the prejudices of human nature.

The

was

crols of Chriii

Greeks,

foolilhncis to the

The

well as a Humbling- block to the Jews.

as

huaiility and

felf-

denial of the gofpel, and the pre-

of paiTive fubmifBon, as well as the diilind:

cejjf*

account our Saviour gives to his difciples, of the op-

and fuffering they mull exped, had nothing

{.ofition

in

them

alluring to the

not feein at

general,

and did

draw away

difciples

in

fay this, I

that moral precepts,

even an

world

calculated to

When

iiim.

after

all

am

very fenfible

fome degree, mull fandifj

in

If

ia-ipofture itfelf.

any man were

to pre-

tend a divine million, and teach grofs immorality,

he would be,defpifed and difbelieved, even by im-

moral men.

But

a contrived religion, that the con-

triver wifties to fucceed,

muft be accommodated to

human

like the religion of Chriii,

Whereas,

tafte.

true religion has been,

and always will be con-

is,

trary to the fpirit of the world.

add,

I Iliall juft

that the Founder of the Chriilian faith did nut con-

fuppofing

trive his religion,

it

ever fo fuccefsfuj, ia

fuch a v/ay as to bring honour or profit to himfelf,


or thofe

who

fhould be afterwards concerned in

sdminiftration of

and ceremony,

it.

up form

and coflly

facrifie3,

llately temples,

he preached them down, and Iliewed


vain

when

Ihadows

ceafe after his appearance.

This

tliat

they were

confidered in themfelves, and only valu-

able as types and

priefts

-,

fo

that they were to

Inilead of exalting his

and miniilers, he makes them fervants of

refltflion

delivered

the-

Inilead of preaching

upon pure

religion

all.

and undefiled, as

by our Saviour himfelf, will appear to


if you confider, that it is from this

have great foice

Led.

mviKiT'i-,

5.

very quarter that


in the

49

the corruptions of Clirlftianity

all

following ages took their

pomp

ed from that love of

life

they proceed-

and power, and the in-

fluence of that worldly fpirit

which he took

fo

much

pains to reflrain.
4.

Let us confider what meafnres he

procure a favourable reception to his

employed twelve poor

called a!id

fell

upon to

He

do<Sl:rine.

illiterate fiftiermen,

no way qualified for fuch an undertaking^.

On

of the fubjeft

part

this

it

has been oftea

fiiewn, with great force of reafon, that if the gofpel

v ere

a fable, the apoftles,

in its

?,r(t

who

bore fo great a part

mull have' been impoPiors or

pubiicarion,

enthufialis, deceivers or deceived.

h-;ve been laboured

by

feveral

Both

thefe points

eminent writers, and

been iliewn, that they could not be either

I^.as

Not

deceivers, becaufe they

Ctie

or

rsot

the ]e^ii temptation to

tl;e

other.

the^

had

There was not only

it.

nothing to gain by

it,

ftr the lofs

thinos for their adherence to the

of

Poverty they

Saviour.

his life- time j

his

a^l

but they were obliged to fuf-

mud

and did

fufier

during

and though, during a great part o

perfonal miruii ry, they had the favour of the

people, yet about


cifixion,

icenef

when

tiie

time, and ever after his cru-

the apcflles

came

to appear

upon the

continual reproach and \iniverfal fcorn

their portion.

Tiie truth

is,

was

they feem to have been

forced into the fervice, for a mixture of fear and un^

belief

made them

came

to

enthufiafts,
fion, for

all

forfake

him and

fly,

when he

Neither could they be

his laft conflil.

and themfelves under the power of celu-

many

reafons.

Their Mailer was well

E3

LECTURES

50

known

mod

to

them, living with theni

intimate familiarity.

fat that

Led.

ON"

of the

in a ftate

was not

It

a fingle

to

they bore teftimony, but to a whole cha

racier and

His miracles

.life.

were

alfo

all

plain and

and of fueh a nature as that the deceit muii

public,

have been

But there

ealily perceived.

another

is

circumdance more powerful than any other


profclled to

endow

thefe his difciples with a

Now

of working m.iracles themfelves.

this they could not be deceived.

make me

great flight and addrefs,

thing that he cannot do


that

myfelf, through

my

from him, and even

ftance

believe he does a

make me

believe

whole

life,

and

at a di-

lible.

So

from having

laid

appear plainly

remarks, that
themfelves,

to

do not,

it is literally

any fcheme of

at Hrft

in

delufion,

him

poral

prince and conqueror

hopes

of.

tlieir

to eflablifb,

yielding to

tfie

fafl

even

that they

have been under the fame

evidently to have expeded

was

13

impof-

appear fo far

They feem

prejudices with the reft of the Jews.

honour and

and

after his death, can,

more than improbable,


juft are thefe

certainly in

but to

plainly

ihe difciples of Chrift

he

power

man may, by

do perform many things, which yet

iie

5.

to

and probably their

offices in

appear as a tem-

the

contributed at

kingdom which
firft,

in part,

to

evidence of his divine power.

to have been the import of the requefl


mother
of James and John, " Lord, graiit
of the
I'nat thefe my two foiis may fit," &.c. as alfo it feems

This feems

TO have been the

him by
wilt

meaning of

this

his difciples in general,

queflion put to

A6ls

6.

" Lord,

thou 3t this time reftore the kingdom to

racl ?" If this

was the

cafe,

If-

can any perfon believe

DivixViTY.

Left. 5.

they were deceived

Would

51

not the difappointmerit

them

of their carnal expectations have provoked

forfake him,

power of
heard

if the^y

invvaid conviction from

what ihey faw and

It is

proper to remark here upon the meafures he


doctrine, that he

took to procure reception

to

framed his religion totally

different in kind,

principle,

They

from

all

all

his

and

feveral rites, but they

their

in

in the objects of

There were in

fuppofed to be coniiftent.

and even

different countries,

cities,

and different ways of worihip


rent families

and in

the heathen religions.

from one anothtrr

differed

their worihip,

were

to

had not been brought under the

different godr,

perhaps alfo

had various houfthold gods

in

diffe-

one city,

but they were, not fuppofed to be deftruclive of each


other's divinity

fo

that

it

was eafy

to introduce

the worfhip of a deity into any place in which

had not been before.

by an ancient

It

writer, becaufe of

its rtzdln^-Ss

the worfliip of every divinity, that


to the gods.

But

it

was remarked of Athens


it

was

to adopt

Iiofpitabie

Chrift, on the contrary, in his re-

ligion equally oppofed

them

all,

declaring that the

gods made with hands which the Gentiles worlljipped, were no gods.
reafon, becaufe no lie

This was highly confonant to


is

of the truth

have been highly impolitic

in

yet

it

would

an impoftor, and in-

deed would not readily have occurred to an impoftor.

It

is

remarkable that Lord Shaftefbury has

attacked the Chriftian religion on this very head

he commends the heathen religion as of a fociable


nature, whereas the Chriftian
others.

This fliews

is

hew much

abhorrent from
the greateft

all

men

LIXTUllES

32

may

be made

ON

by prejudices

fiilr

be plainer, than that whatever

mult be oppofite

which they

away

of you

all poffibility

for nothing

in

can

riccordinf^ to truth,

When we

put

with the enlargements of


and which will probably

are capable,

mod

every fairehood.

to

all thefe things together,

occur to

is

Lecl. j.

hearing, they feeni to take

of fuppofing the gofptl to be th-

produtl of an impoftor.

The

3.

general head of prefumptive evi-

tiiird

dence, contains the circumftanccs attending the pur;lication of the

Many

gofpel.

of obfcTvation, and

we

fingiy or colledivelj,

of thefe are wortlr,

fhall find that,

taking them

they are in gei;eral fuoh

fuppoling the gofpel to be true, greatly iiiulfrate

wrldom of God

in the choice of thcni

a
tii_

but on the

other fuppoiition, they were the ^5oii unfavourable

and cauiing fuccefs to aa

for procuring a reception,

The time

imnoftdr.

led in Scripture,

of Chrift's appeara*nce

the fulnels of tisne.

is

cal-

This indeed

m'.y be anderftood as only rneaning the appointed

time

which had been

that

There

prophecies.

which

fpetSls,

in

time.

The

had come
tion for

are,

it

fixed

by

the ancient

however, many ether

may

re-

be called the fulnefs of

ignorance and wickednefs of the world

to a full height.

many

The remains

of tradi-

ages continued to have fome

effec:!:,.

but were by this time wholly obliterated by the inventions of men.

There had alfo been full time to try every other


method of reformation, fo that the intervention of
divine providence, according to the telliniony of leveral heathen writers,

was become

nectffary.

ever will look into the reafoning of Cicero,

Who*^

De

DIVINITY.

Le<l. 5.

natura

Deorum," and

his other

53
moral or theological

difputations, will have a very clear and full conviction,

how much men

penetration,

of the

finefl

genius and greateft

were bewildered upon the fubjcct of

This very thing, indeed, has been re-

religjion.

commended by fome

man

judicious perfons for a

fatisfy himfelf of the neceffity of revelation in


ral

and

if this is fully

to

gene-

done, the acceptance of the

Chrillian religion follows as a fptedy confequence.

We may

alfo take notice, that

the world in ge-

was

neral, at the time of Chrift's appearance,

fitted

manner it never had been before, for fpreading


the knowledge of the truth with the greateft facilitjK
and fpeed. The Roman empire, which had rifen

in a

gradually, was then extended in a manner over the


whole known world.
Before that time, the immenfe number of fmall, independent, and commonly
hoftile flates, rendered

more

far
rian

mutual accefs and intercourfc

It is true,

difficult.

before this the Afl'y-

and Perfian monarchies were of confiderable


but neither comparable to

extent,

long duration.

under one head,


to the

falvation

it

was eafy

fit

all

of his charader

was

It

to this

there was

peace

who was

alfo defigned

for

of

Add

the world at the time of Chrift's birth

emblem

Peace.

nor of any

to carry the tidings

moft diflant corners.

the favourable circumflance, that

over

this,

But now the nations being united

the Prince of

another purpofe,

that there might be eafy accefs and opportunity to

the apoftles
15. "

Go

to

fufil

ye into

all

their

commiflion,

the world," &:c.

Mark xvi.
The event

fully correfponded to this preparation for

vidence

for it is incredible to think

it

in pro-

with what ra-

LECTURES ON

54

name of Chrift

pidity the npoilles carried the

how

the world, and

mod

to the

when

that

early the gofpel

diilant nations.
this

loon

-as

Roman

firlf

It is alfo

Romans

empire, that

had long been growing

was

two

rent inco

obfervabJe

cafr.e to

it,

th;.

an end.

body, whicii

enormous bulk,

and then broken

Take

as a great defign of Providence

cumftancts appear admirably to


otiier

varft

to fuch an

parts,

innumerable fmailer divilions.

on the

througl

the rhurch was planted in different coi

of the

riers

the

5.

was preach.;

purpofe had been ferved by

power and greatnefs of

As

Lel.

it

ir.to

therefore

the time and cir-

illuftrate

But,

it.

hand, what probability could there be,

that a handful of illiterate mechanics fiiould be able

whole fyilem of heathen theology,

to overthrow the

that had continued fo long and fpread fo wide

they

fiiouid

power of

think of doing this,

princes,

that

in oppofition to the

the learning of philofophers, the

interefted policy of priefts,

and the rage and enthu-

fiafm of a deluded people

thefe fuccefsful agents

Strange, indeed, that

fhould

come even from an

obfcure corner, and from a nation that waes, of aU


others, not merely defpifed, but execrated and ab-

horred

that they fhould, notwithfranding,

by preaching

the divinity of a crucified man, a faft

that carried in

nominy.

fucceed

it

the liigheii idea of bafenefs and ig-

Finally, that they ihould do this without

the parade or form of worfliip to engage attention

without

fecrets

or mylleries to excite veneration

but by the iimplicity of that truth which the worldly

man
tlie

defpifes,

and the

fmner haies.

ftrida<?fa

of that law whicU

Le6l.

DIVINITY.

6..

LECTURE

WE

now come

dence for

Tnis

gion.
a;id

is

concluiive

to the principal and diretl evi-

tlie

fo that if the

Prefumptive evidence
and carried

fo far

differs

it

proof.

in tiieir
:uft,

fomecimes of fuch a nature,

by the concurrence of circumitan-

in its

few cJrcumflances of probability do but

number
facisiies

rife in llrength

of miracles.

by an addition

but a direct proof, though iingle,

the mind.

In

tliis

view,

of the truth of the Chriftian religion

fanclion

ccnviclion

full

kind from the direcl conclufive

they gradually

little,

neceliary and unavoidable,

is
is

itfelf full

fads alluded to be

product even a clear and

ce&, as to

yet

of the ChrilHan- reli-

truth

of fuch a nature as to be in

the confequence

true,

Vr.

fupernatural

power

is

tiie

the

is

proof

working

the

feal

or

of a fupernatural commiiTjon.

Perhaps,

as the Chriliian religion is the

completion

however,

of one great fyilem, which began to take place from


the very
ceedii-g
,

f;ill

of man, was gradually opened in fuc-

ages, and

the Son of

pc-rfetled

God, we may

by

t'ne

incarnation of

divide even this

lingle

proof into two parts, the one confiding of the fulfilling t\\G

prophecies of the Old Teftament, and the

other of the miracles performed by our Lord

diys of his

fame

lleili.

Thefe ultimately

reft

in

the

upon the

principle, for the forefceing and the foretelling

of events future anddiftant,

is as

perhaps as fully fatisfying to the


v.hcttever.

But before

real a miracle,
ir.Ind, as

enieriiig

upon

and

any other
thcfe

tv.o

LECTURES

56
feparate brar.cbes,
is

common

to both,

What

2.

racle.

it

Lel. 6.

0>7

will be beft to begin

and confider,

i.

with what

What

is

mi-

proper import in confirma-

is its

tion of a doflrine, and the force of the proof.

Then,

I.

miracle

let us confider

Some

fay

it is

pending the courfe of nature, or


neral laws.

Some

fay

What

the queftion,

is

a reverfing, altering, or fuf-

it is

its

ordinary or ge-

doing what

above the

is

power of a creature or a finite being. And fome,


it is doing what is demonftrably above the

that

power of the immediate agent. As to the firft of


I would obferve, that reverfing, altering, or

thefe

fufpending the courfe of nature,


cle

but the definition

five,

is

is

certainly a mira-

not fufHciently comprehen-

becaufe every miracle

is

not of that kind.

Tlie

predi6ting the recovery of a perfon in ficknefs with


fpecial circumftances, as in the cafe of

Hezekiah, or

difcovering a knowledge of things diftant, as in the

what our Saviour

cafe of

faid to

clearly and evidently miracles, as

nature

befides,

it

fay, whether there

not always in our power to

is

any controul or alteration of

is

the laws of nature or not, as

fooke to the winds and


there

inL*-

that
**

a great calm.

was

happened
the

the f:a,

when our Saviour


and immediately

A fudden calm 'might

have

its folio

w-

inUant carried fuch a conviction with

it,

in the courfe of things,

at that

Nathanael, are as

any dominion over

beholders

and yet

immediately and juftly

faid,

Behold what manner of man is this,'* &c,


Againft miracles, under this view of controullng

the courfe of nature, Lord ShafteiLury, with his


iifual vivacity,

and, at

thefame time,

v/ith his ufual

prejudice and partiality, has objefledihus:

**

Strange,'*

Divii^iTY.

Ltft. 6.

"

fays he,

ture a

make

to

mark of

57

the ahering the courfe of na-

when

the Divinity,

this

not fo

is

convincing and fatisfjing a proof of the being and

God,

perfed^tions of
tile

and regularity of

as the order

But nothing can be more

courfe of nature."

equivocal, and indeed difingenuous, than this

ner of fpeaking

for as

the

firft

manand

conftitution

conilant prefervation of the frame of nature,

proof of the wifdom and power of

its

an exprefs vifible interpofition in his

own

his

own

own

time, and for his

tering, as

well as giving

fliew

my

in

my

when I have ufe for it in other fervlce,


by planting it, or pruning it.
The fecond definition of a miracle is,
doing what

is

and therefore

above the poWer of any


fliews itfelf to

liable to great exceptions.

by

finite

that

fi.iite

v/riters, I

We

liardly be tliought capable of defining

the power of the

as well as

it

is

beinr,

be the linger of God.

This, though very often adopted


is

is

power and

my family^ by alcommands and my


ground, by cutting down a tree,
power

prefence.

property in

a
fo

v/ork, at

great purpofes,

certainly a mctfl convincing proof of his

my

is

Maker,

creature,

think

certainly can

what

Is

above

and w^hat not.


,

judly reckoned an iiicommunicab:e


power, though this is only a confequence from reCreation

is

vdation, and particularly from worfhip being found-

ed upon creation, and f-om this clrcumftance joined

with
ther

it,
;

God

that

1)ut

will not give his glory to ano-

what powers God may communicate

creatures, other than this,


kn(j)vving the

thoughts

VoL.VilL

we

perceiving
F

to

cannot fay, fuch as


things at a di-

LECTURES ON

5^
itance

making
others

iT>anj
fore, I

upon

man

tion or expreffioa

might

that

as the true

when

do

fo

rcontrouling

apprehend,

c;^, &:c.

to

Le6l. 6.

it

is

by

private intima-

the elements

mentioned

be

the third that

and
there-

we mull

reft

and genuine definition of a miiais

it

evidently above the natural

power of the vifible agent, the perfon at whofe command, at whofe deiire, or in attellation of whofe
claim, it is wrought. This is the point upon \thich

we

can moil ealily fatisfy ourfelves

and

fure an evidence of divine authority, as if


certainly tell

that the

as

could

whether the thing produced could, or

could not be effefted by a Unite power.


this

is

it

we

Jews

Jt

was from

concluded, that our Saviour

God

the prefence and affiftance of

can do the miracles that thou

had

" For no man

doft, except

God

be

with him.'*

We

are

now

its

^prove nothing at

elFc<3:

is

the im.port of a

in confirmation of a doc-

and wonderful things properly

Prodigies

trine.

what

to confider

miracle, and of

all,

except

when they

are profef-

fedly wrought in atteiiation of fome truth, or of

fome claim of the perfon wlio does them. They


reft upon this fuppofition, that fuch a power is an
evidence of a divine commiffion, and they are na-

who
The Jews, you

turally expeled as the credentials of thofe

tend a divine

made
'

the

What

commlfTion.

demand of our Saviour, John

fign

flieweft thou,'*

fometimes refufed

to

&.c.

prefee,

vi.

30.

and though he

gratify their malicious petu-

lance or obftinate incredulity, yet in general he ap-

pealed to his works, as the juft and proper


ino.ues of his divine commiffion,

John

x. ^23.

teiti-

"

Tlie

DIVINITY.

Left. 6.

works

that I do," Slc.

done among them,"

59

John xv. 24. " tf I had not


There are fome who teU

&lc.

a docus, that a miracle in atteOation of the truth of


trine,

muft be confidered

this doftrine is in itfelf

and worthy of

manner, fay,

belitf.

as a fanftion to

it,

only if

credible, confonant to reafon,

Thcfe who reafon

in this

fome doftrines are fo contrary or


reafon, that no evidence can be more

that

fo (hocking to

a miracle is wrought, than the


being contrary to the na-^
doftrines
fuch
evidence of
But I look upon this
God.
ture and perfeftions of

plain, even wheil

manner of reafoning
five.

It

to

be very unjuft and inconclu-

tends, in the refult, to fet the reafonings of

men, independent of revelation, above the teftimony


This feems to be the
of God, and revelation itfelf.
pretended
darling theme, not only of infidels, but of
if poffiworfe,
are
who
religion,
revealed
friends to
ble, than infidels themfelves.

It is

eafy to fee that

benefit received
if this is the cafe, there can be no
fanftion that
only
the
are
Miracles
revelation.

by

thefe will
can be ^iven to a revelation ; yet before
reafoners
thefe
be admitted or fuffered to be heard,

muft confider the doftrine itfelf,


whether it is worthy of God and if they fhall be
and any
pleafed to judge that it is not, the miracles,

tell

us, that

w^e

at nought
other evidence that can be given, are fet
to
brought
even
not
matter
the
and
value,
as of no

trial.

This

apprehend

maiiy in the prefent age

to
;

be really the cafe with


it feems to me very

but

and ignorance in the


very little about them,

plain, that fuch is our blindnefs

things of
till

w^ know
known by God himfelf and if
make our own reafon the previous flan-

God,

that

they are made

we were

to

6o

LECTURES oy

Led.

6.

dard of what was admiflible or not in q^ualitj,of revelation,

it

care very

would make mad work indeed. I fliall


what men of vain and carnal minds

little

my fentiments ; but I have been many years


of opinion, that as revelation was neceffary, and re-

faj of

velation

is

given us,

rational part, if

we

we

take

and truly

acl the moil: wife


all

our theological opinions

immediately, and wuhout challenge, from the ora-

of

cles

ilicvv',

tiTith.

confefs

agreeable to

is

it

me

to

that the truths of the everlafting gofpel are

agreeabTe to found reafqn, and founded upon the

human

Hate of
iinefs,

through

mark.

Yet

own

our

nature

my

and

whole

to begin

have made

by making

is to

or examined as a matter of revelation,


to

bu-

the fuggeftion of

what

reafon the flandard of

my

it

illuftrate this re-

life, .to

be heard

look upon

be higlily dangerous, manifeftly unjuft, and

confiflent

with the foundation -ft one of

religion, viz. that reafon, without


to bring us to the knowledge of

and therefore,

reafonable to think that

b!e

how

far

it

and our duty

God

will

would be

"

It is

come down

into

as Socrates faid to Alcibiades,

the world, to teach us his will."

in-

revealed

is infufficient

it,

God

all

am

not infenfi-

juft to carry the principle

on which our adverfaries ground their fentiments.


Any nev/ principles or doClrines, feemingly abfuid
in themfelves, and unholy in their effects,

would

not, with judicious perfons, be rafhly or fuddenly


admitted ; and tlie more fufpicious the principles

are in themfelves, no doubt


prctenfions to

the part of prudence


fav,

we

v/ill

we muft examine

miracles the more


;

carefully.

but to carry

receive no evidence that

it

the

This

is

further, and

God has

taug^Iit

DIVINITr.

te^ft. 6.

any thing

6i

from what we ourfelves thiiik


weakening the truth before adrevelation immediatelj from himfelf is

different

reafonablc,

juft

is

mitted, that

evidently necefTary,
will be faid

It

fibns not

by fome,

that fometimes

preten-

only to revelation, but to miracles, are con-

and deilruclive of each other.

tradictory,

there

may

lipon

it

admit

be fuch a fuppofition made, but

The divine government, that he will not fufFer

things

thefe

without

bs^

to

look

confequence of the wifdom of

as a neceflary

fufficient

any

marks

whereby an impartial inquirer may difcover the difference.


This was the cafe of Mofes and the ma-r
gicians in

many

Egypt

they were fufFered to perform

things iimilar to his miracles, bat

great icperiority v/as to be feen in his


b}"

Txer,

there

was the

ticniiiriy the

doctrine,

fee

may be

this

fubjecl,

points being difcuffed,

flated

and par-

Thefe
what re-

with the greater brevity,

above, into two parts

The

may

of the truth of the gofpel

of the

whole

Bilhop Fleetwood's works.

the greater advantage.

to

and perhaps.

import of miracles as the pioof of a

two preliminary
mains

On

of God.

the

made between them and the


more evident demonftration of

the comparifons

tile fifiger

ftill

ar.d

miracles in behalf

be divided, as hinted

the fulfilling'the prophecies

Old Tell ament, and the miracles during

As

Chrill's perfonal miniflry.

to the

firft

of thefe,

more plain than the faith of believers


bemg pointed, from the earlieft ages, to a Saviour
nothing,

to

is

come.

the

woman

From

the

firft

promife, that the feed of

fhould bruife the ferpent's head, through

i'

62

LECTURES ON

all

the after difcoveries of the divine will, this

Led.

more and more

manifeft, and indeed

6.

was

manifeft, as

it

drew nearer to the fulnefs of time. Their foreknowledge and foretelling of future events, is one
of the moft fatisf^nng kind of miracles, and lead
Chrift

liable to deceit.

was therefore the promifed


hope of

Ifrael, the

into the world.

That he

feed, the delire of all nations, the

prophet that

appeared

come

fliould

at the

time fixed

that he anfwered

prophecies

in the ancient

the chara^ers or defcriptions of

all

the ancient prophets

way

that he did this in a

fo

peculiar, that he plamly fulfilled them, although not

way

in the

the miftakes

them ezpe6t from him,


I

have

ftated,

made

of the latter Jews


is

clearly apparent 3

and as

under the head of prefumptive proof,

their- having departed

from the genuine

promifes, and his appearing in a


their expectations,

fpirit

way

of the

contrary to

only feems to deftroy every fuf-

Impodure could

picion of fraud and impofiure.

not

have been continued and handed down through

many

ages.

Nothing

like this

is to

fo

be feen, or has

ever been heard of in the hiflory of mankind, and


therefore Chrifl, as the MeiTias of the Jews, mull

give the moil favourable reception to

Saviour of the world


ticularly coniider

the d^ys of his

that

Them

flefh.

he appealed

cles

But

have been made above, on

abfolntely conlidered,

tend this part of

were upon

as

the

the miracles Chrift perform.ed in

evidences of his divine miiTion.

marks

him

Here, too, w^e might par-

*.

it.

to as the

after the reth

fubjecl

it

will not be neceflary to ex-

only remark that his mira-

the plaiiieft fubjeds

the windif,

* See Rcddcr's Dnionfii6tion cf the MclLas.

Led.

DIVINITY.

7.

6^

healing the (ick, feeding the multitude, raifing the

The

dead.

heaven.

It

Pharifees

had

l^een

fooliilily

much

their ejes with, the appearance

nary meteor

them

alked a lign from

eafier

in the airy regions,

than to have given

which he actually

the proofs

have dazzled

to

of fome extraordi-

did.

do not

flay to illuilrate the tender and benevolent fubjeft

of

many

of his miracles.

LECTURE VH.

TTTE now proceed to the confequcntial proofs of


^
to

the truth of the Chriiiian religion

fay,

that

is

the circum (lances that have arifen lince the

coming of Chrift

in the fiein,

Mount Calvary.
lowing branches

Thefe
:

I.

and his crucifixion on

I ihali divide into

the fol-

by the

Its incredible progrefs

mofl unlikely means, great extent, and long continuance.

by

The great and valuable etFcls produced


The vifible fulfilment of fcripture pro-

2.

3.

it.

phecies.
I.

Let us confider

its

incredible progrefs.

Im-

mediately after Chrift's afcenfion, his difclples went


into

different

parts of the

truth with a fuccefs

world, and fpread the

altogether aftonilhing.

agreed, I believe, that in lefs than

fifty

It is

years the

gofpel was preached and embraced throughout the


vail extent of the

Roman

does not appear in

its full force,

by what means

empire.

'

This argument

unlefs

we

the effeft was produced.

confider

The

ap-

parent inftruments were only a few fifbermen of


Galilee, without either

power or karning.

One

LECTURES ON

6i
would thJnk

it

Left. 7.

them
more
they were ma-

quite incredible that any of

fhould ever think of forming the defign,


fo, that

they fhould agree

ny and without a head


they

in

it ;

for

and that, though agreed,

That Minos

fliould carry it into execution.

Crete, and

Numa

at

ftill

Rome,

profeiTed lawgivers

heads of their petty inconiiderable tribes,

in

and

fhould

pretend intercourfe with the gods, and procure re-

verence for their decrees, or that they ihould fucceed in their


is

little

But

not wonderful.

thew

dominions for a

v^ery Ihort time,,

Matform

that fuch perlons as

the publican, and his companions, ihould

a defign of fubverting the whole of the old religion,

^nd introducing the new, and fucceed

in it,

alto-

is

The wonder increafes wlien we


confider, that tbefe men were not united under any
fyliem of government among themfelves, further
gether aitoniihing.

than their principles of obedience to their Mailer,

who had left the


them who claimed,
They were

reft.

There was not any of

world.

or pofleffed fuperiority over the

leparated from one another, with-

out any profpect of ever meeting' again on earth.

Yet

that they fhonld agree in

and

their doctrine,

propagate one reh'gion, and that their feparate writings fhould be the harmonious and concordant

and fiandard of that religion,


for without the

dence which

is

power and
over

all

is

'fum

not to be accounted

influence

the eai'th.

of that ProviIt is not to

be

omitted here, that they obtained this fuccefs by

preaching the divinity of a


cified,

man who had been

cru-

the moll odious and contemptible idea that

could be prefented to the

human

have liiought, that as foou

i.^ind.

as Chrift

One would

was

crucified,

DIVINITY.

Lel. 7.
it

would

at

65

once have put an end to

fped and attention

to

This,

him.

further re-

all

moft likely,

it is

his enemies, the high priefts and Pharifees, thought

themfelves quite certain


intent

upon

which made them

of,

crucifixion.

his

:o

cannot help obler-

ving, that fome judicious commentators have ima-

gined that the devil, the great enemy of mankind,

He^ though acquainted

fuppofed the fame thing.


in general

with the end of the Saviour's miiTion, yet

certainly

was not acquainted with every part of the


wifdom, and thought,

defign of infinite

he pre-

if

by the Jews, judged,


by the Romans, he fhould

vailed to have Chrill rejefted

condemned, and

crucified

They

entirely defeat the defign.

meaning of

the

his

fuppofe this to be

triumphing over principalities

and powers, making a

of

flievv

them on

his crofs,

and by death deftroying him that had the power


of death, that

is

the devil.

muft further obferve,

that the whole dodrine of Chrift

oppofed
after

of

it

to

pride

fo

embraced, and there

it is

in

human

any place, a worldly

is

fuccefsful,

fpirit is

The

notwithftanding the

violent oppodtion

The

made

tha%

never at eafe
1 fliall

it.

add

gofpel was then

greateft

and moft

from every quarter.


obferved formerly, were

to

heathen religions, as

fo indeed,

a general profeffiou

endeavouring to corrupt and alter


but one circumftance more.

moft diredly

is

much

it

not fuppofed to be mutually repugnant, and did net


conteiid with

one another

but they

all

contended

with the gofpel, which was indeed their

enemy.

The moft

violent perfecutions were raifed

againft the Chriftians, throughout

empire.

The

common

all

the

Roman

philufophers and learned men,

who

66

r-ECTURES ON

Le(^. 7.

had never contended with the popular


united their force againft

Yet

the divine

religion,

ChrilHan

the

all

religion.

wifdom defeated the counfel of the

wiie, and brought to

nought the underftanding of

the prudent, that no flefh might glory in his prefence.

mufl more particularly obferve, that Julian

who was

the apoftate,

but

alfo the

not only the moft inveterate,

moft wife and able enemy that ever

fet

himfelf in oppoiition to the Chriftian faith, tried to


alTault it in

every

way

that could be thought of; he

found that cruelty and violence would not do, then

he

tried reproach

the philofophers

by

bis writings,

fition

with (o

He

and public (hame.

by

and

his kindnefs,

much

he even attempted the

zeal, that

all

infifting

on the

priefts imitating the Chriftians in their

tified carriage,

But

them

and indeed he carried on his oppo-

reformation of the Pagan religion, by

heathen

encouraged

affifted

mor-

and the charitable care of the poor.

would not do

and he himfelf, by the

cir-

cumftances of his death, proved one of the greateft

means of fpreading the triumphs of the gofpei.

When

all

thefe circumftances, with

ments of which they


ther,

are capable,

the fuccefs of the gofpcl

evidence of

its

is

fay, as the apoftle did,


!"

taken toge

a very

divine original, fo that


**

the enlarge-

are

powerful

we may

well

So mightily grew the word

of God, and prevailed


II.

The

lecond thing to be confidered,

and valuable
is

elFec^s

is

the great

produced by the gofpei.

the greater reafon to

infift

upon

this

There

part of the

fubjed, that enemies have fliewed a great inclination


to

deny or mifreprefent them.

am, however, per-

iuaded, that oa a fair and candid examination, the

DIVINITY.

Left. 7.

67

eifcds of the gafpel will appear to be trulj great,

The

and truly extenlive.

may

the gofpci

efFe5ts of

be confidered in two views, as producing knowled'^e

Now,

and praftice.

fome knowledge

in

did not the goipel introduce


religion

Whoever

will

com-

pare the fyliem of religious belief which prevailed


before, with that

which took place

cation of the gofpel,

after the publi-

will fee the great excellence

and virtue of that difpenfation.

power of

divine light, that

Such 'was the

acluailj in a ihort

it

time baniflied the abfurd polytheifm and idolatry of


the heathen nations.
that

So complete was the vidory,

never has again dared to

it

lift

up

its

head.

The enemies of religion are not now to be ftripped


of Venus and Bacchus, and the whole catalogue of
thofe fiditious deities, the woriliip of

whom,

while

it

claimed to be religion, was nothing bnt a difcipline


of ignorance, vice, and impurity.
The only knowledge of religion which was of value

was

cients,

archal age
ii

and whatever

now

it

filence the

this

head

gofpel,

is

is

particularly remarkable, that

ther view.
the

brought
in

is

the fruit of the

the acquilition of the multitude.

was fomething of

kind

re-

heathen oracles.

it

the knowledge of religion, which

that

name

was an early

of the Chriftian apologifts, that the goipel had

put to

On

the an-

deierves that

borrowed from the gofpel.

mark

among

the remains of tradition from the patrv-

this

There

mentioned formerly

in

ano-

however, repeated notice,


was preached to the poor, and

It defer\-es,

gofpel
light,

not to particular men, but to man-

general.

mechanic or peafant, inftru6led

ia the oracles of truth, has 00

more

jufl

and con.

LECTURES ON

61
notions of

liilent

God,

Left. 7.

his perfeftions, his laws, his

providence, than the moil renowned philofophers of


ancient times.
It is

obferved by fome

when on

this fubjeft, that

the gofpel has introduced the greateft improvements

of hunnan as well as divine knowledge

not but

which depend entirely upon the exertion of human talents and powers, were carried to
as great perfection before, as fince the coming of
that thofe arts

heathen as in the Chriftian world,

the

Ch.rift, in

But natural

fuch as poetry, painting, ftatuary. Sec.

knowledge, or the knowledge of the conftituticn


snd courfe of nature, began with, and increafed by
reli<'-ious

light

all

to the formation

the theories of the ancients, as

and prefervation of the earth

heavens, were childifh and

we

tion
all

trilling.

a..d

revela-

learn the fimple account of the creation of

by the omnipotence of

things out of nothing,

Cod;

From

and perhaps there arc few things more de-

lightful than to obferve, that the lateft difcoveries


in

philofophy have never fticwn us any thing but

what
trine

is

pf^rfc^dly confident

Tliere

and hiRory.

of divines,

be found

w^lio

in

the Bible

but

think

it

one modern
all

human

clafs or

fcience

natural philofophy,

This,

nomy, chronology.
far

is

afhrm that

with the Scripture .doc-

am

afraid,

is

ftd

is

to

aflro-

going too

had not been poflible for any

writer or writers in the age of the facred

penmen,

to have written fo much on the creation of the


world, and its hiftory fince that, without -being

puilty of abfurdities and contradictions, unlefs they

had been under the diredion of an infallible guide.


The next branch of this head is, to confider the

'

Le&i.y,

DiviNicr.

of the gofpel as to praflice.

eftecls

thing

the

firft

and

profeflfed

on thofe

is

aim of the gofpel

who

truly believe

it,

arid

critical

itfelf,

think,

tendency

and

its elTefts

and live according to

charafter of fuch will appear

to be truly admirable, and the


flrift

Here,

to confider the manifeft

The temper and

it.

69

more

examination,

if

fo

upon a very

we

confider the

noblenefs of their principles, the ftriftnefs, regularity,

and univerfality of their pradice, the ufeful-

nefs

and happy

efFedts

heart

Chriftian's

is

of their converfation.

polTefled

by the love of God,

and his will fubje6ted

to the order of his providence.

Moderation and

denial

felf>

tive benehcence,
at all

is

with refpeft

of experience
to be,

nay,

powerful

its

nent piety of the

firft

it is

influence

is

this

certainly matter

hath been, as

it

in gaining the aflent of others

to the truth of the doftrine.

ment, and the

Nor

with regard to others.

matter of mere theory,

ought

his rule

and unfeigned good- will, proved by ac-

to himfelf,

The

vifible

minifters of the

earlieft

and emi-

New

converts, had the

Tefta-

greateft

effed in procuring reception to the principle that

The

produced them.
lives,

general integrity of their

and the eminent. appearance

in

fome of them

of the illuflrious virtues, charity, fortitude and patience,

was

vvh'at

fubdued

all oppofition.

The heathens fometimes reproached one another


by the comparifon, faying, Sec how thefe Chriftians
love one another
How honourable was it, when
!

pne of the apologiits (Ladlantius) was able

Give me

man who

is

w^rathful,

vengeful, and with a few words of


-

Vol. VIII.

to fay.

malicious, re-

God

will

make

LECTURES

70

him calm

lamb

as

tous, niggardly

iii'fer,

Left. 7.

OJi

give

me one

and

that

is

a cove-

give you

will

him

jigain liberal, bountiful,

and dealing out of his mo-

ney by handfuls

me

give

one that

jacks, and

If

we were

culars,

very

invent.

make

to

a comparifon between parti-

apprehend the advantage would appear

juft

of

(hall defpilv;

and the molt dreadful punilh-

croiTss,

you can

nients

fearful

is

pain and of death, and immediate')' he

but

is

it

ofual

comparifon,

ftate the

to

not with regard to thofe that are truly religious,

from the general conduct of thofe

but to take

it

who

the gofpel.

profefs

com^parifon
others.
fee

how

Tuility,

juli,

is

not fure that any

However, we may make it both ways, and


Compare the piety, huwill turn out.

charity, and adive zeal of a real Chrillian,


ftriking charair^ers of ancient times,

fuperiority of the

firll

will

appear.

only fottilh idolatry, but In ft, pride, oltentation,

will appear to tarnith

able degree.
feffion,

men

am

it

with the molt


and the great

Not

but between real believers and

there

many of

the

laft in

But e\en with regard


is

to

a remark-

mere pro-

reafon to fay, that the manners of

are greatly imp>roved, even

where they

are not

fandified.

He who

will confider with attention the

manners

cf ancient nations, will fee great reafon to abate o'


that veneration which his reading their exploits,

recorded by writers of em.inence,


lead hini into.

There are perfons

fnch barbarity, in

many

to

be found of

inltances p'"eva:ling

through

a nation, the cuitom of expoiing their children


in the

cafe of fome, there

as

may fometimes

was fuch ferocity

and
a:id

Lfft. 8.

'

njVINITT.

71

cruelty, either plundering their enemies,

them

for (lives,

in

facking

cities,

as

or felling

would make a

perfon of any humanity Ihudder in reading theni.

RoHin's chara<^er of the ancient Spartans, and President

Goguet's account of the

may

of the ancient ages,

lYianners

general

in

give fome conception oS

this matter.

LECTURE VIIL
'""T^HE
J^

third branch of this head,

of Scripture prophecies.

ment very

f'atisfying to the

is

This

the fulfilling
is

an argu-

mind, and which might

be illaftrated by a great variety of examples. The


Old Teftament prophecies I have had occafion to
confider in a former part of the
Tiot

now

refame, further than

fervation, that there are

fabjetl,

and

by making

this

fhall

ob-

fome prophecies here, which

not only had their completion in Chrift, but conti-

nue

to be fulfilled in the prefent ftate of the

Some

entertaining peculiarities of this kind

world.

may be

writers upon the partition of the


manner of its being peopled. la
Delany's Revelation examined with Candour, there
are fome things well worthy of the attention of a
feen

in

feveral

earth, and

the

and critical reader.


Take one example ;
he mentions the prophecy of TfiimaeL, '* His hand

judicious

fliall

be

againft every

man, and every man's hand

againft him, and he {hall dwell in the prefence of all


his brethren."
filling

at

this

He

fays that this prophecy is ful-

time as well as formerly

poUecity of Ifamael,

who

fettled in

that the

Arabia, are the

71

LECTURES ON

vi'ild

Left. 8.

Arabs, a people that are in a

tion to all the neighbouring

ftate of oppofi-

that they never were fubdued by any of the different princes


that

nations

obtained dominion in different ages in thofe

countries, and

continue unconneded and unfubdued

to this day.

But one of the

chiefefl inf^ances

we have

to take

notice of, on the fubjet of Scripture prophecies,

is

the hiftory and prefent flate of the Jewifh nation.

The

deftrulion of the city and tennple of Jerufalem,

vas prophefied of by our Saviour


(liiHnd and fo particular,

that

gine any thing to exceed

temple

in particular,

he

it is

in

With

it.

a manner fo

not eafy to ima-

regard to the

that there fliould not

faid

remain one flone upon another that fhould not be

thrown down.
the people

He

when Jerufalem

about with armies

moft

precife

defcribes the extreme mifery of

and he

fhould
fixes

be

compafled

the time in the

manner, that that generation fhould not

away till all was fulfilled ai->d, finally, he


warns his own difciples, when certain figns appearThe reality of thofe propheed, to fly for fafety.
pafs

from the time

cies,

the

fa(5ls

in

which they happened,

with which they were conneded,

ar>d

are fo

well eflablifned, as not to be eafily capable of con-

And when we compare

tradiction.

them,

it

is

truly aflonifhing

the event with

as the guilt

of that

people was very great, fo the judgments on thena

were

the mofl fignal, terrible, and lalling, that were

ever inflided on any nation.

Their own hillorian (Jofephns) gives fuch an account of the miferies of the fiege, as

fhocking to read

at tlie

is

painful and

fame time the contentions,

DiviNiT?!

Leit. 8.

f^.

within the walls, and the unrelenting fury with

which they were aninaated one

makes

it

impoflible to confider

light, than as a blinded

another,

againft

them

in

any other

Ano-

and deferted people.

ther circumftance alio vvell worthy of attention

were

that as they had crucilied the Saviour, and

which

particularly defirous to have that punifhment,

was not

him

All

on.

own

commanded

order of Providence

own fervice every


known that Titus,

hang

of the rniideft -men

cv.e

army;

an

io that the

fnpreme

feemed to be forcing

apparent inftrument.
far

to

croil'es

was done under the com-

too

this

make

to

niaiul of Titus Velpalian,

thnt ever

upon

walls ia fuch vaft nutnberSy

wood

that they Vv^antcd

them

one, inflifted

the courfe of that fiege, they were cru-

round their

cified

Roman

a Jevviili but a

fo, in

is,

into its

It is u'tll

from intending the deftruction

of the temple, had the utmoft folicitude to have preferved


friid

it

but

fliould

it

was

all

to

no purpofe,

To

be deftroyed.

tbis head, the Cbriftians, in general,

for

God had

no more

fdd

upoii-

by attending

to

their Maftcr's predictions, and following his advice,

were preferved from the calamity.


BeiiJe

the

dellrudicn

ple of Jerulalem, the

of

the

city

and tem-

Jews themfeives, as a nation,,

continue a Handing proof of the Scripture prophecies.

Their continuing a feparate people, notwith--

ilanding their difperlion

through

all

the earth for

above 17C0 years, and not mixing with other nations,

in

is

an event quite fmgular, that never happened

any other cafe

tural, as

if

fo that

it

appears quite fuperaa-

they were prepared by the providence

G5

LECTURES ON

74
of

God

wait

prove the truth of the MeiTiah, and to

to

converfion

their

till

Left. 8.

fhall

and be, as the Scripture fays,

crown the work,


" life from the

dead."

The

other prophecies in the

their accomplifhraent in

do

alfo afford

New

Teftament, in

the courfe of Providence,

much entertainment and inllruftion


They are principally contained

a ferious mind.

1 (hall

onlj

man

ii.

3.

and exalteth himfelf againft

all

that

fin,

&:c.

The

that the

Who

**

defcribed in 2 ThefT.

of

in

take notice of one, viz. Antlchrifl, or the

the Revelations of St John the Divine.

DOW

to

is

oppofeth

called

God,"

Proteflant writers very generally fuppofe

Pope and Roman Catholic fyfiem of fuper-

flition are the Antichrift

prophei'ied

and indeed

of,

rhey feem Very much to quadrate with the dejirip-

The

tion.

ing "himfelf that he


v.'ith

the

which

The

hood.

is

extravagant pretenfions to infallibility in

that church, and


profit

God, and (hewGod, correfponds furprifingly

the temple of

iittihg in

it

power and

the excefTive fecular


is

intended to bring to the prielU

account in the Revelation, of kings and

princes giving their

power and honour

to the beaft,

and no man being allowed to buy and fell but thofe.


who had the mark of the beaft, correfponds exallv
to the
TViatiy

afr.ingements

ages,

made by

to the ufurped

the Popifb flates for

dominion, and to that

tvianny over confcience which was every where exercifed.

The

defcription

of myftical Babylon, in

the 17th of the Revelations, feems in

quadrate with the

cit}^

of

Rome.

are faid to be leven mountains on


fitteth,

and

in

all

The

refpe6ls to

feven heads

which the woman

the clofe of the chapter

it is

faid^

DIVINIIY.

Le;^h b.
**

And

woman whom

the

you may add

all this

is

that grtat

over the kings of the earth."

city that reigneth

To

75

fawefi-,

l\so\\

that part of the defcriptioii,

was drunken with the blocd of the faints,


which was fo eminently fulfilled in the dreadful
that

(he.

perfecutions for confcience fake which were dldated

by

the antichriftian fpirit, and carried on in the

To

antichriftian ftates.

fiaifli

this parallel, the

two

witnefles v/ho prophelied in fackcloth, are fuppoftd

who

to be thofe
flitions,

never received the Romifli fuper-

the Waldenfes and the Albigenfes in the

Piedmontefe

vallies

by the

hiP.ory of

pears, that their faith aiid worihip

whom

it

ap-

had been the

fame that

it was from the beginning, and the fame


was received and embraced at the Reformation.

that
Tliis

remarkable period

ing which

it

fuppofed to be painted in

is

wound given

the deadly

to the beaft, notwithltand-

did live, and in the

e:it

her

fleih,

and burn her with

After this account,

ten horns

make her

ihould hate the whore and

fcl

eme

of

making

defcribed in the
ftle

fays there are

muft obferve that there are

fay there

is

the

New

Pope

to

Tel^ament

many

fallen in with,

be the Antichrilt

and

as the

an antichriftian

fpirit

every church,

in

catholic church

If this

may

ft ill

is

all

the

admitted, the

be confidered as

the fcene of antichriftian ufuipation, and

put

to

truth ftriving with error, and pride with the

meeknefs of the gofpel.

Roman

app-

antichrifls, fo thefe perfons

or the corrupt part conftantly in oppofition

found

and

lire.

fome Prote ft ant writers who have not


the

which

defolate,

others

upon

gree partake of the

tlicii

fin,

guard,

left

it

ftioul4

they in any de-

and fo expofe themfelves to

LECTURES ON

^6

Left. 8.

the judgment of the great whore.


that there

is

and S

which,

thought of before
church

is

I (hall

only add,

by Meflrs Glas
know, was never

a late opinion advanced


fo far as I

thefe,

an eftablifhed

that

viz.

that whatever has the appro-

Antichrift,

any

bation and authority of the civil government in


flate

interpofed in

behalf, not only

its

be contrary to the

This

gor[)el.

matters to exc-fs, as

intr

Mr

is

inufb

certainly carry-

ufual with intereflcd

what they fappofe

pcrfons, incenfed vj'nh

jurious treatment.

is

may, but

Glas being

cull

to be in-

out of

tlie

church of Scotland, and perhaps by an

eftabliihed

unneceflary flretch of power,

opinion; fo that

do not

fee

fell

into this refentful

how

this feutiment can

be fupported, either from Scripture or rcafon, as

would feem

make

to

it

it

kingdoms

impoiTible for the

of this world, to become the kingdoms of our Lord

and his
thers,

become nurfmg

or for kings to

Clu-iif,

fa-

and queens nurGng mothers to the chufch

but 10 far

eftablifhrnent,

(liall

and

all

tyranny over the confcicnce,

partakes of an anticliriftian
It will

now be

fpirit.

time to coniidiir a

muff be in every

the ob-

little,

jeclions agaiiifl the Chriftian religion.


fee, that there

that an intolerant

readily admit,

infidel

It is

eafy to

writer parti-

cular cavils and exceptions, which are fo numerous,

and
to

fo various

that

mention them

ceptions,
tings,

which

it

would be

in vain

are

to be^ found

and on which they

proper to take notice

of.

in all their wri-

That reafon

is

will be

infill

mofl, that

Two

of thefe have indeed

already been tciken notice of, as they


viz.

to attempt

but there are fome general ex-

it

fell in

the

a fufficient guide to truth

way,
and

DIVINITY.

Left. 8.

77

happinefs, and therefore revelation

is

unneccfTary

and that miracles are impoffible and incredible.

Thefe

what has been

pafs with

on them

faid

above.

third obje6lion

infixed upon,

Chriftian revelation

given in

very

to be

was

why was

necefTary,

world, and fpread through

nations

all

time,

this

it

Why

not

why

was

and

are there fuch vaft regions,

and

the world in general fo long left in darknefs


at

much
If the

extent from the beginning of the

full

its

which ufed

the want of univerfality.

is

fuch multitudes of people, that are without the light


of the gofpel

Many

different anfwers

have been

fome fliewing the extent to


which the gofpel has been carried fome (hewing

given to this objeftion

mercy of

that the

to all nations,

God

through Chrift will extend

proportion to the improvement of

in

the meafure of light afforded them.

hend there

is

much more

fwer to be given to
jelion proceeds

we

it,

But

appre-

eafy and fatisfying an-

which

this,

is

that the ob-

from a groundlefs prefumption that


and

are to judge of all the divine proceedings,

with them, becaufe they do not exactly

find fault

follow the rules which

we

fliould

have prefcribed.

It militates

equally agaiiift natural and revealed re-

ligion.

may

It

as well be aiked,

why

is

not every

man, and every man an angel ? Why is


every
creature as happy as he poffibly could
not
reptile

have been made

Nature and pi-ovideuce are

inflruclive analogy

upon

this

fubjec^.

full

Why

of

was

not the earth peopled as early and as fully as poffible

Why

America

w^ere the vaft tra6is of fruitful land in

fuffered,

for

fo

many

ages, to be a wild

LECTURES ON

7^

Left. S.

inhabited by wolves and tigers, and a few

foreft,

men almost as
much farther,
which appears

as

fierce

they

Nay, we may go

why was

and afk,

to be only near

not the world,

6000 ytars

ted millions of years before that period

old, crea*

The

and proper anfwer to every fuch quelHon


foive

into the fovereignty of

it

God

to re-

is,

He

true

hath a

right to

beitow^ his mercies in the time, manaer,


and meafare, that feem good unto himfelf.
With

regard to the difliculty about creation, feme have


-

attempted to aflame a neceflity that every thing

in

place

its

is

neceflary as an

as

angel

is

worm

necelTary to the good of the whole, and fo a

and one

writer has attempted to prove, that the world could

not have been created any fooner, becaufe, though

were now a million of years


the quertion would

fliil

old,

remain

but this

wading beyond our depth, and ufing words


if

we

affix

any

precife,

it

With

is

to

miiH: be allowed

not a complete or adequate idea.

it

inftead of 6occ,

only

which,

we have

refpefl:

to

the time of the publication, and the extent of the

progrefs of gofpel light, or even the numbers that

by it, I would fay, ** Even fo, Father,,


feemed good in thy fight ;" and I would

are benefited
for

fo

it

particularly obferve, that fl:ating this


tion againd

tlie

truth of the gofpel,

is

as an. objec-

forgetting the

great and fundamental doftrine of the gofpel, that


all

men

and that

are under
fendinyf

fin,

and liable to the divine wrath

Chrid

into the world

free and fovcreign grace.

mercy

brought
of

If,

to thofe that are faved,


agai'itt it

an

is

therefore,

it

a<Sl

of

be really

no objeilion can be

from the number or circumilancei

tholv^ that periib.

DIVINITY.

....ecl.^.

4.

Another great objedion

that

i?,

it

many who have

of leligion, and the

thir.k

may

no argument ufed by

is

on religious

fet forth in all the force

have been

There

died in the field,

a fcafFold or ftake

and been brought to

guage.

infidels delight to enlarge.

conteOs that liave been upon the fnbjecl

fierce

Ticcounts,

This

which was before unknown.

an argument on which

The

Chriftianity

againll

introduced into the world perfecution for

coi-fcience fake,
is

79

be more

ealily refuted,

of lanthat

ir.iideis

or rather,

in-

ed, be etreOually turned again ft thernfelves than

In the

rls.

place,

firil

it

is

a plain accomplifli-

raent of our Saviour's predidion, "

come

to

Think not

fend peace on the earth."

Now,

am

if this

never happened before upon a religious account,


V hich the argumeiit fappofes, by
forefee

lie

But

after

it

we

liave

the

ferve, that

gone thus

far,

we

are; ilill

not infiiiing

it.

It

fctke,

ob-

to

Chriilian religion in no other

introduced perfecution for cor.fcienre


fuflering,

means ibould

v^^hat

but by a preternatural knowledge

way

than

was perfecuted

by
by

Tews and Gentiles with U'lreleating fury for 500


Is
vears after the coming of Chrift in tlie fiefh.
there any

body

opens the Bible, that does not

tlsat

fee that perfecution

is

not taught there

It wijl

be

faid, that in after ages CliiilUans perfecuted Chri-

ftians,
]

anfwer,

vail

much rage
that ma iter be

with as
if

be found,

tliat it

that perfecuted the

everv

ap-e.

There

is

as the heathen ever did.

carefully looked into,

was the

meek

fpirit

of the

believers in

it

Vv'orld

Chrift, in

a remark of a certain w^riter,

that the perfecution carried on againft: theProtefcantij


in France,

was not by

bigots,

and thofe under the

LECTURES oy

8o

power of

but by thofe

fuperftition,

But

this is not fo great

it is

but feldom that perfons

a rarity as he imagined, for

who

neft about religion themfelves,

pofing others

at

judge,

railily

who were low

and had no religion of any kind.

iQ their principles,

can

Letl. 9.

any

rate

much

much

manife(},

it is

lefs

are

in eaf-

are concerned in op-

that

perfecute others,

none

if

they

attend to the dodrine of the gofpel.

LECTURE
Of the

IX.

Do6lrine of the Tritiity,

highly neceflary that ftudents of diviniITtyfeems


fliould give particular attention to this fubjecl, as

who
as

relates to the

it

the objetl of our worfhip and trufl.

is

demption,

form

its

importance

firft

endeavour

clearly as poilible,

what

believe on the fubje^l, as

cannot

tliis

and

to ftate, as briefly

the Scriptures teach us to

fummed up

tellant confeffion, dillinguilhing it

in

the

Prc-

from oppoiite

er-

and afterv/ards give a fuccin6l view of the

rors,

The

proofs.

two branches
ture

We

apparent.

without being explicit upon

tisfa6lion of Chrifl,

X.et us

is

and indeed hardly any, of the fa-

juft notions,

head.

Indeed,

nearly conne6iei with the do6lrine of re-

fo

it is

God

very nature of the true

2.

may be
The unity

do(^lrine
;

i.

briefly

fummed

of the

divine

in

na-

The

Trinity of perfons in the divine ef-

The

unity of the divine nature.

fence.
Firft,

there

is

but one

God,

infinite,

eternal,

That

unchange-

Lea.
able,

DIVINITT.

9.

The

indivifible.

been the capital

Old Teftament

Godhead

unity of the

greatly infifled on in Scripture.

is

feems to have

It

article of revealed truth

under the

difpenfation, in oppoiition to the va-

The firft commandment of


Thou (halt have no other god J

nities of the Gentiles.

the decalogue

before

me

God

and again, Deut.

;"

Lord our God

Ifrael, the

of

'*

is,

is

upon

The

g'lory to another,

to graven images.

The

unity of

glory

this fubjecl, that

he will not give his


.

" Hear,

4.

one Lord."

particularly aflerted

is

vi.

nor his praife

God

feems to be

the grand article of natural religion, clearly fup-

ported by reafon, from the impoflibility of fuppofing


infinite perfection to rcfide in

as well as

more than one fubjed,

from the harmony and unity of the de-

lign that appears in the univerfal fyftem.

This part

of the fubject fuffers no difficulty which arifes from

the addition of the other particular frooi revelation,


viz.
ill

That

2.

unity of the divine nature, and

in this

a perfect confiftency with

dlftinflion
fc(5t

exiftence a plurality.

there
is

ufed to call

would be wrong

i!

in

a full and adequate idea of

is

faid

to

For

it,

in the

in
in

The

the

Eng-

ancient
It

becaufe indeed

upon the

it

language of infpira-

be the Father, the

to difpute

their reafon,

it

t|? vroTao-ei^.

Son, and the Holy Gholl or Spirit.

men began

call

to contend that either of thefe give^i

incomprehenfible.
it

and yet

We

Greek,

a threefold

is

the moft per-

Godhead.

three perfons in. the

fathers

tion

it,

other words, there

fimplicity and unity of nature,

mode of
liih,

in

Word or the
As foon as

fubjeCl, and exercife

imagination, or invention upon a mat-

VoL. VIH.

^2

LECTURES ON
mere

ter of

revelation,

Left. 9.

was foon done by the

(as

mixture of Platonic philofophy with the Itudy of


the Scriptures} they

fell

into various oppofite errors,

of them conftan^ly condemned and oppofed by the confent of orthodox


Some faid there was no diflinftion at "all
writers.
in the divine Being, only he was reprefented in different lights, and made knov/n by different names,
"which however were

all

as Handing in diiierent relations to us.

believe,

was the

Sabellius, I

author of this doftrine, and

firft

they were afterwards called from him Sabellians,

and fometimes Paticpafnans, from the confequence


of that doclrine, that the Father, as nuich as the

Son, muft have

went

fuiFered

upon the

Others

crofs.

the oppofite extreme, and fuppofed there

to

are three wholly

diftind):

and independent, but con-

Neither of thefe have ever been

cordant Beings.

the general fentlm-ents of Chriftian divines

them

I think any of

or reafon.

We

find

in

pofitive afiertions of the

Scripture moft

unity of

God

hand, and en the other, a real plurality

There

fpefts.

is

common,

get the Son, to fend the Son

clear

feme

in

faid to proceed

folemn benedidion
our Lord

is In

Jefus Chrift,

Father

is

faid to be-

Holy Ghoft.
Some time
calling

name and

S])irit,

and the

the grace of

and the communion of the

before the Council of Nice, Arius fet

on foot his notions of the


.Spirit,

from the Father

the

re-

and the Son to piay

to the Father, to promife and to fend the


is

and

on the one

peculiar, and recipro-

The

cal, but diilind agency.

which

nor do

at all agreeable to Scripture

is

inferiority of the

Son and

them, either properly or improperly.

DIVINITY,

Lccl. 9.
I ufe

creatures.

the

word improperly, becaufe there

were lome, efpecially

who

Arians,

in l.nter times,

but, at the fame time,' as an eter-

In oppofition-to

from an eternal caufe.

effe(^

called refined

refpecled the Son as dependent in the

order of nature
nal

83

Arius, the Council of Nice alTerted the Son to be


truly and properly

God, of one fubftance with the

Lad

of all

who

denied

Father, felr-cxiiteat and mdepeudent.

came the Pelagians and the

Socinians,

the divine nature of Chrift altogether, and aiTerted


that he

was only a man.

Thefe opinions,

as doing

the utmoft violence to Scripture, and overthrowing


the

whole dodrine of redemption, defer ved to be

utmoA

treated with

the

are Arians at

bottom much

ference between
Dieanell,

vaniflies

the

abhorrence.

mod

better,

Nor

indeed

becaufe the dif-

exalted creature and the

when compared with

altogether

th^ difference between the mightieil order of created


beings and the true God.

The whole economy

of our falvation teaches us

the neceflity of attending to and believing this doctrine

but

fee

neither neceflity nor propriety in

endeavouring to dip into the mode of

tempting

to

explain

it.

If

it

it,

and at-

be a myftery, and

above our comprehenfion, every attempt to explain


it

mufi: be, if not criminal, yet unfuccefsful.'

indeed this

is

relates to

God, or

fedion.

The

revealed truth,

fummg

to

And

the cafe with almoil every thing that


is

wifeil
is

connected with the divine pcF-

way

for us,

to receive

it

be wife above what

with regard to

all

as revealed, not preis

written.

do not mean by this to condemn the Council of


Nice, for though there may not be a great deal in
1

^4

LECTURE'S ON

Led.

9.

fome of the expreflions ufed by them, their onlj


meaning was to exprefs tlieir difapprobation of the
opinion of Arius, which was certainly fubverfive of

But I apprehend we
condemn the making emblems of this

the proper divinity of Chriil.

ought

to

truth, fuch as a triangle infcribed in a circle.


at leaft

is

pernicious

of no ufe, or more probably

and indeed

attempting to explain
is

it

by the

no way

fafe

when

the Trinity

power,
It is

intelledt

think

for

an example,

fuppofed to correfpond with

is

and

of created

pov.^ers

or proper, although

men

done by fome very worthy

always
a direct

it

commandment; nay,

breach of the fecond

intelligences,

it is

fhould think

This

will, in the

human

nature.

not the ufual way, on moft fubjels, to intro-

duce or anfwer objections, before propofing the


proof

yet

believe

it

we

thod on the fubjedt

will be the

are

ficulty hei'e does not arife

now

moft proper me-

ftroy prejudice,

all

what ob-

will be beft to confider

it

the

lie in

reducible to one

way

of the dolrine

the rather,

objedions to the doftrine

that

it

is

itfelf are

contrary to reafon,

fard, inconceivable, or impoflible.


to

from the power

In order, therefore, to prevent or de-

of prejudice.

indeed, that

dif-

from the weaknefs, uncer-

tainty, or obfcnrity of the proof, but

jedions

The

treating.

ib-

It is furprifing

think with what infolence and triumph fome have

pretended to treat this fentiment, faying


tradidion that
the tame time.

God

it

is

a con-

fhould be both one and three at

But notwithftanding the great conto the truth talk upon

fidence with which enemies


this

fubjeft, I

am

fincerely of opinion,

that their

oonadence never could be more mifplaced.

Let

ij^

examine the

men

trattcr

When

cc^^y and impartially.

Ipeak or a thirg as agalnll reafon, and yet pre-

tend to believe in revelation, the meaning muft be,


tliat it is fo

that

manifeftiy abfurd and felf-contradi<5lory,

no proof can fupport a revelation which con-

tains

it.

But

order to this,

in

altogether within

judgment

if

other wife, the

nus of reafon
;i

^aiuft it.

nothing

is

Tiie

(lace

ii-fl

at

muft be a thing

.it

of our reafon and

the conipafs

unexperienced dicneither

all,

for

nor

cf nature and experimental

philcrophv did fcaicely ever iliew things to be what

men imagined them


derful that

before; neither

is it at all

revelation (liould inform us of

The

oould not have fufpeded.

.on of fyftematical d:^ines,

is

far

common

ebfcure or improper, that things

may
it.-

this exprefilorr,

above reafon^

diflinc-

from being either

fon, and yet not contradictory to

By

what we

ufe of revelation

Therefore the

indeed implies this.

won-

be above rea-

may

be under*

power of reafon to
flood two things
beyond
dlfcover, and above the reach of reafon to comprehend.
In the firli fei-fe it would be abfurd to controvert it, and even in the other, if it was carefully
the

attended to, and prejudice laid afide, tliere would be


lirtle difficulty.

put more in

tiie

be contained in
cifely this,

we

The enemies
idea than
it.

The

is

of the truth always

intended,

juii flatement

believe a fal which

is

or ought to

of

it is

pre-

fuDy proved

and authenticated, altliough there are fome circum-

and confequences, that we do


There are many things in theolo-

Itances, as to its caufe

not underftand.
gical,

mora], and natural knowledge, in which the

85

LECTURES ON
very fame.

cafe is the

believe that

and that there are

rit,

Left. 9.

God

from God, wholly unembodied, and yet


obfcure and indiftinl ideas,
all,

of what a

fpirit is,

if

have very

any idea properly at

and the manner of

CarteSans believe that a

tion.

fpirit

fame place

which, by the bye,

opera-

its

has no exten-

and that a hundred thoufand of them

lion,

in the

a fpi-

is

alfo created fpirits different

may

be

an exam-

is

which men talk upon fubwhich they do not uriderftand for, according

ple of the abfurdity with


je^Vs

to them, place

and therefore
a place,

is

a relation

it is

incompetent to a

as abfurd to fay that a fpirit is in

as that three are in the

v/hole niHtter

is

The

fame place.

above our comprehenfion, and no

make me

n?-n can

fpirit,

underftand, either

how

diftinct

fabliances can occupy the fame place, or even the

Newtonian opinion,

that a fubftance, fimple and in-

From which it is
may be many circumilances

can be in every place.

ch vilible,

demonllrable, that there


relating to things
thatr are ta

of great

moment and

us totally incomprehenfible.

certainty,

In n^atural

things I believe, that the feed rotting in the ground


is

mean

of producing the blade of the future

but

you

the

iralk

if

aik nie

how

this is done,

or

how

the moifl earth can have any influence eicher on the


mortification

about

or the growth, I

Therefore, though
unity

nothing

we

fay that the

it,

i-s

may

abfurd or contrary to reafon


fay rather

it

is

we
;

in

fay

fo far

confonant to reafon

and the analogy of nature, that there (hould be


thi.igs

at all

Trinity in

incomprehenfible, or above reafon,

is

nothing that

from

know

it.

the divine nature that

we

many

cannot fully

divinitV.

Left. 9-

many fuch things in his


much more in his effeuce.

There

comprehend.

are

providence, and furely

But when our


fubjeft,

adverfaries

are

they fay fometimes

it is

henfible myftery

we

contradiction that

God

know

But

this

and

are,

We

we know

three cannot be one, or one

is

owing

is

this

but an apparen-^

fhould be three aad one.

very well what numbers

three.

upon

prefled

not an incompre-

find fault with,

perfeclly, whatever

87

to great inattention, or

great obftinacy.

We

do not fay there are three

Gods and

God

pcrfon

yet one

three perfons and yet one

or that the divine Being

fame

fenfe and refpeft that he

there

is

but only that

apprehend great referve and felf-denial

our duty on this

faid,

three in the

is

one

a dillinflion, confillent with perfect unity of

nature.
is

is

why

fubjeCl:.

It

has fometimes been

we doubt whether there can be


one nature, when we ourfelves are

fhould

three perfons in

an example of an incompreheniible union of this nature in our perfons.


illuftration,

and credible,

carried farther,

Upon

have no objedion
it is

the whole,

tion againft this

and be ready
lation of

If this be

to

it

is

but

pofBble
if it

be

improper

ai;jd

we ought

to confider the objec-

dodrine

as

dangerous.

altogether ill-founded,

to receive, with all humility, the reve-

God upon

this fubjeCl, jufl as

pleafed to communicate

The

ufed merely as an

and to ihew that the thing

he has been

it.

fecond thing to be attended to

is

the pfoof

of the do6trine, as contained in the holy Scriptures,

On

this I will juft

very (hortly confider the Scrip-

tare proof of the Trinity in general, and then, at

fomc more length, point out the proofs of the proper

8^

LECTURES ON

deity of Chrift the Son

Led.

upon which

tural to fuppof5, the controverfy hath

as

lafl:,

is

9,

na-

always chiefly

turned.

I.

to

The proofs of the Trinity in general may be taken,


From the form of baptifm we are commanded
baptize in the name of the Father, and of the
;

Son, and of

As
all

converts,

Holy Ghoft.

tiie

bapiifm
it

the initiating profefiion taken from

is

feems evidently to point

at the great-

Neither do

objeft of wordiip and obedience.

1 ft e

how it can be accounted for, that the Son and


Holy Ghoft fnould be clalied and put upon th.e fame
at all

footing with the Father, but upon the fuppofition of

And

this truth.

indeed their very defignation leads

us to an equality of rank;

name

of .God, and the

hum.an name, but


.

in

the

the Son.

Thofe who

v.'ill

tentively,

will find

fight

appeared.

Ghriftianity, the

whom

then

thofe in

is

it is

name of

more

in
is

it

Father, Son, and

matter at-

than perhaps

is

at

fir ft

certainly the badge of

made

whofe name we were

God

name
or his

the Father and

With

of God's covenant.

a covenant

fore xiuv covenant

the

in

X'^az-iretli,

conGder- this

Baptifm
feal

not faid,

of Jefus of

Doubtlefs with

bapt!7,ed,

and there-

moil fully dtfcribed by

Holy Ghoft.

To

this

you rnay

add, that-the apoftle Paul feemed plainly, in the

firft

epiflle to the Corinthians, to conlider baptifm as

pointing at fomething very different from any relali6n that a minifter could fuPain.

15. ''Is

Chrift divided?

you?" &:c.
2. The proof

Was

Cor.

i.

15, 14^

Paul crucified for

of the Trinity in general

may

taken from the form of foiemn benedidlou

be

the

DIVINITY.

Left. 10.

love of

Cod

89

the Father, the grace of our Lord Jcfus

Chrifl, and the

communion of

with you

As

all.

are taken in as the

in the

the

Holy Ghoft, be

former inftance, the three

objed of worfhip and obedience,

here they are plainly conjoined as the fource of


bleffednefs.
3.

The proof

may

of the Trinity in general

taken from an exprefs paffage of Scripture,


V. 7.

*'

There

are

three

be

John

that bear record in hea-

ven," &c.

LECTURE

WE

come now
Trinity from

the proofs of the proper deity

On

of the Son

little

For

very

becaufe, if this

this reafon

was admitted,

it

we

find, that
it

ever fince the

has been

firft ftart-

and warmth on both fides.


it muft evidently appear an

moment

to both.

naged by Arians"

till

of late years.

there are but very

number of

article

muft obferve,

however, that the controverfy has been

me

with

This was to

of the utmoft

greater

would

litigated

be expe6ted, as

to

has

the divinity

firft,

purpofe to object againft the other.

ing of the controverfy,


great zeal

this the controverfy

and efpecially the

be

to

prove the dotrine of the

to

of the Son and Spirit.


chiefly turned,

X.

chiefly

Now

it

ma-

feems

few proper Arians, the

the oppofers of the truth are So-

cinians.

You

are

not to expefl that

fhould go through

the whole of this controverfy, which has been carried to fo great a length

the paflages. of Scripture

LECTURES ON

99
adduced on both

would fuppofe

Let. 10.

more numerous than we

fides are

and the criticifms, objections and

You

anfwers, are exceedingly voluminous.

muil needs be

fay, then, the controveriy

The confequence

obfcure.

ever there

The

out a dilpute.

men

mentioned

to

perpkx and lengthen

great matter

is

the objection

preceding difcourfe.

in the

oiice fully fatisfied that

this

and

whenone way,

for

a llrong bias and inclination

is

eafy for ingenious

it is

not juft

is

will

dJfTicult

thing

is

If

men be

not impoffible

or incredible, and be willing to affent to the account

God

of the nature of

own word,

in his

certainty in

without prejudice, as

do not think there

I Ihall ftate

it at all.

to

Hands

it

any un-

is

you the chief

heads of any importance that have been ufed.


1.

The name

of

God

and his titks, the


given

raofl:

tranfcendent

and

Through

Old Teftament, the name of Jehovah

the

peculiar,

are

to

Chrift.

given to one

or Lord, but particularly the

firft,

who

and the angel of the

is

often called an angel,

covenant
rgl

>

and by

my

The

xvi. and

Gen.

xiii.

angel

who

that appeared

are both called

an angel

father,

is

faid to

th.'

law on Mount
38. that

it

on mount

the

faid

un-

appeared

to

Ilagar,

Jacob

at

Bethel,

to

God.

God

of Ifrael,

Sinai, and yet

was an angel
Sinai,

In Exodus, chap.

have appeared lo Mofes at

the bulb, and yet this angel fays,

your

feve-

This, therefore, muft be underftood

Gen.
iii.

in

God

the iieth Pf^lm, " The Lord

Lord.'*

of Chrift.

manner of fpeaking

muft be diflinguifhed from

paiTages,

Father, as in
t.

this

is

I am the God of
who delivered the

Stephen fays, Adls

that fpoke unto

vii.

Mofes up-

and wa^ with the fathers

bu:

DIVINITY.

Lel. 10.

what

fcrves to apply

mod

precife

with

many

manner,

Cor. X. y.

Numb.

In the

xxi. 8.

the

faid, that

firft it is

If-

tempted God, and fpake again it God, and

raelites

therefore he fent

that

of thefe pafTages in the

comparing

is

9*

among them

fiery ferpents.

In the other paffage the apoltle Paul aflfirmeth, that

was Chrift

tliis

them

of

*'

Let us not tempt Chrift, as fome

and were dellroyed of


ii. I2. " Thou art

tempted,

alfo

See farther, Pfalm

-pents."

Son, this day have I begotten thee."


'"

Thy

throne,

God,

which palTagethe
Heb. i.
O God,

may

'*

8.

"

Again,

fays,

Uzziah died,"

This

&.c.

exprefsly applied to Chrift by the apoftle

xii.

41. when, having cited the pafTage, he

Thefe things

faid Ifaiah,"

hardly any writing

is

by comparing

but,

the defcription

from the beginning,

is

''^

there

thy throne,

Another proof

22.

viii.

in Ifa. vi.

In the year that king

palTage

John,

faith,

and ever," Stc.

be taken from Prov.

of wifdom.

Paul applies to Chrilt,

apoftle

But unto the Son he

for ever

is

my

Plal. xlv. 7.

and ever," &.c.

for ever

is

fer-

it

The

&c.
the

in

trutli i?,

Old Teilament

New, we may draw

with the

a proof of the divinity of Chrift.

The

2.

Chrift

is

thing

God,

itfelf,

is

the

propofition

that

Jefus

contained in the moft explicit

terms, not in one, but in

many

places of Scripture

not ia figure, but in plain, fimple language, John


I.

"In

6.

'

the beginning

Who

being

in

was

t,he

word,"

the form of

robbery to be equal with God," &c.

and

my Father

*'

is

the true

*}cfs

to

God

mention

are one."

and eternal
all fetches

life."

and

&.c.

Phil.

God, thought
John
It

John

it

i.

ii.

not

x. ^o.
*'

This
would be endv. 20.

imao-inatio:?* of

mea

LECTURES ON

91

Led.

10.

under the power of prejudice, to evade thefe texts

but

tioned

Cleave

Whether

fay.

only call to your mind what was before men-

and

either fide of the queftion,

to

or not the Scriptures have plainly af-

firmed Chrifl's divinity

It is

not only the affixa-

but the reafoning upon ibme of them, that

tions,

And

fixes the fenfe, as in the Philippians.

affirmation,

'*

my

and

Father are one,"

that

in

it

un-

is

him in that fenfe,


" They immediately took up ftones
It has been often faid by reato ftone him," &:c.
foners upon this fubje^l, fuppoling it was the defign

deniable that the Jews underftood


for

added,

it is

of the Scripture to afhrni the divinity of Chrifl,

it

does not appear what plainer or ftronger words could

have been ufed.


3.

The moft

of the true
tion

diftinguifhing and eflential attributes

God

are given to Chriil.

fhall

men-

only his eternity, immutability, omnifcience,

omniprefence, and omnipotence.

It is not eafy to

conceive any attribute incommunicable,

if thefe

are

not.'

Eternity- feems plainly to be afcribed_to him,

Prov.

viii.

22.

Rev.

paflage, Mic. v. 2.

i.

''

8. &.c.

Whofe

and

the

in

famous

goings forth have been

Indeed

of old from (i.) everlafting."

reckon the

frequent appellation of Jehovah as a fufficient proof

of this

the

',

exiftence,

(2.)
*'

word

Exod.

iii.

is

derived from what fignifies

14.

John

Immutability, Heb.

i.

viii.

58.

Heb.

10.

Jefus Chrift the fame yefterday,

xviii.

8.

to-day, and for

ever."
(3.) Omnifcience.

John xvi. 30.

"Now we

fure that thou knoweft all things ;" and again,


xxi. 17.

*'

Lord, thou knoweft

all

are

JoJm

things," &:c.

Led.

DIVINITY.

10.

93

remarkable, that the knowledge of tHe heart

It is

aflerted in feveral paiTages to diftinguifh the true


I

Kings

viii.

39.

the hearts of
xvii. 10.

"I

all

is

God

Thou, even thou only knowelt

'*

men

the children of

and John

;"

the Lord fearch the hearts and try

the reins," &c. yet this very perfedion our Lord

claims to himfelf. Rev.


that he

teftifies

knew what was

knew

23. and the apoftle

ii.

men, John

all

man, John

in

ther confirmed, iv. 12, 13.

25.

ii.

ii.

John
and

is

fur-

this

The word

**

24.

God,"

of

&c.
(4.) Omniprefence.

two
&c.

Matt,

or three are gathered together in

Matt, xxviii. 20. " Lo,

ways,"

(5.) Omnipotence.
cenfift."

John

am

3.

**

Col.

Creation

i.

is

17.

'*

By him

**

" By

and the world

whom

was made by him." Heb.

i.

2.

made

i.

15, 16, 17.

the world."

ment from

all

Chrift,

to

All things were made by him," &c.

Col.

the image of the invifible


creation

and great relation

is

we

God," &c.

very flrong.

fland under to

*'

alfo

he

Who

i^

The arguIt is

the

firft

God, nor caa

conceive any thing that more properly, or in a

more
.

name,"

with you al-

afcribed

and in the fame chapter, verfe i.

we

Where

my

&.C.

thing's
i.

*'

xviii. 23.

diftinguifliing

manner, charaderizes the true

God, who pleads it fo often, to diftinguifh himfelf


from the vanities of the Gentiles, Pfal. xix. i. '* The
heavens declare the glory of God, and the firmament flieweth his handy-work."
5.

The

Chrift,

fifth

may

and

laft

proof of the divinity of

be taken from divine worfhip

VoL.VIIL

beinf'-

LECTURES o^

^4

Left.

1 1

commanded to be given to him, and being accepted


bj him without reproot, when it is exprefsly rejected by the inferior miniflers of Providence.

commanded t(5
" The Father himfelf

be given

5.

him, John

to

iii.

man."

jiidgeth.no

It is

22, 23.
Phil.

ii.

Wherefore God hath highly exalted him,"


It is aAually given hinrj by the wife men.

*'

See.

Matt.

ii.

by the

II,

Matt.

rulers of the (ynagogiie,

by women of Canaan, Matt. xv. 25. by the


difciples in general, Ma:tt. xx. 3. and you fee that
worfhip is rejeded by an angel. Rev. xxii.> 8, 9.

V. 8.

LECTURE
Proceed

the

thing necelTary here,

of the Spirit

that he

itance, and not

The name
or breath.

confider the proofs of

rioxv fhortly to

divinity of the

Holy

iirfl

to eOablifh the perfonality

is

properly a perfon or fub-

merely a power,

is

The

Spirit.

is

of fpiiit, in
It

XI.

all

gift,

or qualijfication.

languages,

fignifies

fuppofed this word

is

a wind

chofen to

reprefent divine things, or the divine nature, becaufe


it

bears fome refemblance to what

yet

infinitely

powerful.

The wind

is

unfcen, and

is

made

ufe of

Holy Ghofl:, and to lignify angels


men, and alfo the gifts and graces
That when the Holy Ghoft is fpoken

to reprefent the

and the
of the

fouls of

Spirit.

meant, as diftinguiOied

of, a perfon or fubflance is-

from

ayiy grace

or qualification he

beflovv,

may

paflfages

of Scripture.

be eafily

made

to

lliall

may

poflefs or

many

"And

I will

John xW.

pray the Father, and he

'

appear from
i6.

give

you another

Le(^. II.

BiviNiTY.

Comforter, that he

may

95

abide with yon for ever,

even the Spirit of truth,

whom

receive."

"When

truth

is

John xvi.
come," &c.

13.

Cor.

^s all

thok

alfo proves the

paflTages that

fame thing,

The

as well

fpeak of giving the Spirit

reiifting the Spirit, &:e.

That the Koly Ghoft


I

he the Spirit of
4. " There are di-

fame Spirit," &c.

ver fity of gifts, but the

form of baptifm

xii.

the world cannot

is

truly and properly God,,

think appears with great evidence from the form

of baptifm,

now

that w^e have fully proved the di-

vinity of Chrift, whofe perfonality

The Holy Ghoft

we

cannot doubt..

being joined with the Father and

the Son, carries the ftrongeft convi61ion with

he

may

thing

be. faid

it

that

The fame

of the fame nature with both.

is

of the form of folemn benedic-

tion..

The

Ads

and Sapphira,.

We

^c.

Holy Ghoft feems

divinity of the

blilhed in

**

where Peter

v. 3.

Why hath

might

alfo

from

Satan

filled

be

to

fays to

efla-

Ananias

thine heart,"

feveral paftages ftiew the

divine attributes given to the Spirit, as omnipotence^

Pfal.cxix.
&.C.

eth

"Whither

all

fliall

Omnifcience, Cor.

ii.

10.

go from thy Spirit,"


" The Spint fearch-

Son

God;" nay,

things, even the deep things of

creation feems to be afcribed to

Gen.

i.

2.

it is

faid,

*-*

him

as well as the

the Spirit of

God mo-

ved upon the face of the waters," and Job xxxiii. 4.


** The
Spirit of the Lord hath made me, and the
breath of the Almighty hath given

There were

in

me

life."

the ancient churches confiderable

controverfies about the expreilion of the articles of


faith

upon

tins fubjeft.

The very words

of Scrip-

LECTURES ON

$6

John xv. 26. are,


from the Father. He is

ture,

that the Spirit proceedeth


alfo called the Spirit of the

Son, and the Spirit of Chrift,


xiv. 6.

Phil.

i.

14.

Pet.

i.

Therefore the ulual


all

Luke
way of

xvi. 7. Gal. iv. 6.

Rom.

11,

and the Son are faid to fend the

John

Left. II.

Spirit,

John xv. 26.

xxiv. 49.

fpeaking, and that in

the ancient fymbols and confeflions

Son

is

that the

is,

begotten of the Father, and the Holy Ghoft

proceedeth from the Father and the Son.

one

prefume

fliould

If

to inquire farther into the

any

mean-

afK the difference between being begotten

ing, or

and proceeding,
confefs

Gal.

viii. 9.

both the Father

my

fhould willingly and cheerfully

ignorance, and that I believe

all othersi,

are equally ignorant, and that every attempt to fay

more than

a6tually contained in Scripture,

is

is

not

There was a very vio-

only impoffible but hurtful.


lent difpute

between the Latin and Greek churches*

whether

was proper

it

to fay the

Holy Ghoft pro-

ceeded from the Father and Son, or from the Father


only.

The whole

whole Latin churches

current of antiquity,

and the

are for the former, as well as

the Proteftants in general

but

it is

not a

modern

cont rover fy.


I

proceed

to

confider

againil the reafoning

fome of the objeflions

abov^e,

the criticifms or particular

and unlefs
texts,

reduced to the reafoning on the

they

titles

I enter int^

may

be

all

and attributes.

fome of the higheft titles wtre not


given to the Son, as the Higheft or Moft High, the
Almighty or Supreme over all, one God and Father
But it is
of all, one God of whom are all things.

They objed

that

eafy to anfwer, that none of thefc titles are greater

Ltd:, 12.

more

or

DIVINIT'/.

diflinguKliing than, as has been fhewn,

are

afciibed to Chrift, fuch as the

alfo

mighty, and

God

have recourfe

to

a^A'riy

over

to the

and the

title

mcaneft quibbles to interpret


for the exprellion

one God, the Father, of

things, they are plainly ufed

/?y

whom
whom
The

T)ed

are all things, and Oive

him

power of

cpt the

:or

are all

God

the Father,

Lord Jefus

Clirift,

granted their

iucli an

as

way, fuch

titles are afcri-

objedion as

Tn^y muft

prejudice.

own

this,
firft

extake

fentiments, before they can

ncrceive any. fuch thing


are fuch

fuch

tliat

is,

lower fcnfc than to the Father.

in

Nothing cordd fogged


'

whom

are all things.

other cbjeclion

to

one God,

a difhibution of

in

perfonal afts or prerogatives, one


o/"

Al-

So that they are obliged

all.

As

thefe texts.

do

fome of thofe men-

really belong to Chrift, and tliat

tioned

97

beildes,

many

as creation, omnifciencc,

them

of

do not admit of a proportion

in this'

cnmipotencc.-

LECTURE XIL
0/

WE

have

in

it

flrcrf;-

vf Cod,
alTertion

in

Scripture^-

fearching fmd out the

If the nature of

&.C.

God

Al-

has fomething

altogether unfear^hable to us, fo muft alfo hir

decrees.

divines to
jc(5l,

this

Can any by

*'

mighty,"

the Decrees

It

is

know

certainly proper and neceiTary foir


all

that can be

known on

and therefore the ftudy of a whole

l3

this fub-

life vroult^

LECTURES OK

98

be well beftowed on

Yet

if

it,

we

are

(ifts

in receiving,

entering upon

were fure of

it

apprehend a caution
it.

Left. 12.

is

fuccefs.

not unneceflary while

Our

wifdom con-

great

admitting, remembering, and ap-

plying, whatever

is

clearly revealed

Scripture,

in

with regard both to the nature and government of

God

at the

fame time, we ought

im-

to reftrain an

patient curiofity, and guard againft unneceflary, in-

explicable, and hurtful queftions, on thefe fubjefts.

The
fit

Scriptures do not contain any thing that

for us to

know.

If

to believe and

the-

we ought without doubt

purpofe,

improve

God

and

to reveal the univerfality of his providence,

certainty of his

un-

is

feemed necefiary to

it

On

it.

the other hand, let

us not prefume to go any farther than he hath

Whatever he hath

pointed out to us the way.


covered with a veil,

would be both raOinefs and

it

impiety to attempt to penetrate.

my

defign to ftate this matter to

and fcriptural
mull

manner

as I

It

you

am

therefore

is

precife

in as

able,

although

neceflarily ufe feveral of the theological fyftem-

atical

phrafes, becaufe without

them the various

opinions could neither be lifted nor explained.

The

expreflTion itfelf,

**

the decrees of

God,"

wholly technical.

in a great meaiure, if not

is

In the

Old Teftaoient, indeed, there are feveral exprellions


particularly relating to the frame and conftitution of
nature, which are tranflated in the Engliih Bible
decrees, as in Prov. viii. 29. " When he gave to
the fea his decree," 8tc.
fpeakiiig of the raifing

will declare the decree."

and in the fecond Pfalm,

Meffiah to his throne,


In all of thefe

(for I have confulted moll of

them)

it is

"

believe

the fame

DIVIKITY.

Led.

12.

word

that

and

is

be fure has a meaning fomewhat

to

word

that of the
fies

ufed in

theology

God

the order or purpofe of

New

In the

vidence.

on

prefiion

that

firailar to

is,

ligni-

it

nature and pro-

in

Teftament there

is

no ex-

fubjeft that has been tranflated de^

this

though fomc of the phrafes might have been

cree^

The

tranflated.

fo

9f

frequently or ufually tranflated JiiUute,

ment

expreflions in the

New

Tefta-

are council, purpofe, determinate council, fore-

knowledge

and when

criticifm of the

enter

Greek words, becaufe

upon the

think

manifeft they are not only tranflated well into

but that they are moftly,

lifli,

now

poffefs.

Socinian

criticifm

oTCi
*'

ea-etv

for

fliall

Ads

nruyuivoi ? ^onv

ecioviav,

as

eternal

riTsc'/fAivoi

my.

were

life,

means,

But

K. is

fet

Eng-

not wholly, of the

underilood to

It
48
which they

xiii.

in order,

believed."
fet

it is

you a fample of the

fliew

on

many

as

if

that they are ufually

fame import

man,

relates to the ftate of

it

chujing, ordaining, prede/linating.

is

faid,

tranflate,

well prepared

or

They

obftrve

that

order like a difciplined ar-

in

manifeft that the word here means,

particularly appointed and ordained.

By comparing

together the feveral expreffiorhs ufed, the meaning


that

we muft

afljgn to the

whole

is,

that the plan of

providence and grace, as well as the fyftem of nature,

muft be fuppofed

to

be fixed and determined,

and not louie and uncertain,

till

the event, or

till

one thing be afcertaiiied or determined by another;


that things are not to
^

whom

chings

but that

a<]

far

God

as

they are to us, to

future have no certainty or ftability,

back

as

we

can carry our idtas they

were knawn, aud therefore certainly ordained.

Or,

LECTURES ON

10
fome exprefs

as

have a

traniient

every thing that comes to

tluit

it,

Yet, after

all,

you

fee there

is

U'ere,

it

in the divine n^ind.

fomething

in the

ex-

or purpofesy which feems to take

decrees

own

and

iipiperfec-

are obliged to meditate, concert,

and digeft

only from our

its rife

hnd, as

exiitence in time,

an original eternal pre-exiilence

preilion

Left. 12.

fituations

tions.

Men

before they begin to

their plans of future condu(5l,

ad, and then


or defign,

From

as

it is

called their purpofc, r.efolation,

diflinct

from the adtusl execution.

we feem by analogy

this

Yet every thing

decrees.

to

borrow

tli!it

implies

t\\Q

divire

or ariles

from ignorance, uncertainty, weaknefs, or imperfsftion,

muft be as much as

rated twA abftrafted,

i?

in

our power, fepa-

when we fpeak

of the decrees

of God.

This leads us

to obferve,

that

it

has often been

remarked by divines, that we are not

to ccr.fider

the divine decrees, in lo far as they are acts of the


xlivine will, as being

any thing

from the divine nature.


iifed the expreffion

I confefs I

meaning

do not

of,

contradift

it

immanent

in

ferae

who have

decrees^ a phrafe

which

the leail degree underfland the

and therefore
;

different or dillinft

There are

can neither affirm nor

without doubt

we

are

feparate

to

every thing belonging to created weaknefs.


are

not to fuppofe that

God

difcover, or time to digefl his plans, or that


a6t of his will he feeks information,

ceives gratification

by

from any thing

calling the decrees of

meant

to

deny

thefe,

it is

We

needs forethought to

or feeks or re-

v>'ithout

God immanent
fo far juft.

by any

him.

ads,

If
it is

But when

it


Led. 12.
is

affirmed,

frime

101

DlVINTTY.

that the a6ts of the divine will are the

with the divine nature,

as if this explained the

between divine and human. volitions,

difference

me

I confefs is to

this

quite incomprehenfible".

In what (hall be further offered on this fubjedl, I


fliall

follow this method

Speak a

1.

of the objeft of the divine de-

little

crees.

Of the
Of the

2.
3.

order of the decrees.


charafter, quality, or attributes of the

decrees, as given in Scripture.


4.

Of

I.

Let us confider the objel of the decrees, and

their ufes.

of this but a
it

of

is

fome

little,

moment

light

becaufe

it

will occur again

examine

to

upon fome

it

jet

it

will

where
throw

parts of the dodrine to ob-

ferve,

That the objeds of the divine decrees are

I.

flridlj and properly univerfal


as not to admit of

ception

all

much

to every adion,

it

as

we

pleafe,

ever

The

to pafs.

we

influence

(hall

ftill it

relates

and every mode of the adion, and

every quality that can be attributed to

comes

fo indeed,

creatures, and all their adions, and all

Let us vary

events.

fo

any exception, or (hadow of ex-

think

reafou of this

fit

to fay

is

it,

whatfoever

plain

what-

upon the connexion or

of one creature or thing upon another,

from which

all

the difficulty and confufion arifes,

yet every fuch "hing, and that connexion

itfelf,

much

as the

je6l to

which the divine foreknowledge and the

things to

vine purpofe extended.


fliould

which

it

relates, is the

One would think

be agreed on this point

that

as

obdi-

men

and probably they

10^

LECTURtS ON

Ledi. 12.

are fo, If ther underftood one another

may

extravagant perfons, as they

ments drawn
thought

from the divine

well be called,

or affirm that nothing that

aUvifrether,

is

till

it

But

happens.

this fentlment

repugnant to Scripture, and indeed to the


fenfd and reafon of

With

llri^lly

it.

of the divine de-

refpeft to the objel:

mull be admitted, that there

It

fo

though fome have occa-

it,

and hypocritically advanced

fionally

is

common

mankind, that few have

and {incerely defended

crees,

God

future can

be certainly, or any more than conjefturally

pofiibly

known,

2.

have

prefcieuce,

deny the foreknowledge of

befl to

it

but thofe

themielves hard prefTed by the argu-

finding

'vvho

all

is

fome

diffe-

rence between the light in which fome events and


actions are to be conlidered, and others.

The. great

and that which will

fp.eedily fct

indeed,

difFiculty,

bouads

to

our inquiry on the fubjeft,

wherein the difference

confiils

yet

is

it

is

to

fhew

equally

from revelation and reafon, that natural

certain,

good and

evil,

and moral good and

evil,

are

to be

conlidered as not In the fame fenfe the object of di-

This leads us

vine appointment.

Second general head, which


order of the decrees.

many

Divines

Many

have been

things

who have

faid

ters

have

in

tht-

decrees.

view,

to confider the

things

may

be, and

upon

this

fubjed.

publilhed fy ffems, have generally

giving what they call

exercifed their Ingenuity in

an order of

to the

vv^as

Is

to

The
form

chief-thing fuch wri-

conception for them-

felves and others, with regard to,

and to account for

the divine purpofes, with regard to the

man.

The

orders

final (late

which^ have been laid

of

down by

DIVINITY.

Lect. 12.

very numerous, that they

different writers, are fo


all

me

feeni to

bour under

flialling his

yet

prodigious

to carry in

as varying and

views, and comparing as

them the

be wrong.

to

they

mar-

men do, which


They alfo leem

fuppofition of fucceirive dura-

yet iuccelliv^e

and equally to la-

weakneis, that

Supreme Being

acknowledged

is

tion

to labour under,

this

reprefent the

13

we have

duration

generally

agreed not to afcribe to God, although, of any other

we have

kind

or'

It is

impoffible for

exiftence

me

not the leail conception.

go through

to

all

the

diffe-

rent arrangements that have been

aaihors

fliall

therefore

view of the chief

made by particular
only give you ;i fucclncl

differences of divines of different

Calvinifts, Arminians, Socinians.

claffes,

Calvinifts

upon

are divided

this fubjeiEl into

two

commonly called Sui)ralapfarians and Sublapiarians.


The reafon of the names are, fiom one

forts,

being of opinion that

God

in ordaining the elect

reprobate, confidered mai) as before the

fall,

and

and the

other as fallen and in a ftate of euilt.


.o
Tlie

God
the

firft

fay, that in laying

the execution

laft in

is

lirft

down

in

a plan,

what

is

the intention, that

purpofed to glorify his mercy and juliice in


everlafting

mercy

felicity

of feme, called veffcls of

and in the eveiiaft"ng perdition of others,

called veffels

of wrath.

That

to

accompliiii this

purpofe he refolved to create the world, to put

man

which he would certainly fall to


fend the Redeemer in the fulnefs of time to c^rry
in a condition in

on the whole plan of falvation, as we

now

lind

it

in

the oracles of truth.

The

Sublapfarians fay, that the order of purpo-

LECTURES

104

Left. 12.

ON"

the fame as the order of execution.


That the decrees of God being eternal, there can
no order of time be applied to them, but. that which
(ing fliould be

Therefore they fay,

takes place in the execution.

God

that

propofcd to

with power*
fall

make man

that he forefaw the

innocent and holy,

to preferve his innocence, but liable to


fall,

and permitted

it,

from the corrupted mafs freely chofe fome

and

as the

of mercy, and left others to perifh in the

objefts

ruins of their apoftafy, and that to accomplilh this

purpofe he refolved to fend the Saviour, &c.


It is

fide

eafy to fay fomething very plaufible on each

of the qneftion between the two.

Urong what Sublapfarians


and order

belong's.

do they

alfo

as far as

we

only to the execution

when

fpeak of order,

have

reft, that

for
It

what

alfo

this' evident

The

why

Supralapfa-

advantaoe of

they have the foverelgnty of


all

but

certain that,

to be defigned for the end,

and not the end for the means


rians

it is

can clearly fpeak of defign or purpofe

means feem

at all, the

feems very

It

fay, that the idea of time

the reft are obliged to

God

come

all

the

direBlv^

to at laji.

muft be obferved, that the ftrongeft Supralapfa*

rians do conftantly aflert the holinefs and juftice of

the divine providence.


reconcile

If

you

alk

them how they

the divine juftice with the abfolute and

certain event, they confefs they cannot explain

it

but they affirm that alV that the others fay to this
is

perfeftly trifling,

and

lefs

reafonable

than their

confeflion of ignorance.

The Arminians fay, tliat God decreed to create


man innocent and that after he had fallen he re;

folved for fatisfadion to juftice to appoint a Saviour j

DIVINITY.

Letii.

105

that he decreed to fave thofe that fhould believe and


to giv^e to all fufficient grace

repent

pofe

and

It is plain that

endure to the end.

fliould

reafon they

may

who

whatever

with greaf plaufiblenefs for

offer

when taken

feveral thmgs,

for that pur-

fave and reward thofe

finally to

and de-

in a feparate

tached view, nothing can be weaker than the Ar-

minian fclieme, confidered as

fyftem of the divine

purpofe, becaufe they leave out or fufpend the purpofe at every ftage.

As

altogether, and fay that the

reality of the decrees

event

they do generally deny the

to the Socinians,

wholly uncertain, and fufpended upon the

is

will of the creature

many

as

of them as maintain

God, do

or admit the foreknowledge of

coatrary

it

to their other principles.

If I

mean
as

were

to fay

any thing upon

the order of the decrees)

Pulit in his Syfleni,

as

this fubjel:, (I

would fay nearly

contained in the notes

upon Rulet, has faid, which is in fubitance


God refolved from all eternity to manifeft

production and
I'liat for this

fafts of

juilice,

purpofe the v/hole fyftem, and

which

it coniifts,

to take plac,

own

goodnefs ana truth, in the

govern nient of a created

fyflenOL.
all

the

and their depende^.ce one

upon another, and the order


were

his

moral excellence, wifdom,

glory, and illuftrate his

power, holinefs,

this, that

itfclf in

were ordained.

which they

If the whole,

then certainly every particular part as fully as the

whole,

is

view they

the object of one abfolute decree.


are all

upon

we do not pretend
VoL. VIII.

a footing

at the

fame time

to difpute that things are

In this

ordain-

xectup.es

io5

ed with confider&bk difference


it is

There

very

and thofe which are

finful or

confidered as

diipofition,

finful

rs

between the ordination of

difference

thifigs natural,

12.

but this difference

hard or impoffible for ui to explain.

certainly a

The

Led.

ON-

a part of the general plan,

is

holy.

becoming

certainly as holy an

ordination as any other, yet the Scripture teaches

us to confider this as a thing quite different

God's determining
"to

to

Jt feems to be a matter infifltd

fave finneis.

manner

in the ftrongeft

in

or guilt of every creature

Scripture,
is

be afcribed

to

it

feems fully

connexion there

may

as

plain, that

to the
at the

whatever

be between one evil and ano-

mercy

ther, the choice of the velTels of

is

and

free

unconditional, and that the rejeftion of others

imputed

to

oii

that the evil

creature, as to its proper and adequate caufe

fame time

frofii

fend his Son into the world

the fovereignty of

God, Luke

is

x. 21.

That the choice of the veffels of


John xii. 39.
mercy is free and fovereign, appears from the words
from their univerfal ftate, dead in
of Scripture
from their vifible character, and
and
fins
trefpaffes
;

from the means of

their recovery,

mean

the

om-

nipotence of divine grace.

LECTURE XI IL

Now
jedl,

lities,

proceed to the thirJ thing upon this fub-

which was

to confider the character,

and attributes of the decrees of God,

are given to

them

maiiifeilly founded

as

qua-

they

in Scripture in exprefs terms,

upon Scripture

or

truths, and pai-

Led.

ticularly

Of

upon fuch truths

We

Eternity.

i.

iii.

as relate

the decrees.

to

what follow.

this the chief are

Eph.

107

i>ivr.vTTY.

13.

have exprefs mention made,

II. of God's eternal purpofe

and belie-

vers are faid to be chofcn in Chriit before the foun-

The

dation of the world.

fame import with the

firft ;''for

the beginning of time,

is

This indeed

expreffion

laft

whatever

to be conlidered

is

of the

before

is

eternal.

,as

to the divine purpofe, infe-

is effential

parable from the very meaning of the word decree


and, if

we

am

not miftaken, one of

are to be taught

by

that whatfoever

it is,

to pafs in revolving years,


fixed in
It

the divine

exceeding

is

comes

not loofe, but was

is

mind before time

difficult,

chief things

tiie

however,

ilfelf

began.

once to re

at

ftrain

an improper curiofity, and to fpeak with pre-

cifion

on the fubjeft, and with fafety.

whether there

raifed a queftion,

is

Some have

not a neceflity of

fuppoiing the cxiftence and the Jiature of God, as

previous to his decrees.

To which

it is

faid, that there is a priority of order,

time

commonly

though not of

a priority like that of the caufe to

parable efFeft; as the fun


the creation of the fun

is

its

infe-

the caufe of light, yet

would not be before or ante-

cedent to the light; they are infeparable and necef-

One would think

farily exiftent.

was nothing

there

amifs in this w^ay of .fpeaking, or of faying in con

fequence of
as

am

it,

that the decrees are to

God'^ nature

an eternal effedl to an eternal caufe


afraid there

is

jects of theology,
tricate

and

here what

find in

and ycc

manv

a mixture of repugnant

difficult,

-ad.no beginning.

we

eternity,

When we

and time

f^b-

iv.-^.i.^.

m-

beiinnincr

f^jeak of an effect of

io8

Led.

LECTURES ON

a caufe,

we

13.

cannot do otherwife than think of fome-

thing produced, fome alteration, or fomething that

This

"Was not before.

the cafe with all the fimi-

is

litudes brought to iiluftrate

as the creation of the

it,

fan and the co-exiflence of light


ufe of

by feme

fay the Son

or another

made

who meant

to

produced by the Father, as an eternal

is

of an eternal caufe

efftcl:

of the refined Arians,

as the print of a

man's

his fetting

down

bis

foot, but not poflerior in point of time.

But

all

foot in the fand

tills is
it

when

truly abfurd

nicludes

fome

by

caufed

is

fpeaking of God, becaufe

what might and did

definite idea of

begin to take place.

I fhould

one of the chief reafons

why

be apt to think, that

any thing

to us concerning the decrees of

an aw^ful impreliion of his

God,

infinite

is

is

revealed

to give us

majefty, his fu-

preme dominion, and the abfolute dependence of


every creature upon him
fo that it is enough for
;

us to fay, that his purpofe


tecedent to

is

before

all

worlds, an-

time or the idea of fucceflion, being

all

indeed entirely infeparable from the idea of his ex


iilence.

The next thing to be confidered is the


God in his decrees. They are according

2.

of

own

council of his
fay, that

God

did moft wifely,

freely decree whatfoever

The 'chief
to be called

Almoft

will.

comes

mod

many

this

juftly,

is

and

moH

to pafs.

what ufed

years Rgo the Beltiftian fcheme,

of which, whatever chance-traces

it

to the

the fyflems

objeftion to this arifes from

former authors, Leibnitz

fcheme

all

liberty

is

may

be feen in

the proper author.

Of

the leading part, or rather the

foundation of the whole, to fay that God, infinitely

109

DIVINITY.

Lecl. 13.

wife and good, muft neceffariljr chufe the bed in

every thing.
terns, this

That, therefore, of

all

poflible fjf-

which he has chofen, becaufe

has taken

it

place, muft necelTarily be the befl, and he could not

chafe any other

by

his

from the unalterable rec-

fo that

titude of his nature, he


neceflity

any of

as

determined

as invariably

is

This

creatures.

his

boafted demonftration would be dcfeniible, perhaps,

were

not that

it

nothing.

Being

its

very foundations are good for


not applicable to the divine

Its ideas are

better and

compirifons.
j-referable

to

We

befl:

are definite tenns, and aftual'

fay a thing

fome others

thing abfoiutely preferable to


Vv'hat

propriety can

were poUible
one

befl.

tl-is,

it

be

better,,

is

all others.

faid, that in

to infinite 4vifdoin

it ?

the plans thatther.e is

fufficient

feems to

It

it is

it is

Now with

and power,

Have we comprehenfion

and therefore to fay

when

and bed, when

to fee

me

that

demonftratioH might be given to the coatrary.

1'he whole fj^ftem of creation

temporal, or

infixiite

is

and eternal.

either finite

If

it

be

and

finite,

ir

ems abfdrd to fay that it would not be made better by being made larger and fimiiar
and if it was
not from eternity, it might have been made manj
ft

thoufp.nds of years fooner.

be
an

infinite

infinite

If,

on the contrary,

it

and eternal, the pwfiible combinations of


fyftem are truly infinite, and there can-

not be a beft.

The

patrons of this fcheme,

prefTed with thefe difficulties,

they fhould have begun

v/ith, the

incomprehenfible-

ncTs of time and fpace, and fay that

we

ply any of the ideas of fooner or later

K3

when

have recourfe to what


cannot apto. eternity^

i^5

LECTURES OK

or larger or

lefler

The

to fpace.

13.

Le(fl.

impoffibility of

uniting infinite to definite qualities, fhould have pre-

vented them from faying, that of

wifiom

infinite

fpeak of time and fpace, nothing

fyftems

all poffible

mufl: chufe the beft


is

we

but when

more

clear

thaa

that if at any time a thing 'has exifled ten years,

can fuppofe that


if

any thing be of

it

twenty years

exifted

finite extent,

larged as well as diAiiniihed.

nacy of people in adhering


CIra-k reduces

can fuppofe

So great

en-

it

the obfti-

is

moved

millions of leagues in any direftion,

would

fame place

in the

Dr

to their fyftems^ that

an antagonift to the abfurdity of af-

firming, that though the univerfe were

be

it

ten
ftill

and another writer of fome

note fays, either that the thing

is

impoffible that

the world could have beeit created fooner than

was, , or that
fooner, yet

time.

it

if

it

it

had been created 300 years

would have been created at the fame


fcheme feems to me to labour

Befides, this

under two great and obvious


infinite

God

difficulties,

friould fet limits to

caflion of a created f\ftemt

ternative of Omnipotence.
it

feems to

Fnow how

brings creation a

It

the other

is

his purpofe

no reafon

is,

do not

than by the ancient

think

it

befl

with the current of orthodox divines, that

that there

and fuperior even to

I woi^ld therefore

perfeftly free in

the al-

it is

other difficulty

make fomething which

Sioical fate, antecedent

himfelfr

The

to exprefs otherwife

that the

himfelf by the pro-

great deal too near the Creator to {ay

that

and that

to

God
fay,

God was

and providence, and

to be fought for the

one or

beyond himfelf.

Let us confider the wifdom and fovereignty of

Ill

DiviKiTY.

Le6l. 13his decrees.

put thcfe together, not that they are

the fame, but that they feem, though not oppofite,

and the one of

to limit each other in their exercil'e,

which

dom

is

is

fore,

by

particularly afcribed to

is

one of his

as

God

afcribed to the decrees of

wifdom indeed
felf,

Wif-

often to be refolved into the other.

elTential perfections,

neceffary confequence,

it

or rather,

God himand there-

mull belong

to his

providence in time, and his purpofes from eternity.

The meaning of
when ufed by us

this,
is,

as

far

we

as

that the beft

can conceive,

and noblefl ends

are deligned, and the beft and moft fuitable


in

And

accomplifhing thefe ends.

indeed

means
all

the

wifdom that appears in the works and ways of God


when carried into efTeft, muft be fuppofed in the
original purpofe.
But how fhall we join the fovereignty with this

whole

mere

into

fed to the

Sovereignty feems to refolve the

will,

and therefore to ftand oppo-

wifdom of the proceeding.

Accordingly

there are fome who, in fpeaking of the decrees, reft

them entirely and totally on the fovereignty of


God, and fay that not only the reafons are not
made known and unfearchable to us, but that there
is

no reafon

at all of the preference of

one thing to

There have been

another, but the divine will.

fome writers who have founded the very nature of


virtue and vice* upon the divine will.
Thofe who
think otherwife ufually fay,

it

is.

making

crees not abfclute only, but arbitrary

fearchable, but unreafonable

the de

not only un-

and indeed the found-

ing every thing upon mere will,

away

feems to take

the moral charadler of the Deity, and to leave

us no meaning when we fay

God

is infinitely

wife

112

LECTURES ON

and holy,

juft

and good.

the fovereignty of

ought not

vine Providence

our

to all

it

inclinsd to

the furtheft

upoa

we

could

God, only meant

that

to dive into the reafon of the di-

that

difficulties

and

full

and

bound

will ought to

his

our inquiries, and be a

way,

am however

who have gone

think, that thofe

not, or

Le6l. I3.

taken in this

if it.be

will not be cafy to overthrow

it.

upon

this

miftake not, fee both the

^vif-

If Vve look into the Scripture dolrine

we

fubjeft,

dom

iliall, if I

God

and fovereignty of

ther,

Job

to be

God

He

**

ix. 4.

wife in heart ;" he

is

only wife. Rev. xvi. 27.

Eph.

and
exprefsly of the decrees^, "

Jude 25.

iii.

10.

Rom.

events refolded into

it,

Luke

attention to

in the

two

it is

pof'id exprefsly
arifing

from the

profperity of the

is aflerted,

"In

is

in the

upon the

hour

that

call

New.

The

wicked

of Providence,

difliculty

affl'dtions
;

of good men, and the

but in that book, after

brought in fpeaking out

of*

when God

the Vv'hirlwind,

in the 38th and 39th chapters, he fays not one


either of the

ut

and

agreed by interpreters, was com-

the reafoning of Job and his friends,

himfelf

fpeaking

palTages very, remarkable, one

Old Teftament, the other

book of Job,

15,

i.

would here

faid

is

Tim.

depth," &.c.

God

x. 21,

Jefus rejoiced in fpirit," &:c.

xi. 38.

tlie

fame time the fovereignty of

your

ihe ilrongeft

afl'erted in

united together and founded. upon one ano-

^erms-,

the

all

fatisfa61:ory anfvver

wifdom or

word

juftice of his proceedings,

but in language infinitely majeftic, difplays


dwells upon the greatnefs of his power.

and

It is true,

indeed, the beautiful poetical difplay of the order of


creation,

may be

faid to

imply

Ip. it

wifdom

as well

as

"3

DIVINITY.

Lea. 13-

power

but if

that

all

fo,

is

there advanced,

is

the Creator,
to illuftrate the power and wifdom of
on the raih
filence
and by that means to impofe

challenges of the creature.

other example

The

where the

from the

is

New

after introducing

apoflle,

Teftament,
objeftion

an

man,

of
againft the divine purpofe as to the flate

recourfe to
does not offer any other reafon, but has
i8,
vii.
19, 20.
Rom.
God,
of
the fovereignty
*'

Therefore

is

it

him

not of

that willeth," &:c.

be perhaps hard or impoffible for you to

It will

as I confefs it

enter into this at once,

was

to

me

in

of the neceffity of

early life ; but 1 now fee more


and
fubjeaing ourfelves to the divine fovereignty,
making ufe of it to reftrain and reprefs our raih and
It is finely imagined in Milton,
curious inquiries.
that he

makes

a part of the

damned

in hell to tor-

ment

themfelves with unfearchable queflions about

fixed

fate,

that

we

ever

(hall

It

foreknowledge abfolute.

is

certain

now fathom thofe fubjefts, if we


As I hinted formerly, it is
eternity.

cannot
to

of confiderable ufe to obferve the analogy there is


between the courfe of nature, providence, and
grace.

we

There

are a vaft

into the fovereignty of


fit

number of

muft needs refolve the


to people this

imperfeaiy

Why

fo

is

human

race

ciiuiate

Why

arts

unknown
The ftate of

a cultivated fociety,

which

God

fee it

Why

does

proceed fo very

the chief bleffing that

ever beftowed, yet


the

did

ver^thinly

human

the improvement of

Why

God.

world

things in

queftion, fo to fpeak,

lall

how do

to a vaft

God

number of

a favage tribe and of

they

differ in the

fame

was fo great a part of this vail con-

LECTURES ON

114

many

tinent for fo

Le(5l,I3

ages a howling wildernefs,

dwelling for wild beafts, and a few


tures

favage than they

little lefs

Why

fon born into the world a flave, and

narch

Even with regard

human

one per-

is

mo-

another a

which

to morals,

crea-

are the

fource of the higheft dignity and the higheft happinefs, I could fuppofe one

born in a great but

gate family, fupplied with

hy

gence, foiicited

all

the

profli-

means of indul-

the worft examples, and befet

intereilcd flatterers

and

by

could fuppofe another

born of pious parents, wath the moft amiable examcareful inftruftion, the moft regular

ple^ the mofi-

government
to the one,

Muft

why

are there fo vaft advantages given'

and fo hard a

w^e not fay,

trial

" ven

impofed on the other ?

fo,

temporal and

fpiritual, natural

ilances, there

is

every where to be feen

IV. The next charafter of God's


juft,

teous in

all

and

it

is

much

of the

God.

fovereignty of

they are

In

Father," &:c.

and perfonal circum-

decrees

and that they are holy.

ways, and holy

his

Ke

in all his

the union of righteoufnefs

is,
is

that

righ-

works

;.

and holinefa

with the moft unfearchable depth of wifdom, that

Great
Nothing can be njore ma-

gives occafion to the adoration, P.ev.

and marvellous," &:c.


nifefl,

than that

all

xiii. 8.

the calamities which

**

God

in his

providence inflids f)n earth, and the future judg-

ments which he will


jirefented as

ads

objedion that

inflift

on the ungodlv. are re-

The only difficulty or


way of this, arifes from
which we will therefore pro-

of juftice.

lies in

the next particular, to

the

ceed, viz.

V. That

the decrees of

God

are fixed, abfolute^

certainly

it,

fiibvert

it,

come
jor

Here, then, the

place.

its

upon us

how

we

fliall

reconcile

with the free agency of the creature, with the

this

guilt of

in

and nothing can oppofe

to pafs,

take

difficulty rifes full

of

115

That which he hath ordained

and unchangeable.
lliall

DIVINITY.

Left. 13-

fin

the

from

fin,

or the righteoufncfs of the punilliment

yet this

is

affirmed

by

Confeffion of Faith,
eternity did

all

own

counfel of his

hy

all

God

is

mod

the

holy and wife

freely and unchangeably

will,

ordain whatever comes to pafs


neither

found divines, as
iii. i. " God

chap.

the author of

yet fo as thereby

nor

fin,

fered to the will of the creature

violence of-

is

nor

is

the liberty

or contingency of fecond caufes taken away, but

This fubjeft has exercifed the

rather eftabliftied."
reafon of

men

in all ages, fo far as

has been pro-

it

pofed to them, but particularly that of divines.

The

any body may

eafily

dark and

ibjeft is

intricate, as

^^rceive.
It

men

is

remarkable what weak things fometimes

of fenfe will fay upon fuch fubjecls,

-feems nccelfary to

of

their

own

them

when

hypothefis.

One

writer propofes to

God

himfelf to reconcile this dilfertnce, and fays,


forefees and predetermines anions in different

and each according

to its

fees neceflary actions as


free,

have

own

nature

faid

nothing

at all,

and

it

that he fore-

This

had been better

nothing than to have faid

it.

know^s, that as far as thefe different

God

but

it

behoved

this

as
is

to

Every body

kinds of actions

and events take place in the fyftem, they are


daiaed of

ways,

aeceiTary, free actions

and contingent events as contingent.

jail faying

it

to fay fomething in favour

author

fo or*

to

(hew

Il6

how any
gent,

LECTURES ON

Lel. I?.

aftion could be free, or any event contin-

upcn

the fuppoiition of the divine providence

or decree.

Others have attempted to folv the difficulty by

founding the decrees upon foreknowledge, and this

upon God's

diftinct

fon's difpolition,

and perfect view of every per-

how men

and

every circumftance in

will determine in

which they can be placed.

But this is liable to two objedtions,


knowledge makes no difference as
whether

God

firft,

That

decrees

to

fore*
;

for

confidered the thing as a confequence

of another or not,

if

he forefaw the confequence, he

admitted and ordained that event as a part of the

The other objection

general fyltem.

is,

that

takes

it

what is called moral newhich brings back the fame difficulty witli

for granted the fyflem of


ceffity,

redoubled force.
cates for neceffity

It is

remarkable that the advo-

have adopted a

fervice, I

mean moral and

They

away

liberty,

but moral neceffity does not

at the

explain moral neceffity fo as to


or natural.

That

is

into their

it

natural necellity.

fay natural or phjfical neceffity takes

fical

made

diilinciion

ufe of for other purpofes, and forced

fame time, they

make

it

truly

phjfical neceffity

phy-

which

is

the invincible efFe6t of the law of nature, and

is

neither lefs natural nor lets unfurmountable,

it

if it

from the laws of fpirit, than it would be if it


were from the laws of matter. To fee how fome
people are loft upon thefe fubje6ls, you may obis

ferve that the

great argument that

mined by the ftrongeft motives,


cation,
is

and what logicians

is

men

are deter-

mere equivo-

call pttitio ptincipii.

impoffible even to produce any

medium

It

of proof


s;

DIVINITY.

13.

Le<ft.

that

it

the

is

prevailed.
it

feem

not the greatefl in

mean time

Becaufe you were determined by

you promifed

has
dot-

to the agent

appears (Irongeft in the

it

it

nor

itfelf,

to be in all refpefts ftrongeft

bat you fay

Why

motive, except that

ftrongeft

It is

II7

it

alas

was determined by the


Jlrongefi motiuey and you have only fhewn that I
had a motive when I adted. But what has determined you then? can any elFe6l be without a caufe ?
I anfvver,

exifl,

prove that

to

Suppofing

my

gui filing effeft, as

your moral necefiity


is

But even fappofe the fyftem of


it

neceffity true, the

is

done

aclioTi,

tl^e

propofition

in time,

as

argument

it

all

and

fav,

when anv

only lliews the futurity of

the fchool-men fay.

from

fin,

as great as

to reconcile fore-

They

liberty.

is

Others have made

fuppofition whatever.

ufe of a metaphyfical

thing

fo that the

with the guilt of

the righteoufnefs of God's judgment,

knowledge with

but one and the

and on the other.

fide

ditnculty of reconciling

upon any

to

proper and diftin-

matter juft comes to a fland, and

fame thing on one

power

felf-determining

as real a caufe of its

it is

eternity,

tliat

It

was a true

fuch

thing

would be done, and every truth being the objed of


the divine knowledge, God's forefeeing it was no

more the
a

cauft of

it

thing at a diflance

Bat even

than a man's feeing another do


is tlie

caufe of

this does not fatisfy the

its

being done.

mind, as the dif-

from the certainty of the event


freedom of the
not the way in which it comes to be known.
ficulty arifes

itfelf,

as being inconfiflent with the

ageiit

It

deferves

Vol. VIII.

particular notice,

that fe%-eral

able


liS

LECTURES

Lecl. 13,

cy}^

^\'nters

have fliewn, that with refpedl

difficult

pait of the decrees of

God,

the feveral

of Chrii^ans at bottom fay the fame thing,

fefts

except that

clafs

of Sociiiians

fcience and foreknowledge of

they are

who deny the omni-'


God altogether, and

fo direclly oppofite to

the

letter

God

lay, that

has decreed that

\\ould believe and repent,

which purpofe

all

of Scrip-

The Arminians

ture, that they defcrve no regard.

that he forefaw

all

be faved

fliould

Eat could not Omnipotence hare given them


overcome their obflinacy ? Ye?,

And

out doubt.

elfec-

overcome by divine power

deny

this

It

" Even

more eafy

is

thofe that perilh,

-as

Yes,

is

it

not eafy to

that he did not give the efFeftual grace

to fome, and gave


at laft fay,

Vv^ith-

not fome that had as

are there

and profigate natures

obilinate

for

have fufHcient grace given them.

tual grace to

^nd

moft

to the

all

So

to others.

it

fo.

that they

mult

Father," &.c.
the Snpralapfarians

to fiiew that

Sublapfarians are at bottom of the fame prin-

All then have this difficulty before

ciple.

tlie'.n

to account for the divine parpcfc confilteiitly with

the -guilt of

But
luily

is

u^-ainft

tlie

fame

and

little fartlier

the fame in natural as

glon, and

both.

(in.

v/ould go a

in

in

it is

fa}^,

the

diffi-

revealed reh-

the courfe of nature a^ in

The cenaiaty of
common diligence

events
the

in

r.gainft diligence in

religion.

Stoics of old held,

was

makes
all'airs

The

called

tlie

as

of

macJi

litV,

as

fates wliich the

iguava ratio of

tiie Stoics.

For

my own

part I freely

own,

that I could never

fee any tl-ing f.itisfuclory in the attempts of divines

DIVINITY.

Lecl. 14.

179-

two things

or metaphjficians to reconcile thefe


it

does not appear

in the

me

difiicult to

bnt

to believe precifely

form of cur Cor.fciTion of Faith

to believe

both the certainty of God's piirpofc, and the frrc

agency of

Nor

creature.

tlie

my being

docs

form an

to explain thefe codrines,

unable

olijeElion againlt

one or the oth.T.

LECTURE XIV.
Of the

Covenant ofWorks^ and the Foil of Man,

'"TpHIS feems to be the next thing in order.


^ That I may treat of it as concifcly as poffible,
I will make the f'^llowirg obfervatioDs.
I.

as a

It is juftly

covenant.

made
fall,

ufe of

for

and properly by divines confidered

The word covenant


by Mofes in giving the

is

not indeed

hiftory of the

which many reafons

may be afligned. The


much limit the phrafe, as fix
which we now exprefs by it. The

Scripture does not fo


the thing itfelf,

word covenant
Thus,

is

ufed with latitude in Scripture.

Jer. xxxiii. 20, 25.

you can break

**

Thus

my covenant,"

&:c.

faith the
It

Lord, if

may be

obfer-

ved, that there


priety in

man

muft of necefTity be fome improcalling any tranfadion between God and

a covenant^ becaufe

it

muft

differ confiderably

from an engagement of perfons equal and


as

far

God

But

there

giving a fptcial

nexed,
ant.

free.

can be a covenant relation between


and man, it evidently took place here.
The
as

does

command, with

evidently

imply

in

a threatening anit

fuch

a cove-

^-O

LECTURES ON

2. It

feems

abftaining

juft

Le6t. I4.

and proper to fuppofe, that merely

from the

tree of knowledge of good and


was not the only duty prefcribed and demand-

evil,

ed by God, but that the demand extended to univerfal obedience.

The
Net

3.

To

i.

to flie4

worfhip

human

of idols or images
fraud

God gave Adam


2. To do juftice;
Net
to make ufe
4.

Jewifh Rabbles fay that

i\x precepts

To

6.

avoid

blood

Not

5.

God

commit rapine and

to

But

ir.ceil.

all this is

without

the lead proof.

We

3.

may

confider the choice of the

and

is

may

This

evii.

many

give occafion to

and likewife to many

je<5lure5,

command

knowledge of good

for trial, not to eat of the tree of

conje^ured by many, that the tree had

in

noifome quality that made the body liable


ruption, as

God

often orders his

ubedience to them
bedience

is

mifery.

human

anfwercd,

we

thought

tit

proper for the

as an

ad

to objc5l.
trial

God would

It
!

to cor-

commands

fo,

that

happinefs, and difo-

fuppofe the eating this

good or

evil,

and

to fufpend the fate

it

of

may

be

of fovereignty, to which

we

race on a pofitive precept

fir ft,

have no right
rity of

If

itfelf

in itfelf either

why God

aiked

the

is

had nothing

tree

of

is

con-

remarks.

folid

2. It

might

of obedience, as the

be the fandion.

It

more
mere autho3. It was a

alfo be

juft

and natural acknowledgment that the creature

held

all

created comforts of

God.

4.

There were

then fo few relations, that there could be no

upon
4.

trial

the precepts of the fecond table.


It

appears

tliat

Adam,

in

the covenant of

works, wai to be coniidered as the federal head and

of the

reprcfentp.tive

human

was

race

ment

inflidled

them.

If

human

Bj

nataral head.

the

121

DIVINITY.

14.

Leclr.

manner

the

he was then

as

race,

which the

in

from him, the punilh-

to defcend

upon him mull of courfe defcend to

we

God

fuppofe that

an order of bei.igs like to what

from one another, and

might juftlj create

man

Let

5.
^'

of

in cafe

than

fin,

did.

it

In the day thou eateft thereof, thou

That temporal death, was

die."

hy

and

it,

all

tlie

fallen out

import of the threatening:

coiifider the

u.>

nature

the

which he had, the matter could' not have


otherwife,

defcend

to

is,

propagate

to

furely

flialt

be underftood

to

fufferings preparatory to death,,

That

mull neceiTarily be admitted.

it

fuppofes alfo

f,nritual

death, or the feparation of the foul

God,

a necelTary circumllance

is

this

matter.

h'ohl

the

The

man

is

expreiliGn,

become

like

no means to be taken as

would

The

greateft

fider thefe \vords av


it

if

21.

u;?," cc.

God was

is

alfo

Be

'*

afraid

is

by

they

become

part of interpreters con-

fpcken by w^ay of derifion

probable that this tree had

^of a health- giving quality,

men

of

iil.

eat of the tree of life^ and thereby

immortal.

R3

Gen.

oTit,

from

the whole of

In

it

much

and
in it

was not proper that

many fufferings {lioiild be permitted the ufe of it. And as a facran'^ent, it was to
be refufed to thofe who had broken the covenant,
devoted to fo

and were therefore unworthy of the Hgn.

OftheFctU:'

Before we fpeak

farther of the

fall

by the breach of the covenant of works,

L3

it

man
mav be

of

'

122

LECTUxlES ON

cxpeled that
du6lion of

God

we

did

has exercifed in-

qiieftion that

the gofpel.

have treated a

upon

little

upon the decrees, and


drop a few hints. Some fay that
difcourfe

objections to this.

was a

It

is

this in the

only further

Ihall

was a necefTary

it

confequence of creating free agents

it

Why

from the beginning, and efpecially under

quirers

many

4.

and the train of evils that follow

fin,

This has been a

it ?

a little the intro-

fliould confider

or moral evil in general.

(in

permit

Led.

but there are

neither certain that

neceflary conf<;quence, nor that there

is

any

fuch worth in the free agency of the creature as to


daferve to be preferved,

Some have

its train.

at

the price of this evil and

faid that the evil, natural

and

moral, was necefTary to the perfection of the whole,


a.s

the faade of a picture to the beauty of the whole

This

piece.

is

the

fore,

with the objections againll

tle

appearances, and

u
fi

it

y.

laving
It

God

ifi

it is

certainly

is to

impofTible to fupport

has

infinitely

they ftand

teftified his

that

illuflrate his

own

glory by

difpofition of his providence

God

abhorrence to

therefore cannot be the author of

fcarcliablc.

it

from
with-

preferable to take

it

that

BOtwithftanding, mofl juftly permitted

he will

be found in

to believe

difficult

himfelf under the chains of necef-

S-:ripture truths jufl as

fnitely holy

necefTary to

is

the good, natural and moral, that

exceedingly

is

now

I lliall

it.
it

univerfe could poffibly admit,

This

Jr.

all

Beltiftian

mentioned be-

only add, that upon this fyftem


iuppofe that

the

of

fubflance

fcheme, the foundation of which

it

and grace

it

is

in-

fin,

and

he has,
and that

but that the


is

to us

un-

Led.

DIVINITY.

14.

There

is

that finned

mention made
;

from which

123

in Scripture of the angels


it

appears that

fin

was

in-

among them. The Scriptures have not


informed us of many circumilances on this fubjc61,

troduced

which, as ufual,

men

of

fertile

inventions have en-

deavoured to fupply by conjedlures, or

from very

fumed

to

determine

Some have even prenumber of the fullen angels,

{lender evidence.

to determine the

or at lead their proportion to rhofe ihat llood, from

Rev.

**

xii. 3, 4.

And

there appeared another

won-

der in heaven, and behold a great red dragon having


feven heads and ten horns, and feven crowns upon
his heads, and his

But

tail

drew the

third part of the

of heaven, and did caft them to the earth."

flars

this

is

a mifappHcation of the pafTige in

that

prophecy, which belongs to the vifible church on


arth.
Some have faid that the fm of the angels

was envy, fome impiety or luft, but the greater


number pride and this lad feems to have the moft
;

truth in

it,

not becaufe

v^^e

know any

thing certain

of the circumilances of their rebellion, but becaufe


pride or felf-fufficiency feems to be the elTence or
ruling part of

We

all

our

fin*

know th time of their fall, nor incertainty the time of their creation.
much
deed with
We only know that their fall was before that of
man and that God palled by the angels that findo not

ned

and that they are referved in chains under

darknefs, to the judgment of the great day.

Some have exercifed themfelves in conjeduring


how long our firfl parents continued in the ftate of
iinocence.
Some fuppofe they fell upon the firfl
day of

their creation

others, that they continued

L EC TUR EB O Jf

?'

fome years.

in innecence

book of Genefis

the

with certainty, nor

Let.

There

is

nothing

I j,

faid

that can determine this point

is

it

much moment

of

could

it

be determined.

Eve

is

pafTaores

doubt, ^that

fallen

the

ati

fitteft

of Scripture

was by the

it

angels.

goiically.

^lave

have been tempted by the ferpent,

faid to

and by many

It

form

fuppofed

it

in

If this opinion

fome

Eve

parts of the'

an ange^,

as

account for the decep-

we mull however

embraced,

is

Majiy

the bright fiery fcr-

and that he appeared to


eafily

all?-

this creature

which he could appear.

was one of

which would the more


tion.

put beyond

ought not to be underdood

Probably he made ufe of

pents that are feen in Arabia, and


Jaft,

it is

devil or prince of the

fuppofe that the ferpent w^as more glorious before


the

fall

than fince in his appearance

probable that moft, or

is

more excellent

in their

all

and indeed

it

were

the creatures,

kind before than after the

fall.

But what we

are chiefly to attend to,

iequence of the

As

fall

to themfelves,

upon

they

Adam

loft a

the objects of divine difpleafure


felt

to

many

image

They became

evil confcience

terreftrial paradife

and

Some

obliged to labour on the accurfed ground.

few of the ancients have believed that cur

expofed

fu^erings which were to end in death

rents perifhed eternally

were

their eyes

fhame for their nakednefo

were ftruck with the alarm of an

were driven from the

the co'i-

great part of the

of God, in which they were cieated.

opened, and they

is

and his pofterity.

firft

but that has been far

pa-

fro'vX

the general belief, which has been, that as the

firft

125

DIVINITY.

Le*fl. 14.

promife was made to them, they nnderf^ood and im-

proved

As
it

and received confolation hy

it,

Adam's

to the effeft of

feems very plain that the

men

wickednefs which
Scripture

Adam's

upon

fin

his pofteritj,

of corruption and

flate

now

are

it.

in,

in

ilated

is

being the eiFei and puni(hment of

as

firft fin

upon which

it

will

be

fufficient to

read the epiftle to the Romans, chap. v. from the


I

And

ith verfe and onward.

of the

fider the univerfality

when we con-

of the

it is

fall,

be accounted for any other way, than from

not to

Adam's being

the federal head of the

and they finning in him, and


iirfl

indeed

efTeifls

falling

human

race,

with him in his

tranfgreffion.

The
world

and chief of thefe

firft

tion of

our nature

that

corrup-

eiFefts i^ the

man row comes

into tbf*

a ftate of impurity or moral defilement.

in

We

will

fin,

and then fay, as far as

confider the Scripture proo^ of original

firfl

what

Scripture,

it is,

we have

warrant fi"om

and the manner of

com-

its

munication.
I

(hall

Scripture
Pfal.
&.C.

Rom.

li.

mention the following parages of

firft
:

Ge:i. v. 6. 21.

5.

John

**

Behold

iii.

viii. 7, 8.

**

6.

Eph.

" And God faw,"

Sic,

was fhapen in iniquity,"


That which is born," &:c.

ii

" And were by nature

3.

the children of wrath, even as others."

Aftc; confidering the above paflages,


ferve to

you

that in this,

as

in

general ftrain of the Scripture


as particular paflages.

making atonement
*he covenant

-,

The

is

moil

let

me

lubje(5ls,

obthe

fully as convincing

univerfal

command

of

children receiving the badge of

the tenor of the promifes,

"

I will

LF.CTURES ON

Ii6

away

take

the flony heart out of your fiefh ;" ths

of the

force

me

withfn

David's

Pfalmift

Saviour, John

iii.

3.

*'

prayer,

this docliine

all,

and early corruption of

of cur

To

Verily, verily," &:c.

you may add experience.

this

Crente

*'

and m&ny oihers of the

a clean heart ;"

fame import, but, ab: ve

all

Lecl. I4

men

"The univeifal

pradlce,is a ftanding

in

evidence of the impurity of their original.

What

is

human

of

the hiftory of the world but the hidory

guilt

and do not children, from the

firft

of reafon, fbew that thty are wife to do evil,

da"\vn

but to do good they have no knowledge

As

the nature of original fm, and the trarf-

to

miiTion of

it,

I think a

certainly difcover in

few words may

commit

We

ftiflioe.

mankind, not only a

difpofitioa

without

reilraint to

but

general an attachment to, and love of the

in

more than the Creator.

creature

improper here

whole nature
point, if the

may

corrupt, fo that wliatever

is

not be

tl

we do

e
is

think, very ealy to fettle this

meaning of the inquiry be clearly un-

If the

derlie, .d.

It

confider the queilion, whether

to.

will be,

It

fin.

errors of a grofs nature,

fupreme

delire of the

mind, and

leading principle be wrong, then every thing that


is

direltd

by

it

muft have the nature of

Thofe who reprefent

means
evil

affcrt

it

in

fin.

this light,

is

may

do.

fuppofe even the greatefl finner that ever

Wuis, fpeaks

one that
is,

it

fuch as, to fpeak truth, to do juflice, to ihew

mercy, which certainly an unholy man

Nay,

do by no

that ev^ery a6t in every part of

is

twenty true words where he fpeaks

falfe.

But wliat

that every aftion of an

is

meant

to

unregenerate

be afltrted

man

is ef-

DIVINITY.

Lt6l. 14.

127

deffdive as a moral duty, bccaufe floiving

fcntially

from a wrong principle, and tending


Let

end.

man

fuppofe a

tis

wrong

to a

inflexibly fober and

temperate from a concern for his health, or a cove-

money, and one fhould fay


It would be ridicuwe affirmed that fobriety was ncJt

tous defire of fparing his

no true virtue

tiiere is

lous

to fay, that

in this.

concerned tinned in be-

a viitue, or that the perfon

This will appear by expreffing the fen-

ing fober.
tiinent

in

djrfland and approve

no virtue

Every body would un-

another form.

we (hould fay, there is


who ilarves his belly,

if

it,

mifer

ai all in that

or clothes himfelf with rags, only to

As
t

un

to

is

be fure

ved upon the fubjecl.


Timre confequence
f:oni

ii;i

that

fliall

foul

tlie

is

be refer-

fiiid it

was of

how we are delivered


how we derive it from
few words on

fay a

to-

this

not derived from our parents

fuppofe that the foul

is

created impure,

municated by the body, and

between the
conveyed

foul and

to us

by na-

feems not reafonable

it

to

llierefore

a general corruption

flioukl follow, that

fjons

the quef-

to

feems to be agreed by the greatell part,

It

ufTion

we ought

kno^v

tliaii

tural generation, and yet

it

fin,

St Auguiline

to

Chrill^,

Yet we

Adam.
]yic.

by

and

diilicult,

his purfe.

fill

of original

to the tranfmilTion

is

com-

that there is fo clofe a

body,that the impref-

through the bodily organs, do

tend to attach the aflt61ions of the foul to things


eLU-thly

and

fenfual.

fuul,

on

bjdy

as au ai\ of

this

aifwer, that

If. it

fuppofition,

tlie

fequence of an

lliould

be faid that the

mull be

united

punifhment or feverity,
foul

ad

is

to

the

would

united to the body in con-

of government',

by which

the

LECTURES ON

128

Creator decreed, that

men

way

of natural generation.

fed,

that the fouls of all

Left. Ij.

be propagated by

fliould

And many have fuppomen that ever (hall be,

were created at the beginning of the world, and


gradually came to the exercife of their powers, as
the bodies came into exiftence to which they belong.

LECTURE XV.
Of

Sin,

OF

to us in the

He

is

faid

its

Demerit

and of Acitml

federal Divijions.

Of God

moil odious light.

to

be that which his foul hates

ob-

it is

faid,

It

to gritve

him, and to provoke his wrath.

though we muft exclude from our minds every


that belong to

thing, in thefe frequent expreflions,

human

paiTions or vveakneis, the juft and legitimate

inference to be drav/n from

fpeakable evil of

As

the evil of

facred oracles, fo

ner from

it is,

the great and un-

(in.

appears from every page of the

iin
it

alfo

its effefts,

All natural

appears in the cleareft man-

and the mifery that follows

evils are the fruits of

lay

down

principle,

fm

all

it.

the fufFe-

And

if

the righteoufnefs of Piovidence as

rings in the valley of terror (hoot

we

we may

of purer eyes than to behold iniquity."

to difhonour

him,

its

ferve, that the Scripture uniformly reprefents

**

And

and

general, and moral evil,

iin in

it

is

and

S'n in general^

Dr Butler

from

it.

has (hewn in his Analogy, that

the puniihment, and therefore

tlie

guilt of iln, is

DrviNixr.

Lei^:. 15.

129

very great

fufferings

are the confequence of ad:s one

that fometimes very great and lafting

mod

think not the

The

atiocious.

would

contagion of

the rage of violent paffion, and the terror of

(in,

fome

confcience, in

inftances,

tend to prove the

all

evil of fin.

One can
of

fin,

fcarcely have a clearer idea of the evil

than by comparing the

own

virtue, fo far as our


to
fal

effects

of piety and

experience has enabled us

form an idea of them, with the .efFeds of univercorruption and depravity in any fociety.
Here, perhaps,

may

it

the quefllon, whether

be proper

it is

jufl to

mention

proper to fay there

is

an

would anfwer it thus, There


is not a fingle argument againfl it, only this, that
the actions done in time by a finite creature, cannot
have in them an infinite evil. But this is not the

infinite evil in fin

thing denied, for

all

that

it is

the fyfi:ems with one voice fay,

not infinite in

have held.

Stoics anciently

otherwife

all refpefts',

xvould be equal, which indeed

it

But

when we

e\'il

of

is

infinite

it

can

mull be proper

not only becaufe

confider the fevcral particulars that illuf-

trate the evil of

caufe

fin

all fins

faid that the

as far as there

be meaning to us in the expreffion,


to fay the

is

fin is

it,

we

fee

no end

prope^y an oppofition

to

them, but be-

to the nature,

and
law of God. Now his nature
excellent, and the obligation on us

a tranfgrefiion of the

being infinitely
arifing

from his

infinite

perfedions in himfelf, his

and abfolute dominion over us, being inconceivably great, I reckon that there muft
be the very fame juftice and propriety in fayir^g

full

property

in,

Vol. VIII.

LECTURES ON

130
that there

an

is

Left. I5.
as an infiaite

in fin,

iniinite evil

goodnefs in God.
Sin

explained in general in our Catechifm to

is

be a want of conformity unto, or tranfgreilion of the

law of God.

In this definition of

fin,

it is

God

a perfect rule, and every deviation

is

whether

fin,

from which

ought

An

to flow.

good, muft be complete in


foj-ne

from

it is

matter of the duty, or principle

in the

it

divided

The law of

into fms of omifTion or of commifTion.

all

aftion, to be truly

Hence

refpecls.

obferve, that anions truly good are equally

good, becaufe they are perfeft, they completely fulfil

the law, and are perfonned at the very time

it

was required.

fome

But

are

fins

much aggravated
from many circumftances
very

arc

others

in

juft confider the diftindlion

remark

or

We

commiflion.

fins

of

fins,

with a

ir Sins of omiflion

and

are not to fuppofe that fins of

omiflion are conftantly, and

heinous than

comparifon cf

eafy to imagine.

Let one

two upon each,

when

not equally evil,

by

of commiiTion.

their nature,

There

duties fo important, and the obligation to

fo flrong and manifell, that the omiflion

are

lefs

fome

which are
them is

of.

an offence as much aggravated as any that can be

named, and much more fo than fome fins of comtotal and habitual neglefl of God's
miflion.

worfhip,

is

certainly

rafh injurious
mifTion.
lins

may

2,

much more

expreflions,

criminal than fome

which are

fins

of com-

Sins voluntary and involuntary.

All

be faid to be in fome fenfe voluntary, as

lying properly in the difpofition of the heart and


will.

Some

are of opinion,

that origin..l

fin itfelf

is voluntary, the corrupt bias from the corrupted

Led.

DIVINITY.

15.

t^f

frame not taking away the liberty


ral action,

and the

the felicitation.

mo-

neceilliry to

lying in the confent given to

lia

however

It is

certain, that all ac-

tual lin iliould be coniidered as voluntary, being fo


in its nature.

Bijt

fome

fins are faid to

be involun-

when they are from inattention, and fomewhen they are the effeft of long habit, fo that

tary,
tinies

they are done without deliberation and without re-

great

by

way excufeable

Thefe are not any

fielion.

account

becaufe that want of attention

on that
a very

is

and the power of habit has been contradled

lin,

a6ls of wickednefs,
3.

light

There
;

are

light

fome

fins

in general

of ignorance, fome againft


an aggravation of

is

Ignorance, total and invincible, takes

may

but ignorance

as

fin,

may

when

and hatred to the light.

in

numbers who

;-

and

be fo circumftanced as to

it

from an averfion

arifes

This

nearly cohnecled

is

with the opinion of the innocence of error.


are great

fin.

all fin

often be eaiily prevented

fometimes ignorance
aggravate

away

will needs have

judgment cannot be criminal,

if

it,

There

that error

the perfon

is fin-

cerely of that opinion which he profelTes or avows.

This

is

by

called

mull

juft

Warburton, the mafter


But it is plain that error

Biiliop

prejudice of this age.

be coniidered as ignorance.

perfon miilakes his duty with

is

to

fuppofe

God

To

perfe<El

fay that

innocence,

has not given fufficient means

of difcovering and diftinguilbing truth from falfe-

hood.

There

are feveral other divifions of fins that

be introduced

and in deed.

Filthinefs of the ilcHi

fuch as

fins

in

may

thought, in word,

and of the

fni-

LECTURES ON

13^
rit

But

occafional and reigning fins.

little difficulty in
is

Left. 15.

way

no

truth

which reafon

as for

when

in

not difcufs them.


eftimating the mora-

them when applied univerfin is the more highly

it is

committed with

and that a virtuous adion

is

little

tempta-

moi^c laudable,

overcomes the greatefl temptations.

it

them

example, that a

when

aggravated
tion

they havt

though generally admitted,

carry fome difficulty in


fally

I will

fome maxims

are

of a6iions, that,

lity

as

fo the explanation of

necelTary to the explaining of evangelical

for

There

them,

If

we

extend this to inward, as well as outward tempta-

which

tion,

is

much from
faints,

and

commonly

either be a miftake or
traries that flows

contrary

it

feems to take

to annihilate altogether the excellency

of the divine holinefs.

an action

done,

the merit of true holinefs in eminent

is

from

it is

certainly true, viz. that

not pralfe- worthy, in proportion as the


vicious.

is

The maxim muft therefore


mifapplied. One of the con-

It is

one of the highell degrees

of vice to be without natural afe6lion, and to neglect


the

common

care of family and relations

take care of them, has but very


wortliy in

it.

things,

is

it

Whenever we

little

that

but to

is

praife-

find difficulty in thefe

but reafoning them up to the queflion

of liberty and neceffity, the dependence and adiivity


of the creature, where

we

ffiould alvv'ays (lop Ihort,

as being above our comprchenlion.

There

is

one thing very remarkable, that in tht

Scriptures the fm of our nature


as

an

a^^gravation of our guilt

in principle

an

is

always adduced

but loofe perfons

and in pradice, are apt to produce

extenuation of the adual

tranfgieffion

it

as

which

Led.

DIVINITY.

15.

proceeds from

Nor,

it.

133

I believe, is

way

there any

by which men can be taken ofF from fuch view^s,


but by a thorough work of convilion, and the
Therefore a minifkr of
power of divine grace.
great piety and judgment once faid to me, " No

man
by

will cordially believe the

do6lnne of falvation

grace, contained in our Catechifm and Confef-

fiOJ!,

unlefs he

is

born of God.

man, and

fon, ihat the fall of

can (hew by rea-

the corruption of our

can iliew

nature,

is

contained in the Scripture.

that

is

entirely correfpondent with the courfe of

it

But

nature and the fytlem of Providence.

hardly expeft that

it

the pride of ihe heart

till

iiriner laid at

is

brought down, and the

mercy."

the footilool of divine

Another remark

rowed from a

need

v;e

will be received and approved

make, and

I Ihall

bor-

this alfo

friend, that every error or departure

from the truth might be traced back

to a. want of

convidlion, and not having a due fenfe of the evil of


Ain.

Notwith {landing

all

the boaft of concern for

moral virtue, and the repeated objedlion that the


dodrine of lalvacion by grace leads to licentioufnefa

and favours immorality,


that

it

is

an unhumbled

makes fuch perfons oppofe

righteoufnefs

is

merit of w^orks

eafily traced

may

fpirit

the truth,

back

to

be reduced to

this

belfall

Had

it..

the

fuch

perfons a proper fenfe of the extent and fpirituality


qf the law of

God, they would never think of

ing in themfelves that they are righteous

they

feel the obligation

upon every

intelligent crea-

ture fupremely to honour the living and true

they would fee the evil of refufing

M3

truft-

and did

it,

God,

but would

LECTURES

134

Left. I5.

OK*

never think of pleading any merit from an imperfecl performance of that

which

is

fo perfeftly

due.

In the

man

place, as to the inability of

laft

recover himfelf by his

never attempt to

own power, though

eftablifli

to

would

a metaphyseal fyftem of

of which infidels avail themfelves in op-

neceflity,

pofition to all religion,

nor prefume to explain the

influence of the Creator on the creature, yet nothing


is

by

more

from

plain

Scri|)ture,

daily experience, than that

or better fupported

man by

nature

is

in

fadi

incapable of recovery without the power of

God

fpecially interpofed.

from the

ceflity arifing

I fee

it

fliraint

is

I will not call

irrefiftible

it

a ne-

laws of nature,

not a neceflity of the fame kind as con-

but

I fee it

an impoflibility fuch as the

ner never does overcome.

A late author in

fin-

Scot-

land thinks he has difcovered the great wheel that


connects the

dom

of

God

human
:

fylteni

with the univerfal king-

that this race of creatures

fered or ordained to

Handing monument

come

were

into exiftence,

to all other intelligences

fuf-

to be

through

the univerte, that a rational creature once departing

from

liis

recover

allegianpe to his Creator, never could again

it,

bat

verelgn grate.

..by

his ov/n

almighty power and fo-

Left. l6.

DIVINITY.

1^5

LECTURE XVI.
Of

XTTE
be

Covenant of Grace*

now come

faid to

to

fpeak of the covenant of

This, taking

grace.

may

the

it

a large fenfe,

in

comprehend the whole plan of

vatlon through Jefus Chrift.

every thing that belongs to

am

fal-

not to mention

this fubjel

but before

entering diredly into the conflitution of the cove-

nant of grace,

ii

will be, proper to fpeak a little of

the dodrine of fatisfa^Sion for the guilt of a creature.

As

to the

firft

of thefe

atonement neceflary
fiilent

God

both

Was

Would

fatisfaftion or

it

it ?

Might not the fovereignty and mercy

have difpenfed with the pumfhment of

in the finner

and

in the

Surety

of this queftion, and the zeal that

upon

it,

is

The

lin,

agitation

(hewn by fome

cannot help faying, feems to ariie from

an inward averfion to the truih


tion,

fome

have been incon-

with divine julHce to have pardoned finners

without
of

itfelf

of the fatisfac-

and the confequences that follow from

it.

What does it fignify, though any one fliould admit


that God by his fovereignty might have difpenfed
with demanding fatisfadion, if notwithflanding
appears
it?

in fafl, that he has

it

demanded and exaded

"that without fhedding of blood there is no"


** that
there is no other name,"

rerniffion," and,
cc.

Whether

it

has been fo ordained, becaufe to

have doue otlierwife would have been

inconfifleut

LECTURES ON

1^6

Left. l6.

with the divine perfeclions, or becaufe

good unto God, Teems

at

an indecent queftion.

We

fo

feemed

it

lead an unneceflary,

have an

if

not

concern

infioite

what God has done, but none at all in what he


might have done. On what is really difficult upon
thi? fubjecl:, we may however make the few fol-

in

lowing remarks.

From

1.

actually tp.king place as the will of

its

God, we have good reafon


and

beft

to fay

we

the rather, that

it

was the

wifeil

many

of the

find

higheft

encomiums on the divine

Ihewing

in this great difpenfation his

perfe6fIons,

His wifdom in
dom, mercy, and juftice.
cular manner is often celebrated, Eph.

Rom.

At

xi. 35.

obferve the

the fame time

harmony of

the juftice of

God
to

aftonifning and

than

the divine attributes

that

perdition

;.

more amiable

human

race had

and his mercy more


in

the gift of his Son,

could have been in the total remiftion of

it

fin

all

ic.

iii.

proper to

is

it

a parti-

appears more awful in the fuffer-

ings of Chrift, than if the whole

been devoted

as

power^ wif-

without any fatisfadion, had

it

been

poffi-

ble.
2.

There

is

a particular proof of the neceflity of

fatisfadlion that

arifes

from the death of Chrift,

confidered as intimately united with the divine nature,

which

poflefied.

it

has been already

Can we fuppofe

would have been taken,

Can we

if it

prov^ed

that fuch

that

he

meafure

had not been necefiary

fuppofe that the eternal Son of

God would

have humbled himfelf thus, and been expofed

to

fuch a degree of temptation, and fuch amazing fufferir!g3, if it

had not been necefiary

DIVINITY.

137

All the accounts given us

in Scripture of the

Lel. i6.
3.

nature of

God,

his

government,

perfections and

The

confirm this fuppoiition.

and

juftice

infinite

holinefs of his nature are often mentioned in Scrip-

ture

that he hates fin, and cannot look,

upon

but

it

with abhorrence, and particularly that he will by

no means fpare the guilty.


ed here, that
and that

may be

claims

its

part to man, cannot at


it

applies in part to

from other

attributes,

remitted, being due only

But

to the perfon offended.

fome times objeft-

It is

juftice differs

this,

which applies

be applied to God.

all

man, becaufe a matter of pri-

vate right, independent of the public good, he


eafily pafs

But

by.

may

not fo with magiftrates or

it is

public perfons, nor even with private perfons,

when
Be-

they take in the confideration of the whole.


fides,

juftice

in

fay

when we confider the controverfy about


of God, and what it implies, we fliall fee

greateft reafon to fuppoie

what

is

the
the

called his vindic-

tive juftice, viz. a difpofition to punifti fin becaufe

truly merits

it

even independently of any confe-

it,

quence of the puniiliment, either for the reformation of the perfon, or as an

example

The

to others.

idea of juftice and guilt Carries this in

it,

and

if it

did not, there would-be an apparent iniquity in pnnilhing any perfon for a purpofe different from his

own

good.

II.

The

whether

it

fecond queftion upon the fatisfaClion

was

juft

and proper to admit the

tution of an innocent perfon in theguilty.


all

their

This

is

might.

is,

fubfti-

room of the

what the Socinians combat with

They

to punifli an innocent

fay

it is

perfon

contrary to juftice
that

God

muft

al-

LECTURES ON

138

ways

thej really are, and therefore

treat things as

can never reckon

it

Ltift. 16.

any proper atonement

puniih one that never committed any

fin.

for fin, to

Before

Hate the reafoning in fupport of this fundamental


dodlrine of the gofpel,

will

firft

briefly point out

the qualifications necelTary in fuch a fubfiitution.


I.

The

would

muft be willing

fecurity undertaking

certainly be contrary to jr.Rice,

it

to lay a pu-

nifhment upon an innocent perfon without his confent.

He muft

2.

be free and independent, having

a rioht over his own- life, fo that he

is

able to any other for the difpofal of

perfon having the

demand muft be

not accountit.

3.

The
and

fatisfied

contented with the fubftitution, inftead of perfonal

puni foment.

make

4.

That the furety be truly able


full.
5. That it be in all

fatisfation in

to
re-

fpefts as ufeful, and that the fufFerer be not loft to

the Public.

6.

Some

add, that he

be related to,

and of the fame nature with the guilty.

This

is

generally added from the conftitution of Chrift's


perfon, and

in

that inftance furely has a great de-

gree of fultablenefs, but doe* not feem to

me

to be

fo necefiary as the other particulars for eftabliihing

the general principle.

Now

fuppofing

fatisfaftion
juiliiiable.

all

thefe circumftances, vicarious

me

for fin feem s to

To make

eafily

and perfelly

appear, attend to the

this

three following obfervations.


I.

tice.

There
If

is

nothing in

it

at all

contrary to juf-

any innocent perfon were punilhed again fl

his will, or laid under a neceffity of fufFering for the

caufe of another,

it

to the idea of julUce.

would evidently be repugnant

But when

it is

done, as b

Le6t.

DIVINITY.

5.

the fuppofition, willingly and

wholly excluded.

139
freely,

we could

If

norance and raihnefs in

tlie

injuftice

is

indeed fuppofe ig-

undertaking, fo that he

confented to what he did not underftand, there would

be

but this

injuftice,

wholly excluded

alfo is

in the

cafe before us.


2.

There

caufe
ting

nothing in

is

the evil of

to ratify the

it

law, and in

certainly ferves

many

atling the debt with rigour of a

awful fanciion

to the

We

furety,

have not

as

cafes the ex-

law than even the

of the offending party.


I

demonftra-

in

the one cafe as in the other.

fin in

human government,

In any

much

contrary to utility, be-

it

has precifely the fame efFel

it

is

more

fatisfa6lioa

in all hiliory,

think, an inftance of this kind fo ftriking as the

lawgiver of the Locrians,

who had made

law that

adultery (hould be punifhed with the lofs of both

His own fon was

the eyes.

of the crime
of his

own

and, to

fulfil

convicted

fliortly after

the law, he fuffered one

eyes to be put out, and one of his fons.

Every body mull perceive, that fuch an example


was a greater terror to others, than if the law had
been

literally inflicled

on the offender.

ving mentioned thefe two particulars,


that the

thing

ner laid

down

is

in a

After haobfer^-e,

moft precife and exa^^ man-

in Scripture,

It is impofiible to in-

vent expreffions that are either more ftrong or more


definite than are there to be fou/id.

vation of

word

fome of the Socinian

fatisfaclion

is

and in this they often triumph

art,

and

that the

not to be found in Scripture,


;

but nothing can

be more ridiculous, for fatisfaftion

term of

an obfer-

It is

writers,

unknown

is

modern

in that fenfe to antiquity.


LECTURES ON

140

Left. 16.

But can there be any thing more plain, than that it


intended to exprefs the very meaning fo fully and
fo varioufly exprefled, both in the Scriptures and

is

?
The word in the Old Teflament mod frequently ufed is atoning^ making atonement for fin, or for the foul. What could be more

the heathen writei^

plain than not only the great day of atonement, but

the daily

in

facrifice,

which

certain

men were

ap-

pointed to reprefent the people of Ifrael, and lay


their hands on the head of the devoted beaft, and

confefs the fins of the people,

which had not any

other intelligible meaning, than the transferring the


guilt

from the

finner to the viciim

The

fprinkling

the blood in the Old Teftament upon the horns of


the altar,

whence by

allufion the blood of Chrifl is

called the blood of fprinkling, carries this truth in

manner and the prophecies of


Ifaiah, chap. liii. 5. " He was wounded for our
tranfgreffion," &:c. " When he fliall give his foul
it

in

the plained

an offering for

fin,"

&.c.

But were there the lead

obfcurity in the type, the truth as dated in the

Tedament would

put the matter out of

The expreflions are fo many


we need not enumerate them
bought with a price

that
all

we
'*

all

New

doubt.

cannot, and

Redeemed

redeemed not with corruptible

things, as filver or gold, but with the precious blood

of Chrid

This

remidion of

unto him
fins in his

fins

is

my

blood died for many, for the

he gave himfelf

that loved us,

own

and

a ranjbm for all

w allied

us from our

blood."

would jud add here, that

of our nature, and our being


certain fucceflion

as by
made

the conditution
to

defcend in a

by natural generation,

there

is

DIVINITY.

hed:.i6,

141

communication of guilt and impurity from Adam,


fo

we have

from

tion, of

in

human

fociety,

and indeed infeparabie

by

the idea of communication

it,

natural rela-

honour and fliame, happinefs and mifery, as

well as the cleared notion of voluntary fubfiitution.

We

fee that the

worth and eminent

qualities of

perfon, give luftre and dignity to his pofterity

wickednefs or bafenefs does

men may

fee that

much

in

fympathy with

as to voluntary fubflitution^

many

life for

may

inftances of

one another

for

It

is

true,

tliere ar^

which

feveral

are not

It is

many men

ceive

interell

it.

of fuch
life

for

would be a proper or
the law, and it would not

rarely that this

adequate fatisfaction to

be the

in their

good reafons

exalted generofity, as to be willing to forfeit


life.

And

as familiar to us as

it is

men's being bound

There

be afligned.

their relations,

their fufferings.

Tiny tranfalion in focial life.

not

and

We

and do neceflarily receive

from the happinefs of

pleafure

and mifery

cafily,

juft the contrary.

anv

Yet

or unpra6lifefd.

of

human

fociety

commonly

to re-

from being inhurfian


There are fome inilances in ancient

the thing

is far

which men have procured liberty for their


by being confined in their room. And both
ancient and modern times, hoftages delivered by-

times, in
friends,

in

nations, or public focieties, are obliged to abide the

punifliment due to their conftituents.


3.

tipn

The third quellion on the fubje^Sl of fatisfacis. Whether it was neceiTary that the Redeemer

or Mediator

fliould be a divine perfon ? It may be


whether an angel of the higheft order, who
was perfeftly innocent, might not havt made fati?-

alked,

VoL.VIil.

LECTURES OK

I4i
fadion for the
the

many

of

fins

men

Led. l6.

Perhaps this is^one of

queftions in theology that are unnecelfary

or improper.

fufficient to fay that

It is

it

appears

either to have been neceffary or beft, that one truly

divine ihould

make

fatisfaftion for fin,

who

been ordained of God,

fince

it

has

does nothing unnecef-

fary.
Bi't befides this,

it

feems to be confonant to other

parts of revealed religion, particula^^ly the infinite


vil of fin as committed again il
finite

being fcems

we may

add, that

God,

to

fuflicient

fj)r

v^hich

dependent, created be-

all finite,

ings, are under fuch obligations themfelves,


is

no

To which

atone.

that

it

not eafy to fee what they can do in obedience to

the win of God, which can have any merit in

which they would not be obliged


pofe of his glory at any time
ated being feem fo

much

lils

to

it,

or

do for the pur-

neither does any cre-

own

mailer, as to enter

into any fuch undertaking.

There

is

an objection made to this dodrine, fome-

tim^s to the following purpofe

-How could the

fecond perfon of the ever blelTed Trinity be faid to

make

fatisfaftion

with the other


felf

But

Was

he not equally oftended

Could he make fatibfadion

this objedlion

is

eciily folved

to

him-

for not to

we cannot transfer with fafety every


thing human to God, the thing in queftion is by no
means unknown in human affairs. Though for the
payment of a debt on which the creditor infills, it
would ^be ridiculous to fay that he might pay -himmention

felf

that

yet in the charafler of a maglftratc fitting to

judge a criminal whert he repreLnts the Public,


is

no way unfaitable

for

him

to

it

put off the public

DIVINITY.

Left. 17.

143:

perfon, and fatisfj the deipands of juQice, and prethe honour of the law.

ferv^e

Here
there

would conclude by

no

is

may
and

jjuft

that

the

kind that the guilty perfon was bound

The

chara^er and dignity of the furety

operate fo far as

make

to

produce the legal

the fatJsfadtion proper for giving

Thus,

honour to the law.


Chrift, the

makes

doing

in

fame thing
to do.

juft obfervlng,

necefTity of a furety^s

infinite

in

effedl,
its

due

the fufferings of

value of the Sufferer's perfon

the bufferings to be confidered as a juft equi-^

valent to the eternal fuffepngs of a finite creature*

LECTURE XVIL

LET
nant
difference

us proceed to the conftitution of the cove-

and you may obferve that there is fome


among orthodox divines as to the way of

ftating the parties, and the

grace.

There feems

to be

terms of the covenant of

mention made in Scrip-

ture of a covenant or agreement

and the Son.

between the Father

This the generality of Calvinift di-

vines confider as a feparate or preparatory contraft,

and

call it the

no mians, coniider
grace,

Some, howwho have been termed Anti-

covenant of redemption.

ever, efpecially thofe

made with

this as

properly the covenant of

Chrift the fecond

Adam,

as re-

prefenting his.fpiritual feed, and the covenant faid


10 be

made with

believers, to be only the execution

or adminiftration of that covenant, and therefore


called a teftament, being the fruits of Chrift*s death,

or ratified

by the death of the Teftator.

According

LECTURES ON

1^4
to the different

ways of .viewing

thcmfelves

exprefs

Lel. ^7.

differently

the

faying

firft

that the condition of the covenant of grace

tn Jefus Chrift

and the other faying

teoufiiefs of Chrift.

obferve

Mr

both ways.

it is

is-

faith

the righ-

do not apprehend there need

now

be any difference between thofe


I

they

this matter^

mentioned, and

Willifon in his Catechifm takes

Scripture, that there

is

ii

very fhortly (hew you from

I ihall firll

plainly mention

made

of a

covenant, or a tranfalion between the Father and


the Son, which, if dilfinft from the covenant of
grace,

may be

properly enough called the covenant

of redemption.

There are many promifes made


Mediator refpefting
clare the decree,"
ihall

make

this

matter

&c.

Ifa. v. 3.

his foul," &:c.

my fervant whom I
whom my foul delighteth

Gentiles.

fhall

the

ouihefs, and will

ii.

10. "

"

6.

uphold

mine

have put

de-

When

lla. xlii. i. 6, 7.

hold

upon him, he

direftly to the

Pfal.

*'

el eel:

my

he

Bein

^irit

bring forth judgment to the

Lord have

called thee in righte-

hold thine hand, and will keep

thee, and give thee for a covenant of the people, for

Zech.

a light of the Gentiles."

vi. 13.

council of peace ihall be between

only further mention Pfal.

and offering thou


is,

xl.

that not only the Socinians,

the faiisfaclion of Chrift,

away the above

vnlent to

it

undeitaking.

&.c.

who

the

The

truth

are enemies to

texts

truth,
;

and attempt to

yet fomething equi-

neceffdrily coofequent

is

And

them both." I
7, 8. " Sacrifice

but even the Arminians

decline the admiffion of this

explain

6,

didft not defire,"

"

Wlien he was

upon

Chrift *s

conllituted Mediator

DIVINITY.

Le6l. ly.

by the divine

decree, he muft

145
have aflented to

and freely undertaken the important charge.

New

alfo evidently the fpirit of the

penfatlon, that the hope

He

are in Chrift.

is

It

Teftament

it,

is

dif-

and ilrength of believers

faid

to

have afcended up on

high, and received gitfs for men, and of his fulnefs

we

by the

are faid

apoftle

John

to receive grace for

grace.

But the covenant of grace

be more fre-

is faid to

made with men, with the houfe of


with the chofen of God, with his people.

quently

uompaft or agreement between


ners, to give freely,, and of

him

die for them, and with

right to everlafting
to

lanctification

life,

God

Krael,It is

and eled:

mere mercy, Chrift


a pardon of

fin,

together with the Spirit of

make them meet

offered,

is

it

and

for

it

ail

refts his eternal ftate

This tranfadion has many

it

it in

Scripture.

which

is

becaufe

and

It

is

different titles

called the covenani

properly the theological phrafe


it

in the

is

often called fo in the

New,

which

is

given

of grace,

a covenant,

it is

fo often

of grace; and

-particularly in order to ftate the oppofition

and the covenant of works

inr

upon

Old Teftament

and 0/ grace, becaufe

repeated in both, that falvation

it

to

and a

the believer receives and. accepts- in the manner

which

iin-

between

It is alfo

called a

covenant of peace, and that with a double view

to

from the covenant of works, and froni


the covenant on Sinai at the giving of the law.
It
diftingulfh

is

it

called likewife an everlaiiing covenant, to diftin-

guilli it

from any temporary covenant.

N3

It is alfo

LECTURES

146

Lel. 17*

O!*

promife made of

called the pronnfcy and the

God

unto our fathers.


In what
fign,

nant, in

further offer

I ihall

To

I.

The

2.

manner the gofpel

In v^^hat

3.

are contrary to

the

it,

jncrcy

is

lie

had deferved

that finners

to perifh

the foundation of the whole.

at

for this reafcn tiiat a Mediator

the Saviour

of his love
6ic.

13

offered

John

The

iii.

freenefs

by God
16.

*'

you

that di-

of

faiti),

he

"'

m\^\\t be of prace."

by

fo loved the world,"

by

Therefore

it is

and righteoufnefs,

The

title

of the law

of faith, that

This covenant

throuj'-h Chrill and for his fake,

a^ vvifdom

is

the apoltle in his

particularly chap. iv. 16.

is

comes

a Mediator, for every bleffing

cemption.

was

of falvation in the gofpel

Romans, and

fay's,

This
It

was provided, ard

fpeaking of the covenant under the


.

fee

himfelf, as the fruit

God

largely infilled on, and proved


epiftie to the

to be

and unmerited

free

it is,

vine juilice pronounced their condemnation.

muft

va-

it.

and leading idea of

de-

and what views of things

to the conftitution of the covenant,

firit

my

and their relations to one

it,

preached agreeably to

As

is

it,, it

promifes and conditions.

its

rious difpenfations of

another.

upon

conlider the conftitution of the cove-

who

is

it

eftablifhed
to believers

made unto

fandlification

and re-

promifes of the covenant of grace

mny

be taken in either view, more generally or

more

particularly.

In

general

it

procures deliver-

ance from the wrath of God, and from every part


01 the curfe of a

broken law.

Some

alfo diilinguiih

the promifes generally into grace and glory, peace


Yviih

God,

hoiiiicfs

on eurth, and the enjoyment of

DiviNiTT.

Left. 17-

God
mod

But

at hft.

that I

may

147

them

ftate

them

the meffage of peace, I (hall enumerate

following order

The covenant
make fatIsfa6bion

to

by his fnfferpromife made of God

divine juftice

He was

ings and death.

in the

promifes Chrift the Mediator

1.

to

way

in the

proper for preaching the gofpel, and carrying

the

unto the fathers, and under the obfcurity of the an-

he was the hope of

cient difpenfation,

the defire of

nations

all

into the world, he

^*

now

Lord,

was

So Simeon exprefled himfelf,


thou thy fervant depart

lettell

And

peace," &c.

and

called the Lord's Chril^,

God.

the falvation of

and

Ifrael,

when he was come

and

as

Redeemer appeared

the

in
firft

as the objeft of faith to the ancient patriarchs, fo to

convinced ftnners under the gofpel, a Saviour


lirll

is

the

ground of confolation.

2.

The covenant

don of

all fin

The forgivenefs
commanded his
beginning

at

of

xi. 28.

is

"

1 will in

Tim.

The

&c.

16. Ifa. Iv. i.

to preach to all nations,

difciples

what

i.

the do6trlne which Chriil

fins is

Jerufalem,

faithful faying,"

of mercy

promifes the full and free par-

through Chrift, John

i.

15.

" This

unto

no wife

caft

me

and

it.

Matt.

him that cometh


Thi^feems to be

out," &.c.

indeed the preliminary mercy, that opens the


to every other,

gofpel

Luke

and

it

was preached
iv.

18.

'*

The

was
to

in

the

Spirit

univerfality of the oiFer

particularly diftinguifhes

Come

is

this

way

view that the

humble and needy


6i the Lord

is

upoa

me," &c.
3.

The covenant

^ion to

promifes the

fpirit

of fanftifica-

renew our nature, and form ug for the fervice

LECTURES ON

148

Led. I J,

of God, Jer. xxxi. ^^, 34. Jer. xxxii. 40. " And I
will make an everlafting covenant with them," &c.

Ezek. xxxvi. 25, 26, 27. " Then will I fprinkle


It is with a view to
clean water upon ^ou," &c.
this that we are told, A6ls v. 31. " That Chrift
1

need not multiply palTages to

it is

the conftant tellimony of the

was

exalted," Slc.

this

purpofe,. for

Scriptures, that any gracious difpolition in believers


35

work

the

of God's holy Spirit, and therefore are

they called the fruit of the Spirit.


the bringing finners again to
that

confidered as the

is

It

not only^

is

God by repentance

work of God's

Spirit,

the continuance and increafe of fan6tification


tributed to their being an habitation of

the Spirit:

**

God

will live in them, and.

is

but
at-

through

walk

in

them,'' &c.

The. covenant promifes the favour of God,

4.

and

happj^ fruits, while in this

all its

vi. 18.

and be ye feparate,

faith the

2 Cor,

Lord," &ic.

not here mention the particulars that

head

life,

Wherefore come out from among them,

**

deliverance from temptations,

bufferings, the fancliiied

fall

I need

under

this

fupport under

ufe of fufferings

becaufe

we are in one word afliired that '* all things (hall


work together for good to them that love God,"
and 1 Cor. iii. 22. "For all things are yours, whether Paul or Apollos," &:c.
In the laR place, the covenant promifes eter*

j.

nal

We

life.

cannot fay what would have been the

fulnefs of that life

nant

but

it

which belonged

to the

firll

cove-

feems to be generally agreed, that the

promife of a glorious immortality, contained in the


gofpel,

is

much

greater and

more valuabk, than

i^

Led.

DIVINITY.

that which

Was

Life and

fall.

by

are faid to be brought to light

'tcility

and our Saviour


lieft

by the

loft

149

of

is

as the

all,

fruits

of them that

is,

may

there they

now fpeak
of grace. Ab I

where

alfo.

of the conditions of the cove-

Let us
nant

be

and

flept,

to have gone to prepare a place for them, that

he

have entered into the ho-

faid to
firft

immor-

the gofpel

hinted before, thofe

who make

the covenant of grace and covenant of redemption


the fame thing, fay, the condition

merit and obedience.

is

Chrift's perfect

Neither indeed

is

there

any

thing elfe that can be called the meritorious condi-

Thofe who fay that the covenant of grace


was made with man, fay that the condition is faith

tion,

in

And

our Lord Jefus Chriil.

it

is

true, that faith interefts us in Chrift,

brings us to

it

for

any thing

confidered as a condition,

God

and brings us

bond of the covenant.

really within the

is

elfe

undoubtedly

Faith alone

that

might be

only a promife of what


to ftate this

mat-

able, whiBther there are

con-

will do for his people.

ter as clearly as I

am

ditions or not, or

what

But

are the conditions of the co-

venant of grace, depends entirely on the fenfe in

which we take the word


as

condition.

If

we

take

it

implying proper merit, or the plea or claim in

juftice

for obtaining the promifes, nothing can be

plainer than that there

is

not, and cannot

be of this

kind, any condition but the voluntary, p^rfed,

me-

ritorious obedience of the Lord Jefus Chrift.

If

we

take

it

formance

pended, as
tree of

as fignifying any particular duty or peras the

term on which the promife

in the firft

is

iai^

covenant abftaining from the

knowledge of good and

evil,

it

can fcarcely

LECTURES ON

IjO

be faid with propriety that

it

the tenor of the covenant, in

Le^. I7.

has a condition

for

promifing part, i%

its

fuch, that every thing of this kind is promiled as

the

work of God.

Economy
have

it

But

of the Covenants.)
often

is

It is for this

called a tejianutity even

reafon

where wc

tranflated covenant.

condition

if

qualification, or

taken to fignify a chara^er^

is

what

is

neceflary to

repentance,

lafting life, then faith,

and

no

(See this matter well ftated in Witfius'

promifes.

it

divines have

wholly of free and gracious

condition, but confiits

that

many

Therefore

that the gofpel, ftriftly fo called, has

alTerted,

us for ever-

fit

new

obedience^

perfeverance, are all conditions, but very

final

improperly

Indeed, in this fenfe, the co-

fo called.

venant of grace has as

Yet even

has duties.

to obferve, that there

many

in this
is

conditions as the

law

view we are carefully

a difference in the conftitu-

tion of the covenant of grace,

between

faith in the

fruits,

the various

blood of the atonement, and

its

graces of the Chriftian

For

life.

as the promifes of

the covenant contain, not only the free pardon of fin


for Chriil's fake, but alfo the fpirit of fanftification,
faith

is

the immediate inflrument for receiving or

laying hold of this mercy.

If there

is

to

man, pro-

perly fpeaking, a condition of the covenant,

be

faith,

becaufe

this,

renouncing

all

it

mull

felf-dependence,

accepts and clofes with the promife of recovery and


falvation, juft in the
freely,

plainly flated in

Romans

manner

in

which

it is

offered,

without money and without price.

**

this

Therefore

be by grace."

*'

manner
it

To him

is

in

It is

the epiille to the

by faith, that it may


worketh is the re-

that

DIVINITY.

Le6l. 17-

151

ward not reckoned of grace, but of debt ; but to


him that worketh not, but believeth in him that
ungodly, his faith

juftitieth the

tor righteoufnefs."

him

counted to

is

Faith indeed

is

highly-proper

for receiving the righteoufnefs of Chrill, becaufe

To

gives the glory only to God.

any merit

in

abfurd as to fuppole that

juft as

is

it,

it

fuppofe faith has

a perfon, being wholly needy and helplefs, his ac-

cepting the bounty of another

is

an evidence of his

having abundance of his own.

As

works of righteouf-

or

to the fruits of faith,

no perfon can deny that they are the proper


evidence of our relation to God ; that they are the

nefs,

of our love to

f xprelTions

form us

fary to

prefence

for his

him

that they are necef-

fervice,

and

fit

us for his

but being the work of his Holy

Spirit,

and the accompliihment of his faithful promife, it is


impoffible that they ihould be, in any relpecl, conditions of the covenant of grace.

promifes of the covenant of grace are ranged

The

in a certain order
ciQOther

they introduce and lead to one

and they are to be received and applied

precifely in

fame order

tiie

free pardon of

fin,

Spirit, increafe

Cliriil the

Saviour, the

a new nature as the work of his

of grace,

a fan6titied

providence,

viflory over death, and the pofleffion of everlailing


lite.

Thefe mull take place

mentioned them.

tem
2.

is

juft

If the order

is

ir.-

the order

liave

inverted, the fyf-

deftroyed.

The

fecond thing to be confidered,

is

the va-

rious difpenfations of the covenant, and their relation


to

one another."

difpenfation

The covenant

difFers

of grace in every

from the covenant of works.

LECTURES OS

132

The

htSi. 17.

covenant of works required perfect obedience,

and one

rendered

fin

grace there

In the cov^enant of

void.

it

provifion made, not only for reconci-

is

ling the finner, but for daily pardon to the believer.

In the covenant of works every thing depends upon


the perfonal conduct of the interefted party

covenant of grace there

is

a Mediator

who

in the

lays his

hands upon them both.

As to
we may

the dilpenfations of the covenant of grace,

them

confider

appearing before the law,

as

under the law, and from the coming of Chrift.

we

.(i.) Before giving the law,


is

made

following terms

in the

woman

fee the promife

The

''

In thy feed fhall

*'

earth be bleHed."

covenant, was

all

feed of the

head ;" and to

bruife the ferpent's

fhail

Abraham,

the nations of the

think the promife,

fubftantially

not the

if

made the fame then

as

now. The apoftle to the Galatians, iii. 17. thought


the fame thing, that the promife to Abraham was
the New Teftament promife, and that whatever the
law had peculiar to
mife',

*'

And

this

itfelf,

confirmed before of

mife

at

'^

Thefe

God

that time, as

apoftle to the
all

was

pofterior to the pro-

fay, that the covenant

Hebrews

in Chrifl,"

now, was

eternal

plainly proves,

died in faith," g^c.

which was

The

&c.

life,

Heb.

pro-

as the
xi. 13.

It is alfo plain,

think, that as the promile to the faith of the ancient


patriarchs

was

their faitli itfelf

in fubftance the.

was

ance on the mercy of God.


is

fame with ours,

alfo the fame.


It v/as

It

was a

fo

reli-

that faith whicli

the evidence of things not feen, and the fubftance

of things hoped

for.

(2.) Under the law the covenant

alfo

was the

Le^.

17.

fame

in fubflance, as appears

now

hinted at.

coniider

DIVINITY.

The

153

by the arguments

only thing particular

what was the import of the

juft

is

to

Sinai covenant,

ar the defign of giving the law of Mofes.

Some,

feeing that the Levitical law confifts chiefly of tem-

poral promifes, are for fuppofmg that difpenfati-on


quite diftinft from the covenant of grace.
They
have even called the ten commandments given upon

Mount

a republication of the law of nature,

Sinai,

and of the covenant of works.


writer,

Dr Warburton,

fes did

not in the law give

pe6l eternal

life,

late

celebrated

attempted to ihew that

them any

Mo-

reafon to ex-

but confined both the promifes and

threatenings entirely to things temporal.


this

author, probably,

Even to
many have imputed more

than he intended to affirm.


his

arguments too

the infpired writers of the


life

Yet he

far in fuppofing,

and indeed

that in none of

Old Teftament

propofed as the objeft of faith.

eafily refuted

certainly carries

is

in the book,

ftrongly refuted, that the author

is

is

This

eternal

may

be

of Job fo

forced into the

extraordinary fuppofition of that book being as late


as the Babylonifh captivity, in order to rid himfelf

of

it.

However,

think that

it

muft be admitted,

that temporal promifes

and threatenings m.ake the


moft diftinguifhed appearance in the Levitical law*

This took place becaufe

it

was defigned

as a typical

dlfpenfation, and to be a

come.

It is plain,

fhadow of good things to


however, that the law of M^es

did not provide an atonement for every crime,

fuppofed

many

fins

the blood of bulls

Vol. VIII,

and
which could not be expiated by
or of goats, for which the onl^

LECTURLS ON

I_54

remedy was
"

Iv. I.

Ho

New

The

law was

ou the mere merey of God,

reliance

the exercife of

Left. I7.

mie repentance

fee Ifa.

16,

i.

in

&c.

every one that thirfteth," &:c.

Teftament exprefsly

tells

us, that the

a fchoolmafter to bring us to Chrift

and

the innumerable perfons, and things, and ordinances, that were typical in it, need not be mentioned.

The

land of Canaan

it,

the temporal pro-

all

or in

confequence of th

had a reference

to the fpiriturl pro-

preparatory to

inifes

pofleflion of

and

itfelf,
it,

mifes under the gofpel, and doubtlefs the acceptance

and falvation of them under the law, are upon the


footing of the everlafling covenant, which began to

be delivered before the law was given, and will


continue till the final confummation of all things.

The moral law

publifhed

muil not be confidered

upon Mount

Sinai,

as a republication of the co-

venant of works, but a publication or

fummary of

law of righteoufnefs, which is the


duty of creatures, and muft accompany the adminiftration of every covenant which God makes witfi
that immutable

man.
3. Since the

grace

and

is

coming of

adminiftered in a

efficacious,

promifed Saviour

name, of, and by a


all

now

the covenant of
full,

than in any of the former

was formerly adminiftered

fered and

Chrift,

manner more

it

is

rifen

in the

now

name

clear,

ftates.

of,

It

and by a

adminifter.ed in the

Redeemer, who once

reigns in glory.

fuf-

The harmony of

the divine perfeftions in the great falvation, is

more apparent now than formerly, and


ing of
explicit

tlie

the preach-

glad tidings of peace to iinners,

and more univerfal.

What

is

more

falls chiefly to

DIVINITY.

Lea. 17.
be confidered

is,

how

I!;

far the former difpenfations

by the coming of Chrift


The covenant ratified by the de^ith of

are fufpended or abrogated


in the flelh.

Chrill

is

called a

that

which

the

covenant

covenant

new

old and

is

is

called

works,

of

covenant,

iii

oppofition to

Certainly

vanifhcd away.

new,

way

the

as

the

in oppofition to

of

falvation

was abrogated from the date of the firft promife,


and both in the epiftles to the Romans, Galatians^
and Hebrews, efpecially the two former, the gofpel
or law of grace is oppofed to the law of works;

meaning the

you

firft

cifms upon

And

covenant.

that I

may fatisfy

without entering into the endlefs

of this,

criti-

particular pailages, obferve, that thofe

who would by

the law, underiland the law of

fes, exclufive of the covenant of works,


*' that
eafily confuted, for the apoftle fays,

Mo-

may be
by-

it is

juftification
it may be by grace ;" that if
was by works, Abraham might have whereof to
glory ; and that the defign of this conftitution waSy

faith, that

that no flelh

might glory

in

The

God's prefence.

ceremonial law is undoubtedly abrogated, both from


the
the exprefs declaration of Scripture, and from
Chrift

nature and rcafon of things.

is

now

the end

belieof the law for righteoufnefs to every one that


And as the whole fyftem of the Mofaic law
veth.
A^as intended to typify the gofpel difpenfation w^hen

Chrift

was adually come

in the flefh, it

muft

fall

of

itfelf as unneceflary or hurtful.

There has been much controverfy, whether it was


proper to fay that the moral law was abrogated, or
to apply to that

law what

is

faid of believers

bting uiider the law but under grace.

not

This matter.

LF.CTURES ON

1^6

one would think, might be.

Le(El. 17.

eaiily reconciled

for

doubtlefs the moral law, as u covenant of works,


carrying a fentence of condemnation againft every

But the moral law,

tranfgrtffion, is abrogated.

the unalterable rule of duty to creatures,


dei'i

to

them.

is

by

covenants, and cannot be affcd:ed

all

The moral

law, as

as

antece-

req,uires obe^dience to

it

the will, and conformity to the nature of

God, was

binding on the angels before the creation of the


world, and will be the duty of holy angels and redet ined finuers after the refurreftion.

aUb another view of


is

this fubjtdt

a p:n't of the cov-^enant of


! is

the Mediator.
that the

law

ii.;all

But

that the

there

is

moral law

hand of

grace, in the

promile of the covenant,

tli'-

be written

our hearts

in

an un-

feigned faith im-^ii^s the acceptance of this as well


as other promifes, fo that the believer not

mains under

only re-

unchangeable obligation to

his original

keep the law, but comes under anew and peculiar


obligation,

which

deemer's flrength
perly, there

is

is
;

be- difcharged in his

to

more obedience

in the covenant of

grace than in the covenant of works.


liant of grace requires

Re-

to take the thing pro-

fo that,

The

covc-

unfeigned fubje<5lion to every

part of the fame law, with this mortifying addition,


that the believer receives
his acceptance,

it

wholly

and afciibes

it

as a Condition of

entiidy to the riches

of divine grace.

There

is

fometimes mention made of the

law of Mofcs, and

it

is

of perpetual obligation
cafy.

It

political

demanded whether

The anfwer feems

this is

to

be

contains an excellent fyftem of laws fuited

to the fctllemcia of the

Jews

in

Canaan, and many

Left. 17.

DIVINITY-.

may

principles of equity that

other legiflators

but as the

l^f
be of great ufe to
laws in general

civil

have only in view temporal property and convenience, they certainly are not unalterable, becaufc

they muft be fuited to the Hate of fociety, and other

may

circumftances whicli

of the precepts

in

alio

be very various.

have an allegorical meaning, and


either with a

as the precept,

'*

that treadeth out

kid in

ferve,

to

have been made

view of fugge fling or ftrengthening

moral principles, or

the

Sundry

the political lav/ feem to

its

to

be typical of gofpel times

Thou

tlie

fiialt

corn,"

-**

not muzzle the ox

Thou

(lialt

not feethe

But we may ob-

mother's milk."

down in the criminal


much wifdom, that it is a

that the principles laid

law are founded upon

fo

them

quell ion whether the departure from

in

pu-

nilhing of crimes has ever been attended with ad-

vantage
the

for

as

example, in regard to violence,

law of retaliation, an eye

for a tooth

in theft

for an

eve and a tooth

and fraud, rellitution

and the

punifhment of adultery with death.

What

remains upon this fubjcfl,

out in what manner the gofpel


agreeably to

it,

trary to

To

it.

fet

diftinftiiefs

ferve,

th;it this

ditions
ihall

divide

this

be preached

matter before you u'ith as

and propriety as

am

able,

ob-

gracious difpenfation mull be open

juil as it is fuited t^ the various

of ihofe to

whom

it is

addrcfled.

icto three great claffes

felf-rigliteous

only to point

to

and what views of things are con-

much

ed and prelfed

is

is

perfons.

2.

ProfefliDs: believers.

03

Convinced

i.

con-

Thefe I
Secure or

finners.

3.

153

LXCTL^RES ON,

Left. 17.

who

Secure or lelf-righteous perions,

1.

feem

to hp.ve

do not

ever laid their eternal concerns to

heart, or are building on

fome

falfe foundation,

a^

a form of godlinefs, or the merit of good works, or

the comparative fmallnefs of the fins of which thev

To

are guilty.

law in
gation.

of

man by

the force of

all

by

renovation

them and

his

Spirit.

It

others, to

all

if

to the

bottom

ought to fhew them that thefe are but the

unrenewed nature

tlie
^o.

is

not

for

we

fruits of

that reftraining, mioderating,

or even reforming a particular fm,

It is

proper

more

fometliing

not fearched

is

may be very

fhew tliem the guilt and

fuch as fwearing, drunken-

But

uncleannefs.

done, the evil

jor

obli-

nature, and the abfolute nc-

folly of particular (ins,

a.11

its

point out the evil of fin,

of pardon tlirouph the blood of Chrift^ anc

celTity

r.efs,

neccflary to preach the

is

it

It is riecefTary to

tiVe loft ftate

for

thefe

extent, and in

all its

is

any evidence of a change from

not enough,

unto God.

fin

particularly proper in fucii cafes to point out

extent and fj3irituality of the law, as reaching

the thoughts of the heart, fo as, if poflible, to

ihew them that they are guilty and


thp.t

there

is

w..-

faIv..tion in

heiplefs,

any but in

Chrift..

and

This

-ieads as to {.ij^

2. 7"hat

wiih regard to convinced finners,

particularly necefTary to fet before

them the

it

is

all-

fufncicncy of Chrill, the fulnefs and freenefs of that


fal

ration

of^.-rs

in

which he purchafed upon the


his

word.

i.ilhed his v.'ork,

repder

it

LuUrifcfs 01

To

crofs,

and

fhew them that he has

and done every thing

fi-

necefl'ary tc

perfeclly confiilent with the juflice ai.a

God

"o

iu:'gi*'e

even the

chit;f

of fmners

Led.

DIVINITY.

17.

159

But this will be bed illuftrated by pointing out


fome fentiments and views contrary to the freenefs
of falvatlon, and the plan of the gofpel.
(1.) It

and

contrary to the freenefs of falvatioii

is

to the covenant of grace, to extenuate

hard thoughts of God, of the

Iiave

the feverity of

lav/, or

from imperfed conviclion of

makes
tion

fin,

to

ftriftnefs

of his

This

arifes

fandioc.

its

fin,

which fometimes

the (inner ufe fome efforts to obtain falva-

but

flill

he

is

verv hard meafurcs

apt to think he would have

if

he was reiecled.

convldions lead linners


*Ue extenuation of

to feek their

Imperfedl

comfort from

but true faith incites the

fin,

give full force to the accufation, and to

fimier to

plead the benefit of the remiiTion.


(2.) It

contrary to the freenefs of lalvation

is

and to the tenor of the covtrnant of grace, to think


that the grea^nefs or atrocioufnefD of

der

This

our
is

returning

one of the

God

to
firft

fcr

refiedtions

convidlion, that he has finned

fin iliould

hin-

obtaining mercy.
of a fmner under

more than any

other,

and that another can fooner expel lorgivenefs than


he.

While

this

and rafe to
confidence,
tuis arifes

gree of

only ferves to increafe humiliation,

the foundation every degree of felf-

its

operation

is

falutary.

human

infl;ead

God,

upon fome fcheme of purchafing

for hlmfelf

haps he

is

fome de-

of compelling the finner

to reft in the infinite compafiion of


fall

to

merit, a neceflary to find favour

with God, and then

him

But fometimes

from too rooted an adherence

it

makes

fal.vation

or if he finds this impradlicable, per-

plunged into the gulf of defpair.

pofitioa to this, the

new and

In op-

well-ordered covenant

LECTURES ON

l6<3

him

fends

Lct. 17.

to the infinite fulnefs of Cbrift for a free

and connplete pardon, and for deliverance from the

power of

his corroptions.

It is

3.

contrary to the freenefs of falvation and

the covenant of grace, to have any d'-'pendcnce on


one's being comparati\eiy lefs

hope

the Tinner's

If

been free from

this

much from

arifes

or that

he

fin,

to the other,

Luke

xviii. 11.

Not

Pharifee flood and prayed," &.c.

would reprefent

it

as

reft their

*^

that

The

God

to be an adultertr.

dependence on their com-

parative goodnefs in themfelves,

only ferves to

it

them away from an efteem and acceptance of

On

divine mercy.

this

account our Saviour fays to

the Fharifees, Matt. xxi. 31.

you, the Publicans,*' &.c.


profligate deadens

many
it

" Verily

The

the fenfe of

fight

fin in

fay unto

of a great

the minds of

worldly perfcns, but in an humble penitent

only excites

ples of

him

all fin in his

to rcfieft

own

upon the great

heart, and

princi-

what he might

have been, had not a reflralning Providence and recovering grace been his prefervation.
4.

a lefs fafe ftate to attend to

the exercifes of religion, than

lead

on

See hov/ the Saviour has oppofed

the Fharifees.

But when me<n

his having

relling

is

This was a rock of perdition to

legal foundation.

this chara6ler

wicked than another.

It is

contrary to the freenefs of falvation and

the covenant of grace, to fuppofe that


or muft not lay hold of divine mercy,

done Something ourfelves in the


performance

till

way

we may not,
till, we have
of duty and

our penitential tears, or purpofes

of obedience, or begun reformation, entitle us to


call it ours.

No

doubt felf-denial, and experience

i^i

DIVINITY.

Led. 17-

own

of the treachery of our

hearts, fhould

with humility and jealoufy of ourfelves


true

way

fill

us

but the

the heart to duty, and to

to reconcile

break the power of

fin,

is

to reft our

hope upon

in the
divine mercy for pardon, and on the prcmife
wholly.
us
fandify
covenant of the Holy Spirit to

retard their reformation, as well

Many

flavilh fear.

obftruft

by

yielding to a fpirit of bondage and

We

fhould rather pray in the words

comfort,

tlieir

as

Luke

of Zechariah,

i.

74.

" That we

Vng

deli-

vered," ^c.
of falvation and

5. It is contrary to the freenefs

the covenant of grace, to boaft of our

wor-io

of a

to

It

is

own
in

righte-

our

Chriftian fliould

of the prophet, Ifa. xlv.

one fay," &:c.

faall

of

any degree

The motto

llrength.

the

in

or

Gufnefs,

truft

own
be

24. " Surely,

not merely the pardon

but the fanaification of the nature, and ftrength


is promifed in the cove-

fin,

for daily obedience, that

nant

tor's

and both muft be received from the Mediahand, and afcribed to him as their proper

fource.

Paul,

an admirable exprefTion of the apofile


fays, " I obtained mercy to be faithful i"

It is

who

accounting that a fubjeft of gratitude, and a mercy


an ocreceived, which others would have reckoned
cafion of boafting.

Nothing

is

more contrary

to

and
the fpirit of the gofpel than felf-dependcnce,
has
difpenfation
this
of
fubftance
indeed the whole
been deiigned
the grace of

To
law of

to abafe the pride of

to exalt

God.

profefling believers, the

God

man, and

whole duties of the

are to be preached, for believers are not

widiout law to God, but under the law to Chriil.

LECTURES, &C,

l62

The laws

Lcdl. 17.

of the gofpel are to be inculcated as the

fruits of faith,

and the evidence of a faving change.

There

is

ties as

going before, and as following faith and re-

a great difference

conciliation

You

the

firft is

legal,

the

laft

evangelical.

need not be afraid but that duties

preached as

and

between confidering du-

it

fafety.

will

ftri611y in

the

laft

way

certamly be dowe with

may

as in the

much

be

firft,

greater

LETTERS
ON

EDUCATION,
4i

LETTERS
ON

EDUCATION.
LETTER

AFTER
fulfil

fo

my

I.

long a delay, I no\V

fet

myfelf to

promife of writing to you a few

thoughts on the education of children.

Thouo-h

carmot wholly purge myfelf of the crimes of lazinefs and procraftination, yet I do afiTure you, what
contributed not a

little

done, was, that

confidered

to

its

it

being iiitherto not


not as an ordinary-

but what deferved to be carefully meditated


on, and thorouglily dig^iled.
The concern you
letter,

ibow on
ihere

is

this

fubjed

is

highly commendable

no part of your duty,

for

as a Chriilian or a

which will be of greater fervice to the


Public, or a fourcc of greater comfort to yourfelf.

'citizen,

The

confequence of

before committing

Vol. VIII.

my

my

thinking fo long upon

it

thoughts to paper, wiii pro-

LETTERS ON

l66

bablj be the taking the thing


than either of us at

firfl:

Let. I.

in a greater

With

inftead of one.

feries of letters

compafs

intended, and writing a


this

view

begin with a preliminary to the fuccefsful education

of

upon

the end, but as


j^lan to

to

wife ought

children, viz. that hufljand and

entirely one

means

to

to

be

be ufed, and the

be followed in order to attain

encourage you

am

the

to

to

only agreed as to

this fuhje6l, not

It

it.

ought

proceed in your defign, that

perfuaded yon will not only meet with no oppoa rational and ferious education of your

to

sition

children, but great aiTiftance

The

from Mrs S

erafcd lines contained a compliment, written

with great

(incerity

but recoUefting that there are

no rules yet fettled for diftinguifliing true compliment from flattery, I have blotted them cut on
which, perhaps, you will fay to yourfelf, ' He is
;

fulfilling the character

who

fay,

more
tent

it is

which

his

the nature of the

enemies

man

in fatire than in panegyric'

giv^e

to deal

him,

much

However, Icon-

myfelf with repeating, that certainly hufband

and wife ought

to confpire

and co-operate in every

thing relating to the education of their children


'*Liid

be

different,

they ought Vo examine and

fettle the

matter privately by themfelves, that not the


oppofition

When

this

opinions happen, in any particular, to

if their

may
is

leall

appear either to children or fervants.

the cafe, every thing

is

enforced by a

double authority, and recommended by a double


but when it is otherwife, tbe pains taken
commonly more than loil, not being able to

example
a?:e

167

EDUCATtON.

Let. I.

much

do any good, and certainly producing very


evil.

Be pleafed

to

remember,

intended againft thofe

that this

a ftate of continual wiir.

tage to fper.k either

to,

by no mear-i

and cbarac>er, live

ellentially different in principles

is

couples, who, being

unhappy

of

Ir is

little

advan-

But

or of fucli perfons.

differences incomparably imaller are of very

even

bad confequence

may

child

v/rong

when

be carried out, and the other thinks

when one thinks

',

gerous, and the other

The

it.

one," for example, thinks a

is

way

of fpeaking

pofitive there

things themfelves

may

is

is

is

nothing in

indeed be of

moment, but the want of concurrence

it

dan-

little

in the parents,

or the want of mutual eftcem and deference, eafily

obferved even by very young children,

is

of the

greateft importance.

As you and

have

education of children,

chiefly in
I

take

it

view the religious


to

be an excellent

preliminary, that parental affeftion ihould be puri-

by the

fied

principles,

and controuled or direfted

the precepts of religion.


in

his

God

by

parent Ihould rejoice

children, as they are the gift of a gracicus

fhould put his truft in the care of an indul-

gent Providence, for the prefervation of his offspring


as

well as himfelf

that they
life

mzj

fhould be fupremely delirous

be, in due time, the heirs of eternal

and, as he

knows

the abfolute dependence of

every creature upon the will of God, fliouTd be


ready to refign them

at

what time

fee proper to demand them.

tion of parental

inilueuce

in

his Creator fhall

This happy qualifica-

tendernefs, will

have a powerful

preventing miflakcs in

tlie

condud of

LETTERS OU

}6S
It will

ediicailon.

to duty,

ci'tenien^:,

,'

be the moft powerful of

and

at the

fame time a

makes

a fort of fafcinalion or fatality,

ohen do or permit what


and

ilien

rhil.lrcu

is,

fiim.

probable, at

T>ut5

only to

if

*'

that

the

and enables the Chriattempts, but to perfe-

children

This faying carries in

to

every other

pli ilimenr, it is

human

This,

ence.

Where do we

thiiik,

is

tions,

not a

are as bad as

it

a fuppofition,

is

confeded with

at all as to reli-

contrary to daily experi-

expe(it to

fmd young perfons

pioufly difpofed but in pious families


'

know

pernicious, than

character and accom-

of no confequence

gion.

more falfe or
of good men

that 'whereas the force of education


refpeit

it,

This

fpirit,

faying either

others.'*

and

it,

make fome

vere with patience and diligence*.

common

'

not certain fuccefs of

and prudently conducted

an edje upon the

stian not

it.

to the proper educatioa of

perfuafion of the benefit of

leaft,

faithfully

\v'heii

parents

judgment condemns,

excafe themfelves by faying, that no doubt

Another preliminary

ih'i

their

wrong, but truly they cannot help

it is

all in-

reftraini

that 'natural fondnefs and indulgence which,

lipoii

Let. I,

The excep-

or rather appearances to the contrarv, are

eafily accounted for iu

perfons appear to

more ways than one.

fo in reality, but are chiefly

pliafe of men.

Many

be religious, while they are not

Hence

governed by the ap-

their vifibie condu<l:l:

may

be Ipecious, or their public performances applaudel,

and yet their families be neglected.


It

mull'alfo be acknowledged, that fome truly

well- difpofed perfons are extremely defeclive or

prudent in this pait of

tJieir

duty,

im-

and thercfnte

is

no wonder that

EL, whofe

However,

tliat this

muft obferve,

was

ven him by God,

mand
they

'*

his children,

child

oIl

couifes,

a v^ocd

know him,

and

much more

is

moment,

certainly oi

is

humble

own

talked of, than ativ other

that one

God,
is

do

fliould

it

in

not defective in

he will not be denied the bleffing of

could

ces of parents

you

tell

fcfme remarkable iuftan-

who feemed

long time, and yet v/ere


;

Upon the whole, it


who defires to edu-

perfuaiion, that if he

duty,,

fuccefs.

at laft

that-

add, that the

feento follow diiTolute

cate his childien in the fear of

his

com-

draws the attention of mankind more upon

him, and

that he will

we may

this

perfon of the fame character.


is

the father of

houfehold after him,

his

man, Vvho

their charafler;^

much from

honourable teftimony gi-

this

To

mc."

ferv'e

are toki^

allow fuch to be

drawback upon

we

fame time confefs^

at the

differed very

who had

the faithful,

we

if

we muft

a great

and that they

foas^

and he reilrained them not.

theniftlves vile,

truly good men,

This was

fliouul not lucceed.

't

plainly the cafe with

made

i6^

.EDUC^ATIOW.

I,Ct. I.

fo

to labour in vain for a

happy

and of fome children

in

as to fee a

change

whom, even

the death of the parents, the feed which

after

was earJy

fown, and feemed to have been entirely fmothcred,


has at

laft

produced

fruit.

And

indeed no

lefs-

feems to follow from the promife annexed to the

commanu, *^ Train up a child


go, and when he is old he

in the

way he

fhould

will not depart

from

it."

Having

laid

a few things

down

thefe preliminaries, I

upon the prcfervation of

P3

the

fiiall

fay

heahh of

LETTERS

jp

Ltt.

0>^

Perhaps you wi:l think

children.

7..

belongs only

this

but though a phyfician ought to

to the phyfician

be eniployed

apply remedies in dangerous cafes,

to

any nian, with a little reflcclicn, may be allowed to


form fome judgment as to the ordinary means of
their prefervation

nay,

nion, that any otlier mcdi


for

is

fitter

taken up with the rules of his

hundred

to one

medicines

th.an

than a phyfician

His thoughts are fo conftantly

purpof*.

this

cannot help being of opi-

that

art,

an

is

it

he will prefcribe more method^ and


can be uicd with fafety.

The fiuVamental

rules for preferving the health

of children, are cleaniineD, liberty, and free


B.y cleanlinefs I do not

mean keeping

air.

the outfide of

their clothes in a proper condition to be feen before

companj', nor hindering them from fouling their

and feet

hancl.-i

when they

are

capable of going

abroad, but keeping tliem dry in the night time

vhen young, aud

frequently wafhing their bodies

with cold water, and other things of the fame nature

The

and tendency.

AH

perfons,

far

as

it

fqcond rule

young and old, love


does them no harm, it

Many

them good.
Dive for the

rr:uch handled,

fiid

and,

a^s

will certainly do

free born fubjed

ten years

liberty

is

liberty

of his

and carried about by

kept

is

life,

and

women

is

a
fo

in his

infancy, that the limbs and other parts of his body


ai'e

frequently miihapen, and the whole very

weaken-jd
nif^nt,

btfide?, the fpirits,

when under

much

confine-

are generally in a dull and languifiiing ftate.

The bed exercife in the world for children, is to kt


them romp and jump about as foon as they are
able, i.ccoidir.g to their own fancy.
This, in tlie

Lcl.

EDUCATION.

I.

country,

"bed done

is

well aired room

in the

171

fields

in

undev the care of a fervant

whom

are able fo far to cuib their

very few of

own

irclinatior.-',

as to let the children follow theirs, even

do

it

better than beino^ lent into the

is

ftreets

may

a city,

As

with fafety.

thing more elfentially neceffary to

growth of animals and


any kind are fown

in

commonly grow up

where they

to free air, there


iiic

If a few plants of

plants.

a clofe confined place,

tall,

fmall, and very

have fetn a bed of beans

in

no-

is

ftrength and

they

weak.

a garden, under the

ihade of a hedge or tree, very long and (lender,

which brought
lity,

grow

at all,

to

up

trailed

grow

So univer^al

is

my

There
I

young family of qua-

manner, who,

that

this,

make,

I
is

believe the

body of

and vulgar thing.


is

one thing, with regard to fervants, that

All children are

to

liable to accidents

pen unavoidably, but do generally


careleflhefs of fervants

and to

always attributed by parents.


fervants, good

wife, which,

vif

this

your

attention.

thefe

may hap-

arife

from the

they are almoft

This difpofes

or bad, to conceal

when they

means children

it.

By

this

often receive hurts in falls or other-

known

make them lame

in time,

or deformed.

mine has a high fhoulder and


very caufe.

all

them from the

can poffibly do

might

be, eafily re-

medied, but not beihg known, either prove

this

they

reckontd among them

would particularly recom^mend

parents,

if

to length, but never to thicknei's,

ilurdy or well-built
u coarfe

mi:id a

in a delicate

To

fatal,

or

near relation of

a diftorted waift,

prevent fuch accidents,

from
it

is

ncceilary to take all pains poiuble to accjuire the

LETTERS ON

1'] 1

Let. 2,

confidence of fc^rvants, to convince them of the necefllty

There are two difwhich hinder the fervants from

of concealing nothing.

politions in parents,

making

difcoveries

and apt

pafiionate,

the

when they

firft is,

are very

floim and rage againft

to

fervants, for every real or luppofed

tlieir

negled.

Such
which muil

perfons can never expect- a confelTion,

The

be followed by fuch terrible vengeance.

oiher

when they are tender-hearted or timorous to exmakes them fliew themfelves deeply
affe^led, or greatly terrified, upon any little acci-

i^,

cefs.; wliicli

dent that befals their ehiidren.

In

very befl fervants are unwilling to

tell

them miferable.

of makings

fear

therefore,

their real
poffible

cafe,

the

tbeni through

In fuch cafes,

would advife parents, whatever may be


opinoi?, to diicover them as little as

to

tli >'r

maxim,

this

this

fervants.

Let them

no

that there ihould be

ftill

inculcate

fecrets concern-

ing children kept from thofe mott nearly intereftcd


in them.

And

fuch condul,

compofed

may

be no temptation to

them always appear

pofTible

as

and be ready

that there

let

when any

as cool arid

difcovery

is

made,

to forgive a leal fault, in return for a

candid acknowledgment.

LETTER

IF

miftake not,

my

IL

laft letter

was concluded by

fome remarks en the means of trying fervants

to be careful of the fafety of children,

difcover,

early

might happen

and honclUy,
to

befal them.

and ready to

any accidents that


I

mufl make fomc

*T3

EDUCATION.

Let.l.

is a fubjeft of
remarks upon fervants. It
infeparably conneacd with
great importance, and
will find it extremewhat I have undertaket>. You

farther

difficult to

ly

if

educate children properly,

the fer-

confpue in it ; and imvants of the family do not


In fuch
to hinder it.
poFible, If they are inclined
down,
or the method laid
a cafe, the orde'rs ilTued,
lafe ;
and
polnble
is
where that

will be negleaed,
will be unfuccefsfully
^vhere negled is unfafe, they

the
and many times,
or imoroBerly executed,
laughed
r
eithwiU be
hearing o*f the children, they
The certain
difapproved.
and
of
at, or complained
children ^viil mfenfibly
confequence of this is, that
and cautions oi
come to look upon the direaions
or unreafonable retheir parents, as unneceffary
very common way for
It is

fttaints.

known and

themfelves into the affea.ons


fervants to infmuate
them fuch indnlgencies as
of children, by .granting
parents, ns well as
would be refufed them by their
ought to be puniOied by
concealinr the faults which
trainfuccefsful
and they are often very

parents,

dangerous
ing them up to a moft
the fecret.

Such

is

fidelity in

keeping

which ought to have


the evil to be feared,

been more largely delcibed

let

us

now come

to

be
The foundation, to be fure, is to
the remedy.
lervanrs.
of
the choice
very nice and careful in
dttithought to be an extremely

This

is

commonly

cnlt matter,

pers, the

and

we

paread frequently in pubhc

heavieft complaints of

am, however, one of thofe

who

bad

fervants.

think the fault

,s

at

m.y

Good fervants
the mailers.
kaft as often
generally incline of themcertainly be had, and do

LETTERS

174
felves

to

ON"

be in good families, and

that they are fo,

Let. 2.

when they

You

fame, without defiring to remove.


therefore, to be

find

do often continue very long in the


ought,

exceedingly fcriipulous, and not

without an evident neceility to hire any fervant but

who

fetms

to

who
fed

is

in.

character appear,

ought

is

If

flatter

fuch as none but one

either a faint or a hypocrite will

continue

to

Indeed

be fober and pious.

myfelf, that a pious family

be fuppo-

any fymptoms of the

you need not be

told

lalt

what you

to do.

The next thing after the choice of fervants, is to


make confcience of doing your duty to them, by
example, inftrudion, admonition and pnyer. Your
them will naturally produce in them fideyou and yours, and that upon the very bell
principles.
It will excite in them a deep fenfe of
gratitude, and at the fame time fill them with fenfidelity to
lity to

timents ef the higheft and mofl unfeigned efteem.


I

could

bably

from
fits

tell

you of inftances f you will however profome yourfelf) of fervants whc,^

rt:collel

their living comfortably an'd receiving

in pious families,

and attachment

to their

fhort of idolatry.

bene-

Have preferved fuch a regard

m afters,

I ihall juii

thy

woman

my

predecehors, and married

as

have been

little

w-or-

mention one

in this place, formerly fervant to one of

many

years finCe to a

thriving tradefman, continues to have fuch an undiniinillied

regard to her mailer's memory, that ihe

cannot fpeak of him without delight


to this

keeps by her

hour the newfpaper which gives an account

of hii death and churader, and, 1 believe, would

EDUCATION.

Let. 2.

not exchange

it

I75
for a very conii-

bond

for a bill or

derable fum.

But the

is to

convince them, in a cool and dif-

paffionate manner,

of the reafonablenefs of your

method of proceeding,
fcience,
is

it

with reward

third and finifliing direlion

to fervants,

is

that as

dilated

it is

-conduced with prudence.

them

ealy to reprefent to

that

it is

by con-

Tlier.ce

their duty, in-

f^ead of hindering its fuccefs

by oppofition or

gence, to co-operate with

to the

power.

It is

it

not below any

man

There

cafes with his fervants.

negli-

utmoft of their

to reafon in

is

it

way

ing to them on fuch fubjecls, by which

fome

of fpeak-

you

will lofe

-nothing of your dignity, but even corroborate your

WhUe

authority.

you manifeft your

iirm refolution

never to depart from your right and

mand, you may, notwithftanding^

at

title to

com-

proper fcafons,

and by way of condefceniion, give fuch general reafons

for

your condud,

as to

(hew that you are not

ading by mere caprice or humour.


while you fometimes
itfelf fhall

to
it,

inlift

that

Nay, even

your command of

be a law, and that you will not fuffer

it

be difputed, nor be obliged to give a reafon for

you may

fonable.

eafily fliew

them that

They may be

told

that

greateft intereft in the welfare of


bell opportunity of being

of profecuting

it,

alfo

which

it is

is

rea-

you have the

your children, the

apprifed as to the

and that there

sons for your orders,

this

may

means

be nranv rea-

unnecefTary or im-

proper for them to know.

Do

not think that

all this is exceffive

clnmerical or impoflible.
creatures, and are

refinement,

Servants are reafonable

bed governed by

a mixture of

LETTERS OW

1^5

They

authority and reafon.

treated

to find themfelves

Let. 2.

are generally delighted


as

reafonable, and will

{)ride in fliewing that

fometimes difcover a

they un-

derftand, as well as find a pleafare in entering into

When

your views.

day by

they

per method of education,

opinion

they will every

find, as

experience, the fuccefs and benefit of a proit

will give

them

and confidence in your judgment

of,

will frequently confult

you

in their

own

a high
j

they

affairs,

well as implicitly follow your diredlions in the

nagement of

After

yours.^

all,

as

ma-

the very higheft in-

llance of true greatnefs of mind, and the belt fupport

of your authority,

pofe

it,

is

when you

f^e necefiary to inter-

not to be opinionative or obftinate, but

willing to acknowledge or remit a real miftake,


it

is

by

difcreetly pointed out, even

Lowed

if

thofe in the

The, application of thefe reflexions

ftations.

will occur in feveral of the following branches of


this fubjecl.

The

next thing

I fliall

mention

order to the education of children,


foon

as poffiWe

to eltablifli as

an entire and abfolute authority

This

over them.

as necefifary, in

is,

is

a part of the fubje6l

which

re-

quires to be treated with great judgment and deliOpinions,


1 wifii I may be able to do fo.
Cvicy.
like

modes and

everv point

change continually upon

fafnions,

neither

is

it

eafy to

middle, without verging to one or


tremes.
this

On

this,

in particular,

keep the

jufl

of

ex-

ot'iier

tlie

we have gone

in

nation in general, from one extreme, to the

In the former
very utmoft limits of the other.
private,
public
and
learned
both
and religious
age,
education,

was

carried on-

by mere

dint of authority.

Leu

EDUCATION.

2.

This, to be fare,

was

thod, and

\n

as

a favage and barbarous

me-

and

dif-

many

in

177

inftanccs terrible

Now,

gufting to the jo\Uh.

on the other iiand,

not only fcverity, but authority,


perfuafion,

and every

foft

often decried

is

and gentle method

is

re-

commended, on fuch terms as plainly lead to a reI hope you will be convinced that the
laxation.
middle way is beft, when you find it is recom.mended by the Spirit of
vix. iS.

xxii. 15.

God in his word,


You will alfo

?-gainft excefs in this matter, Gol.


I

faid -above, that

have

(con as poffible, an
J

would have

it

abfolute, that

it

you

Prov.
find a

xiii.

_.

24.

caution

21.

ii.

'*

fliould

eftablifii, as

eniire and abfolute authority."

early, that

may

it

may

be abfolute, and
If parents are

not be fevere.

too long in beginning to exert their authority, they

ta& very

will find the

Children, habitu-

difficult.

a ted to indulgence for a

few of

their

exceedingly impatient of reftraint

pen

be of

to

flifF

firil

and

if

years, aie

they hap-

or obflinate tempers, can hardly

be brought to an entire, at lead to a quiet and pkcid


ijbmiffion
there

to yield,
-juite

whereas,

if

they are taken in time,

^'^ij^-^

be made

and by early habit the fubjedion becomes

authority ought alfo to be abfolute, that

not be

fev^.-re.

The more complete and

iVirm a parent's authority


iiiore rare^

more

may

eafy to themfelves.

The

may

hardly any temper but what

is

is,

it

uni-

the offences will be

punifliment will be lefs needed, and the

gentle kind of corredion will be abundantly

fufiicient.

of this.

We

Vol. VIII.

C^q

every where about us examples

parent that has once obtained, and

3*

LETTERS oy

1 7

knows bow

Let. .

more by

authority, will do

to preferve

by

a look, of difpleafure, than another

blows.

paffionate words, and even

the moil

It holds uni-

verfally in families and fchools, and even the greater

army and navy,

bodies of men, the

who

that thoie

ftrideft difcipline give the feweft ftrokes.

keep the

have frequently remarked that parents, even of

the fofteft tempers,


greateit indulgence

flanding, correal

to

them more

feverely,

Uiofe

who keep up

little

the

purpofe, than

The

their authority.

by

Children,

for

frequently, and even

very

to

famed

are

children, do, notwith-

their

though

more
plain.

who

and

reafon

is

indulgence, become

foolifh

often fo froward and petulant in their tempers, that

they provoke their eafy parents paft


jTo

that they are obliged,

fcold them, in

if

manner

all

endurance,

not to ftrike, at leaft to

as little to their

own

cre-

dit as their childrens profit.

There

is

not a

more

difguiling fight,

impotent rage of a parent

Among
no

who

than the

has no authority.

who are under


may fometimes fee

the lower ranks of people,

reftraint

from decency, you

a father or mother running out into the llreet after


a child

who

is fled

from them, with looks of fury

and words of execration, and they are often flupid

enough

to

imagine, that neighbours or paffengers

%vill

approve them

fills

every beholder with horror.

in this condudl,

though

There

is

in fa6t

it

a degree

of the fame fault to be feen in perfons of better


rank, though exprefi^ing
Ill

itfelf

n'ords and altercations

wWl

pareiUs and children before


that there

is

defcdl of

fame what
often

fall

company

government

at

differently.

out between
;

a fure Hign

home

or in

EDUCATION.

Let. 2.

The

private.

.179

fhame

parent, ftung with

the mif-

at

behaviour or indifcretion of the child, defires to per


fuade the obfervers that

it is

not his fault, and there-

by efFeduallj convinces every perfon of


that

would therefore recommend

every parent to

to

much more

begin the ellablifliment of authority


early than
that

is

to fay,

is

commonly fuppofed

will perhaps fmile at this

you from experience,

alTure

be podible

to

from about the age of eight

You

months.

it

rerie<?lion

it is.

that

by

but

in

Do

not imagine

ufe the rod at that age

mean

to

do

may

it

manner completed by the age of twelve or

fourteen months.

you

fetting about

with prudence, deliberation, and attention,

be

or nine

prevent the ufe of

it

mean

to bid

on the contrary, I
in a great

meafure,

way by which children of


tempers may be brought to fuch a

and to point out a

fweet

and eafy

habit

of compliance, as never to need corre6tion at

and w^hatever their temper


this

Tills

is
is

fufficient

one of

explain and

recommend

An

fchemes

may

of

let

If,

prevail over theirs,

then,

try to

it

were, the

you can accuflom your

mud

when they are oppofed,

done, and they will fubmit to

To

me

be very early formed in

children to perceive, that your w'Al

culty or regret.

all

lefs

it.

aflbclation of ideas is, as

parent of habit.

is

much

be, fo

than upon any other fuppofition.

my favourite

Habits, in general,
children.

may

it

always

the thing

without

diffi-

bring this about, as foon as

they begin to fhew their inclination by dcfire or


averfion, let lingle inftances bs chofen

now and

(not too frequently) to contradict them.

then

For ex-

LETTERS ON

iSo
ample,

if

a child

hand with which


rr

fl:>ew3

hand that he

his

in

he-ir,

Let. 2.
to .have

a defire

fees,

fo, let

whatever make him reftore

Then
day

it

no confideraat that time.

a couhderable interval, perhaps a

at

ij little

enough, efpecially

whole

at firft, let the

mean

In the

thing be repeated;

his

delighted, let the parent take

from him, and when he does

(ion

any thing

or has any thing in

time,

fame

mud

it

be

made
Not the

carefully obrerved, 'chat no attempt fiiould be


child in the intervals.

contradifl the

to

appearance of oppofition,

leall

if pofTible,

Ihould be

found between the will of the parent and that of the


child, excepi in thofe chofen cafes

when, the parent

mnfl always prevail.


I

think

it

ncceffary that thofe attempts fhonld al-

ways be made and repeated

at

the fame perfon.

better

It is

alfo

proper intervals

by

(hoald be

by

it

the father than the mother or any female attendant,

many

becaufe they will be neccfTarily obliged, in


cafes,

do things difpleafmg to the child, as in

to

dreiling, wafhing, cc.

neither
for

is

when

perfon,
far as

^vhich fpoil

neceliary that

once a

it

is

it

full

the operation

they fliould interpofe,

authority

is

eftabllfned in one

can eafily be communicated to others, as

proper.

Remember, however,

that

mother

or nurfe (liculd never prefume to condole with the


child, or

fhew any

croiTed

but, on

approbation,

ligns of difpleafurc

at his

the contrary, give every

being

mark

ami of their own fubmillion to

of

the.

fame perfon.
This ejcpcriment, freqn^'Uly repeated, will
little

in

time fo perfectly habitnate the clnld to yield

to the pn-cnt whetiever

he

interpofes^,

that he will

EDUCATIOS'.

Let. 3.

make no
rience,
felf,

literally pradlifed

this

had a child of twelve months old,

that I never

but

who would

him

or her, without the leaft

fatisfaction,

you from expemethod my-

I can aflure

oppofition.

having

ift

me

fuffer

to take

any thing fromi

mark

of anger or dif-

while they would not fuffer any other

to do fo without the bittereft complaints.

how

eafily perceive

this

to

is

You

will

be extended gradually

and univerfally, from one thing to another, from

commanding them.

contradicting to
feveral other

remarks upon

But

eftabjifhing

this,

and

and pre-

ferving authority, mull be referred to another letter.

LETTER
Dear

THE

IIL

Sir,

theory laid

down

in

my laft

letter for efta-

blifhing an early and abfolute authority over

children,

you

much

of

is

moment

will immediately apprehend.

diverfity in the

and no

lefs in

temper and

culties

From

Some

delayed.

and'-obflinare
pride, or if

all thefe

you

is

is

a great

cf children,

circumftances

verj" fall as the

diffi-

work

children have naturally very

pleafe,

often

it

lliiT

and fome have a certain

tempers,

makes them think


difpofition

There

aifpofition

which increafe

arife,

than perhaps

the penetration, prudence, and refolu-

tion of parents.

is

greater

greatnefs of mind, v/hich

mean thing

to yield.

This

greatly flrengthened in thofe

of high birth, by the ideas of their

0.3

own

dignity and

LtTTLKS ON

iSj

Let. 3.

importance, inftiiled Into them trom their mother's

milk.

was

known

have

who made
beat,

it

a boy not

fix

years of age,

when he

a point of honour not to cry

even by

Other children have

his parents.

fo flrong paffions, or fo great fenfibility, that if they

receive corre6tioa they will cry immoderately, and


either be, or
as

feem

to be, adecled to fuch a degree,

endancrer their heahli or life.


Neither is it
o
for the parents in fuch a cafe to give up

to

uncommon
the

point, and if they do not afK pardon, at leail

they give very genuine marks of repentance and


forrow for what they have done.

have

faid this

is

-dl,

10

who have

fo

uncommon but I may


you know any parents at

not

rather a'k you, whether

much prudence and

firmnefs as not

be difcouraged in the one cafe, or to relent in the

jther

bered,
i-ot

At

the correciion

it

muil always be remem-

wholly

is

produce abfolute lubmidion.

i'dj it Is
iii:r\d

fame time

the

tiiat

more

tiian loil,

becaufe

which does

Perhaps

may

will irritate Ia-

cf reforming them, and will inllrucl: or perfect

t'leni in the art

of ovtrconiing their parents, which

tliey will not fail to manlieft

n;iy.

it

loft

It

is

on a future opportu-

furpriiing to think

weak

Will difcovsr the

what ingenuity they

lide

how

early children

of their parents, and

will {hew

in

favour or avoiding their difpleafure.

obtaining their
I

think

have

obferved a child in treaty or expoftulation with a


parent, difcover

more confummate policy

at feveu

years of age, than the parent himfelf, even w^hcn at-

icmpting

to cajole

clous promifes.

him with

artful evafions

O.i all thefe accounts,

vaft ?.dvanta^e that a habit

it

and fpe-

mufl be a

of fubniilTion ibouid be

EDUCATION.

Let. 3.

183

br(fught on fo earlj, that even

memory

not be able to reach back to

beginning.

this is done,

that

many

Itfelf fliall

Unlefs

cafes in which, after

management, the authority

the bell
fet

there are

its

will be imper-

and fome in which any thing that deferves

name

There are fome

will be impollible.

fa-

milies, not contemptible either in flation or character,

which the parents

in

are literally and properly

obedient to their children, are forced to do thine


again ii their will, and chidden
l^ad backwardnefs to comply.

am fure I do.
us now proceed

tliey difcoTcr tVie

if

If

you know none

fuch, I

Let

to the bell

ving authority, and the


daily exercifed.

way

means of

in whicli

to

extrcife over either chil-

dren or fervants, or as a magiftrate over other


zens,

rected

ought
to

it

citi-

ought to be dictated by confcience, and di-

by a
to

be

very fource.

I will trace this to its

Whatever authority you

prefer-

ought

it

fenfe of duty.

have as

Pafiion or refentment

place as

little

poflible

or lather,

fpeak properly, though few can boail of having

arrived at full perfection,


at all.

it

ought

to

have no plice

Reproof or correction given

always confidered by him

to

whom

ed, as the elFeCl of weaknefs in

in a rage,

it is

you

is

adminifter-

and therefore

the demerit of the oiFence will be either wholly de-

nied or foon forgotten.

have heard fome parents

often fay, that they cannot correct


unlefs they are angry

fwered.

to

Then you ought

Every one would be


to difcover

whom

have ufually an-

not to corred them at

fenfible,

all.

that for a magiftrate

an intemperate rage

tencc againfl a criminal,

their children

in

pronoimcing fen-

would be highly

indecent.

LETTERS ON

184

Ought not
fame

Let. 3.

parents to punifh their children in the

manner

difpaflionate

Ought they not

be

to

at leaft equally concerned to difcharge their duty in

the bsft manner, in the one cafe as in the other

He who would

children, fiiould be particularly watchful of his

You may

condu6t.
to love

what

is

what

is

decency of condu61:, therefore,

and dignity of deportment,


the purpofe

own

as well pretend to force people

not amiable, as to reverence

not refpe6lable.

preferve his authority ovor his

we have now

is

highly ferviceable for

in view.

Left this,

how-

ever, fliould be iniflaken, I muft put' in a caution,


that

do not mean to recommend keeping children

by an uniform

at too great a diftance,

fcverity of carriage.

This,

even when they are young


"

1
;

think,

and

it

is

may,

of fome tempers, be very hurtful

By and bye you

old.

and

to children

when they
from

But by dignity of

contrary diredlion.

mean

(hall receive

Iternnefs

not neceflary,

me

are

a quite

carriage, I

parents ftiowing themfelves always cool and

own

reafonable in their

conduct

prudent and cau-

tious in their converfation with regard to the reft of

mankind

not fretful or impatient, or pailionately

fond of their

own

peculiarities

and though gentle

and affedionate to their children, yet avoiding levity

This, probably,

their prefence.

of the pre ept of the ancients,


ris reverenfio.

ferene.

In (hort,

is

Maxima

meaning

dchetur pue^

would have them cheerful, yet


would have their familiarity to

be evidently an a6t of condefcenfion.

my

the

Believe

dear Sir, that which begets efteem, will not

it,

fail

to produce fubjeftion.

That

this

may

not be carried too far,

would

1S5

EDUCATJON.

Let. 3*

recommend every xpreflicn of afTeftion and kindthat is to fay,


nefs to children when it is fafe
when their behaviour is fuch as to deferve it.
;

There

no oppofition

is

between parental ten-

at all

Xliey are the beft

dernefs and parental aiuhority.


to each other.

fi'pports

It Is

not only lawful, but

will be of lervice, that parents Ihould diicover the


greateft fondnefs for children in infancy,

them perceive

diilindly with

they gratify

their innocent

all

make

and

how much

pleafure

This,

inclinations.

however, muft always be done when they are quiet,


gentle, and fubmiflive in their carriage. Some have
found fault with giving them, for doing well,

little

rewards of fweet- meats and olay-things, as tending


to

make them mercenary, and

look upo'i
good.
nitich

This,

apprehend,

the great point

leading

them

is,

is

rather refining too

that they be rewarded for

When

doing good, and not for doing evil.

would never buy


Nothing can be more weak and

it.

more

ifn, or

deftru<Sive of authority, than

children are noify and

them

or promife

When

the

in

Roman emperors began

to appeafe

The

to

keep thcni

man might have forefeen, without the


who would be mafter in a little

cafe

is

eafintfs

fpirit

time.

They

exactly the fame with children.

avail themfelves of this

them.

to give penlioi s

of prophecy,

Vvlll fooLi

fool-

when

an ill-humour, to give

them fomething

and fublidies to the northern nations


quiet, a

they

peace,

are crofs and froward, I

but force

to

indulgence of appetite as the chief

ttie

in

their

command favours initead of begging theni


and be infolent when they fhould be grateful.
The fame conduct ought to be unii'ormly preftrparents,

LETTERS ON

l86

Let. 3.

ved, as children advance in years and vinderftand-

how much

Let parents try to convince them

ing.

they have their real

make

children will

froward denial

interell:

and receive a hafhy or

a requeft,

upon

yet,

Sometimes

heart.

at

refiedion,

tlie

pears not to be unreafonable, and finally

ed

by

and, whether

thing ap-

it is

grant-

be right or wrong, fometimes

it

the force of importunity

it is

extorted.

If pa-

rents expect either gratitude or fubmiffion for fa-

vours fo ungracioufly bellowed, they will find themmiftaken.

felves egregioufly

profecute, and

It

the happinefs of their children

ought to lay

down

it

den or hally

is

their duty to

ought to be their comfort to fee

it

and therefore they

as a rule, never to give a fud-

refufal

but when any thing

is

pro-

pofed to them, confider deliberately and fully whether

proper

is

it

and after that, either grant

cheerfully, or deny
It

it

firmly.

when

noble fupport of authority,

is

it

it

is

really

and vifibly directed to the mofl important

end.

My

The end
of

God

meaning

in this,

in the eternal

Whoever

children.

hope,

is

moll important

I confider as

not obfcure.

is,

the glory

happinefs and falvation of

believes in a future flate,

who-

ever has a jufl fenfe of the importance of eternity


to himfeif, cannot

his offspring.
flru<ftion

fail

have a like concern for

to

This fhould be

and government

pears that he

is

his end,

and when

both in init

vifibly ap-

under the conllraint of confcience,

and that either reproof or correction are the


fanlified love,
I will tell

in fuch a

it

will

give

you here, with


fuuation,

all

what

them

fruit

of

irrefiftible force.

the fimplicity neceffary

have often

faid in

my

EDUCATION.

Let. 3.

187

courfe of paftoral vifitation in families, where there

many

IS

in

as

want of

through want of judgment as well

cafes,

principle, a great negle^l of authority

" Ufa your authority


Let

it.

God, and he

will fupport

always be feen that you are more diu

it

pleafed at

for

fm than

What

at folly.

a fliame

is

it,

that if a child fhall, through the inattention and le-

vity of youth, break a difh, or a pane of the win-

dow, by which you may

lofe the value of a few


you (hould ftorm and rage at him with the
iitmoft fury, or perhaps beat him with unmerciful
feverity
but if he tells a lie, or takes the name of

pence,

God

vain, or qaarrels with his neighbours,

in

pardon

Hiall eafily obtain

or perhaps, if he

is

he
re-

proved by others, you will juftify him, and take his


part."

You
to

cannot eafily believe the weight that

family authority,

when

ceed from a fenfe of duty, and to be

obedience to God.

This

compofure in the inanner

It wmII

rod

it

itftlf

heart felt ten-

with the moft fevere and needful reproofs.

make

itfelf is

it

quite confident to affirm, that the

an evidence of love, and that

of every pious parent on earth, what

Father

in

heaven,

Whom

**

ye endure chaftenino-,

veth.

If

you

with fons

what fon

for

Father chafteneth not

But

if

is

whom

God

With

our

is

he recei-

dealedi with

he

whom

the

ye are without chaf-

tifement, whereof all are partakers,

bailards and not fons.'*

true

it is

faid of

Lord loveth he

the

chafteneth, and fcourgeth every fon

as

an adt of

will direct and enable

mix every exprePaon of

a parent to
ciernefs,

gives

produce coolnefs and

will
;

it

appears vifibly to pro-

it

this

then ye are

maxim

in

your

Let..,

LETTERS OK

188
eye, I

would recommend,

that

folernulty take

the

When

jilace of,

and be fubftltuted

child, for

example, difcovers a very depraved ^fpo-

Ikion, inftead

for feverity.

of multiplying ftripes in proportion

reiterated provocations, every

to the

circumftance

ihould be introduced, v/hether in reproof or punilli-

ment, that can either difcover the ferioufnefs of your

make an impreffion' of awe and reverence


at
pon his. The time may be fixed beforehand
ome diilance the Lord's day his own birth-day
v;ith many other circumftances that may be fo
mind, or

fpecial that

impoflible to enumerate them.

what you have heard often from

me

it is

iball jaft repeat

in converfation, that feveral pious perfons


u?i

read, never to correal

ever

all

them but

it

and generally accompanied


for his

tioned

they had read

after

command

the pallages of Scripture v/hich

bleliing.

know

it

iho.

lead, being fully convinced

kp.t

method, and that

is

if

publicly

my

it is

thefe

blot

from
earili,

means, or

abate the veaerarion they will retain for

who

in

a moft excel-

impoflible to

made by

men-

judgment

the minds of childrei], while tiiey Jive upon


the inipreffions that are

it,

God

well with what ridicule

but that does not fijake

it

prayer to

v/itli

be treated by many,

this Vv'ould
^

made

invariable cuftom, as foon as their children could

tlie

to

parents

aftcd fuch a part.

Sailer
as the

me

he^re to

obferve to you, that fuch a plan

above requires judgment, refleftion, and great

anention in your whole conduft.

Take heed

that

there be nothing admitted in the intervals that counteraft

it.

Nothing

is

m.ore deftrulive of authority

than frequent difputes and chiding upon fmall mat-

EDUCATION.

Let. 3.

This

ters.

is

189

more irkfome to children than


It weakens their influence

often

parents are aware of.

As

ble.

makes

and in time

infenfibly,

judgment of

weight,

little

before

if

recommended dignity

and

their opinion

not wholly contemptiin

general condu^, fo, in a particular manner,

your

let

the

utmoft care be taken not to render authority cheap,

by

too often interpofing

it.

There

is

really too

great a rilk to be run in every fuch inftance.

If

parents will be deciding direclly, and cenfuring eve-

ry moment,
liraes

it is

to

be fuppofed they will be fome-

wrong, and when

away from

will take

weaken

this

evidently appears,

it

the credit of their opinion, and

their influence, even

where

ought to pre-

it

vail.

Upon

whole, to encourage you to chufe a


it with firmnefs, I can

the

wife plan, and to adhere to

venture to aflure you, that there

To

fuccefs.

accuftomed to indulgence,

and

difficult,

body

is

train

up a

in

many

child in
I

no doubt of your

know

take to be in

impoflible

tender, to bring the

the Lord,

is

fubdue a youth after he has been long

mind

to fubmiffion, to

the nurture and admonition of


is

not impofTible

hath given the command, can fcarcely


it

with his bleffing.

Vol. VIIL

all cafes

but while the

and he
fail to

who

follow

LETTERS ON

^0

LETTER
Dear

Let. 4.

IV.

Sir,

HAVING

now

finiflied

what

propofed to far

on the means of eftablifhlng and preferving


authority, i fhall proceed to another very important
"branch of the fubje(5l, and beg your very particular
attention to

it,

y'il.

to -enter

the influence of

all topics,

Do

example.

mean

poff, that I

not however

fiip-

on that moft beaten of

example

in general; or to

on the conimon faying, that

write a dilTertation

An

able

writer doubtlefs might fet even this in forae

new

^'

example teaches better than precept."

Jights, and

^ood man

make

to

it

pay the

ftri^fefl

What we

condu<51:.

ftrong

fee

argument with every

attention to his vifible

every day has a conflant

and powerful influence on our temper and carriage,

man-

lience arife national charafters, and national

ners, and every characleriilic dillin^lion of age and

But of

place.

Neither

is

this I
it

my

have already

faid

enough.

purpofe to put you in mind of

the importance of example to enforce inflruclion, or

of the fhamefulnefs of a man's pretending to teach


others what he defpifes himfelf. This cught in the
flrongeft

manner

public perfons
lives,

what

often defeat habitually

by

attempt to do occauonally

'"ir

S your

would have

be laid before pallors and other

who

tli-^y

execution of
fufpicion

to

oiBce.

b'

"'g

their

in the

If there remain; the ieafl

of that charatS^er, thefe letters

beer: v|uite in

another flrain.

I believe

there are^lorne perioiis of very irregular lives,

who

have fo much natural light


tl:ey

19F

EDUCATION.

Let, 4-

in their confciences, that

would be grieved, or perhaps oiTcnded,

if

their

own fleps ;
who are more

children Ihoald tread exadlly in their


biit

much

even thefe, and

lefs

others

hardened, can never be expeled to undertake or


carrj on the fyftem of education

vouring to

fiiould

now

who have been watched by

when drunk, and taken

children

are

endea-

proceed, to
of parents

we

me, however, before I


make one remark when I have heRr<i
Suffer

illuftrate.

meet with injury

their

care of,

or hurtful

own

led they

accidents

or

whofe intemperate rage and horrid blafphemies have


without fcruple been expofed, both to children and
fervants

or

who,

were fcarcely

as

has fometimes been the cafe,

the pains to conceal their criminal

at

amoursj even from their

own

offspring

have of-

ten reflected on the degree of impiety of principle,

or fearednefs of confcience, or both united, neceffary


to

("upport

leave

all

them

in

fuch circumftances.

Let us

fuch with a mixture of pity and difdain.

By

mentioning example, therefore, as an important and neceiTary branch of the education of children, I have chiefly in view a great
ticulars,

number of par-

whicli, feparately taken, are, or at lead are

fiippofed to be of little

moment, yet by

their

union

or frequent repetition produce important and laftinoeffevSts.

have

alfo in

view

of a6tions in which there

to include all that clafs

is,

or

may

be, a coinci-

dence between the duties of piety and politcnefs, and

by means of which
QLher.

Thefe are

the one

is

incorporated with the

to be introduced

under the head

of example, becaufe they will appear there to bel^

LETTERS ON

192

advantage, and becaufe

many

Let. 4.

of them can hardly be

taught or underftood in any other way.

This,

apprehend, you will readily approve of,

becaufe, though

moft

you

juftly confider religion as the

elientially neceffary quaTiflcation,

you mean

at

the fame time that your children fhould be fitted for

appearance becoming their ftation in the world.

an
It

is

Luio the

more

neceflary,

as

them not only

to fuppole

This

is

diftin^t

a dangerous fnare to

think there

way

gance

of a diflipated life.

often

by

By

parents,

who

groffefl rufti-

to all the vanity and extrava-

and giving

their

are apt to

but incompatible.

many

no medium between the

is

city,

miftake.

many

and politenefs, and

disjoin vvholly the ideas of piety

Perfons truly pious have

condu6l given countenance to this


a certain narrownefs of fentiment

and

behaviour, they have become themfelves, and rendered their children unfit for a general intercourfe

with mankind, or the public duties of an a6live


life.

You know,
trary

my

fubjcd.
is

Sir,

as

much

as

any man, how con-

opinion and condu6l have been upon this


I

cannot help thinking, that true religion

not only confident wuth, but neceflary to the per-

There

fection of true politenefs.

ment

to

this

purpofe

length in the Port- Royal Effays, viz.


politenefs

is

a noble fenti-

is

illuflrated

at
''

confiderable

That worldly

no more than an imitation or imperfect

copy of Chriftian

chjirity,

ward appearance of
and attention

being the pretence or out-

that deference to the judgment,

to the intered of others,

Chrillian has as the rule of his

life,

which

and the

a true

difpofi-

Let. 4.

fllJuCATioy.

tion of his heart *."

the idea of certain

have

number

tv/ice that

whom

at prefent in

mind

you will eafily


two of the male,

one or

at leaft

piety and high ftation

my

whom

perfons,

gLiefs at, of the firfl quality,

and

193

of the female fex, in


are

united.

What

what u

fweetnefs and complacency of countenance,

condefcenfion and gentle_iiefs of manners, arifing from

the humility of the gofpel being joined to the refi-

ned elegance infcparable from their circumftancts


in life

Be

pleafed to follow

human

me

of the wildeft country, and


liabits

to the other

vifit

the family that in-

If they are pious, there

it.

manity and good-will attending

which mak^s
decency

extreme of

Let us go to the remotefl cottage

fociety.

in their fentiments,

a certain hu{implicity,

There

highly agreeable.

it

is

their

is alfo

which, flowing from the

disrates of confcience, is as pleafing, in all refpeds,


ai the reftraint

ing, with

impofed by the rules of good breed-

which the perfons here

opportunity of being acquainted.

in

view have

On

little

the contrary,,

unbred country people, when without principle,

have generally a favagenefs and brutality

* The authors of
ters

who make

Royal, were

in their

contrary to good manners as to piety

Carriage, as

thc-re EHV-vSj

commonly

rrention of them, the

a fociety of Janfenifts in

called by wri-

Gentlemen
France,

of-

who

Port--

ufed lo

all cf whom were eminent for htera'


;
thtm oi high rank, as will be evident by
msHli^ning the names of Pifca], Arnaud, and the^riwce of

meet

at that place

tare, and

CoPiti.

many

The

of

hft was the author of the Efi'iy from which

*hc above remark

is

taken.

R3

LETTERS ON

tC4

No

itfelf.

and

gion
It

and

fituation,

even

of-

can aiTure you, that reli-'

common

enlarges their underftanding as

Having been accudomed

things.

my

have, from

the great poliflier of the

is

making

one has a better opportunity of

obfervations of this kind than


fice

Let. 4.

people.
other

to

to exercife their

judgment and refle6tion on religious fubjefts, they

more

are capable of talking


politics, or

any

common

fenfibly

on agriculture,

topic of indifferent -con-

verfation.

Let
of

me

not forget to fpeak of the middle ranks

Here,

life.

whatever fphere
to,

religion

man

fcruplc not to affirm,

that

has been bred in, or attained

not an injury, but an addition to the

of his carriage.

politenefs

confefs

is

alfo,

They feem

indeed to

by

their reci-

their relation to one another,

procal infiuence.

In promifcuous converfation, as

true religion contributes to

make men

decent or

them

effectually

courteous, fo true politenefs guards

from any outrage

againft piety

or

purity.

If I

were unhappily thrown into mixed or dangerous


company, I iliould not apprehend any thing im.proper for

me

from the

who

to

hear from the moft wicked man, but

greateil clown.

v^ere

had reafon

infidels

in

have known gentlemen

to believe, Vvere privately

in converfation they

proving

principle, and

whereas,

whofe

lives,

very bad, yet

were guarded, decent, and imif

there

come

Into

company a

rough, unpoliQied country gentleman, no

man can
promife that he will not break out into fome profane exclamation or obfcene allufion, which

te wrong to attribute

to impiety, fo

ludenefs and want of refiedion.

it

much

would
as

to

EDUCATION.

Let. 4.

in

make

introdulion,

in the

have been already too long

and

195

giving the reafons for what

propofe

ftiall

a part of this branch of the fubjeft, and yet

muft make another preliminary remark There


is the greater neceility for uniting piety and politeI

nefs in the fyftem of family example, that as piety'


is

by that means inculcated with the

other W2iy.

It

greateft ad van-

can fcarcely be attained in any

tage, fo politenefs

very rare that perfons reach a

is

higher degree of politenefs than what they have


been formed to in the families of their parents and

True politenefs does not confew motions of the body, but in a

other near relations.


in drefs, or a

lift

habit of fentiment and converfation

be learned from a mafter, and in a


laft

the

little

firft

time

may

the

only by a long and conftant intercourfe with

who poffefs, and are therefore able to impart


As the difficulty is certainly greateft with the

thofe
it.

female fex, becaufe they have fewer opportunities


of being abroad in the world,
ple from

I fhall

take an exam-

among them.

Suppofe a man of low birth, living


try,

by

and

induftry and parfimony has

lias

a daughter to

genteel education

whom

^
coun-

become wealthy,

he deiires to give a

he fends her to your city to a

boarding fchool, for the other which

you

in the

is

nearer

me

are pleafed not to think fufficient for that pur-

pofe.

She will fpeedily learn

to

buy expenfive and

faftiionable clothes, and moft probably be

in

very height and extravagance of the

one of

the fureft figns of a vulgar

her capacity

is

tafte.

tolerable, get

and carriage J and

if it

rid

fafliion

She

may

the

alfo, if

of her ruftic air

be better than ordinary, learn

LETTERS ON

j()t>

j^ic

upon whate>/:

to difcourfe

Let. 4.
is

then in vogue,

and aornes in immediately after the weather, which


is the beginning of
refidence

is

But

converfation.

all

as her

only for a time. Hie returns honie, where


or hear nothing but as before*

Muft

fne

can

flie

not relapfe fpeedily into the fame vulgarity of

fee

fentiment, and perhaps the fame provincial d'aleil,.


to

which

Neither

much

(he

had been accuftomed from her


impoffible that fhe

it

is

may

one

young

way

There

to contral:

we have

of efcape, which

vi^oraen of merit

by the incongruous

of the ciry ceremonial, as

mixture will render her ridiculous.


iingle

3-outli

juft retain as

is

but

fome
which is

feen

and capacity take,

an intimacy with perfons of liberal fen-

timents and higher breeding, and be as


their relations as pcihble.

fcription to convince you, that

houfe, and by

tlie

among

little

have given this deit is

in their father's

converfation and manners to which

they are there accuftomed, that children mufl be

formed

nolitenefs as well as to virtue.

to

this matter fo far, that I think

it

carry

a difadvantage to

be bred too high, as well as too low.

do not dc-

and have always declined any opportunities,

fire,

given

me

of having

milies of high rank.


iraft

an

air

my
I

children refide long in fa-

was

afraid they

would con-

and manner unfuitable to what was i6

be their condition for the remainder of their

lives.

I would wifh to give ray children as juft, as noble,

and

as elegant fentiments as poffible, to

rational converfation, but a drefs


to their flation,

fit

them

for

and carriage fuited

and not inconfillent with the meek-

nefs of the gofpel.

Though

the length of this digreflion, or e:xplana-

EDUCATION.

Let. 4.

made

torj introdudion, has

much

this letter

in

197
impofTible

it

and manners by example, before


give one direftion which

Give

fay

to

on forming childrens' charafter

is

conclude

will

pretty comprehenlivs.

the utmoft attention to the

manner of

recei-

ving and entertaining ftrangers in your family, as


well as to your fentiments and expreffions with re-

when they

gard to them

are gone.

am

fully per-

faaded, that the plainell and fhorteft road to real


politenefs of carriage, and the moft amiable fort of
hofpitality,

is

to think of others juft as a Chrillian

ought, and to exprefs thefe thoughts with modefty

This will keep you

and candour.

at an equal di-

llance from a furly and morofe carriage on the one

hand, and a fawning cringing obfequioufnefs, or unneceflary compliment and ceremony, on the other.

As

are circumftances

thefe

which children

to

in

which occur conof much moment what

early life are very. attentive, and


ftantly in their prefence, ;t

is

fentiments they imbibe from the behaviour of their

do not mean only

parents.

them an

eafe

trary

but

laft

and

lifted

from

and dignity of carriage, or the con-

alfo,

fome moral

or

immoral habits of
you happy

If they perceive

confequence.

the

their learning

up with the

vifit

or countenance of per-

fons of high rank, folicitous to entertain

perly, fubmitfive and flattering in your

them promanner of

fpeaking to them, vain and apt to boaft of your

connexion with them

and

if,

on the contrary, they

you hardly civil to perfons of inferior llations or narrow circumdances, impatient of their
company, and immediately feizing the opportunity

perceive

of their departure to defpife or expofe them, will

LETTERS ON

198

Let. 4.

not this naturally lead the young

mind

to confider

riches and high ftatlon as the great fources of earthly


happiriefs

whole

Will

it

and

deiires

not give a ftrong bias to their


as well as vifibly alTedt

ftudies,

their behaviour

to others

think that this

too nice and refined

prefiions
in

is

fecial

in

life

the

Do

not
ini-

firfl

upon young perfons, though inconfiderable

themfelves, have often a great as well as lailing

efFea.
I

remember

to

many

have read

years ago, in the

Archbifhop of Cambray's Education of


an advice to parents to

their

let

Daughter,

children perceive

that they efteem others, not according to their fta-

outward fplendour, but their virtue and real

tion or

wort^.

It

mnft be acknowledged, that there are

fome marks of refpel due


place in civil

life,

to

men

according to their

which a good man would not

them, even for confcience fake.

to give

But

fail

it

is

an eafy matter, in perfect confiHency with this, by

more frequent voluntary intercourfe, as well as by


our ufual manner of fpeaking, to pay that homage
which is due to piety, to exprefs our contempt or
indignation at vice, or meanneis of every kind.
tliink

that

it

we

no inconfiderable addition to
fliould

nefs as virtue

be as cautious of

by outward

ftation,

fame diilance from envying

as

^ftl

this

remark^

mating happi-

and keep

from

at

the

flattering

the

great.

But what
is

to

mufl particularly recommend

avoid that

common

to

you,

but detelfable cuflom of

receiving perfons with courtefy, and

all

the

of real friendfhip in your houfe, and the

marks

moment

they are gone, falling upon their charader and con-

EDUCATION.

Let. 5,

with unmerciful feverity.

tlu6l

are

fome

which

it

back, what

fenfible there

though they are not numerous, in

cafes,

may

199.

I'am

be lawful to fay of others behind

would be

it

to fay in their

own

Neither would

prefence.

theii:

imprudent or unfafe

at leaft

ex-

clude parents from the advantage of pointing out to

midakes and

their children the

warning or

leflbn of inftpuftion to themfelves.

as detraflion in general
fo,

to

of

all

treated

There

friend.

Yet

to be avoided at all times,

is

others, the mofl improper feafon to fpeak

any man's prejudice

ved and

vices of others, as a

nim
is

is,

in

you have

after

juft'

recei-

an hofpitabie manner as a

fomething mean in

"

it,

and fome-

thing fo nearly allied to hypocrify and" diiingenuity^


that 1

would not chufe

thofe

whom

pointing out to

to a6t fuch

a part, even to

would take another opportunity of


children as perfons whofe con-

my

verfation they fliould avoid, and whofe conduct they

fhould abhor.
In every flation, and amon.;

often tranfgreifed

but there

all

is

ranks, this rule

is

one point in which

more frequently and more univerfaily tranfgrelTed than in any other, and that is by turning

3t

is

the abfent into ridicule, for any thing odd or auk-

ward
this

is

in tlieir

o hi'-h rank.
particular

He

is

behaviour.

an indecorum that

perhaps

politenefs,

reafon,
tiot

am

prevail:-

lo;-ry to
i'l

fay that

feveral families

maii of inferior ftation, for fome


is

admitted to their company.

well acquainted wHth the rules of

and the p^-efence of his

fupeiiors,

to

which he is ui accuftomed, increafes his embaraffImmedLnely on his departure, a petulant


ment.

boy or giddy

LETTERS ON

aco

Let. j,

and repeating his phrafes, to the great enter-

tions,

tainment of the company,

much

felf fatisfadlion

there

no merit

is

who

apparently derive

from a circumilance

at

all.

which

in

If any perfon renders

himfelf juftly ridiculous, by affecting a character

which he

is

unable to fuftain,

let

him be

But there

with the contempt he deferves.

treated

is

fome-

thing very ungenerous in people treating their infe-

wath difdain, merely becaufe the fame Provi-

riors

dence that made their anceftors great,


in a
It

low

left

the others

fphere.

has often given

genrleman or

me

great indignation

to

fee

of real worth, good under*

his wife,

ftanding, but (imple manners, defpifed and ridiculed

which they could not remedy, and that

for a defe(5i

by perfons the moll

often

who

fer ved to

condu61:
it

ail

be remembered or repeated.

ungenerous

is

to fee the

fame

in the great,

But

how

difpofition carried

if

clafs

be below them

whofe

ftation

pleafure in

and low

this

diverting

is

down through

the inferior ranks, and fhewing itfelf in a

triumph of every
to

and frivolous,

infigniiicant

never uttered a fentence in their lives that de-

filly

who are fuppofed


have known many perfons,

over thofe

was not fuperior

to mine,

take great

exprcinng their contempt of vulgar ideas

life,;

and even a tradefman's wife

in a city,

glorying over the unpoi uhed manners of her country acquaintance.

Upon

the whole, as

which young perfons


or, as

the author

preffes

it,

are

there

cited above,

vn efprit mocqueur

parciits are

more

is

no difpofition to

more prone than


et

M.

derilion,

Fenelon, ex-

malin^ and few that

apt to cherifli, under the idea of

EDUCATION.

Let. 5.
its

is

201

being a fign of fprightlinefs and vivacity, there

none which a pious and prudent parent

fliould

take greater care to reftrain by admonition, and deft

roy by a contrary example.

LETTER
Dear

IET
what

Sift,

now

us

-^

more fully
piety by exam-

proceed to confider

to

it is

This

ple.

V.

form children

to

a fubje^t of great extent, and perhaps

is

The

of difficulty.
confifl either

however, does not

difficulty,

the abftrufenefs of the arguments,

in

or uncertainty of the fads

upon which they are

founded, but in the minutenefs or

trifling

nature of

die circumftances, taken feparately, which

them

dervalued.
is

makes

often either wholly unnoticed, or greatly unIt is a fubject wliich, if I

much more

eafily

mlftake not^

conceived than explained.

If

you have it conftantly in ^'our 4nind, that your


whole vilible deportment will powerfully, though
^ifcnfibly, influence the opinions

of your children,

may

fpeak

it

will give a

fo, to. every

and future conduft

form or colour,

thing you fay or do.

are numberlefs and namelefs inftauces in

if I

There

which

thi^

reflexion will

make you

fpeaking

or abftain from fome circumftances

of action

in

aft,

what you

are

fpcak,

engaged

or refrain

in

nor

v.'ill

from
this

bs accompanied with any reluctance in the one cafe,


or conftraint in the other.

But

mud

Vol. VIIL

not content myfelf with this.

My

LETTERS

232

me many

profefiion gives

opportunities of obfer-

made by

vin^, that the impreflion

however

juflly

general truths,

or Fully proved,

ilated

feldom

is

Let me, therefore, defcend to

flrong or lailing.

practice, and illullrate

Here again a

pies.

Let. j.

ON-

particular inilance,

what

have

it

If I give a

perhaps operate no far-

will

ther than recommending

by exam-

faid

difficulty occurs.

a like conduct in circuni'-

ilancts the fame, or perhaps perfe611y (imilar.

example,

might

fay, in

tage of abfent perfons,

why you

add the reafon

befeech you never

take fuch liberty

deed never take that liberty

be

upon the

juftified

but children

This

is

were

to

may

thing

be made

fliould

but

at all,

when

add a dozen more to

why

it is

be detached precepts, whereas

under

am

i^inge or divide

heads.

diftindl

his example

fliould

dren, fliould order

can

itfelf,

right.

but

if I

anxious to take

what

who

parent

be a fpeaking

it

to

they would only

it,

in the whole extent of edifying example.

me

it

be right in

to fee

one inilance of exemplary caution

to this, let

fail-

and in-

principles of prudence, can-

dour, and charity.

For

fpeaking to the difad van-

In order

have to fay
wifhes that

leflbn to his chil-

fo as to convince

them, that he

conflders religion as neceflary, refpe^able, amiable,


profitable,

and delightful.

am

fenflble that

fome

of thefe charafters rnay feem fo nearly allied, as

Many

fcarcely to admit of a dlftin61ion.

under

virtuous conduct

fall

denominations.

Some

ir^ore

parts of a

than one of thefe

actions, perhaps, deferve all

the epithets here mentioned, without exception and

without prejudice one of another.


tions

fccm

to

me

very ufeful

But the

for there

is

diftinc-

certainly

205

EDUCATION.

Let. 5.

a clafs of aaions which

may be

faid to

belong pe-

thefe diffeculiarly, or at leaft eminently, to each of

taking them feparately, therefore,


fully the extent of
it w ill ferve to point out more
not
your duty, and to fuggeft it when it would
to
otherwife occur, as well as to fet the obligation

By

rent heads.

the Wronger light.

it in

1.

You

ihould, in

your general deportment, make


you look upon rtligion

your children perceive that

becaufe

I place this firft,

as abfolutely neceffary.

and
appears to me firft both in point of order
pains
all
taking
far from being againfl

it

force.

to

am

(hew that religion

itfelf,

is

rational

and vice the contrary

and honourable

but I defpife the fool-

through fear of making


ilh refinement of thofe who,
very fparing of the
being
for
are
mercenary,
children

mention of heaven or

make them

gratlfica'tion

fuch a thing

of their paOTions,

v/iiling to relinquftii.

much more ready


is

is

of a degree of honour and advan-

which, for the

they are very


are

apt to

is

conceive, that a negleft of their duty

only falling fhort


tao-e,

Such conduft

hell.

Many

parents

to tell their children fuch

mean, and not like

or

a gentleman, than

warn them that they will thereby incur the difBut when the pra^ices
pleafure of their Maker.
fwearing and
are really and deeply criminal, as in

to

lying,
1

it is

quite improper to reft the matter there.

admit that they are both mean, and that

ought to be done to them


tend

that

it

in this refpet,

but

jullice
I

con-

fhould only be a fecondary coufidera-

tion.

Let not

human

reafonings be put in the balance

with divine wifdbm.

The

care of our

foub

is

re-

LETTERS ON

2C4

Let. 5.

He

ppcfented in Scripture as the one thing needful.

makes
xvorld

who

a miferable bargain,

and

own

lofes his

foul.

gains the whole

It is

not the native

beauty of virtue, or the outward credit of

inward

from

fatisfalion ariflng

combined together, that

vv'ill

it,

or even

it,

or the
thefe

all

be fufEcient to change

our natures and govern our conduft, but a deep con-

we

vidion, that unlefs


ihall

are reconciled to

God, we

without doubt perifh everlaflin glj.

You

will faj this

is

very true, and very

pulpit, but

what

imprefs

habitually on

it

is

for a

fit

that clafs of adions that fliould

the minds of children

Perhaps you will even fay, what one aftion will any

good man be guilty


du6l, that can

This
is

is

much more

of,

habitual con-

weaken their belief of


which I mean to explain.

tend to

the very point

man may

certainly pofTible that a

at ftated

it

?'

It

times

give out, that he looks upon religion to be abfolutely neceflary,

ticulars,

and jGt his condu'ft, in

may have no tendencj

many

par-

to imprefs this

on

If he fuffcrs particular

the minds of his children.

religious duties to be eafily difplaced, to be fiiortened, poflponed, or omitted,

upon the moft

trifling

make religion
in general fcem lefs neceflary to thofe who obferve
it.
If an unpleafant day will keep a man from
public v/orfhip, when perhaps a hurricane w^ill not
accounts, depend

upon

it,

this

will

keep him from an eleftion meeting


take phyfic, or give
day,

when

it

day before or
his fervants to

it

to his children

if

he chufes to

on the Lord's

could be done with equal eafe on the


after

pay a

if

he will more readily allow

vifit

to

their friends

day than any other, though he has reafon

on that

to believe

EDUCATION/.

Let. 5.

they will fpend

in

it

1(5^

junketing and idlenefs

it

will

not be eafy to avoid fufpe6ling, that worldly advan-

what determines his choice.


Take an example or two more on

tage

is

man

Suppofing a
mily,

if

iifually to

he fometimes omit$

little bulinefs

make him

interfere with

to

difpenfe with

if

it,

or fhift

it,

in his fa-

he allow every

if

it,

this head.

God

worfhip

company will
from

it

its

pro-

per feafon, helieve me, the idea of religion being

every man's

and great concern,

firft

meafure weakened,

if

not wholly

know

nice thing in religion to

the fpirit

good
very

in

the real cpnnexioa

between, and the proper mixture of

The form without

It is u

is

loft.

fptrit

and form.^

good for nothing

is

but, on the other hand, the fpirit without the

never yet exifted,

am

of opinion, that punflualy

and even fcrupulous regularity,


that occur periodically,

is

cafy and pleafant to thofe


alfo

become, like

neccflary

tomed

them,

to

all

form

in

who

thofe

all

way

the

duties

make them
them.
They

to

attend

other habits, in fome degree

fo that thofe

who have been

long accuf-

feel an uneafinefs in families

they are generally or frequently neglected.

wher
I

can-

not help alfo mentioning to you, the great dano-er

of paying and receiving


unlefs
ter

when

it is

not merely

fuch cafes,
fubjefts

vifits

on the Lord's day,

absolutely neceflary.

difilcitlt,

to guard

mat-

but wholly impra<5^icable in


effedlually

Nor

of converfation.

the converfation be

It is a

what

againfl
is this all

improper
;

for let

will, I contend that the

it

duties of the family and the clofet are fully faflicient


to

employ the whale time

S3

which muft therefore

LETTERS OK

206

Let. 5,

be wafted or mifapplied bj the interccurfe of flrangers.

only further obferve, that I

know no

which jour opinion of the

flance from

circutn-

neceflity of

religion will appear with the greater clearnefs, or

carry in

than your behaviour to-

greater force,

it

wards, and treatment of year children in time of

dangerous ficknefs.

whole

tlieir

Certainly there

when

lives

urgent, or the opportunity


preffiag their

rninds,

What

(hall

we

te

made

be

to

fay then of

th^m of the approach

of death, or the importance of eternity

you an example of

late to

im-

for

fenfe of th^ things that

and augmenting their diforder, will not fuf-

any mention

man

more

parents who, through fear of alarming their

tiiofe

/^r

no time in

more favourable^

minds with a

belong to their peace.

is

the neceility appears

of eftate in

my

parifh w^as

I will re-

A young

this.

taken

ill

gentle-

of a dan-

erbus fever in a friend's houfe at a diflance.

went

to

him

fee

v/idow lady,

his illnefs,

in

intreated

me

not

and his mother, a


to fay

any thing

n'arming to him, and not to pray with him, but to


to

t;o

prajer in another room, wherein Ihe wifely

obferved,

-T;e

have the fame

w^ould

it

young man himfelf

had expefted, and

came necefTary
this

he

to

him the* true

the

pleafed and

compofed
it

his recovery.

that

it

reafon.

moft pofitive manner, that

fhould be taken

What was
nat haflen,

w^as fo impatient

give

infifted in the

reftriftlon

The

efFeft.

focn found that I did not aft as

and

On
all

which was done.


He was exceedingly

off,

confequence
;

be-

if this

circumftance did

certainly neither hindered nor retarded

EDUCATION.

Let. 5.

Be

pie a fed to

207

remark, that the young gentleman

here fpoken of, neither was at that time, nor


fo far as I

am

able to judge, trufy religious

is

yet,

and

therefore I have formed a fixed opinion, that in thiF,


as in

many

appoints

other inftances, the

wifdom of man

Pi^us advice and confolation,

itfelf.

dif-

if

but

tolerably adminiftered in ficknefs, are not only ufe-

the

to

ful

but

foal,

particularly to

ferv^e

calm an

agitated mind, to bring the animal fpirits to an eafy

and the whole frame into fuch a Hate as will

flow,

beft favour the operation of medicine, or the efforts

of the conflitution, to throw off or conquer the

dif-

eafe.

me

Suffer

to

wander

obfcrving to you, that as


be,

are to

truly and
that

is

much

much

my

fubje^l,

be pitied for the deception

to

ufually put

Many

upon them by flattery and falfe


of them are brought up with fo

delicacy, that they are never fuffered to f.e

any miferable or

afHid:ing objeft, nor,

fo far as

be hindered, to hear any affeding (iory of


If they themfelves are iick,

palpable

lies are told

for phyficians,

how many

them by

may

to

diftrefs.

and as

few of them are

Now,

in this matter.

the fuccefs of tHefe meafures be what


fruit

can

abfurd and

their friends

fafely fay

much confclence-bound
only

by

do not think the great

envied for any thing, fo they are

heartily

tendernefs.

from

a little

be reaped from them

it

is,

let

will, the

to

make

poor dying iinner millake his or her condition, and


vainly dieam of earthly happintfs while haflening
to the pit of perdition.

are often taken in

their

But, as

own

faid before,

craftinefs.

men

It often-

times happens that fuch perfons, by an ignorant

LETTERS

2S

Let. 5,

ON-

fervant, or officious neighbour, or


accident,

make

feme unlucky

a fudden dlfeovery of their true

how much more

like

Ihock frequently proves

ation, and the

how much more

defirable

is it,

fitu-^

fatal.

th reafon of men, as well as the faith of Chri-

and prepare for what

flians, to confider

come
thing more

to pafs

tably

mud

inevi-

cannot eafily conceive any

truly noble, than for a perfon in health

and vigour,

honour and opuknce, by voluntary

in

refledion to fympathize with others in

by a well-founded

diflrefs,

and

divine mercy, to

confidence in

obtain the viftory over the fear of death.


2.

You

ought

and

itfelf,

make

to live fo as to

pear refpeftable.

Religion

is

religion

ap-

a venerable thing in

fpreads an air of dignity over a perfon's

it

whole deportment. 1 have feen a common tradefman, merely becaufe he was a man of true piety
and undeniable worth, treated by his children, apprentices, and fervants,. with a much greater degree
of deference and fubmiflion than
to

men

Many

is

commonly given

of foperior ftation without that charadler..

of the fame meanneflfes are avoided, by a

gentleman from a principle of honour, and by a


eood

man from

a principle of confcience.

The

firft

company of common people, bebelow him the laft is cautious of

keeps oat of the


caufe they are

mixing with them, becaufe of that levity and profanenefs that is to be expected from them, if, then,
religion

is

really venerable

tabW condu^ ought

to

when

your own integrity, as well


your children.
reverence

is

To

fiicere, a refpec-

be maintained,

this add,

as to
if

as a

proof of

recommend

you

it

to

pleafe, that as

the peculiar duty of childrea to their

209

EDUCATio>r.

Let. 5-

to lelTen

parGnts^ any thing that tends

deeply

by them than by others

felt

When

child,

meanly wrangling with

have fcen a parent,

extravagant

in

telling

fervant,

his

have

the fame pro-

felt juft

for the one, that

at the other.

of contempt or indignation

What

it.

the prefeifte of his

portion of fympathy and tendernefs

has been faid will in part explain the er-

which a parent ought

rors

obferve

or otherwife expofiiig his vani-

ftories,

ty, credulity, or folly,

I did

more

is

it

who

and what

to fhun,

cir-

may

cumilances he otV;;ht to attend to, that religion

All meanneffes, whether or

appear refpedable.

fentiment, converfation, drefs, manners, or employment, are carefully to be avoided. You will apply

properly to yourfelf.

this

roentiov, that there

thefe

is

mens'

particulars, according to

The fame

tions.

remains

flill

fta-

diiferent

mean
The thing

as there is

itfelf,

hovv'-

an order and clean-

of tradefmen, that

linefs at the table

juft

in one ftation

actions are

that are not fo in another.

ever,

mav, however,

a confiderable difference in all

is

different

from

the elegrnce of a gentleman's, or the fumptuoufnefs

of a prince's or nobleman's.
ter

ftill

pon

plainer

by

talkativenefs

greateft enemies

how much

to

vanity

is

and vanity
dignity.

which

mity than a

we

it,

and commanded

fpeak.

at

make

the mat*

: 1

look

be among the

to
It is

needlefs to fay

rather an

may feem

and

infir-

are expreftly cautioned againft


to

be

Sudden anger,

fcolding, are

to

contrary to true religion

as to the other,
fin,

But

particular exanoples

fvvift

too,

to

hear and flow to

and loud clamorous

once contrary to piety and dignity.

Parents fliould therefore acquire, as

much

as pofli-

LETJERS ON

310
ble, a

compofure of

nor are there

commend

many

fpirit

and meeknefs of language

circumltances that will more rechildren,

religion to

this felf- command

Let. 5.

is

when they

fee that

efFed of principle and a

the

fenfe of duty.

There
rents,

a weaknefs

is

fhew a

to

have obferved

children, to ihe neglel, and in

many

in.

cafes approach-

ing to a jealoufy or hatred of others.

we

mother difcover an exceffive

fee a

many pa-

fome of their

partial fondnefs for

Sometimes

partiality to a

handfome daughter, in comparifon of thofe that are


more homely in their figure. This is a barbarity

which would be truly


prove that

it

incredible, did not experience

ihould rather be excited


all

One would think they

really exifts.

by

encouragement

poflible

natural afFedion, to give


to thofe

who

labour un-

der a difadvantage, and bellow every attainable ac-

complifhment to balance the defe6ts of outward

At

form.

other times

cannot be accounted for

we

fee a partiality

at all,

which

where the moll ugly,

froward child of the whole family,

peevifli,

Reafon ought

favourite of both parents.


tera6l thefe errors, but piety

do not flay

entirely.

that flow

from them,

to

my

is

ought to extirpate them

mention the bad

effe6ls

purpofe being only to

{hew the excellence of that charafter which


empted from them.

The

real dignity of religion

the condu6\ of a good


will

will

man towards

alfo

ex-

is

appear

his fervants.

in
It

point out the true and proper difiinclion be-

tween condefcenfion and meannefs.


very

the

coun-

to

fpirit

of the gofpel

vants with patience,

Humility

therefore hear

examine

is

the

your

fer-

their condub

with

ail

EDtJCATlON.

I^t. 5'

candour, treat them with


tlenefs that

when they

are fick,

all

the humanity and gen-

with unremitted authority

confiftent

is

them

vifit

perfon, provide

in

remedies

for them, fympathize with them, and


fhew them that you do fo take care of their inte;

refts

them with your

afiifl

obtain

what

never

make

But, on the other hand,

their right.

is

yourlelf their proper companion

not feem to tafte their fociety


jokes, or alk their news, or
lieve

me,

and influence to

couiifel

this will

never

them yours.

tell

do

do not hear their

make you

Be-

either beloved

by your fervants themfelves and it


from the dignity of true reli-

or efleemed

will greatly derogate

gion in the eyes of your children.

you

to caution

Suffer

me

alfo

againll that moft unjuil: and illiberal

pradice, of exercifing your wit in humorous ftrokes

upon your
wait

fervants, before

at table.

mean, that

is

do not

at the

company, or while they

know any

fame time

:o

thing fo evidently

common.

It is,

L think, juft fuch a cowardly thing as to beat a

man who

is

bound

becaufe the fervant, however

happy a repartee might occur

to

him,

is

not at

li-

berty to anfwer, but at the riikof having his bones

broken.

In this, as in

fon, refinement,

many

other particulars, rca-

and liberal manners, teach exactly

the fame thing with religion

and

being able to add, that religion

mod

is

am happy

in

generally the

powerful, as well as the moft uniform princi-

ple of decent conduct.


I

fhall

have done with this particular when

have obferved, that thofe


blic, or

what

may

What

are engaged in pub-

call political life,

cellent opportunity of

refpedable.

who

have an ex-

making religion appear truly


mean is, by ftiewkig them-

LETTERS

lia

firm and incorrapuble

felves

Let. 5.

oiJ

fupporting thofe

ill

meafures that appear bell calculated for promoting


the intereft of religion and the good of mankind.

In

all thefe cafes

man who

admire that

whofe principles are

ciples,

lias prin-

whom

and

knov.'n,

every body defpairs of being able to feduce, or


do not com-

bring over to the oppoiite intereit.

mend
much

Steadinefs

furious and intemperate zeal.

and quite a different thing.

better,

calmly, but

man who

any

with

contend

would

As

for

would
moft

contend wdth him

alfo

moft firmly.

fnould acl

fpeak

fhould

is

who

your placebo's,

your prudent, courtly, compliant gentlemen, whofe


vote in AiTembly will

yod where they dined

tell

the day before, I hold them very cheap indeed, as

you very well know.


this

do not enter further into

argument, but conclude

time by obfer-

at this

always embraced

ving, that public meafures are

under pretence of principle, and therefore an uni-

form uncorrupted public charader


evidences

gentry

of real

tell

us.

upon

has his

price."

refuting

them

my

to attvich

It lies

price

is

out of
but
far

near relations,

me

condu6l,

to

it

their

'*

every

it is

to be

to

in

my

in.

If

fo fliuch pains

had

their political

power

to

have

ef-

charader, or perhaps to ha\^e adhered

inftru6tions.

will enable

fo to the

attempt

above their reach.

who took

But

as things

now Hand,

have done both from the beginning, and

God

man

hoped there

to the intereft of evantjelical truth,

had not been

their

free-thinking

my way

been governed by court influence

teemed

one of the bell

this fubje^l, that

at prefent,

many whofe

are

fome of

is

The

principle.

end of

me, by his grace,


life.

hope

to continue to d

LETTERS
ON

MARRIAGE,

voL.viir.

LETTERS
OK

MARRIAGE,
LETTER L

Offer, with fome hefitation, a few refieclioni;


upon the married ftate. I exprefs mjfelf thus,

becaufe the fabj.eft has been fo often and fo fully


treated, and

hy

writers of the

be thought nothing
merit attention.
offer

My

firft clafs,

that

it

may

remains to be faid that can

only apology

is,

that

what

the fruit of real obfervation and perfonal re-

is

flection.

but of

now

It

is

my own

not a copy of any man's writings,

thoughts

and therefore,

if the

fen-

timents fliould not be in themfelves wholly new,

they

may

common.

poflibly appear in
I

fhall

light not altogether

way

of

to each,

give you them in the

aphorifms or obfervations

and fubjoin

few thoughts by way of proof or

illuftration.

LETTERS ON

2l6

Ltt. 1

can be more contrary to reafon or

I. ^NTothing

public utilitj, than the converfation and writings of

who turn matrimony into ridicule


many cafes, as weakly defended as it

thofe
in

yet
i$

it

is,

unjulUy

attacked.

Thofe who

treat

marriage with ridicule, a6t ia

direft and deliberate oppoficion to the order of

Pro-

vidence, and to the conftitution of the fociety of

The

which they are members.

they are borne with fo patiently


of our nature has implanted

in

that the

us

But

feeble attacks.

we

if

Author
pro-

infl:inilve

which are by much too flrong

penfitics,

why

true reafon

is,

for their

are to eilimate the

ma

lignky of a man's conduft or fentiments, not from


their effe61, but

inv/ard

thing

from

difpofition,

their native tendency,

more criminal than an attempt

riage into

difelleem.

and his

not eafy to imagine any

is

it

It

is

to bring

mar-

plainly an effort, not

only to deftroy the happinefs, but to prevent the


exiflence of

through

deavour to
lar,

human

man who

ought in

continues

juilice to en-

fatlsfy the Public that his cafe

is

fmgu-

and that he has fome irfuperabie obftacle to

plead in his excufe.

condemn

and abfurd

If, inflead

own

in defence of his
to

nature.

life in a fingle (late,

that of others,
;

that

ved to be lincere

is to
;

of this, he reafons

condut, and takes upon


it

is

at

him

once incredible

fay, he can fcarcely be belie-

and whether he be fincere or not,

he deferves to be detefted.
In fupport of the

lail

be obferved, that thofe

part of

who

marriage, ufually give fuch


dcfcriptlons, as

are

my

remark,

let it

write in defence of

fublime and

exalted

not realized in one cafe of a

MARRIAGE.

Let. I.

217

thoufand, and therefore cannot be a juft motive to


a confiderate man.

Inftead of infiiling on the abfo-

lute necellity of marriage for the fervdce of the Hate,

and the
nary

folid

licity,

advantages that arife from

which hardly
there

is

any where but

exifls

Even

writer's imagination.

whom

in

it

ordi-

they give us a certain refined idea of fe-

cafes,

the

in

the

Spcftator, than

hardly in our language a more juil

and rational writer, after faying

many

excellent

things in defence of marriage, fcarcely ever fails to

draw the chara6ler of a lady

may

fcription

to

is

country.

in fuch

terms, that I

above one that anfv/ers the de-

fafely fay, not

be found in a parifh, or perhaps a

Now,

is it

not

much

better to leave the

matter to the force of nature, than to urge

fuch arguments as thefe


ing induced by fuch

it

writings, likely to hailen or

piyilpone a man's entering into the marriage flate

There

moft every writer who fpeaks in favour of


ni?.le fex,

that they overrate the

This

w^ard form.
clctfs

is

the

The fame

cafe in

where the heroine

thing

may

for certain,

tlie

fe-

charms of the outromances, a

all

of waitings to which the w^orld

indebted.

fault I think to be found in al-

alfo

is

by

manner of think-

Is the

is

very

little

be faid of plays,

and often

all

the la-

dles that are introduced, are reprefented as inimitably

beautiful.

Even

Mr

Addifon himfelf,

his

i.i

ad-

mirable defcription of Martia which he puts in the

mouth

of Juba, though

^Tis not a Jet

it

begins with,

offeatures or comphxion, &c,

yet could not help inferting,

Trucjbe

is

fair

0,

how

T3

divinely fair

LETTERS ON

31

Now,

apprehend

Let.

I.

what

this is diredly contrary to

Men

fhould be the defign of every moral writer.

are naturally too apt to be carried a\yay with the

Muft

admiration of a beautiful face.

them

not, there-

it

when beauty

fore,

confirm

made

an elTential part of every amiable character

error,

in this

is
?

Ti>e preference fuch writers pretend to give to the

mental qualities, goes but a

wherever men

fame upon the

But

bers of the moft valuable

all

to

this

is

according to

What

women

by no means " divinely fair !" Are


be neglected then ? Or is it not certain,

thefe
from.

not a fingle quality on

is

which matrimonial happinefs depends

outward form

as,

num-

vaft

are to be found,

are

experieiice, that there

will

remedy

to

one they will pre-

find the

other.

truth, or agreeable to experience

who

way

If they are never feparated in the de-

the evil.
icription,

little

Every other

fo little

quality that

is

as

good

go a certain length to atone for what is bad ;


for example, if a woman is active and induftri-

ous in her family,

mere patience a

it

make

will

little

a hufband bear with

anxiety of countenance, or

fretfulnefs

of temper, though in themfelves difa-

greeable.

But (always fuppofing the honey-moon

to

be over)

do not think that beauty atones in the

lead degree for any bad quality whatfoever

on the contrary, an aggravation of them,


confidered as a breach

holding out a
2.

much
there

of faith, or deception,

by

faVfe fignal.

In the msrried

happinefs as

by

it is,

being

far fo

ft

ate in general, there is not fo

young

lovers

much unhappinefs

Uiiiverfiilly fiippofe.

dream of
as loofe

nor

is

authors

MARRIAGE.

Let. I.

The

21^

part of this aphorifm will probably be

firfl

Before mentioning, however, the

eaflly admitted.

mean to fay upon it, I beg leave to obferve,


that it would be quite wrong to blame the tendernefs and fervency of afFedion by which the fexes
are drawn to one another, and that generous devolittle I

which

tednefs of heart

and fometimes on both


and when under the

often to be feen on one^

is

This

fides.

is

reftraint of reafon,

nature

itfelf,

and govern-

ment of prudence, may be greatly fubfervient to


the future happinefs of life.
But there is certainly
an extravagance of fentimeut and language on this
fubje^l, that is at once ridiculous in itfelf,

and the

proper caufe, in dae time, of w^retchednefs and dif-

appointment.
Let any man,

who

has outlived thefe fenfations

and has leifare to be amufed, dip a

himifelf,

into the love

publiibed,

from Anacreon

him

and

to the prefent day,

what a fund of entertainment


for

little

fongs that have been compofed and

will he find provided

The heathen gods and

goddeffes are the

Handing and lawful means of celebrating the praifes


of a miftrefs, before

whom, no

doubt,

Venus

for

beauty, and Minerva for wifdom, mufl go for nothing.

Every image

in nature has

to heighten our idea of female

of the

been called up

charms

the palenefs

the frefhnefs of the rofe, the blufh of

lily,

the violet, and the vermilion of the peach.


is

even

nothing.

ftill

One

topics of a love-fick writer

and mourns
a

at the

new bloom

at

This

of the moft approved


is,

that all nature fades

abfence of his

her approach.

fair,

All

and puts on

this,

well, has place only in bis imagination

w^e

know

for nature

LETTERS

20

Let. I.

aif

proceeds quietlj in her courfe, without minding

and

his

charmer in the

The

done.

him

But we are not yet

leaft.

glory of the heavenly orbs, the luflre

of the fun himfelf, and even the joys of heaven, are


frequently and familiarly introduced, to exprefs a
lover's happinefs or hopes.

Flames, darts, arrows,

and lightning from a female eye, have been expreffions as old at leaft as the art of writing, and are
in full

ftill

Some of

vogue.

thefe

we

other fault v/ith, than that they are a


as the French exprefs

it;

but

can find no
outre^

little

have fome-

I confefs I

times been furprifed at the choice of lightning, becaufe

it is

capable of a double application, and

may

put us in mind that fome wives have lightning in


their eyes fufficient to terrify a hufoand,

the maids have to

Does
fons

confume a

as well as

lover.

young per-

not all this plainly fliew, that

apt to indulge themfelves with romantic

are

expeftations of a delight, both ecftatic and permanent, fach as never did, and never can exift

does

it

not at the fame time expofe matrimony to

the feoffs of libertines,


raptures muft foon

who, knowing

come

to

fiderate perfons

have not met with in

never intended to beflow

by

it

it fuffi-

fome inconwhat it was

proceed therefore to obferve, that there


far fo

much unhappinefs

chufe to
it is

ft^te

is

not

in the married ftate in

general, as loofe authors univerfally

fuppofe.

the argument in this manner, becaufe

much more

fatisfying than

the extremes on either hand.

on

that thefe

an end, think

cient to difparage the ftate itfelf, that

And

drawing piftures of

It fignifies

very

little,

the one hand, to defcribs the ftate of a few pei

fons

diflinguiilied

life,

refpetted

ther

for

underftanding, fuccefsful in
to one ano-

by the Public, and dear

on the other, thofe hateful brawls

or,

221

MARRIAGE.

Let. I.

which

produce an advertifement in the news-

by and bye
jjapers, " Whereas Sarah,

we would

The

how

much

is

trimonial ftate than

much

as

real

among

ftands

it

propofition, then, I

there

that

is,

If

of this matter with propriety,

treat

muft confider
kind.

the wife of the fubfcri-

eloped from his bed and board," &c.

ber, has

is

iefs

ohd

the bulk of

mean

we

man-

to eilablifli

mihappinefs in the maapprehended, and indeed

comfort as there

is

any ground

to

ex-

pea.

To

fupport this truth I obferve, that taking

we

kind throughout,

and cheerful nefs

much more

find

man-

faiisfaftion

the married than in the fingle.

in

In proportion to their numbers, I think of thofe


that are

grown up

of

ridian

life,

pad

to maturer years, or

there

is

much

me-

the

greater degree of

peevifmieis and difcontent, wliimficaluefs and pecu-

the

liarity, in

lail:

than in the

rnind,

and

clofes the heart.

a gentleman of

was

paft

forty,

good

eflate,

The

firft.

of continuing fingle to the end of

life,

profpeft

narrows the

I knew an inftance of
who lived iingle till he

and he was efteemed by

ail

his

neighbours, not only frugal but mean in fome parts

of his condul.

This fame perfon afterwards mar-

rying, and having children, every

body obferved

that he

became

change,

when one would have thought he had

liberal

ftronger motive than

On

this a

and open-hearted on the


a

before to fave and hoard up.

neighbour of his made a remark,

philofopher, that every ultimate pailioQ

is

as a

ftronger

LETTERS ON

222

than an intermediate one

Let. I,

that a fingle perfon loves

wealth immediately, and on

its

own

account ; where-

as a parent can fcarcely help preferring his children

before

and valuing

it,

This leads

me

it

only for their fakes.

to obferve, that marriage

muft be

the fource of happlnefs, as being the immediate


caufe of man}^ other relations the moft interefting

and delightful.

man who

cannot eafily figure to myfelf any

does not look upon

have children,

bleflings to

it

as the

to be the

firft

of earthly

objeds of

at-

tachment and care when they are young, and to

name and

his

inherit

fubflance

muft, in the courfe of nature,

Does not

when he himfelf
go

off the

ftage.

very circumllance give ur.fpeakable

this

dignity to each parent in the other^s eye, and ferve


to increafe and confirm that union,

and

pallion

take place

lefs

durable motives

which youthful
firft

occafioned to

rather chufe to mention this

argu-

ment, becaufe neither exalted underftandings, nor


elegance of manners, are neceflary to give
It

is

and,

it

force.

by the peafant as well as by the prince j


we believe fome obfervers on human life, its

ftlt

if

influence

is

not

lefs-

but greater, in the lower than

in the higher ranks.

Before

proceed to any further remarks, I muft

fay a few words to prevent or remove a deception

which very probably leads many


fubje(5l.

It is

into error

on

this

no other than a man's fuppofing what

would not give him happinefs cannot give

it

to ano-

Becaufe, perhaps, there are few married wo-

ther.

men, whofe perfons, converfation,

manners and

conducl, are altogether to his tafte, he takes upon

him

to

conclude that the hufbands, in thefe

numc-

MARfelAGE.

Let. r.

2^3

rous inftances, mull lead a miferable

life.

Is it

needful to fay any thing to fhew the fallacy of this

The

and difpofitions of

taftes

their faces

may

men

and therefore what

are as various as
difpleafing to one

is

be, not barely tolerable, but agreeable to ano-

ther.

have known a hulband delighted with his

wife's fluency and poignancy of fpeech in fcolding

her fervants, and another

who was

not able to bear

the leafl noife of the kind with patience.

Having obviated
to obferve, that

ranks of

life,

miftake,

this

through

there

all

will be proper

it

the lower and middle

generally a good meafure of

is

matrimonial or domeflic comfort, when their

is

eafily

cir-

This

cumftances are eafy, or their eftate growing.

accounted for, not only from their being

from one of the moft ufual caufes of peeviih-

tree

nefs

and difcontent, but becaufe the

mily are very feldom

contribute their (hare of diligence

not only a

common

affairs

of a fa-

in a thriving ftate, unlefs

happinefs to

merit in procuring

fo that

lliare,

Men may

it.

both

they have

but a joint

talk in raptures

of youth and beauty, wit and fprightlinefs, and an

hundred other

iliining qualities

but after feven years

them is to be compared to
good family management, which is feen at every
cohabitation, not one of

meal,

To

and

every hour in the hufband's purfe.

however,

this,

above.
to

felt

Such a wife

a flranger on a

guiflied

mull apply the caution given

examples of

liandings,

may

who have

women
all

ing in the parlour, and

not appear quite killing

There

vilit.

are

of the

a few diftin-

firft-rate

under-

the elegance of court breedall

the frugality and

of a farmer's wufe in the kitchen

but

at^livity

have not

LETTERS

a 24

found

be the cafe in general.

this to

certain author

of houfehold
lefs air

Let.

ON"

many

years ago, that

I*

learned frora

*'

a great care

generally fpoils the free, care-

affairs

of a fine lady," and I have feen no reafon to

difbelieve

lince.

it

Once more, fo far as I have been able to form a


judgment, wherever there is a great and confelTed
fuperiority of underftanding on one lide, with

good nature on the other, there


It

of

is

confequence whether the fuperiority

little

be on the

fide

ground of

it

of the

man

or ^voman,

The

be manifeft.

are generally where the juft

quite clear.
dicule

am

may

rity over that fpecies

of huibands

But

my

may be

pofition

" Wherever

faid,

is

as

any body

elfe

becaufe his wife

when

who

nor

known by

the

have

a great and confelTed fu-

Should not a

offered

by

man com-

his wife,

as well

or ought he to be againft reafon,

is

for

it ?

I therefore

take the

li-

number of hen-peckt,

berty of refcuing from the


thofe

is

little ri-

beg that the nature of

attentively confidered.

there

periority of underftanding."

ply with reafon,

comnnand
bring a

of female autho-

name

contentions

be alleged that

It will

eftabliflied the right

of hen-peckt.

provided the

fierceft

title to

fenfible

upon myfelf here.

have clearly

fome

domcftic peace.

is

afk the advice, and follow the diredion

of their wives in mofl cafes, becaufe they are really


better than any they could give themfelves

^refer-

ving thofe only under the old denomination, who


through fear are fubjeft, not to reafon, but to paffion

and ill-humour.

fliall

conclude this obferva-

tion with faying, for the honour of the female fex,

that I have

known

a greater

number of

inftances of

'

MARRIAGE.

Let. 3.

2 25

of a

inequa-

juft

and amiable condufl,

lity

when the advantage was on the


of the woman, than when it was on the fide of
roan. I have known many women of judgment

lide

the

in cafe

gx'eat

of judgment,

who

and prudence,

carried

weak and

fpel and decency to

many men

but not

with the higheft re-

it

capricious hufbands

who

of diftinguifhed abilities,

did not betray, if not contempt, at leaft great indifference towards

Some

weak

or trifling wives.

other things

but as the

this fubjed,

had intended to

letter

offer

upon

has been drawn out to

a greater length than I expeded, and they will

come

with at

in

maxims,

equal propriety under other

leaft

conclude at prefent.

LETTER
3.

TT
A

by far the fafeft and mofl promiiing way


marry with a perfon nearly equal in rank,

is

to

and perhaps

in

rence, the riik

below

IL

is

age

but

much

his rank, than

there

if

greater

when

is to

when

woman

be a diffe-

man

marries

defcends fronx

lurs.

The

firfl

part of this

advanced by

need
its

to

many

meaning, which

By

has been in fubftance

writers, and therefore little will

be faid upon

hended.

maxim
I

it.

is

mull, however, explain

not always clearly compre-

equality in rank

muft be underftood

equality, not in fortune, but in education, tafte,


liabrcs

of

life.

oentleman of
"^

VoL.VIir.

do not

eftate

call it inequality,

marries a lady

who

and

when a
has been

XETTERS ON

!,26

from the

Let. 2.

glaning brought up in the fame clafs of

'

focietj with himlelf, and

every refpect as ele-

is in

gant in her fentiments and manners, but by fome


incidents that perhaps have lately happened,

equal to him

in

point of fortune.

4he corrupt and

felfiih

and

is in

often

is

man

but the fentiment

character and capa-

every refpeft fuitable to her, but that

not equal to what fhe might expeft,

is

ido not call

gene-

In the fame manner, wlien

and unjuft.

a lady marries a gentleman of


city,

from

that
fo

un-

unequal, and an act of great conde-

fcenfion on the part of the

his ellate

know

views v^hich prevail

a marriage of this kind

rally in the world,


-f-oiuidered as

is illiberal

is

unequal.

it

It is true,

parents too fre-

quently prefer circumftances to character, and the

female friends

o-f

a lady at her ov/n difpofal

iay in fuch a cafe, that


frain..

But, taking

tune only
this

is

fiili

it

unequal,

flie

has

made

may

poor bar-

for granted that the foi-

there

affirm

is

nothing in

circum fiance that forebodes future

diilenfion,

but rather the contrary. An a<3: of generofity never produced a fretful difpofition in the perfon who
<iid it,

nor

have that

The
fingly

is

it

efieO:

reafonable to fuppofe

on the one

who

this circumiiance

it.

of equality,

importance, therefore,

from

will often

it

receives

that there

is

arifes

a great

probability that the turn, taOe, ennployments, amufexnents, and general carriage of the pcrfons fo inti-

mately joined, and

fo

frequently together, will be

anutually agreeable.

The

occafion or motive of

marriage contra6t,
the felicity of

riie

is

firft

rot of fo

parLie.,

ss

entering into the

much confequence
what they

fin

ta

after

2^7

MARRIAGE.

Let. 2.

return back.
they are fairly engaged, and cannot

When

I vifit

new

be influenced a

my judgment of it may

country,

little,

but neither

much

nor long,

by

entertamed
flattering hopes or hideous apprchenfions,
difIt has often been faid, that
before aftual trial.
fenfions

between married people generally take thair

which
from very inconfiderable circumftances ; to
cafe
the
commonly
moll
is
will add, that this

rife
I

among
This

perfons of fome ftation, fenfe, and breeding.

may feem

odd, but the difficulty

is eafily fol-

Perfons of this charader have a delicacy oa


a fweetthe fubjea of fo clofe an union, and expeft
compliance in matters that would not be
ved.

and
minded by the vulgar

nefs

fo that the fmallnefs of the

of
circumftance appears in their eye an aggravation
I

the oifence.

have

and his lady part

from a thing

faid

as obferved to

the

known a gentleman
by

for life,
at

of rank

a difference

Tapper, that was

not fo

arifing

much^

hs an impropriety by three- fourths of

company.

This, then,

importance

is

what

of equality

appi^hend occalions the


in

rank.

Without

this

fufeqaalicy, they do not underhand one another


cf
caufcs
INIany
for continual intercourfe.
ficiently

unexpeadifference will arile, not only fudden and


therefore net
ed, but impolTible to be forefeen, and
that an exobferve,
alfo
mull
I
againll.
provided
in view,
plication m- expollulation, in the cafes here

more tedious and dfficult than any other, perifme.


haps more dangerous and uncertain in the

is

How

{hall the

one attempt to convince the other of

their foran incongruity of behaviour, in what ali


iunoc^n^
Bier ideas Lave taught them to believe as

^2^

LETTERS ON

Let. 2.

cr decent, fometimes even laudable


?s

often confidered

The

and inftead of producing concord,

tJon,

attempt

an infult on their former

as

lays

fta-

the

foundation of continual folicitude, or increaiing aver-

A man may

iion.

come home

feafon

find

at

jaeannefs of fentiment,

if

them,

the admonition will be received with calm-

covers her difpieafure

that

perhaps

for mentioning

and followed by reformation

r.efs,

may

with liquor, and his wife,

fluftered

may

prudent,

when

be guilty of fpeaking very un-

through intemperate rage, or

vidvifedly

it

will

have any

annot be mended

rufticity

think there

effect that is

if

{he

dif-

is little

hope

The

habit

good.

may have

yet he

to fee that the wife of his

but

of carriage, or

fagacity

bofom has

enough

defpifed

him

in her heart.
I

am

going to put a cafe.


,

who

Suppofe that the late

acquired fovaft an eftate, had married

a lady of the

rank, education, and

firfl:

that fhe

had learned a few anecdotes of

fpeeches

that he fpoke

of this

ben

defire to

knov/

ing a

little

home

full

drowned on

ijland of Pennfjlvania.

how

and

public-

report of that

there committee, or of a man's being

the coafl of the

tafte,

his

ihe could help pouting,

out of humour, efpecially

if

Now,

and be-

he came

of inward fatisfadion, and was honeflly

of opinion that he fpoke equally as wellzs any other


in the

Houfe

That things may be

I will put another cafe.

rank,

l-.teratiu'e,

and

tafte,

fairly balanced,

Suppofe a gentleman of
has married a tradefman's

daughter for the fake of fortune, or from

kindled by an accidental glance

which he

calls love,

of a

coloured young

freili-

defire,

woman

fuppofe her ne-^

^2r^

MARRIAGX'.

L^t. 2.

ver to have had the opportunity of being in what


world calls good company, and, in confequence,

tlie

be wholly ignorant of the modes that prevail


there
fuppofe, at the fame time, that her underto

ftanding has never been enlarged


verfation
fated

how

in fuch a cafe,

by readmg or con-

foon muft pafTion be

and what innumerable caufes of ihame and


day produce ? I am not

mortification mufl every


certain

whether the

difficulty will

if (he

be greater,

continues the manners of her former, or attempts'


If any man
to put on thofe of her prefent flation.
thinks

thiit

he can

efteem and at-

eafily preferve the

tention due to a wife in fuch circumdances, he will

probably be miHakcn, and no


to

lefs fo if

communicate refmement by a few

he expels

leffons, or pre-

vent mifiiehaviour by fretfulncfs, or peevilh and

fa--

remarks.

tirical

But

let

me come now

to the latter part of the

do not remember

to have ever
maxim, which 1
met with in any author that there is a much
greater rifli when a man marries below his rank,

when

than

woman
it

nefs and accuracy of

my

obfci-vations, of

when

however, take notice, that

ul! to

of

her Nation,

to'

juft--

which eve-

ry reader muft be left to judge for himfelf.

man marrying below

As

marries below her's.

depends entirely on the

the matter of fa6l,

muft,-

fpeak of a wo-

have no view at

include what there have been fome examples

a gentleman's daughter running

away with

her'

father's

footman, or a lady of quality with a player,,

this

in

efs,

is,

and

every inilance, an al of pure lafciviouf


is,

without any exception that ever-

U3

LETTERS OK

23a

Let. 2.

heard of, followed by Immediate fliame and future

beggary.

It

has not, however, any more connecthe tranfadlions of a bro-

tion with marriage, than


thel, or the

elopements
ture

memoirs of a kept-miftrefs.

and when

hear of one,

The

truth

make any

feldom

But

further inquiry after the felicity of the parties.

when

is,

of an eccentric na-

in general are things

marriages are contradted with any degree of

deliberation, if there be a difference in point of rank,


1

think

it

much

is

on the woman's

better the advantage fhould be

than on the man's

fide

fay, marriages of the

happy than the

what remains for

is

to

me

now

inveftigate a

to

is

ftated,

the

little

and point out thofe circumftances in

it,

human tempers
ciety,

that

other.

Suppofing, therefore, the faft to be as

caufes of

kind are ufually more

fir ft

or charadlers, or in the (late of fo-

which give us reafon

in moft cafes, turn out

to expet that

Whenever any

fo.

it

will,

effect is

reneral, in the moral as well as natural world, there


xnuft be

fome permanent

to account for
for

it,

that there

we

aflign,

as one reafon

them complexly, more

txiking

is,

or caufes, fufficient

caufe,

Shall

it.

of real virtue and commanding principle in the fe-

male fex than


on the whole,
tion

be

true,

iliew

it

in the

male, which makes them, up-

aft a better part in the married rela-

will not undertake to prove this opinion to

and

far lefs

Vv'ill

attempt to refute

Many

to be falfe.

tration have affirmed

it

much may be

does not appiar to

me

or

authors of great pene-

and, doubtlefi, taking vir-

tue to be the fame thing with found laith a

morals,

ir,

fdid

its

f- great ^

favour,

cod

Ba. there

fupeiioity

in this

MARRIAGE.

Let. 2.

3'X

refpedl, as fully to account for the efFeft in qiieftion.

which men have

Befides, the advantages

knowledge, from the

iifual

perhaps balance the fuperiority of


of virtue

may

may

rience and obfervation

think

leave to fuggeft fome other things,

do co-operate
It is

1.

w^ith

much
rife

tafte in life

than a

his expe-

due,

beg

which certainly
force.

its

moft cafes, for a

man

to

marriage to a more elegant

after

woman,

do not attribute this

fuperior natural talents, but to the

to

leaft

in

from
its

and augment

it,

eafier,

improve or
in the

may
point

Allowing, therefore, as much incaufe, as every one

this

to

in

not arife from ignorance and folly,

as well as vice.

fluence

women

none furely can deny, that matrimo-

for

nial difcord

in point of

courfe of education,

more frequent opportunities he has of

feeing the

world, and converfing with perfons of different ranks.

There

is

no inftance

and converfation

band than the wife


married to one of

which the fphere of bufinefs

in

very

little.

tafte fuperior to his

think

extenfive to the huf-

and, therefore, if a

draw gradually nearer


than one of a

more

not

is

man

own, he

though

to her,

man

(he

is

may

defcend

can rccolledt more inftances

in bufinefs

married

at firft to his

equaJ, and, on a fecond marriage, to one of higher

breeding,

the

man

flyle.

when

not only the houfe and family, but

himfelf was fpeedily

ried perfons

in politenefs, or

fitiiefs

man

The

not at
o

very different

rofe together to an opaient ellatc

almofl nothing, and the

verfa

in

can alfo recoiled: inflances, in which mar-

all.
.

'.-n;^

man im proved

for piblic liie,

old goinps,

hf

vey

la'l

but the

ar.d

from

confiderably

wo-

ihe o^d con-

It is i.ot

even

LETTERS ON

232

Let. 2,

without example, that a plain woman, raifed by


the fuccefs of her huiband, becomes impatient of
the

upon

fociety forced

her, takes refuge

mod

kitchen, and fpends

with her fervants, from whom, indeed,

A certain perfon

nothing but in name.


city in

He had

make

his family Itould

he found that

and fpared no ex-

iilks, laces, &.c.

loft

but at

labour, and faid very

in

Great Britain would

his wife and his daughters ladies.

When

think
than

was

money

that all the

make

2.

it

a ftrong delire that

a figure,

pence in purchaUng velvets,

truly,

differs

llie

in a trading

and in a courfe of }eai s acquired

an immenfe fortune.

not

the

Great Britain, from being merely a mecha-

nic, turned dealer,

laft

in

of her agreeable hours

it is,

when

woman

man

no wonder that
comfort.

marries,

below her rank, I

generally fpeaking, upon better motives

I find

marries below hi?, and therefore


fhould be attended with greater

it

afferted in fever-al papers of the

it

Speclator, and I think

it

impartial obferver, that

muft be admitted by every

women

are not half lb

governed, in their love attachments,

outward form

as

men.

man

of a

much

by beauty
very mean

or
fi^

gure, if he has any talents, joined to a tolerable

power of fpeech, will often make himfelf acceptable


woman. It is alfo generally thought,

to a very lovely

that a

woman

to the eileem
is

the cafe,

it

he
is

man

much according
own fex. If this
be prefumed that when a man

rates a

pretty

held in by his

is

to

fucceeds in his addrefies to a lady of higher breed-

ing than his own, he


rit,

is

not altogether void of

and therefore will not in the

choice.

This

will

ilfae difgrace

be confirmed by

reflecling,

meher
that

MARRIAGE.

Let. a.

133-

fuch marriages muit be with perfons of the

many

learned profeflions.

a doubt that literature

it is paft

mind, and generally

refines as well as enlarges the

man

renders a

capable of appearing with tolerable

whatever have been the place or circum-

dignity,

stances of his

birth.

verfe of all this mull

When

iition.

It is

cafy to fee that the re-

happen upon the other fuppo-

ma

marries below his rank, the

very beft motive to which

can be attributed,

it

Good

an admiration of her beauty.

more valuable

other

qualities,

is

and

lenfe,

not eafily feen

are

under the difguife of lew breeding, and when they

have feldom

are feen,

beauty

is

much more

Now,

done thena.

juftice

fading than

life,

as

and fades

fooner in a hulband's eye than any other, in a

little

time nothing will remain but what tends to create


uneafinefs and difguft.

The

3.

pofieffion of the graces,

gance of manners,

is

or tafte and ele-

much more important

of a female than a male charadler.

given a
nefs to

much

part

Nature has

greater degree of beauty and fweet-

the outward form of

women

than of men^

and has by that means pointed out wherein their


feveral excellencies fhould confift.

From

conjun6:ion with the former obfervation,


feft,

that the

man who

finds in his

this,

it is

in

mani-

wife a remark-

able defe6l in point of politenefs, or the art of plea-

fmg, will be mucli more difappointed than the wo-

man who finds a like df fe61: in her huiband. Many da


not form any expectation of refinement in their hufbands, even before marriage

much

not a few,

if

am

not

miftaken, are rather pleafed than otherwife, to

tliink that

any who enters the houfe perceives the

dif-

LETTERS ON

234
:ference

Let. 3.

between the elegance of the wife, and the

plainnefs, not to faj the aukwardnefs of the hufoand.


1

have obferved

even down to the lowelt rank.

this,

A trade finan's, or country farmer's

wife, will

fome-

times abufe and fcold her huiband for want of order


or cleanlinefs, and there

is

no mark of inward ma-

or ill-hnmour in that fcolding, becaufe

lice

fenfible

is

it

that matter.
cafes

is

caufe

it

ilie is

her proper province to be accurat* in

chink alfo, that the huiband in fuch

often gratified inflead of being offended, bepleafes

him

he has a wife that

to think that

Burtake the thing the


other way, and there is no rank of life, from the
prince to the peafant, in which the liuiband can take
does jull as

ought to do.

flie

pleafure in a wife

more auk ward or more flovcnly

than himfelf.

To fum up

the whole, if fome conformity or

milarity of manners

matrimonial comfort

more confequence

is
;

of the utmofl ocnfequencc to


if

for her to acquire


it

before

my

fupported

taiie

and elegance are of

to the wife than the hufband,

cording to their ftation

poffefi

it

and

if

it

is

more

humbly conceive

proportion, that there

woman's defcending

have fully

I
is

Have

That

it is

mucii
ftatior,,

IIL

not yet done with the

monial happinefs
4.

fro-m her's.

LETTER

ac-

dilHcult

after marriage, if ihe does not

greater rilk in a man's marrying bejow his


tlian a

fi-

maxims on matri-

therefore obferve,

not by far of fo

mnck

confequence,.

MARRIAGE.

Let. 3.

the tnlents, temper, turn of mind^ charac-

T\'hat are

ter, or circumftances ot

that

as

lies,

435

there

both or either of the par-

be

a certain

fuitablenefs

or

correfpondence of thofe of the one to thole of the


other,

Thofe

who have

effay writers

as their great

jiTid ]ife

human

nature

general fabjedt, have

many

remarks on the caufes of


union, as well as

many

taken

infelicity in the marria^jre

beautiful and

lirikino- pic-

tures of

what would be

dutiful

conduct, or their contraries, in particular

juif,

generous, prudent, and

Great pains have been taken alfo,


to point out what ought to be the motives of choice
circumltances.

to both parties,

if

they expect liappinefs.

Without

entering into a full detail of what has been faid up-

on this fubjeft,
for preference

good

The

fenfe.

think the two chief competitors

have generally been, good nature and


advocates for the Hilt fav, that as

the happinefs of married people muft arife from a


continual interchange of kind ollices, and from a

number

of fmall circumltances

that

occur every

hour, a gentle and e^fy difpofition, a temper that


is

happy

in irfelf,

muft be the caufe of happinefs to

tinollier.

The

fv^'e^tnef3

of good nature

moon

lliat

it

advocates for good ienfe

will either

become four by long


ijdipid

is

fo that, if

it

faj',

that the

only for the honey-

change

ftanding, or

its

ngture, and

become wholly

do not generate hatred,

it

will

at leaft

incur indilFerence or conteu\pt, whereas good

fenfe

a Iterling quality,

is

which cannot

fall to

pro-

duce and preferve efteem, the true foundation of


rational love.

if

may,

as I believe

mod

people do, take the

LETTERS

236

Let. 3.

0!T

prevailing ientiments within the

compafsof

my own

reading and converfation, for the general opinion,

think

is

it

favour of good

in

niuil determine

of them

is

is

mod

of the

But

in

little to

this,

as

a more noted faying, than that a

never ufe a

woman

ill,^

which

cording to the meaning ihat


ujhig a

woman

If

ill.

it

man

many

other

is

company

hardly

is

of fenfe will

true or falfe

is

ac-

put upon the phrafe,

be meant, that he will not


;

fcold or curfe her, or treat her with

fore

fay againfl the


in

There

probably beat his wife as a fool

fo

we

only imperfect and general, and often,

underftood and falfely applied.

ill

importance when feparated

have very

public judgment.
it

if

between thefe two, and decide which

from the other,

cafes,

And

fenfe.

that he will not


ill

manners be-

or, indeed, that he will not fo pro-

bably keep a continual wrangling, either in public


or private, I admit that

is

it

Good

true.

fenfe

is

the beii fecurity againft indecorums of every kind.

But

if

it

be meant, that a m,an will not

wife in any cafe truly miferable,

On
men make

the contrary, there are

ufe of their fenfe

their wives

more

fay of thofe,

fo artfully

exquiiitely

who

make

utterly

deny

inftances in

his
it.

which

their judgment,

itfelf,

knowledge of human

penetration, and

we

many

unhappy.

life, to

make

V/hat

fhall

can (ling them with refledions

guarded, that

it is

impoillble not to feel

them, and yet almoft as impoflible with propriety


to

complain of them
I

mull alfo obferve, that a high degree of deli-

cacy in fentiment, although this


ingredient

when men attempt

otty in the

married

ftate, is

to

is

the prevailing

paint reiined feli-

one of the moft danger-

MARRIA(?E.

Let. 3.

237

ous qualities that can be mentioned.


certain medicines that are powerfal

fame time require the utmoft cau-

tion, but at the

and prudence as

tion

It is like

their opera-

in

to the

A man

being applied.

or

time and manner of their

woman

of extreme deli-

is a delightful companion for a vifit or a day.


But there are many characters which I would greatly

cacy,

prefer in a partner, or a child, or other near relation,


in whofe permanent happinefs

concerned.
idi as to

opinion upon this

woman

deflre that the

But

the two.

(liould

adhere to

matter to an extreme,

mjfelf deeply

me

which

it is

fo

have de-

and

fubje61:,

clown-

alfo

my

be the more refined of


it,

that carrying

this

of the moft dangerous con-

is

Your high

fequence.
tations

felt

exclude fentiment altogether.

my

clared

hope nobody will think

fentimentalifls

form expec-

impoflible to gratify.

The

o-al-

laatry of court (hip, and the hienfeance of general converfation in the heau monde^ feem to promife

the downright reality of


I

will here relate

fervation.

matrimony cannot

what

afford.

a cafe that fell within

my

ob-

perfon of noble birth had been feme

years married to a merchant's daughter of

by which

immenfe

had been faved from


ruin.
Her education had been as good as" monev
could make it, from her infancy
fo that fhe knew

fortune,

his eftate

every mode of high

upon a

vifit to

life as

well as he.

a family of equal rank,

connected with the author of


ner of the

man was

His behaviour
fect

delicacy.

Vol. Vni.

to

He

his

this letter.

They were
intimately

The man-

diilinguifhed and exemplary.

lady was with the mofl per-

fpokc to her as often as

to

any

LETTERS OK

9.^^

Let. 3.

Other, and treated her not only with the

fame com-

with the fame decency and referve

placeocy,, but

To this

that he did other ladies.

he added the moft

tender folicitude about her not taking cold, about

when

her place in the chamber, and her covering


going abroad,

After their departure, the

&,c. &:c.

whole family they had

left,

excepting one, were two

or three days expatiating on the beauty of his be-

One

haviour.

lady, in particular, faid at

" O,

laft,

woman have I feen I" The


who was an elderly woman, then
Well, you may be right, but I am of a dif-

how happy

a married

iingle diflenter,
faid,

'^

ferent opinion

do not like

fo perfe6t

a ceremonial between perfons

and fmidied

who have

ried five or fix years at leafl.

been mar-

obfervcd that he

did every thing that he ought to have done, and

likewife that

flie

received his civilities with

much

dignity and good manners, but with great gravity.


I

would rather have feen him

more

cheerful.

If,

you fuppofe,

in her heart as
all.

But

bet as

cording

if I

were

lefs

punctual, and her

therefore, that lady

to

make

am

is

as

mifiaken

a bet upon

it,

happy

that

would

much upon the tradefman and his wife,


to the common defcription, walking

is

acto

church, the one three or four yards before the other,


and never looking back." What did time difcover?

That nobleman and

his

lady parted within two

years, and never re- united.

Let

me now

the fine

eflablirh

my

maxim,

that

it

is

not

qualities of both or either party tliat wiJl

enfure happinefs, but that the one be fuitable to the


other.

By

their being fuitable,

is

not to be under-

ilood their being both of the fame turn

but that

MARRIAGE.

Let. 3.

239

the defe6ls of the one be fupplied or fubmltted to


I
by feme correfporident quality of the other.
,

which gravity,
think I have feen many
where
fe verity, and even morofenefs in a hulband,
there has been virtue at bottom, has been fo teminllances, in

pered with meeknefsy gentlenefs, and compliance in


the wife, as has produced real and lafting comfort
to both.

have

fome

alfo feen

inftances, in

fournefs, and want of female foftnefs in a

which

womaoy

has been fo happily compenfated by eafinefs ahd


good humour in a hulband, that no appearance of

wrangling or hatred was to be feen


I

have feen multitudes of

in

inftances, in

a whole

life.

which vulga-

and even liberal freedom, not far from brutain a huiband, has been borne with perfed pa-

rity,
lity

tience

and ferenity by a wife,

had become,

as

it

who by

long cuftom

were, infenfible of the impro-

priety, and yet never inattentive

to her

own beha-

viour.

As

a further illuftration, I will relate

three cafes from real

me

life,

two or

which have appeared

the moft fmgular in

my

fome time, many years ago,

experience.

in the

to

I fpent

neighbourhood

of, and frequent intercourfe with a hufoand and his

wife, in the following ftate.

fome, and
ful

at

the fame time

and peevifh

diiTatisfied

was valetudinary,

fret-

conftantly talking of her ailments,

with every thing about her

appeared moft
plaints

She was not hand-

furprifmg,

ftie

and,

what

vented thefe com-

moft when her hufband was prefent.

on the other hand, was moft affeclionate and

He,
fym-

pathizing, conftantly upon the watch for any thing

that could gratify her defu'es, or alleviate her dif-

*240

LETTERS ON

The appearance

treflls.

and
I

thought he led the

not

fervers

at laft

ways of complain-

common

ob-

an expreffion of confidence, and

is

the OihVr of difcontent.

When

woman

her complaints to her hufband, in


that

But

of a flave.

fuddenly diftinguifliable to
the one

me,

for a while furprifed

life

difcovered that there are two

ing,

Let. 3.

opens

all

full confidence

he will fjmpathize with her, and feeking the

relief

which fuch fympathj

keep

to the proportion

taking care to

affords,

which experience hath taught

her will not be difagreeable to him,

it

frequently in-

creafes inftead of extin2:ui{hinQ- affeftion.

.Take another cafe as follows.

young woman

living in a trading city,

She got her

by keeping a fmall

not of the millinery kind, w^hich

elegance

and high

life,

was a

Syrifca

the reverfe of beauty.

but of

is

fhop,

nearly allied to

common

grocery

goods, fo that the poor were her chief cuftomers.

By

the death of a brother in the Eaft Indies, fhe

came fuddenly and unexpefledly


n^any thoufand pounds.

known,

to a fortune of

The moment

was

this

a knight's lady in the neighbourhood defti-

Ded Syrifca

as a prize for Horatio, her

own

brother,

of the military profedion, on half-pay, and rather


pafl the middle of life.

her a

viiit,

this

purpofe fhe made

carried her to her houfe,

doubt, in bringing
fortune

For

home and

and, in as

ihort a

afTifled,

no

properly fecuring her

time as could

expe6ted, completed her purpofe.

They

w-ell

be

lived to-

gether on an eflate in the country, often vifited by


the great relations of the hufband.

Syrifca

was

good natured and talkative, and therefore often betrayed the meannefs of her birth and education, but

MARRIAGE.

Let. 3.

was not

fenfible of

Good

it.

T4fll

will fupplied the place

of good breeding with her, and

did not

flie

know

Horatio had generofity and good

the diilerencc.

with the greatefl tendernefs, and

fenfe, treated her

having a great fund of facetioufnefs and good hu-

mour, acquired

happy

talent of giving

a lively

by his wife, or
company to other fub-

or fpnghtly turn to every thing faid


diverting the attention of the

The

jects.

way

that

reader will probably fay, he took the

was pointed out by

conducive to his

fame time

at the

who

own

reafon, and

comfort.

affirm, that

was moft

fay fo too

but

there are multitudes

could not, or would nor have followed his ex-

ample.
I

give one piece of hiflory more, but with

and

fear, that nice readers will be offended,

However,

caricature.

let

it

fome

call

it

Agrefiis was a

go.

gentleman of an ancient family, hut the eftate was


almoft gone

little

more of

it

remained but what

he farmed himfelf, and ijideed his habitation did not


differ

from that of a farmer, but by having an old

He had

tower and battlements.

either received

education, or had been incapable of profiting


for he

was the moft

illiterate

who kept any company.


rife

even

to politics,

diiTiculty in

for

perfon

ever

by

no
it^.

knew

His converfation did not

he found

fucli

infuperable

pronouncing the names of generals, ad-

mirals, countries and cities, conftantly occurring in


tlie

newfpapers, that he was obHged to give them

up

altogether.

knew

Of

ploughs, waggons, cows, and

much

men

what

rela-

ted to thefe, with the prices of grain, and the

news

horfes, he

as

as moft

X3

LETTERS OK

24-

L^t. 3.

of births anl marriages in the parifli and

bourhood, completed the

About

woman

neigh-

circle of his converfation.

young
him in rank, but fomeShe knew a little more

the age of forty he married Lenia, a

of a family equal to

what fuperior

in wealth.

of the drain of fafliionable converfation, but not a

whit more of any thing

elfe.

She was a

flattern in

her perfon, and of confeqnence thre was neither


cleanlinefs nor order

many

They had

the family.

in

him twins twice a


cumftance of wh'ch he was very proud, and
children

quently boafted of

ticular.

if a

it

in a

manner not over

cir-

fre-

delicate

who had not been fo fortunate in that parThey were both good natured and hofpi

to thofe

table

bore

(lie

llraiiger

came, he was made heartily

welcome, though fometimes a

little

incommioded

by an uproar among the children"^ and the dogs,


wh^n ftriving about the fire in a cold day ; the noife
was, however,

little lefs

of Agreftis himfelf,
ehaftening the other,

The

guefts.
perfe<5l

amity, by

or

many

years in the moft

and

I am confident not a woman


man the huiband, while the

lafted.

It is

very eafy to

fee,

from thefe examples, the

importance of the temper and manner of the

one being truly fuitable to thofe of the


Iiad

the one,

of compiaifance to his

their being perfeftly fuiiable the

envied the wife, nor a

vaft

out

couple lived

one to the other

\mion

dilTonant than the clamours

when rebuking

not

otlier.

given hiftories enough already,

mention fome

in

which each party,

have made fome other man or

If I

could

think, could

woman

perfectly

liappy, and yet they never could arrive at happi-

MARRIAGE.

Let. 3.
nefs, or indeed

be

Cer-

peace with one another.

at

fhould be an object

therefore, this

tainly,

243

particu-

larly attended to in eourtihips, or while marriage

on the

is

tapisy as politicians fay.

If I look out for a wife, I ought to confider, not

whether a lady has


to

fine qualities, for

which

be efteemed or admired, or whether

ihe

ought

has fuch

flie

a deportment as I will take particular delight

and fuch a

gives reafon to think

as

tafte

take delight in mc.


as too low, and

Perhaps

nate.

How

difRculty.

ifliie

be

I fhall

(hall

time of youth and

in,

will

may pitch too high, as well


may be equally unfortu-

the

flie

told,

we make

courtfliip,

there lies the great


this difcovery

there

fo

is

much

In

flu-

died attention to pleafe, from iaterefled views, and


fo raucli reflraint

of others, that

from fafnion and the obfervation


hard to judge

is

it

how

they will

turn out afterwards.

This
at

the

man

confeis to be a confiderable difficulty, and,

fame time,

upon the man's

greatefl

fide.

The

being generally theeldefi, his character, tem-

per and habits,

may

be more certainly

known

whereas there are fom^times great difappointments

on the other

am

able juft

of giddy and

fide,

now

and that happily both ways.

to recollel one

fooliili,

nay, of

who, after marriage,

became

as

idle, lazy,

two

infiances

drowfy

girls,

themfelves interefted, and

fpirited and aclive heads of families as

any whatever, and

alfo

and exemplary, who,


guid

felt

or

fi:upidity,

fome of the moll elegant

after marriage, fell into a lan-

and contra6led habits of the moil

odious and difguftful kind.


ever, are rare, and thofe

Thefe

who

infiances,

how-

will take the pains to

LETTERS ON

244

may

examine,

bUo proper

in

general obtain fatisfaction.

to obferve, that

cult to judge of the

man, he has

if

woman

on

finds

It

is

it diffi-

his fide,

that the

He may

a(k

any

he pleafes, after the moft mature delibera-

whereas a

and need aik no other;

tion,

man

temper and character of a wo-

a great advantage

of feledion belongs to him.

jright

muft make the

who

Let. 3.

beft choice

woman

can, of thofe only

fhe

But with thefe


what fhall we fay of the inof thofe who, in time of court-

do or probably will aik her.

reflexions in our view,

conceivable folly

now

every

fhip, are

and then taking things in high

dudgeon, and fometimes very great fubmiffions are


necclTary to

make up

the breaches

marry, and do not agree,

life

If fuch perfons

we

pity

them

After the moft ferene courtihip, there

think not.

may

fhall

poflibly be

a rough

enough palTage through

but after a eourtfhip of florms, to expect a

marriage of calm weather,

common

prefumption

is

certainly

more than

therefore they ought to take

the confequences.

On

the whole, I think that the calamities of the

married

ftate

are

generally to be imputed to the

perfons themfelves, in the following proportion

Three- fourths to the man, for want of care and

judgment

man

in

the choice, and one fourth to the

on the fame fcore.

wo-

Suppofe a man had bought

a farm, and, after a year or two, fhould, in converfation with h's neighbour, make heavy complaints

how much he
friend

had been difappointed,

might fay

to

him, Did you not

imagine his
fee this land

Do
before you bought it ? O yes, I faw it often.
you not undeiitand foils ? I think I do tolerably.

MARRIAGE.

Let. 3.

Did you not examine


as
it

fliould

have done

with care

it

Not

looked admirably well

the fences too were new,

the houfe had been

a ftone colour, with pannelling

juft painted

windows were

large and elegant

but

the

fince

month of April two

Did you

year before the middle of June.

who had

permanency of the

Had you

Yes, every
lid

can take

up

the full

acre.

it

Was

from me.

in part of a

the right complete and va-

really,

no man

Were you

bad debt

man from week

Why,

not in-

No, indeed, 1 omitted


meafure you were promifed ?

fprings

took fuch a fancy for


the

No, nothing

it all at

America

like

it

it.

once, that I peftered

to w^eek

then, fays his

in

obliged to take

to

let

me have

it.

you

friend, I think

had better keep your complaints to yourfelf.


fing

but

lived on the place, of the

Yes, yes, perfedlly good

There were

beautiful fprings,

have lived here, they have been dry every

quire of thofe

it.

the

neglefted

fufficiency of the materials,

examine the

or the difpofition of the apartments.


in

much

fo

(landing at a certain place,

and looked exceedingly neat

entirely to

245

Cur-

and fretfulnefs will never turn ftones into earth,

or fand into loam

gality, induftry, and

but I can affure you, that fru-

good culture, will make

farm very tolerable, and an


eood.

bad

indifferent one truiy

SPEECH
IN THS

SYNOD OF GLASGOW,
I WAS ACCUSED OF BEING THE AUTHOR OF
THE ECCLESIASTICAL CHARACTERISTICS.

tVHEN

Moderator,
cannot but give me fome pain to think upor
ITmy
being obliged to ftand at your bar, in fome
fort

as a paanel or accufed perfon.

time, this
that

is

greatly alleviated

am now

character,

by

At

the confideration,

called to a regular defence of

which has been long abufed

virulent manner,

the fame

when

fpeaking for myfelf.

in the

my
mod

had no opportunity of

But, Sir, before coming to

the particular objection which has been pleaded before you,

it

is

neceffary that

fhould endeavour to

remove the great odium that has been by fome

in

DEFENCE, &C.

247

the world induftriouflj thrown upon me.

gentlemen

Thofi*

whom I am now conilrain-

hj

at the bar,

know who it was that


who knew nothing of me, to

ed to this apology, perhaps


taught certain perfons

me

reprefent

tious, unfit

This

and which,

of
I

if

am

and conten-

as violent

member

of any quiet fociety.

a charadler, Sir, which

is

to bear,
is

as a firebrand,

to be a

am

mofl unwilling

not greatly miftaken,

moft unjuftly imputed to me, from any pafl part

my

condu6t.

years

my

they will lay this to


that

telis us,

fame

is

*'

man."

thofe with

all

whom

prefbytery, to fay if

The

charge.

Perfedion

but any comparative guilt


lutely refufe.

in

any man offend not

if

a perfeft

upon

call

many

have lived

in this

apoftle

do not plead

refped

upon

call particularly

James

word, the

in

do abfo-

my

neareft

who ought
becaufe we have

neighbour, a minifter and co-prelbyter,


furely to be an unfufpeded witncfs,

hardly ever agreed in any principle of church go-

vernment

yet there hath not been the

leaf!

jealoufy

or drynefs between us as men, nor even as Chriflians

or minifters

and yet difference

in opinion

has often caufed fuch things between very good

men.

have

alfo. Sir,

been many times

of this fynod, fometimes


high, and

from

may

who,

in

and violence

as

have been

as far

who

was none of

the committee

thofe, in April 1753,


of overtures, fpun out the
till

hour was come, and then would not

come

member

any of thofe

time purpofely with long fpeeches

mittee to

debates were pretty

fafely affirm, that

indifcretion

accufe me.

when

to

any

nod were immediately

decifion,

the fynod's

fnffer the

com-

but, unlefs the fy-

conftituted,

threatened, with

DEFENCE

248

THE

IN

apparent paffion and fury, to withdraw, and confti-

Mr

and

may

form you who the perfons were


from

my own
I

the Rev.

Mr

mitted him,

ware of
ber
I

am

party
ples

fome of

other advices, told


;

and in

this,

who

him

ad-

to be-

mem-

another

he fpoke the fenfe of the whole prefbytery.

convinced there are fome perfons who, by a


fpirit,

mean

a perfon having different princi-

from themfelves

and that no meeknefs of

temper, no purity of charader, no humanity


in that cafe, fave an

carriage, wdll,

fuch an imputation.

And

if

caufe, and profecating their


lent and illegal

by a paity

who

thofe

have a

own

in his

opponent from

underftood a regard to the perfon, as

to

of

told, that at the admifTion

Baine, in Paifley, the perfon

among

you

in cler-

aftonifhing and ofFenfive to

have been

a party-fpirit

fald,

alTure

knowledge, that fuch conduct

gymen was very


the laity.

be able to in-

and

Mr

Probably

feparate fynod altogether.

tute a

be

fpirit

much

as the

purpofes in a vio-

manner, without candour or charity


differ,

from them,

know none who

jufler title to the character, than

bers of that reverend body.

fome m^em-

Several inftances might

be given in their paft conduft to juflify

this obfer-

fome of which perhaps

afterwards

vation,

mention
deed

it

I fhall

the reft are well enough

feems

to

known, and

in-

be generally agreed by the world

about them, that they are not over patient of mixture.

This, Sir, very plainly appears from the cafe


before you.

now

This prefbytery have refufed leave

to

grant even a call to me, upon a prefentation and

unanimous application from

all

concerned

and

af-

SYNOD OF GLASGOW.
iign this reafon for

that there

it,

is

249

a report of

my

being author ot a book, which, they fay in their


minutes,

of a very bad tendency to the interefis

is

of religion, and injurious to the charadters of

many

minifters of this church, and therefore they appoint-

The

ed a committee, &.c.
of Pailley,

complain

of,

and they have done

The

from you.

redrefs

leave, in a

few words,

And

fynod.

town

injury done to the

the bufinefs of the congregation to

it is

here,

and wait for

it,

injury done to me, I beg

to reprefent to this venerable

Sir,

do not complain of their

taking into coiifideratlon any book that they

fhali

be pleafcd to think contrary to the interefts of reli-

and

gion,

that quarter.
f

aarter,

wiih,

may

they

to hear of

been well fatished

lliould liave

books come from

a motion for cenfuring irreligious

ever

if

it

come from any

faithfully infpel

complain that they have joined

But, Sir,

it.

my name

to a cer-

book with which they are not pleafed, and


then have palled a fentence condemning it, when I
was not, and could not regularly be before them.
tain

This

is

a cafe that

All

ces.

furely

delire

have a

Pailley, Sir,

may

riglit

had

have important confcquen-

equity and

is

a riglit to accufe

fed, before the prtfDytery of


b'^r.

even
I

But
to

llicy

judge

had no

me

was not heard.

not found

me

themfelvcs, and

guilty,

it

to

prefbytery of
if

they plea-

am

mem.

condem-n, or

much

lefs

when

will be faid they have

propofed

but

manner of trying whether

me,

which

riglit at all

Perhaps

and that

jiiilice,

The

to claim.

was

fo or

peaceable

not

but. Sir,

have they not found by their fentence the relevancy

Vol. VIII.

DEFENCE

,-25^

IN

THE

tof the crime, againft which, as well as the proof,

.anj accufed perfon has a right to be heard

The

injur J thej

have done me, and the unjufl

and tyrannical method of their proceedings, appear

manner from the

in the moft evident

which

now

ftand,

You

being pleaded before you.


ficulty they

(ituation in

and the manner of the caufe


fee

with what

dif-

were hindered, or rather that they could

not be hindered from entering into the merits of


the caufe, and endeavouring to perfuade the fynod
to condemn this book to which they have joined my
name, before they have fo much as let me know
the nature and form of the procefs againft me, and

when

have had no opportunity to fee and anfwer

This

their charge.

is

againft

it

ought

.;

and whether

the footing of

^fama

to

upon
as

it

it,

at the pref-

be taken up upon

clamofa, or a libel from a par-

there mull

in the view of the court


here, in the

it

by the

rule, for

have begun

form of procefs
bytery of Irvine

ticular accufer,

all

ftill

be virtually a

but by bringing

libel
it

in

manner they have done, and pleading

they are endeavouring to get a law made,

were ex

poji fa6lo,

upon which

may

be con-

me

to the

neceflity

of pleading in defence of a book

with

which

do not, nor ever did pretend any connec-

demned

hereafter

tion, unlefs I

and they have reduced

would give a

fanftion to a

method of

proceeding pregnant with tyranny and injuftice. So


that, though I come to the fynod for julHce, it is
really hardly poffible

for

you

fully to grant

caufe you cannot wholly underftand the bad

it,

be-

eifecls

I am fenfiof the preibytery's wrong procedure.


giving up the very point
ble, Sir, that it would be

SYNOD OF GLASGOW.
which

am

chiefly to plead, if I

251

fhould enter into

the merits of the caufe fo far as to confider the particulars contained

in

book, whether they are

this

muft beg leave

juft or unjuft, true or falfe.

But

to confider a little in general,

whether the crime of

me, was

fo cer-

tainly and felf-evidently relevant that they

might

which they think proper


take

and

for granted,

it

much

to fufpeft

infert

it

in their minutes,

book before them,


or mentioning the oiFenfive paflages which I fhould
think were necefTary even in the worft book that
without fo

as having the

can be conceived
without fuiFering

And

and

me

to

all

this join

my name

to be heard.

here, Sir, I fhould think that modefty and

common

decency might have led them

Had

otherwife.

to

determine

they not before themfelves the

unanimous application of a large and numerous peo-

me to be their minifter ? Did


know of the rumour of my being

ple to call

people

book, before they entered into

this

and are they

all fo

to all rules to

prclbvtery

abandoned

watch

know,

for

that

their

as

author of

this refolution

to call an

enemy

Did

not the

fouls

the perfon

not thefe

fo

fufpeded had

been a member of a prefwytery for fome years after


the fufpicion began
this

fupreme court of
of

at

it

know,
no

ail

member of
member of the

that he had been a

fynod with themfelves

nay, a

this church,

and no notice taken

nay, are they fo ignorant as not to

that a very great majority of this nation find

faijlt witli

the

book

at all

and any peifon pro-

would not thereby in the


eflee m.
Pray, Sir, was it,

fefling himfelf the author,


leaft

degree

is itj,

could

forfeit their
it

be juft in this cafe, to conclude

it cri-

DEFENCE IN THE

252

minal without debate or examination

bj

this to juftify the

haps,

if it

fome

at leall

it,

mean rot

parts

may

but

per-

ioin in

1 infiii

that

the precipitatenefs, the partiality, and

fheu's

of the prefbytery, in

injuliice

in e^-^ery particular

comes to be examined,

condemning
this

bock

they pafied.

looks as

It

fentence

tlie

which

they themfelves were

if

ftruck at in the performance, and 3.t\td as interefied

And

perfons.

indeed I would gladly aik them,

whethe-r they think themfelves pointed at in the

pamphlet

and

trme afcribe

it

if

to

they think

table that they Ihoald be

pofed to be aggrieved

There

is

(o,

me, whether

my

and
is

it

judges

at

the fame

juil

and equi-

who

are fup-

another general confideration, that fhews

liow unjuft and precipitate this fentence was, and


that there

is

really no belief of the

thing being fa

criminal as they have taken for granted,


thofe

who muft

judges.

It is

read in England, and the preibytery

of Paifley do, or
entertained of

among

be moll unprejudiced and impartial

it

may know
there.

the fentitnents that are

have been well informed

London, in converfation
country, gave it great
own
our
of
nobleman
wath a
added, it feems only
withal
and
commendation ;

that the prefent Bilhop of

dire6led at a certain party in the church of Scotland,

but

we want

land, to

not very

many

in the

w^hom the characters

church of Eng-

are very applicable.

And, bir, 1 have feen a letier from the Rev. Mr


Warburton to a miniller in Scotland, and it has
been [csn by feveral miniflers here prefent, in which
he commends the performance, and particularly
calls

it

tine

pi-r

-'^

't

r lillery

againll

a party

l<>

SYNOD OF GLASGOW.

we

wlilch, fays he,

be fuppofed,

are no ftrangers here.

that

Sir,

253
Is

it

perfons

diftinguillied

to
for

worth and penetration would commend and approve


the prefbytery of

a thing fo evidently criminal

as

Paifley are pleafed to think

Are

charader there reprefented


of England

Where,

be found

to

then,

perfons of the

land's charter of fecurity, that none


in her deferving fuch a
as

fuch in England

reprimand

and muft the

without hearing and

v.^iihout

church

fliall

ever arife

Shall fuch

names

mencement of

man be condemned,
who is but fuf-

may

be fuch in her

have often, indeed^

the

fiiice

and England.

how many books

knov/ not

com-

without ambiguity, afhrm, that there are fome of


the clergy proud, ambitious, time-fervers, and tools
to thofe in

power

fome of them lazy and

lous and diiTolute in their


jind

infufficient

out the

leail

believe,

were

part of fiich

and

thefe things they aflirm with-

danger, or apprehenfion of
I to publiQi a

book

fe verity in it in

that

fhall

fame time

it is

but, I

ought

fiee to

at

another

not pretend to account for this

difference, but only afErm,

ing evidence that

it

had the tenth

Scotland,

the fame time to have a Hiip hired to

country.

flothful,

fome of them fcandamanners fome ignorant

of eafc and pleafure

it

and

doth really

am

myfelf a fland-

fubfiil

and at the

attended by a very odd circuinflance^

Y3

have

England,

in

printed v/ith the authors names,- which plainly, and

lov^ers

on the different

this bufinefs, reilefted

iituation of affairs in Scotland


I

mercy,

pefted of hinting that there

feen

church

mentioned, openly affirm that there are

thefe

lifter

in the

the church of Scot-

is

'^S

DEFENCE

'f

for reproaches are criminal


fet ae;ainrt the other,

thrown
the

out,

firft.

when thrown

but not

out

thrown back, by that other

or

Many

by one

when

the lead fo

in

here prefent will

againft

remember what

of overtures were brought into this fynod in

fet

April 1753, ^y

now

IN TfiE

foi't^e

who

of the very perfons

ftanding at the bar

one of them

fet

are

forth the

grievous crime of bringing our public differences

one another into the pulpit

U'ith

to think, the only

and yet, ftrange

fermon that ever

my

heard in

was done, was by one of my prefent accufers, who, Sir, fell bloodily upon thofe
miniflers who bawl out againft the law of the land

life in

which

this

as a grievance, inftead

of giving

which becomes good

fubjscls.

it

that obedience

It

indeed was hi&

ignorance to find fault with that expreiTion which


is

by

ufed even

Af-

the facred infallible General

lembly, in the annual inftrudiions to their commiilioncrs.

Is

it

not alfo well

the

Conditution,*'

fame, which

is

and publiihed
1

ain

now

my

not

many

accufed

known,

The
which common,

phlet was publiihed, called,

^*

that a

Juil

pam-

View

of

uncontraditled

cafe, attributes to

MrH

montlis before the one for which

1 his pamphlet reprtfents us

a^ing upon confcience, but


from a love of popularity, or in the words of the
all,

in general, as not

ingenious

Mr

of

Gowan,

*'

not confcience,

but a fpirit of faction and a love of dominion."

And,
fcene

befides this,

of iniquity,

it tells

a ftory,

with the

which

initial

it

letters

calls

of the

names of the perfons concerned. Was ever this


pamphlet charged by thefe gentlemen, my oppojficuts,

ai contrary to the iiivcren: of religion

At

SYNOD OF GLASGOW.
the fame time, I flioulJ be glad to

makes

that

2^^

know what

it is

the difcovery of a fcene of iniquity, if

whom

committed by fome

muft not name, con-

trary to the intereft of religion

but the difcovery

of a fcene of iniquity, fuppofed to be committed

Mr
to

by

Webfter, or fome others of us, nothing contrary

am

at all.

it

not able to difcover any reafoii

for this difference of

judgment, but one that

is

not

very honourable to them, viz. Thefe fcenes of iniquity fuppofed to be committed

probable

do not affirm that that

iince

by them,

the reafon, but I think,

is

they have been the aggreflbrs, both in cenfu-

ring us for fcrupling obedience to

fome namelefs

autlior

as quietly under

prudence

or

many

their deprint,

they ought to He

as poffible, both

from equity and

to fay,

from prudence, becaufe it will


that charge muft have been juft,

would have been treated with contempt

ly that ftroke

and

fure-

muft have been well aimed, the wound

muft have been very deep,


fo long,

if

from equity, becaufe they have given

provocation

it

it

in

has with great fuccefs reta-

liated the injury of the lad kind,

bring

fome of

and attacking our charaders

cifions,

the

more

are

adually obtain more

than thofe which they throw out againil us.

credit,
1

tliemfelves, and

in

the fear continues

fince

never like to be either forgotten or

is

forgiven.

But,

Sir, I

nefs, as

muft confefs

confidering the land in

and do
Is

it

we

not glory in

then a land of

aftical

am amazed

at

the bold-

well as the violence of thofe gentlemen,

tyranny

wliich

we

its beirig

civil liberty,

live.

Is

it

not,

a land of liberty

and yet of

ecclefi-

Muft not a maa have equity and

DEFENCE

2^6

THE

IN

juftice In the church, as well. as the ftate

Are

there

not every day publilhed in this nation, as fevere,

much

nay,

fices

feverer ctnfares, of the greatell: charac-

kingdom, and

ters in the

Are

himfelf, and his auguft


in

print,

leaft

many

family,

times

made

and yet paffed unheeded? and muft the

attempt to fiiew that there

among

corruptions

are

the clergy, be an unpardonable crime

have feen

it

infifted

liberty of the prefs

on
is

in print,- that

And

is

an end

as of late years

hath been very frequent to borrow from what

cuftomary

in the civil

the church, I

and to

fliall

government, and apply

beg leave

to

affirm, that fo foon as

borrow

this

it

maxim,

general to lafh the characters of churchmen, there

and always will


and

be,,

fence of fo

am aihamed

many

proach which

it

is

which always was,

of the moft cruel, relentlefs,

But the worft of

illegal kind.

hind, which

is

to

not permitted in

it is

eftabiifhed a facerdotal tyranny,

as foon as the

taken away, there

of every fliadow of liberty.


it

the highell of-

pofl'iring

not attacks upon our fovereign

there

to

all

is

Hill be-

mention in the pre-

of the laity, becaufe of the re-

brings upon our

church.

There

have been pubiilhed among us writings directly


velled againfl religion

itfelf,

taking

away

le-

the very

foundation of morality, bringing in doubt the being

of God, and treating our Redeemer's

contempt and

derifion.

Writings of

name with

this

kind have

been publicly avowed, with the author's name prefixed.

Where

has been the zeal of the prefbytery

of Paifley againft fuch writings

Have they moved

for the exercife of difcipline a'gainft the authors?

Have they fupported

the motion

when made by

SYNOD OF GLASGOW.
ethers

am

afraid, Sir,

'^

SI

profecution will give

tliis

ago by
ground to fay, as was faid an age
occafion
Moliere in France, and by fome there upon

many

jiiR

cf his writings, that a

Almighty what he
power, he
I

write againft

God

perfea fecurlty, but

pleafes, in

clergy in
write againft the characters of the

he

if

man may

am

Is

ruined for ever.

fenfible, Sir,

that they

have

fald,

even at

emlflaries in conthis bar, as Indeed they and their


quarrel they
verfation have often alleged, that the
to the
have at the pamplilet, is its hurtful tendency
often laid, that
intereil of religion ; nay, they have

one

who

could write

in

that

and manner

ftyle

a
againft his brethren, cannot poffibly be

and that has been commonly

faid,

good man

even upon the

charade's
fuppofttion of the truth of the fads and
This, Sir,

contained in the book.

had nothing

to

would have

do with, but would have fuiTered the


net
for itfelf, Unce its author dots

to anfwer
they had
think proper to appear in its defence, if
oHt.
fufplcion
the
with
not been pleafed to load me

book

that
For removing this odium, by which alone it is
I
men,
good
they have made an impreffion on iome

obferve in general, that

it is

not conceivable that a

be a certain mark of a bad man, which


no fuch idea to fo great
is approved by, and conveys
But, becharaders.
unqueftionable
number of

thino- ftiould

fides, let

us confider a

little

the nature of the thing


It

is

iuppofed to

2.
1. It is written ironically.
part of the
attack the charaders and credit of a
As to the firft of
clergy of the church of Scotland.

thefe, far be
teft

it

of truth.

me to allert that ridicule is the


Many here prefent know how uni-

from

DEFENCE

238
formly, and
contrary.
difgrace

how

It

ftrenuoufly

have maintained the

however, many times ufeful

is,

known

THE

IN

falfehood, and luch

be defpifed need only to be expofed


lawful thing to

make

There

we

iii.

22.

of

God

be an irony

rood fevere and cutting kind,

Behold the man

is

good and evil."

and

as

in-

In Gen,

it is

inter-

of ths

a moft deplorable

in

*' And the Lord God faid,.


become as one of us, to knotv
The condud of Elijah, and his
:

treatment of the prophets of Baal,

Kings xviii.
" And it

another example of the fame kind

came

to pafs at

faid,

Cry

noon that Elijah mocked them, and

aloud, for he

is

a god

ing, or he is purfuing, or he

is

either he

in a

is

are a good

many

I omit,, to

inftances of

it

talk-

journey, or per-

adventure he fleepeth, and muft be awaked."

which

do not fee that another interpretation can

be put upon the words

is

many

are

which many, perhaps moll

preterS) fuppofe to

is

put into the mouth

ha^ve an expreffion

himfelf,

eafe, fo I

it

evident

is

it,

of irony in the facred writings.

ftances

27.

that

fuch an ufe of

from the higheft authority.

to

praftices as to

There

the prophets,

io

fave time, as the thing

is

undenia-

ble, and only further mention an expreffion of our

Saviour himfelf, who, though a

man

of forrows and

fome places ufes a


John x. 31. " Many

in a {late of humiliation, yet in

language plainly ironical, as


,

good works have

which of thefe works do ye

And

in

(hewed you from


ftone

my Father,

me

as the inftances of fuch writing in the

of God, fufhciently warrants the ufe of

founded upon the plained reafon.


diilinft qualities of truth

for

?"

it,

There

word

fo it

are

is

two

and piety; a divine beauty,.

SYNOD OF GLASGOW.

259

vlilch renders them amiable, and a hcAy majefty,


which renders them venerable and there are alfo
:

two dilHnd
minal

and impiety

qualities of error

a cri-

which renders them the objeft of hor-

guilt,

ror,

and a delufion and

filly

and contemptible

God

the children of

which renders them

folly,

and

at

is

it

and proper that

fhould have both of thefe fen-

timents of hatred and contempt with regard to them.

And
ia

the lad

often necellary, as well as the

is

There

combating corruptions.

a pride and

felf-

them,

their pride

till

is

nor

there any getting

is

levelled a little with this

Many

difraaying weapon.

and impregnable to

advice,

to

fober and ferious reafoning


at

wicked men, which

fafficiency in

makes them deaf

firft,

for ordinary,

is,

of the ancient fathers of

the Chriftian church, both ufed this manner of wri-

and alTerted

ting,

its

is

very

much

There

necelTity.

fage of Tertullian which

the purpofe.

to

is

1 Ihall tranflate,
*'

There

one pafbecanfe
are

it

many

things which ought to be treated with contempt and


fear of giving them weight, and
making them too important by ferioufly debating
them. Nothing more is due to vanity than deri-

mockery, through

iion
it is

and

it

belongs to the truth to fmile, becaufe

cheerful, and to dcfpife its enemies, becaufe

it

we ought

to

is aflhred

of \i5:ory.

It

true,

is

that

be careful that the raillery be not low and unworthy of the truth
v/e can
is a

make

but

ufe of

duty to do

pafDige

fo.'*

if that is

it Vv'ith

To

and

of,

addrefs and delicacy,

this

from St Auguftine

taken care

I
'^

fhall

Who

it

add another
will dare

to

fay that the truth ought to remain defencelefs againft


the attacks of falfehood

That the enemies of

reli-

DEFENCE

a6o
gion

IN THE

be permitted to terrify the faithful with

ILall

ilrong words, and to entice and feduce

agreeable terms of wit

them by

but that believers ought

never to write, but with fuch a coldnefs of

ftyle as

to lull the reader afleep?"

Enough furelj has been


manner of writing and as
:

faid

defence of the

in

to the fubje6t of

tacking the charadlers of clergymen,


ther at a l^fs to

know what

fon, or that precept in

criminal

That

that

am

argument

at-

it,

altogein rea-

which makes

Scripture,

them when they deferve

cenfure

to

is

it
it.

their ftation, like that of all other perfons of

men very

employment,

or in public

3-nfluence,

how

tender and cautious

upon good ground,


really bad,

tliey

take up an

againft them, and never to do

evil report

hold

I
it

allow

that

as a jull principle,

them doubly criminal, and doubly

it

ought

to

it

except

but when the church

in

this is fo far

make

fliould

be expofcd wirh double

from being contrary

religion, that nothing can be

-as

is

it is

pernicious, fo

feverily.

And

to the interefis of

more honourable

to

it,

than to ihew that there are fomi fo bold as to reprove, and fo faithful as to wivhdand the corruptions of others.

How

far fecret wickcdnefs fhould

be concealed, and fcenes of iniquity not laid open,


and fo

fin

ter that

turned into fca.ndal

would require

difcufiion,

and admit of

in minifters, is a

mat-

a very careful and accurate

many

exceptions

but

if in

sny cafe erroneous dotlrine, or degeneracy of life,


plain and vifible, to render them completely
i-s
odious

mud

be a duty

and when

makes men conclude we


like

are all

it is

not done,

it

combined together,

Demetrius and the craftfmen,

ai:d

more ecu-

SYNOD OF GLASGOW.
cerned for our

own power and

iCt

credit, than

tlie

In-

and benefit of thofe committed to our charge.

tereft

Thole who think

that

no good

charafter of the clergy,

attack

man

would

can attack the

remind of the

juft

the Jefuits in France, about one

made upon

hundred years ago, by the gentlemen of the PortRoyal, a fociety of Janfenifts of great parts and
eminent piety, particularly by Monfieur Pafcal,

in

his Provincial Letters, which are written almoft entirely in the

was made
that

is

way

of ridicule

againft

now made

and the very objelion

them by the

Jefuits *at that time,

Will any man

againft this piece.

conclude from them, that Pafcal was a bad

now

man, whom

have been

all hiftory tellifies to

as pious

and unbiaffed to the world as any of his time

what hath been

in

general

on the fpecies of waiting, and the

fubje<3:

of this

book, will convince every impartial

member

of this

hope,

Sir,

thus

faid

fynod, that the prefbytery of Paifley have aled in a

mod

unjufl and illegal manner, in pafiing the fen-

tence they have done

upon

it

without any examination.


fljould

now

alfo

fpcak a

my

in

It

is

little to

abfence, and

necefiary

the

method

that I

of in-

quiry which they refolved upon, by appointing a

committee of their number privately to interrogate

me.

And

begin

in

method

indeed, Sir, the

fpeaking

is

fo full of ab-

know not vv^ell v/h.ere ta


upon it. Thej have no where

farditj and tyranny, that

inJeed told vvhat were to be the confequences, if


their fufpicions

were found

prefljytery of Paifiey

dfpofition againft

VoL.VIlI.

me

to

be

jnft.

Perhaps the

would have paffed fentence of


in

my

abfence,

which woulc^

DEFfiNCE IN THE

262

have been but ending as they began, contrary to


law and juftice. But, whatever were their particular intentions, by their violent and illegal ftretches
of power in falling upon it, tlfey were plainly of
the word kind and it Always put me in mind of a
friar of the inquifition, with an unhappy perfon be;

whom

fore them,

may

burn him,

they want to convict that they

him, and faying to him in

fliroking

the fpirit of meeknefs, Confefs,


Sir, if thefe

the

degree of

leaft

common

thod was excellively abfurd

or

not,

was

it

my

gentlemen fuppofed

"being appointed

by the

to

make

of the prelhytery, of

with me

Would
and make

minutes,

cognizance
ing, to

Could

be the

This commirtce

and the appointment

court,

no

man

converfation

might be

of

their private converfation

all

a part of the procefs under their


I

leall

be prefent

at their next

ciieck or controul

common

fenfe

my

could

For

meet-

upon

their

correftions

In this fitu-

would have had any

with them but by waiting,

fure nothing

o^vn words.

juft afli,

not this alfo be ingrofled in the

their committee's report, if

atlon,

a report to the next meeting

report? or would they regard any of

of

me-

and whether they did

inferted on the records of the prefoytery,

were they not

endued with

underllanding, this

of injuifice.

full

fon, confefs

me

fo that

would be reported but

would net

trull

the

mod

he-

his

im-

partial perfon in the world to report any converfa-

me, upon a matter in which he feemed to


be keenly interefted, or to have very dilTerent fenThe power of prejudice would
timents from me.
tion with

give a tincture to the reprefentation


forgetfulnefs

would create

nay, the kail

foine variance.

And

if

SYNOD OF GLASGOW.

me

they fuppofed

263

iimple enough to converfe with

ihcm, what muft they have been to take fuch ad*


van!:age of

my

fimplicity

Further, Sir^ this method of inquiry was very

load a

They

becaufe felf-contradiaory.

abfurd,

roan with the fufpicion of writing a book contrary


the

to

and then they prercnd to aik

falfehoods,

he had done
fted if

of religion, and containing

intereft

he

fo,

faying that they will be well fatis-

deny

(hall

this

many
man if

Thefe fuppofitions dellroy


be

it.

If his veracity be fo entirely to

one another.

depeiided on, either he muft not be the author of


the book, or

it is

impoffible

hoods that are alleged

defame
lie in

can contain the falfe-

it

for if

he will

lie in print

his brethren, he will furely never fcruple to

There-

converfation to fave himfelf from ruin.

fore, Sir,

do

confer with

affirm, that appointing a

me was

cunning.

For

pended on

as

if

out of their

committee to

highly abfurd, or Jefuitically

my

word

is

they give out,

plete vindication of roe

it is

from

own mouths.

fo

much

be de-

to

com-

a clear and

and that

their charge,

But perhaps they were

more cunning than abfurd, and intended

me

to

de.iy the thing formally,

firft

to

make

and then adduce

it

as

a proof, and to aggravate the crime.

But,

Sir,

ing in the

they pretend that

fpirit,

in this

they are only a61-

and following the rules of the gofpel,

particularly that rule of our Saviour,

ther trefpafs againfl thee,"

hear any fpeaking in the


ufe of this argument.

ment

for

having a man

&:c.

name
I

to

"^

If thy bro-

It is furpriiing to

of fiich a body

would not give

make

my judg-

preach the gofpel,

who

is

capable of giving fuch an interpretation to that text'

DEFENCE IN THE

2^4
It

evidently and undeniably relates only to private,


or perfonal injury.

offence

pafs againfl thee, go and tell

him alone

thee and

ed thy brother."
to do with

his fault

he

is

nobody has any thing

Sir,

by

if

fatised, the matter

fay, that this

confef-

is

^r>dQd,

to be applied to

is

cafes public in their nature, and againil

and public cenfure

true, a procefs

between

he hear thee, thou haft gain-

Here,

any man

will

if

him

but the perfon injured

it

iion or reparation

But

If thy brother tref-

*'

which,

intended

is

if

If

any of the prefbytery of Paifley, fuppoling them-

had previoufly come

felves pointed at in that bock,

to

me when

the report rofe

at

any time,

as private perfons,

or fuppofe they had

fpoke to

to

commune with them, and


from one Chrillian

tion due

making

it

to appoint

after

give them

all fatisfac-

But, Sir,

manner above

of

it

juftica for

my

them

God

of the word of
it

then

a committee privately to interrogate


is, in

humble

to

it

me

opinion, a viola-

attempt

to build

re-

criminal, and

it

the ground of flopping a fettlement

as to the faft,

tion

finding

illegally

on the

to another.

after proceeding as a court in the

prefented

me

man more ready

fabjed, they would have found no

it,

upon

a perveriion

that text, and

would be yielding up the natural rights of man-t


I fhould be fo tame as to fiibmit to it.

kind, if

Again,

Sir,

they pretend that their condudl

is

exaftly conformable to the form of procefs, and the

pradice founded upon


dals,

where the very

it

firft

in the cafe

of other fcan-

means of proof

is

dealing

with the accufed perion^s confcience, to bring him


to

a confefTion.

thi-j

fynod, that

And
am

here, Sir,

net only

mufl fay before

humbly

willing

t',^

SVKOD OF GLASGOW.
by

ftand or fall

form of procefs, but that

this

and by

it,

it

is

am

right to be judg-

alone, and not

by the arbitrary

proceedings of fome modern clergymen.


obfervation

my

refolved to aflert and maintain

ed by

2t}

general

neceffary here, that this form of pro-

cess doth univerfally

proceed upon fcandals, the re-

levancy of which

acknowledged, and cannot be

Now,

denied.
zs

is

by no means the

this is

my continuing

evident from

is

cafe here,,

fo long in the

as

many

other confiderations fuggefted above

therefore,

at

any

the relevancy muft be

rate,

miwell

niflerial character after the rife of the report, as

and
firft

proved, before there can be any propriety of aiking


a

for

confeflion,

It is true,

levancy

and dealing with the confcience.

they have

in their

minutes found the re-

but whether this has been according to

the rules in the form of procefs, I could almoft ai-

even thcmfelves

lovv

they would hardly do

But now,
let

after

to
it

be judges

we have

for I dare fay

left this in its full force,

us fuppofe that the matter objected were only of

a fcandalous nature, and let us


ter in X\\Q
fee

a fecond time.

go

chap-

to the 7th

form of procefs concerning

miniflers,

and

whether the method there prefcribed has been


But, Sir, as the whole

obferved in this cafe.


13 full

confufion

by the precipitate or

prefoytery, fo there
ariles

affair

of irregularity, and involved in darknefs and

is

artful condul of thc^

a particular difficulty

from the flrange and ambiguous light

which

which
Thofe who read the flyle and direcof the form of procefs, will plainly fee that
in

they appear.
tions

fuch a cafe as that

now

before you, was never cor-

'^3

'

DEFENCE LV THE

266

templated by the compilers of

It is difficult to

it.

iay^ whether they are to be confidered as private

Chriftians offended and accufing, or the occalion of

the accufation, or as a church court taking the af-

have confidered themfelves as both.

to

can never yield to

They

under their cognizance for judgment.

fair

ieem

but they

-,

Ihall

be

And

be either of them they think proper.

them

confider

fliall

fo I

and then

in the one li^ht,

firft

This

at liberty to

in

the other.
If they be confidered as Chriftians offended,

I.

and the accufers or occafion of the accufation, the


rule

to

is

be found

in the 4th part of the 7th

ter of the

form of

Here then,

3ir, I

procefs,

**

chap-

All Chriftians," &:c.

complain of them, that they have

not done as Chriftians, not even what they refolved


to

do

as a court,

and vtry

much

me

from publiQiing or fpreading the fcandal

ftained

Have

Have
Have they ab-

out of time.

me

they been wary in accuiing

they, ihefe three years bypaft, converfed with

on the fubjeclr Have they not

every sphere called

knew

that

was

it

in the

a heinous crime,

controverfy

though they

from being generally yielded,

far

and would not probably be yielded by

me

now

me, during

inftead of privately converiing with

the feven

weeks delay of

Have they

difqualifying

me

not

for

judge, v;hether this

down

in the

made

a call

it
?

it in

their re-

a part of a procefs,
I

leave any one to

was following the

form of procefs.

rule

Befides, they

only as private perfons, but judges


iiialcing the inc^uiry

Nay,

the affair, without aftign-

ing a reafon, have they not recorded


gifter

a<ft

laid

not

or at leaft are

themfelves, that they

may know

SYNOD OF GLASGOW.
whether they may
do

Let us confider them as a church court, taking

2.

the

defire the preftytery of Irvine t

them.

after

it

267

under their cognizance

affair

Here, to be fure, there

is

judgment.

for

a monftrous impropriety.

For, fappofing them to have taken ever fo juft (leps


in other refpeels,

be before them,

was never before them,

am

cannot

not fubjed to them.

Yet,

cannot be before the fynod in any other

Sir,

as

way

than they have been pleafed to take

let

it

us fee

how

agreeable

it is

and whether they are ready

cefs,

The form

for a confeffion.

up

it

the form

to

in,

of pro-

with

to deal

me

mentions

of procefs

ways of taking up a fcandal again ft a minifter.


The two firfl none pretends to held in this cafe ;

three

the laft

is,

part 3,

mofa^"^ &.C.

" that the famci

laft claufe,

Now,

can any

man

dition holds in the prefent cafe.

Is this

lous in the eyes of the people,

would be reproached
be any fuch fama^ it

if

they

is

very

cla^

fay thst this confo

If there

let it pafs.
lilent

fcanda-

a prefbytery

th.t

for

never

heard of any fault found with the prt{b}tery of Irvine, to

whom

it

naturally

fell to

contrary, I do affirm, becaufe

do

am

On

it.

the

able to prove,

that the prtfbytery of Paiilev's taking

with

up,

it

Again,

very many, brings reproach upon them.

do they follow the rule prefcribed even when that


condition exifts

Have they

inquired into the rife,

occafion, branches and grounds,

mofa

it is far

from

am

it,

of this

fuma

cla^

This they were the more bound to do, that

from being an uncontradided fama


that the very prevailing

the author, but fome

how

/a -wn

is,

concerned in

fo far

not that I
it.

They

268

liEFEKCE IN THE

themfclves exprefs

fome fuch way

it

This makes

nutes.
pailiiig

over the relevancy every

caufe a

man might have fome

lifliing

were

mi-

way

ftrong

acceffion to the

be-

pub-

of a book in which fome very bad things

and without examination, or fpecifying what

was,

this acceffion

him

in their

the arguments about their

all

would be very hard

it

to.

judge

To

guilty of the wcrft, or of the whole.

made

the truth, fome of their wellwifhers have

very di{honGurabley"^2 for me, faying that

fay
it

help-

ed to contrive the mifchief, to colledr the calumnies,

but had not

enough

ikill

to give

it

its

drefs

and

Should not they have inquired then into

form.

the grounds of this/ama ? and have they ever done


it?

Further, in the

paragraph of that chapter of

fifth

the form of procefs,

even after a procefs

it is

exprefsly appointed, that

begun upon ^fama clamofa^.

is

the court muft give a liberal and competent time to

unfwer

it

and the accufed perfon

on the relevancy.
in

the

way

This

is, Sir,

and

court are to endeavour to bring


this,

then,

it is

fons to

commune with
is

all this,

him

it

might be

man

ai

before the

to a confcffion.

clear and evident, that

ever lawful or prudent

done, there

be heard up-

are laid, even concerning

the fafts

thing confelTedly fcandalons

From

to

is

upon the relevancy

how-

for private per-

himfelf,

till

this

be

no warrant from the form of procefs

for a court to appoint

any examination and inquiry;

on the contrary,

making, inflead of mending a

And

fcandal.

it is

if this is

of a fcandalaus nature,
in

what

is

now

the rule in cafes con fclTcdly


it

holds

before you.

much more

llrougly

269

SYNOD OF GLASGOVV.

The

truth

is,

this is not only the order of pro-

reeding exprefsly laid


but

it is

down with regard

equity, and in fubltance the fame

common

all

other cafts, and with

other perfons.

For though when a

with the cafe of fcandal in

sefped to

all

to minifters,

appears, laying to

particular accufer againft a

man

his charge a grofs crime,

fuch as uncleannefs,

feeras to

be due to his

own

it

charater, as well as to

yet it
the Public, that he fhould profefs innocence ;
appears
accufation
often happens, that when the

wanton and malicious, he puts the accufer upon the


proof, and refufes to give any other fatisfaaion.
And whenever any perfon does fo, though the court

may

think

it

obftinacy and llatelinefs, or that they

never
cannot fully approve his condua, yet they
prothe
difmifs
but
account,
condemn him on that
for

cefs

want of

fufficient light.

feveral cafes of this fort, in

lutely refuted to put a

man

And

which

have feen

the court abfo-

to his oath, or

even alk

he was willing to fwear, unlefs there were


fome more prefumption than the bare accufation.

him

if

And

indeed this

This, however,
if

there be no

required in the form of procefs.

is
is

dating the cafe too ftrongly.

genci^l/ama, would
call

But

particular accufer, but a vague and

any gentleman

it

be tolerable for a court to

whom

they

ihall

be pleafed to

fufpea, and put him upon an inquiry, whether he


was ever guilty of the fm of uncleannefs ? I dare
fay fuch a mealure would be detefted by every reafon able

man.

But you
let

me

Then
is a cor/)us debit L
exadly parallel that a child
a gentleman's neighbourhood, no

will fay, here

fuppofe a cafe

were expofed

in

DEFENCE

27

THE

IN

mother appearing or accufing, but an


perhaps

arifes, thiit

it

may

rumour

idle

be his, or

may have

it

been fomebodj about his houfe, and he acceflary to


the commifBon of the crime

would it in that cafe


would it be according to the
call him, and interrogate him,

be reafonable and

juil,

forni of procefs,

to

whether he had ever, or for twelve months preceding, been guilty of the crime of uncleannefs

..

without making any previous inquiry as to the

rife

of the

So^

affair,

or probability of the imputation

in this cafe, here

the world

is

a child of the brain expofed to

the mother, that

to fay, the prefs or

is

the publiftier, accufes nobody, nay, pretends that

it

A vague

rumour lays it to
me. This hath never been inquired into, though
the firft broacher of it might eafily be found
and
yet 1 muft be interrogated hy a court to whom I

is

lawfully begotten.

am

not fabje^t, with

have nothing to do.

do

if

were

fo

whom,
In

a court, I

as yet,

as

Sir,

what

fliort,

would

irregularly attacked^ and charged

with a crime highly and confefledly fcandalous,


do not

know, and hope

to deliberate

upon

it.

I fhall

But

never have occafion

in this

vague and

illegal

accufation of a doubtful crime, and a crime, per-

haps, chiefly or only in the eyes of thofe

me

and their adherents,

by every impartial perfon


rights of

hope
in

who

will be

accufe

approved

Handing up for the

mankind, and refufing

to cUiiiviQT /uj}er en-

quirendis.
I

could here put the fynod in mind of a queftion

of this nature, which came before the church of


Scotland in Profellbr S

's

procefs.

fed to anfwer fome queries put to

him by

He

rcfu-

the pref-

SYNOD OF GLASGOW.
"bytery of

27 I

Glafgow, althougli they arofe from, and

were founded upon feme writings given

in

by him-

This w^as debated before the Aflembly, and

felf.

by them,

rejected

ment

as

they would give no encourage-

to inquifitorial proceedings.

But, Sir, nothing can demonftrate more clearly


the iniquity of fuch practices, than what happened
not long ago in this very prefbytery,
little

known, but which

And

after

have narrated

which

it,

leave

it

to the

Abbey Church
know

raifed, 1

of Paiiley,

in

another

was prefented to the


there were fome rumours

not how, as if he had been guilty

of fome pradices tending to difaftedion.

may

judg-

will countenance

with their authority any fimilar pradice

When Mr C

but

able to biing to lioht.

ment of the fynod, wliether they


eafe.

is

am

Thefe,

were not difcouraged by the pref-

fafely fay,

bytery, but mentioned again and again in their mi-

nutes

and though the candidate

iniiiled

much upon

a regular judgment upon the relevancy, and an inquiry, they

iliill

fhifted both, and,

appointed a conference with him.

you were the


the fcandal?

infiead

queftions they put to

Where

did

you

thereof,

And what
him

to

think

remove

learn your Englifli

and what minifter of the ellablilhed church did you


hear

Where

did

you learn your Latin ? and in


(lay ? Did you ever go near

whofe houfe did you

the Epifcopal meeting- houfe

Mr R
to

all

the time 3-ou

were

Did Mr H
or
, Epifcopal minifters, recommend you
's family ? Did your father attend ordi-

at the profelTion

of divinity

nances in the pariih church where he lived

you any near

Have

relations that are related to the mini-

DEFENCE

2'Jl

of this church

flers

IN

We

THE

afk this, fay they, that

we may know the difpodtions of your friends.


What could be the intention of thefe queftions ?
What could be the effe^ of their being anfwered,
Might not the moft loyal
one way or the other
man in Britain be brought under an odium in this
manner I flatter myfelf I am of as untainted, unfufpeded loyalty, as any man in the prefbytery of
?

and yet

Paifley,

could not affirm that

had never

lodged in a difafFcAed perfon's houfe, nor had the


friendfhip of

any fach

nor that

the Epifcopal meeting-houfe

know

was

at

did not thefe gen-

that fach things were perfeftly frivo-

lous and irrelevant

but

never came near

the time

And

the profeflion of divinity.

tlemen

all

Yes,

Sir,

knew

they

it

w^ell

they ferved their purpofe of difobliging that

ftill

people, and infufing jealouQes.


fterioufly exprefs themfelves in

And
their

reafons of appeal, that there are fach

my-

they

fo

anfwer to the

unhappy

cir-

cumftances in the prefentee's character, as do not

recommend him

to the choice

will not fay, Sir, that


is

now

to be

found

all I

of this people.

their regifler, for they

in

have above reprt fented

have

a falutary art of expunging from their minales any

thing that
I will fay,

more.

is

difhonourable to themfelves
actually happened,

it

And

dare fay,

if

but this

and a great deal

there be any Epifcopaliaii

here prefent, he will inftantly add to his litany,

From
us

fuch Spanifh Presbyterians, good Lord deliver

Thus,

Sir, I

hope

have made

it

Rppear, that

the prefbytery of Paifley have been guilty of moft


irregular procedure, and flagrant iiijuftice to me,

in

SYNOD OF GLASGOW.

had no

title

my

upon

pafling a fentence

me

to ju'ige

273

where they

chara6ler,

in finding a relevancj

without examination of the fubje^l, and when I


could not be heard in my defence ; and, laftly, in
appointing an inquifition for difcovering the fat,
direftly in the face of
I

am

law and equity.

forry I have detained the fynod fo long, Sir,

but could not poflibly fpeak

to this involved, per-

plexed accufation, in ihorter time

and

hope the

importance of the caufe to me, will plead for fome


indulgence, and procure your attention for a very

few minutes longer, and then I have done. Let


me, Sir, fpeak plainly out whatever may be pre:

tended about the intereft of religion being concerned


in the fate of this pamphlet, there is flrong rcafon
to fufpea, that

is

it

the credit of a party that

Wc

really at Hake.

great differences

of

is

know that there are very


fentiment among us, as to the
all

government of the church

and

it

feems to be

my

misfortune, to be of oppofite principles from fev>ral


is

members of

the caufe of

this prefby tery

my being

on that point.

charged v/ith

ill-

This

nature and

They themfelves, Sir, will not


protend to give any other inl^ance of this temper j
unpeaceablenefs.

and

I confefs,

and the

that as

cerned in the caufe,

am

to maintain and fupport


povver, fo long as

wifh

it

to

coiv-

the utmofl of
;

and

title,

nicious fchemci even to a Hits.

my

have

if I

have been fometimes

could anfwer the

VoL.VIIL

be deeply

refolved, in his ilrength,

draw breath

been a firebrand, as
I

reckon the glory of God,

edification of his church, to

called,

and burn their per-

And,

Sir, as

iii

no

DEFENCE IN THE

a74
Other cafe have
tea-vper, fo

ever difcovered any keennefs of


rh^t even in this,

truft,

have neither

difcovered an overbcciring pride, or pervericnefs of

temper, but have fapported what

elteemed to be

truth with refolation, but without violence.

not pretend to the pojicc and courtly


i'ame degree with fome of

endeavoured

my

to preferve the

can-

ftyle, in the

yet have

oppofers,

meeknefs of a ChriiHan,

man worketh not the


Now, Sir, 1 beg every wife

believing that the wrath of

God.

righteoufnefs of

and honeft man of the other


our public diiTerences,

to

of the queif ion in

fide

determine feriouily, whe-

ther he will approve of a preibytery's


.fonal

oppofition,

man

and becaufc a

making
not

is

in

per-

every

xefpefl: of their v/ay of thinking, barring his fettie-

ment

to the

utmofl of their power

and whether

be decent, or truly moderate, not only


fufpend, and

them, but,
tempt

to

deprive

call

who

thofe

very

as the

laft effort

it

to r-jbuke,

cannot

go with

of tyranny, to at-

out any vvho are but fufpeftfd of de-.

bating the point in writing.


Farther, I beg cvQvy
his

hand upon

his

a different party

in

this

houfe, to lay

heart, and fay this clay,

,-judgment, whether he

of

man

v^ ill,

in order to

in his

reach a

man

from himfeif, approve of going

contrary to all form and law, and eftablifhing a pre-

cedent of

irlquifition.

However

think themfelves and their party

fuch an inftability

in all

human

fecure

fome

things, that the en-

gines whicli they prepare againft others


-directed apainft themfelves,

may

at prefent, there is

know

may

be

a fear of this

kind, for the mcft part, operates but v/eakly upon


niens' minds, becaufe the caufes that may aftcrwaids

SYNOD OF GLASGOW.
cnft

np cannot be

275

clearly dlfcerned, being hidden ia

the darknefs of futurity

but,

Sir,

he

is

the vvileft

raan that afts with mofl prudence, and does not


expofe himfelf or his friends to the law of retalia-

This

tion.

fpeak

church

for if the

in

perfed fecurity as to myfelf,


find that interrogation is

Ihall

proper v/ay of inquiring into


to

me

come

a larger

field

fa6:s,

it

of inforraation

to the real merits of this

will but

and though
the

caufe,

the relevancy of this crime objected to

take up

trial

me

open
it

of

will

at leaft feven years, in procefles of various

kinds.

To

conclude. Sir, though I will never approve of,

or give
I

my

confent for eftablifhing a practice

think unjuft and tyrannical, yet as to

cafe, I will

which

my own

even fubmit to be interrogated by this

very party, upon

this

jull,

this

felf-

evidently juft

condition, that the minifters oi that prefbytery do

fabmit themfelves to be interrogated by

me

in turn,

on their doflrine, their diligence in paftoral. duty,


their care and government of their families, and
perfonal truth.

their

will anUver

If they wdll yield to this, I

upon oath,

upon a

either inftantly, or

month's preparation, not only as to this point, but


all that

they

fliall

my

think

fit

to aik,

ter,

from

tion

be refufed, the equity of

to the

birth to this day.

judgment of

as to

And

my

charac-

if this

condi-

their conduct I leave

this veneTiable fynod.

A.V

HUMBLE SUPPLICATION
TO SUCH OF

THE KOSILITY AND GENTRY OF SCOTLAND AS AXE


ELDERS OF THE CHURCH, AND MEMBERS OF

THE GENEKAL ASSEMBLY.

Muck Honoured,

YOUbeen

will furely be fendble, that

man

of

my

ftation

author, efpecially

and profeffion to become an

when

addrefs myfelf to you,

whofe circumllances fet you


from me, and may, without
defcenfion on your pan,
that advice

which

fuch a hand.
I

am more

mufl have

it

a very urgent neceflity that has compelled

And

is

at

To

great a diftance

that candour and con-

provoke you

to

oiTered voluntarily,

indeed there

is

contemn
and from

nothing of which

firmly perfuaded, than that the affairs of

the church of Scotland are drawing faft towards a


(grifis,

and that a

little

time will determine whether

TO THE ELDERS, &C.


/lie

fail

will fink or

This view of things cannot

fwim.

who hath any

conftrain every one

to

her profperity and welfare, oF

always be,

I fhall

fo

2)7

long as

regard to

number

hich

^a

draw breath,

hope

to exert

himfelf to the utmoft for her fupport, and alio to


fpread the alarm, and call on others to aPalt,

have more

On

who

and opportunity to be uftful.

this occafioii I

am

emboldened

to addrefs

my-r

you, not only as by your quality and ftation

felf to

you

ability

much

are able to contribute

to a

change of the

meafnres that have lately prevailed, but as your


office

of elders in the church

you

incline

to

and fupport.

may

be prefumed to

be ready and active for her profperity


I

intended once to have ftyled yoiv

am an elder, but was afraid


by too forward and alTuming an
however, I ftill hope for fome regard

brethren^ becaufe

I alfo

of giving offence
introduclion

iu confequence of

tin's

have ever

relation, becaufe I

obferved, that a likenefs of character, a participation of the


.V

fame

office,

or indeed a likenefs in almoil

confiderable circumftance,

connection,

a kirid f

creates

and produces a fympathy or fellow-

feeling, betw^een the very higheft

and lowell that

under the fame denomination.

The mhabitants

fall

of the fame city, tiiough very different


tions,

reckon themfelves interefted

Thofe of the fame corporation are


connected.

And

there

is

hending perfons of very


refpeiSts,

who

ftill

in their

more

a certain fociety,
dil'tant

Na-

one another.
clofely

compre-

characters in other

are faid to have an extraordinary ren-

each

dernefs

for

mean

that of Free-mafo

is

in

other's

Aa

concerns
is

fur I

the

am

focietv

told a Free-

TO THE ELDERS OF THE

2^8

mafon, though a king, will ihevv a verj great affedion for a brother, although a beggar, or
the next thing to

there be no real beggars in

if

community.

that

not without a very important defiga that I

It is

have mentioned
late

it,

lead

at

this, for

have endeavoured to

haps

may

call

it,

have obferved fome of


a diftinftion, or per-

ftate

fow

to

between the

fedition,

Many,

great elders of our church and the fmaller

who

are not wanting in an humble, if not fervile

refpedl,

to the

elders that

furround the commif-

fioner's throne in the aflembly houfe,

bufinefs to

throw

all

attends the fettlement of

of lower rank,

whom

any

may

parifh,

it

their

upon the elders

call, in allufion to

Similitude of Free-mafons, the

of the fame fociety.

make

the blame of the confulion that

the

members

operative

It is time, therefore, for

us to

fpeak for ourfelves, and particularly to thofe from

whom,
?o-ain

becaufe of our relation to them, of which I

boaft,

we may

confidently expe6t a fair and

impartial hearing.

One

other ground of encouragement

prefent reprefentation, viz. that

have

many
that

it

my

Now

our honourable elders are bred to the law.


fuid in the hiftory of the gofpel,

in

or moil of
I

was a law-

yer that took care of the body of our blefled Saviour, after
priefls.

it

This

was
is

rvangelifts, and
T.Ince in

crucified at the inftigation of the

a pailage
I

the Bible,

recorded by

hope one
v.^ill

effect

be the

of

the four

all
its

having a

up fuch of
management of

ftirring

our lawyers as have a fhare in the

vivYVc affairs, to refcue the church, which

is

Chrifl's

CHURCH OF SCOTLAND.

279

myfllcal body, from the tyrannical impofitions of

churchmen

in

powers

have been confidering with myfelf, whether

ought not to endeavour

when fpeaking

to raife

when fpeaking

weaker

am

ture deliberation, I

old plain way, becaufe

myfelf better

in

to thofe of

ma-

But, upon

capacity.

refolved to continue in
it

probable

is

that than in

often obferved, that

upon

ftyle a little

your honours, above what was

to

either neceflary or proper


a lower rank and

my

when

any

my

fhall acquit

other.

a countryman

have

called

is

bulinefs to fpeak to tlVofe of high rank, if

he

behaves in a quiet way, makes as few motions as

and fpeaks with fimplicity, he palTes very

poffible,

well

and

but

if

he begins to fcrape with his right foot,

to imitate the

manners of

himfelf to their derifion.

his betters, he expofes

Should

happen that

it

fuch a man, upon his going out, hears a great loud

laugh in the company he hath


he"

ought

ridiculous behaviour

return back,

two

in the

it

is

left, it is

my

they are miaking a

to conclude
;

and

if

of his

he were permitted to

probable he would find one or

middle of the room mimicking his

tures for the entertainment of the reft

pecially the ladies, that

manners of

their inferiors,

be found

below them.

gcf-'

for there is

not a more refined pleafure to thofe in high

tion is to

opinion

jelt

life, ef-

apeing and deriding the


l^ay, the fame difpofi-

in all ranks,

towards fuch as are

Even we tradefmen and merchant^

have learned to fpeak with contempt of a low-lived


fellow,

by which we mean one

our own.

aim

at

in

lower

This hath determined me, as

nothing but plainnefs of fpeaking

life

than

I faid,

to

and

i^

it

TO THE ELDERS OF THE

2^0
very

poflible

it

treatife, that

may happen

to

fome

in this, as in

ihall

my

former

be found more plain

than pie afant.


point I am to apply to you upon,
humbly intreat your ferious attention,
manner of making fettlements of miniflers

The

firft

which
the

the feveral parifhes throughout this church.

not

to

unknown

to

you, that

is

in

It is

this thing hath caufed

great deal of confufion in fev^eral corners of the

country

that a great part

church

of the people have, on

account, feparated from the eftablifhed

that very

and many more have

fallen into an indif-

and given Over attendance

ference about religion,

upon public inftrudion altogether. Now there are


fome things upon this fubje6t that I muft needs take
for granted, becaufe

cannot find any thing more

evidently true than they are in themfelves,

J might prove them

of a nation in religion
portance, and that
there

is

you

im-

a matter of very great


all

believe

it

to be fo

that

no ground to hope that people will receive

is

benefit

by which

fach as, that the inllruclion

by

the inflruclions of thofe

and abhor 5 and that


benefit

from thofe

hear.

There

is

it is

whom

they hate

impoffible they can receive

inftru^lions

which they

one thing more, which to

will not

me

ap-

pears as evident as any of them, that no compulfion


ou'^ht to be ufed to conftrain mens' choice in matters

of religion.

From

thefe I think

that violent fettlenrients, that

is

it

plainly follows,

to fay, giving a

man

a ftipend, with a charge to infirud and govern the

people within a certain

diftrifl,

the v.'hole of which

people do abfolutely refufe to fubjeft themfelves to


his miniftry, are, to fay the leaft, abfolutely unpro-

281

CHURCH OF SCOTLAND.

money

Stable, and the

perfon fo fettled,

There

is

beftowed upon the

is

wholly thrown away.

few

are not a

that

in

whofe hearing

if I fliould

cxprefs niyfelf as above, they would immediately


reply. All this
it

is

how

tronages,

am

now

can

even as the law now Hands,


pofe

hope

And,

firft,

though

many
tliey

made much

make

better,

the church were fo

if

will fup-

fhortly to fhe^, yet I

for a little, and

it

the condufl of

Now,

thefe gentlemen's opinions,

that this matter might not be

dlfpofed as I

are forry for

ftands with regard to pa-

be helped

it

from being of

far

we

very true, and

but as the law

a few reileftions

upon

in that fuppofed fituation.

mufl forgive

me

if

fay that I

can by no means believe the hardlliip of the law of

patronage

lies

if it

leaft

very heavy upon their

fpirits, or

with furprifing firmnefs, and difcover not the

outward

when
fhew

it,

leaft

unlefs in a conftrained manner,

others mention
all

it

Are they ever heard

iign of uneafinefs.

complain of

to

at

does, they fupport themfelves under

it

before

them

Do

they not

willingnefs to appoint fuch fcttlements, to

enforce them, to defend

them

Do

they in the leaft

difcountenance fuch probationers as accept of prefentures unconditionally, although

it

cannot be pre-

man to
men whom

On

tended that the law obliges any

this

the contrary, are not thefe the

they love

and delight

in,

whofe charadlers they celebrate for

knowledge and under ftanding, and


virtue
I

for difintereiled

do confefs then

of thofe gentlemen,
for

am

when

apt to doubt the fincerity


tliey profefs their

the hardlbips they are under

forrow

by the patronage

TO THE ELDERS,

2S2
a6l

SiC.

becaufe fome apparent tokens of their concern

might have been expeded, and


But, alas

feen.

of what

fituation

OLir

is

that

fafl,

why am

it is

no where

are

exprefiing

Things

my

and failed

are changing

for

have re-

ceived information from Edinburgh, which,

b^d come before

fo

book

to the times

wrote the above paragraph,

fince I

be

to

fufpicion*

impoiFible to write ev^en fuch a

as this with propriety,

even

if it

was written, would have prevented the writing of it ; and even, if not for mangling

my own

book,

which

way

It

However

am

by

w^ere, of all

of fettling preachers

my

may

This proto pfeudon

is

it

may

be of no language
it

with great

is its

but a bleffing.

affirmed to you,

is,

we

at all.

fidelity,

as

And

it.

that patronages are no grievance

As
it is

prove what
are in a

afTiftance for

let

particular fignificatlon, I fuppofe its

therefore

it

is

your lordfhips and honours have


to

a phrafe

be a phrafe of fome of the learned

have recorded

general meaning

tempt

and that

principles ta

informed the gentleman pronounced

whatever

that

am

it.

do not underiland, and therefore muft

alone.

languages, and

was openly

was the proto pfeudon of men of

imagine otherwife.

it

it

Afiembly, that prefentures

in the

others, the beft


it

profefTed

would yet expunge

May

that laft

afllired,

fome

it

our

bad

probable, that

this

many

necefTary that I fhould


I

thought had been

fituation,

relief.

before

times

firft

crave your

at-

felf-evident,,

SPEECH
IN

THE

GENERAL ASSEMBLY,
ON THE

TRANSPORTATION OF DR

Moderator,

it

is

every

ufual for people to differ almotl upon


fabjea, I am not farpriied that there

be fome in

iljould

pointing

th.at

the

way

in

AlVembly,

who

are for ap-

this tranfportation fhall take place

apprehend

but

this

it is

ground of furprife

really

which they urge

their

opinion.

to fee

They

weighing and delibe.


do not fpeak as if they were
upon the caufe, that they might be able to
rating
f/ive

''a

juft

determination

tliey

do not fpeak

as if

or as if they defired to
clearly fatisfied themfelves,
them over to their own
bring
and
convi:ice others,

ON THE TRANSPORTATIOJT

2^4
opinion

bat they fpeak

an overbearing manner,

in

and prefs the conclulion with a


the time fpent upon

body Ihould

differ

politivenefs

is

good caufe,

fo

vifible difpieafure at

and impatience that any

it,

from or contradict them.

But as

feldom any ftrong prefumption of a


think

is

it

very

much

mifplaced

here; and as the quiet and comfort of a large pariih

immediately, and the whole country- fide more re-

motely, depends upon

fembly

will not give

and with real

The

oiu' decifion,

it till

after

hope the

af-

mature deliberation,

impartialit)-.

thing, no doubt, to be confidered

iirit

is,

wiietner the comnniTion have exceeded their powers,


that

we may

fee v/hether

we have room

at

all

for

the other queflion, about the expediency of this


tranfportation

and after reading the words of the

aflembly's remit,

cannot help being of opinion,

with the great majority of the members of prefbytery, that the

mine

comniiirion had no

this caufe.

not confeiled on
title to

all

laft

affembly

to deter-

is
?

not the

and

is it

hands, that the commilTion had

take in any caufes but fuch as were re-

mitted to them? Is

any after que (lion


to be

power

not plain that this

was before the

caufe which

no

Is it

found

in it

it nftt

plain, that

the words in

relating to this fettlement, are not


?

It is alfo

proper to obferve, from

the almoft conftant ufe of thefe words in the remits

of the aifembly, that they do not fuppofe that

a;

quellion relating to the fame fettlement with another,

makes

to this

is,

it

that

the fame caufe.


it

clerk of the affjmbly.

had been the

The anfwer made

was a miftake or omillion

cafe, it

Admitting,

Sir,

in the

that this

would be extremely wrong and

OF DR C

285

dangerous to approve the commKTion in paying no


regard to

tliat

For the aflemblj


pife cftabliihed

word

but taking in the caufe.

legal defect,

make

to

itfelf

free with,

forms of procedure,

confequence.

have heard fome honourable

members, eminently

fkilled in the

for a court to defpife

even

way
and
is

But

take

in a caufe

which
come over form as to

for the commiffion,

a delegated court, fo far to

greffion

law, affirm, that

own forms, is to make


many inftances of great

its

admifTion of

for the

real injuftice.

not remitted to them,

with a witnefs

and def-

of the very

is

a bold tranf-

is

and, if allor. ed, mufl be

attended with confequences which


forcfee, but can fcarce be

it is

impofTible to

imagined worfe than the/

really will be in effed.

But,

why

Sir,

omiflion in

affembly

clerks, or

tlie

am

Ihould any fay this was either an

fure,

for

an overfight in the

my

part,

would have done wrong had they done

What

other way.

2.ny after queftion),

is

in

any

the reafon of this claufe,

(or

when

the part of the caufe

is

tious people to protra6l

frivolous

it is

inferted

by

a fettlement

appeals upon every

But

little

in this cafe, neither all

the principal part of the caufe

Lilembly at

all

and

ber to have heard

it

it

It is after

decided, to prevent conten-

itfelf,

dare fay,

fooliih

and

interlocutor or

refolution of a prelbyterj in carrying


tion.

lafl

think they

it

into execu-

the parties, nor

was before the

we may all ri^mem-

given as the opinion of the moft

members of this church, that it is


wrong meafure to refer any caufe of moment

judicious

a veryto the

commiffion, that hath not beea in a good meafure

VcL.Vill.

Bb

ON THE TRANSPORTATION

285

heard and underilood by the aflembly


derator, .1

beg leave further

Mo-

iifelf.

hope

to fay, that I

this

aflembly will not autborife the commilnon in ma-

king

a long

arm, to take

pov.'crs, becaufe tlie

without

in caules

commiffion

unhappily conlUtuted court of any


I fay this

without intending^ and

giving offence to any body

for,

nature in us to be juft what

the

members of

hope without

fuppoiing

it is

human

in other people,

Scotland, few of

all

voluntarily, and

it is

them attend

the ealieil thing in the world

of thinking, and

number of a
may carry any

up

for intcrefted perfons to bring

way

church,

in this

the commiffion being fo numerous,

and fpread over

particular

fufficient

certainly the molt

is

tliey

caufe whatever.

Thus,

Sir,

it

appears, that the fentence of the

commiffion has plainly excetded their powers

fome meafure, even by the

Let us confider

of this tranfportation.
itfelf,

and

fee if

it

is

iv.

confeffion of the friends

it

little in

like to be fo great a benefit,

or fo great an honour to this church, as that

we

Ihould either forgive the commiffion the encroach-

ment they have been

guilty of, or

ihould

now do

ourfelves what they have formerly done in a precipitate

Upon

and irregular manner.

the fubjed I

am

very

fay, if every thing

much

were

this

branch of

at a lofs, not

what

to

be brought out that

to

might be urged again il it, but to bring the argument


within fome compafs, and chleily indeed to difcover
fome hope of fuccefs, hy rcafoning from fome comiRon principles on which we
-

IModerator, I take

rliis

before this ailcmblj', th^t

fniiil

generally agree.

opportunity of declaring
I

have always had the

287

OF DR C

of authority
deepeft fenfe of the dilhonour and lots

which

this

^'nfinitdy

have

indeed
church has fuffered, and what
in

by many fettkments

fufFered,

have ordained a paftor without a people

fame time,

am

fenfible

that

is

men
which we

fouls of^

more, the injury which the

many

at the

wortl?y

men

as under
and faithful minifters look upon themfelves
pafuch cafes from the law of

a necelTity in fome

tronage

and

am

afraid

many, from

a hahit

of

neceffity, are unwiillng to

doing'this where there is


to do it
-come out of the fame tracl:, and continue
when there is no neceffiry at all.
I do
Moderator, I defire it may be obfeived, that
and I know nobody fo fooliih as to be-

not believe,
lieve

what

is

any

to us, that

commonly imputed

a minifter on
Chriftian, as fuch, has a right to call
has any
nobody
that
know
an eftablill^ment.
excepteftablifhment,
right to call a minifter on an

We

ing thofe to
I

whom

the law gives

contend that every

man ought

it

neither

would

have a right,

to

laws upon
it in our power, to make
be a
would
equality
feeming
this
fmce
that fubjea,
form
to
chufe
would
1
Sir,
But,
vile inequality.
judgment upon a ftw principles, in which, I

though we had

my

alTembly would
fbould think, hardly any in this
Has not every man a natural right, well
difagree.
fecured to

him

in this

happy

iHand, to judge

for

adhere
himfelf in matters of religion, and in faft to
ftipend
legal
the
not
?
Is
pleafes
he
to aay minifter
paftor to
intended to provide a fufficient and ufeful
parifli ?
certain
a
of
bounds
the people within the

Can he be of much
ill terms with tlum

fcrvice to
?

them,

or can he do

if

he be upon

them any

at ail

ON THE TRANSPORTATIO>r

288
if

they will not hear him

him ?

ecclefiadical

would fach forced

or

Is not then the legal

Does any body

compel them by penal or

fettled to

whom

the inference that


ples

is

nobody
I

any worth

religion be of

encouragement unhappily

and mifapplied by fomebody's


is

defire to

laws to hear

fault,

when

will adhere

would draw from thcU

no more than

this, that

loft

a minifter

Now,

Sir,

princi-

decency, and our

indifpenfable duty as a church court, requires us to

make no

fuch fettlements but with regret, and never

without a real neceffity; and the caufe


before us,

is

we have now

one in which no fuch neceliicy

exifts.

the expediency of

which

It is a tranfportation, Sir,

"we are to judge of, and the perfon concerned

net

is

only bound in duty, but can be eafily compelled

The

law, to fubmit to our decifion.

by

grest argument

that always has been ufed againil this or the like


reafoniiig, has

been brought out in

this caufe, that

the people were unreafonable and prejudiced, and

up by evil-minded perfons.

This

am

furpri-

have been

flirred

argument,

Sir, is fo old

and

that

itaie,

fed people are not alliamed of

it,

and that the inge-

nuity of the lawyers has not been able to invent

another that

How

fhall

often have

have the advantage of being new.

we heard from

this bar, this parifli

would have been agreeably and peaceably


but very early a combination was formed

fettled,

am

perfua-

all in all,

the reft follows of courfe.

ded, Sir, from the certain knowledge of


cul't^r

inftances in

which

this

was

nine cafes of ten the allegation


fon in a pari fa or country fide

may

be hid

v/itli

plaufibility,

many

alleged,

is falfe.

may

this

parti-

that in

One

per-

be aftive, and

that he

is

is

the

it

maia

Of BR C

289

fpring of the oppofulon.


a people according
it is

their incUnations

is

time,

it is

very eafy to lead

it is

own

many feem

not fo eafj as

mean

Sir,

their

to

inclinations

to fuppofe, to

and dire6t their choice.

but

change
In the

alwaysv forgotten that the argument

founded, not upon the caufe or occafion, but upon

the reality of the averfion of the people to the minifter.

Moderator, an argument that

is.

made

perfuade us to order this tranfportation


fhould be refufod,
refill

in other cafes.

fubmiffion which indeed

take place,

church

till

amoncr

reliorion

fo

there
all

that if

it

would encourage the people to


I am afraid, Sir, that the tame

it

which many feem

ufe of to

is,

is

fail

approaching, and

ardently to defne, can never


is

the

a total indifference about

members of

the eftablifhed

take our neighbour country of England as

But if this aran example of that defirable peace.


gument be laid as it ought to be, that people fhould
not

be headllrong

plainly the

and unrsaionabie,

contrary

way

fcr

whatever that would give us

fo

influence with the people, as that

there

it

is

operates
nothing-

much wciglit and


we fhew a proper

we have opportunity. If
when we have it in our
expecl to have fome
may
relieve them, we
over them, when we are llraitened and

tcndernefs to them, as

we do
power

not opprefs them


to

influence

diftrefled ourfelves.

Befides,

Sir,

on

this fubjefl of the prejudices

the people, this pretence

is

of

carried a moll unreafon-

able and extravagant length, and nothing but the

prejudice in themfelves could

Bb3

make men fpeak

ax

200
fuch

THt:

Many

(lyle.

;i

THANSPORTATIOy
have

will needs

to be pre-

it

judice, and groundlefs prejudice in a people,

do not

fall

againfl

whofe

with a

in

life

proof.

eleSlion

if

they

be their minifter,

to

and do6lrine they cannot bring

any legal objedion.


matters of

man

Alas, Sir,

all

fuch things are

and choice, and not of legal

In illuftration of the people's cafe, there

is

man would have

a very good example given, that a

caufe of complaint, if j'ou ftiould force a phyfl-

jiift

cian

upon him of whofe

{kill

he had no opinion,

though he could not prove him

infufficient before

the faculty.

But, Sir, as

would be wrong

it

to attribute

oppo-

fition to a minifter's fettlement in all cafes to

ground-

am

obliged

am

less prejudice, I

in juftice to fay

it,

forry to fay

but

it,

we have very
Even in the

little

fb in the prefent cafe.


bationer,

when he

but a forry

it is

and of that

flf-

denial

continually maintain.

be

faid in favour

reafon to do

cafe of a pro-

^bfolutely adheres to a prefen-

tation, notwithflandiilg the greateil

the people,

mark

oppofition

from

of love to fouls,

which every Chriftian fhould

Many

things, however,

of a probationer

yet,

Sir,

may
for a

fettled miniiler not only to aft this part, but to excel all that ever

infolent

to be
ihall

have

were before him,

contempt of the people,

Dr G

's

cafe,

is

bold and

fuch a conduV, that

have a worfs opinion of


at prefent, if

in

as plainly appears

this

aflembly than

they do not openly exprefs their

indignation at fuch indecency of behaviour.

the hillory of the cluirch


odiou?, cr

more

we

find

In

no chara^er more

uncUrica.1, if I oiay fpcak fo^ tha^i

OF DR

291

',

'

ambition and open felicitation of eccleiialllcal prefernient.

produce

changes in forms,

Little
at

racters.

former times, in our church, the proba-

was never confidered

tioner or miniller himfelf

was confidered

which that procefs was


referiees
pafl:

but

do often

great changes in manners and cha-

lafl

Ill

party, but

Sir,

now

as the fubjecl

by the

carried on

they begin
urge
the bar
who

and

their adverfaries,

to

allow the

their claim

to

confider the people

callers or

they have been for fome time

confidered as parties

caufe to appear at

as a

concerning

to

are to be their charge as

to treat

them with

conteni],*:

and difdain,
I confefs,

am

Sir, I

not able to imagine what

are the views of a minifter


ner.

It

not,

is

who

man-

in this

a^^s

eafy to anfv/er, that he

fear,

refolves to change his fituation and take

upon him

that office, from lincere regard to the glcry of

and love to fouls, which he mufl profefs

Eut

admiilion.
in

we muii be

as

tender and cautious

judging of the inv/ard motives of others, I

Him who

leave that to
hearts

houfe

is

but

in the

now

him

mean

God

fhall

judgeth the fecrets of

all

time, every one in this

called to judge,

for the glory of


fuifer

God

at hi^

whether

would be

it

and the good of mankind, to

Let

to execute his intention.

Moderator,

fidered with fericufnefs.

it

it is

be con-

not only

the people of the" parilb, or thofe of lower rank^

but

many

of

all

{Rations

whom we

the proper feifc of the word,

tlement.

They

and they often do

are led
treat

if

iball ofTend,

we

by fuch

in

order this (tt

things to treat,

with derifion, a minifter'5

2g^

ON THE TRANSPORTATION,

concern for his ufefulntffs, and

more than

ajffirm

&.C.

that

it is

no

a defire of a comfortable bentfice and

falarj for life.

I iball

by refembling them
from England

be forrj to fee the day,

in their practice,

to ]eave

we

fliall

the people and the

when
learn

work

altogether out of the aft, and fo call our charges no

more parijhes but

livings,

'

LETTER
SENT TO

SCOTLAND,
FOR THE

SCOTS MAGAZINE.

AM

informed by

my

correfpondents in Scot-

land, that feveral letters have been publiihed

new [papers there, containing the mofl viruupon me, on account of an adverin Glafgow,
tifement by J
P
, merchant
in the

lent reflexions

relating to the fettlement of a traft of land in


Scotia, in

One

or

which he mentions

two of

contain fo

my

thefe papers have been fent

many

miflakes

in

Nova

being concerned.

me, and

point of fa6V, as well

as betray fuch ignorance of the fubjecl they attempt

to treat, that

it

would be

a difgrace for

any man

to

enter into a formal quarrel with

fuch opponents.

Were

Ihould think

I in

Scotland at this time,

it

LETTER FOR THE

294

very great departure from prudence,


leail public notice of

have been

fons

through

lefs

concerned than

contradid

to

life,

an opinion which

take the

to

Few

thefe invedlives.
I

accufations,

falfe

per-

have been,

from

formed early, and which has

been confirmed by experience, that there is fcarcely


any thing more harmlefs than political or party
malice.

It

bell to leave

is

to iifelf

it

cppofitioa

and contradidion are the only means of giving

But

as I

am

nov/ at fo great a diflance, and the

of the fcandal

fiibjeft

that impartial
to

it

and duration.

life

what

is

judge of the probability of

America, fo

pafles in

may

perfons in general
fals,

be

lefs able

and cannot have

proper opportunities of making a complete inquiry,


I

think

it

neceflary to ftate this matter with

perfpicuity and

The

brevity of which

accufation,

lowing argument
rica,

that

think,

may

am

be reduced

Migrations from

all

the

capable.

to the fol-

Britain to

Ame-

are not only hurtful, but tend to the ruin of

kingdom

therefore J.

W,

'by inviting people

to leave Scotland and fettle in America,

is

an

enemy

to his country.
It will

that

my

not be improper to mention in the entry,

having any concern

in

fuch an extenfive

undertaking, v^as wholly accidental and unexpe6ted.

that

was invited and preffed

was not

people

who

at all

intended to

that they fliould

more

come

meet with

very reafon induced


the

to

it,

concealed, that

me

it

from a motive
would give the

out, greater confidence


fair

to confent

treatment.
;

and that

This

might

eifeclually anfwer that purpofe, one of the

exprefs conditions of

my

joining with the

company

SCOTS MAGAZINE.

295

no land (hould be fold dearer

v/as, that

any co-

to

ming from -Scotland than I lliould dirciSl:. This


was the more necelTary, that either through mi flake,
and the power of European

through mif-

ideas, or

guided avarice, fome advertifements had been publifhed

in

the Scots newfpapcrs, which would not

appear furpriiing

to

and educated in

perfons born

Scotland, hut which are infinitely ridiculous to one

acquainted with American

one

In particular,

affairs.

cat out of a Glafgovv nev/fpaper and fent

home, relating to Newfoundland, where perfons


were invited to go to make their fortunes, by renting each family thirty acres of land, at the eafy rent

of {ixpence Sterling at
it

came

abfurd
tlie

to
is

two
this,

fee fimple

than

is

when

many

in

is fo

you can buy

places

Befides,

any family,

it

how

money

fnall thirty

in a place

cheap, and labour fo dear

have heard

riiing till

Now how

of land for the fame or lefs

here aiked for rent

acres of land maintain

land

and gradually

firft,

fnillings yearly for ever.

where

given as a reafon for thefe enfna-

ring propofals, that people in Britain will not believe


that land

few

is

good for any thing,

fliillings

per acre

if

you

in fee fimple.

offer it for

But the peo-

ple in Britain fhould be told, that the value of land

does not depend upon

its

fmall degree- it depends

other

from,

fcttlements,

quality, unlefs in a very

upon
and

that need not be mentloTied.

its iituation,

many
li is a

dillance

circumlliances

matter

now

as

fully afcertained

as

univerfal uncontradicted tefli-

make

it,

that the back land in

mony
is in

can

reneral better than that along the

very different in value

America

fliore,

bccaufe the one

is

though
full

of

LETTER FOR THE

2^6
trees

and wild beafts, and the other

One would

and orchards.

fields,

Is

fall of houfes,

thli>k that

this

matter might be well enough under flood by

When

time.
if

new

fettlement

making,

is

this

efpeciallj

one family or one company have a very large

they

traft,

very cheap

w^ill fell it

and

if

they are

urgent to forw^ard the fettlement, they will give

one or two families

to

and their

by

the

at

does not arife from the price paid

profit

purchafers, but from the

firlt

it

for nothing at all

firft

profpecl of

fpeedily raifing the value of

what remains.

Any

man

that

underftand this

from

P
the

to

What

can
's

firft

profit

may

think,

fixpence

at

make

could he

Suppofmg he {hould

fell

produce would be but


divided

is,

that the

propofts to

of that fmall price

hundred pounds,

or fourteen perfons.

fum

fell

Sierling an acre.
?

20,oco acres, the whole

five

among twelve

plain fa6t

He

advertiftment.

families

is

not

at all

to

be

l>ie

equivalent to

the troable and expence of ferving out the patent


therefore the profit mull be future, and muft arife

wholly from the profperity of the fettlement.


believe

it

man's duty
ever, in

is

a rule,

is his interell;

which the

without any exception, that a


but there

is

no

cafe

of both parties

intereft

is

what-

more

manifeftly the fame, than in felling and purchafmg

new

lands to fettle upon

for the proprietors can

receive no benefit, but from the fticcefs and thriving

of the

fettlers.

New
ces,

land

may

be bought

from fixpence Sterling an

and thofe
price,

who would

would do

in

America

at all pri-

acre, to forty fliillings;

judge of the quality by the

jufl like

one

who

iliould

judge that

SCOTS MAGAZINE.

-97

muft be twenty
an acre fold for a houfe ia the city,
two miles diat
fields
the
than
times better in foil
ftance, becaufe

it

of land in

price

fometimes

twenty times the price. The


America is rifing very fall, and
is

rifes in particular places far

than could be forefcen.


large trad in

New York

more rapidlj-

gentleman who has a

government, within thefe

three years offered to give

away for nothing feveral


two hundred acres to

thoufand acres, at the rate of

given
each family of adual fettlers, and yet has
great
a
fold
has
away none but fmce that time
now
and
deaWt four {hillings and fixpence Sterling,
;

fell any at that price.


the above, I would intreat the
premifed
Having
following remarks
the
to
reader's attention
There is very little ground for being alarmed

will fcarce

I.

America. The
been, and
have
numbers who come abroad never
to the
confequence
probably never will be, of any
read
will
population of the country. Any one who

from Britain

at the migrations

Montefquieu will foon be

to

fatisfied,

that

when

the

good, ocfpirit and principles of a conftitution are


cafional migrations,

and even war, famine and

pefti-

The

place

lence, are hardly felt after a

of thofe

who

are

removed

three hundred families

or

great noife

but

it is

little
is

time.

fpeedily

nothing

tlement and provifion of thofe

them

to

Two

going abroad, makes a


at all to the

Great Britain, and will but make

occafion

filled.

who

way

people in

for the fet-

flay behind,

marry and multiply the

fafter.

and
It

Britain imagine, that


is probable that the people in

new fettlements
Vol. VIII.

the

in

America

Cc

are wholly filled

LETTER FOR THE

29S

by

thofe

who come from Europe. It


make the fortieth

new

fettlement.

with a few itranger emi-

firll,

grants, but their chief increafe


If a fettlement

make

will fpeedily

may
it

part in any

Such trads are peopled from the

adjacent fettlements at

neration.

fend in fhips

will

come

far other-

is

they do not

wife

a colony

fall

from natural ge-

is

good, a few families

is

but

if othervvife,

you

of people every year, and yet

to nothing,

if a

few pafltngers coming

out from Britain threaten deftru61:ion to that popu-

what

inflant ruin muil come upon the


New-England, New- York, NewJerfey, and Pennfylvania, from whence itiany times
the number remove every year to the back coun-

lous country,

fettfcd parts of

and yet

tries,

it

has not any feniible

effecl, either

on the price of land or the number of the people,

which continue

Ame-

to increafe notwithllandinc.

rica is certainly exhibiting at this time, a fcene that


is

new

in the hiflory of

mankind.

It increafes in a

proportion that no political calculations have yet

been able

The
were
foil

take to be, that

people and the

fent out in ancient times, the

fimilar,

and improved by flow

we

fee a wild, but a noble

but in America

taken poffeiTion of by

and learning of Europe,

all

the power, wealth,


puilies

Vv'hich

provement with a rapidity which

Another thing oaght not


are great

numbers of people

to
tl

to Britain, fo thar [he n/gration

The

down rules for.


when colonies

underftand, or lay

were fomewhat

degrees
foil,

to

reafon of this

is

on

be omitted
at

its

im-

inconceivable.
:

There

go from America

is

not

all

one v/ay.

people in N^'v-England (an old f^tilement)

fay, that they have

fent twice

as

many p:cph

to

^99

SCOTS MAGAZINE.

England,

ever came out of

as

it

But

them.

to

country is but
though upon the whole, while this
fhould be
out
coming
number
yet fettling, the
greater, yet there

is this

that they

dllTerence,

monly come out poor, and

return

com-

This

rich.^

is

wealth

much to the advantage of Britain,


increafcd value of land be an advantage.
an
and
The truth is, even as to numbers, though 1 do not
if

very

people go from America to Europe,


America, yet I am apt to
as come from Europe to
number
that there is. little difference in the

many

think fo

think,

comes from the

that goes to, or

illand

of Great

Britain.

But fuppofmg (what I do net believe) thatAmerica, did


inviting people over from Scotland to
a.

part of the
tend in fome degree to depopulate that
fo (hould,
does
who
man
a
world, I cannot fee why
for that reafon,

be called an enemy

What

man

for a

is it

to his country.

to be a friend to his country

the earth, or the


Is it to wilh well to the ttones and
to
people that inhabit it ? Can he be an enem.y
poor
are
as
them
of
fuch
to
t)ut
pointing
by

them,

or opprcifed,

where they may have a happy and

plentiful provifion,

and their poilerity be multiplied

as the fand of the fea

If he

is

their

enemy by de-

ceiving them, the difcovery will foon be made, and


the defign will be detetled ; cr rather, indeed, the

have been made long ago, as the


Great Britain and America has
between
intercourfe

difcovery would

been of

enemy

fo

many

of thofe v/ho flay behind

multitude or

common

more room made

Is he,

years ftanding.

for

Not

then, the

furely of the

people, for there will be but

them, and the more eafy accefs

LETTER FOR

30O

to a comfortable fubfiftence.

TitE

remains, then, that

It

he muft be the enemy of the landholders,


run fonne

But

riik of

way

this a liberal

is

enemy

an

who may

being obliged to lower their rents.

man

of thinking, to fay a

to his country, while

he promotes the

happinefs of the great body of the people, with a


fmall diminution of the intereft of an handful

lowing, therefore, this argument


it

can pretend

to,

the accufation

from a

lous, ariiing

iittlenefs

cherifiiing a generous love

help thinking

when

try,

may

born,

doing

of mankind.

fubfiil

on the

foil in

my

who

counfind it

which they were

eafily tranfport themfelves to a foil

and

Sobriety and

iji-

duflry cannot

fail

and abundance

be attended

to

neither

is

this a

doubted by thofe who refled a

of things.

by independence

matter that can be

on the nature

little

country where land

iions in plenty, and,

cheap, provi-

is

a natural confequence, la-

as

mull be favourable to the induftrious

dear,

is

cannot

a real fervice to

climate vaftly fuperior to that.

bour

bafe and fcanda-

of mind, incapable of

Ihew that thofe of them

diiHcult to

it is

is

Al-

the force that

all

hulbandman.

His chief concern ought

guard againft

the temptations always attendant on

fucli a ftate, viz. lazincfs

and intemperance.

take this opportunity alfo to obferve,

have a fmall independent fortune

have a

tafte for agriculture,

rica, live

tain

upon

who have

flock.

But

that he

msy

to

I will

that fuch as

in Britain, if

might

eafily, in

they

Ame-

their eftates as well as thofe in Bri-

a yearly revenue equal to their whole

this is only in cafe

his land, and

to be,

eats the fruit of

live idly

a
it.

man

upon

livjes

If he

expeds

and magnificently in

si

city.

SCOT

19

and rent out his land

MAGAZINE.

at

3OI

he will

a high price,

find

It would be a llrange
himfelf miferably miftaken.
and
country, indeed, if land might be bought cheap

This

rented dear.

is

impoffible

for

guments could you perfuade a man

when, by going a

rent for land,

little

by what

to

ar-

pay a high

back, he

may

matter.
liave the property to himfelf for a fmall

can never admit that the happimifery of


nefs of one clafs of men depends upon the
to the
contrary
or that it can be any way
another

But, after

all,

of the landholders in Scotip.nd, that a few


7vho fmd themfelves pinched in their circumftances,
difpofition,
or who have an active and enterprifing
irereft

America.

fliould

remove

ilrong

motives to hinder a

own

to

country, and

conf.derable

always

are

cannot be fuppofed that any

it

number

There

man's removal from his

will think of fuch

meaf ure,

If this
flate.
unlefs they are really in an opprclled
courfe of things, their
is the cafe, from the natural

removal will be no injury

fwarm of bees coming


if

full.,

iron'

it is

the cafe in

hand of tyranny,

any body, but like a


from a hive that is too
particular places, from the
to

off

fee

no reafon to

offer

any

t-iem to
excuCe for the meritorious aft of affiaing
Let not people confine themtheir efcape.

make

felvco to narrow, feiaiU views.

has received, or does


of wealth

now

No

part of

Europe

receive a greater accefiion

from the American fettlements, than

Great Britain

and perhaps there

is

nc

part^ of

rifen
Great Britain where the rent of land has
I
fuphigher by the fame means, than Scotland.
kingdom
pofe every gentleman in that part of the

Cc3

LEItKR FOR THE

3^
is

well pleafed to hear that fevtral thoufand Pala-

people from the north of Ireland, go to


America everj jear or that from time to time,
fome one or other who went abroad with a lancet

tines, or

in

pocket,

his

eftate

is

to fettle

coming back with an opulent


neighbourhood

in his

wealthy American
liome, as they call

to

it,

many

or that no

he has fent his fon

is fatisfied till

fpend from two or three

of his poorer countrymen fhould acquire a

comby
fome
com-

fortable fettlement there, though

with

prof-

pedl of returning, efpecially as

is

hundreds, to as
plete

thoufands, in order to

education by ftudy, or end his

his

gambling.

If fo,

why

life

fhould he grudge that

it

little

impoflible for

Ame-

them

to

rica,

that will not in the end redound to the advan-

do any thing for the improvement of

tage of Great Britain


3.

have only further to fay, that the outcry

made upon

this fubje6l is as impolitic as

If I wanted

to

it is

people America from Scotland,

would not think of employing a more

effeftual

than exciting or hiring one or two authors,

nothing elfe to do, to write againft


neceffarily
je6l,

make

human

who have

This would

people pay attention to the fub-

nature in general

llraint, tiiey

to

it.

way,

and feek after the information which they

At

would otherwife have negletted.


as

unjuft.

is

the fame time,

not very fond of re-

would perhaps be the more difpofed

remove, when they found their landlords anxious

that they Ihould ftay.


larly obferved, that

I dcfire

have not

may

be particu-

faid in

any part of

it

the above difcourfe, nor do I believe that there

any hard-heartednefs or

is

difpcfition to opprefs in the

SCOTS MAGAZINE.
of

landlords

more

Scotland,

303

than

in

any other

country, nor more at this time than any former


period.

The

rife

of lands has been the confequence

of an increafe of trade and wealth, and the difpofition to go abroad in the


is

owing

to

common

people, at prcfent,

the fame caufe that

fupercargoes go out for thefe

fifty

made

clerks and

years paft, viz,

the hope of bettering their circumftances.

both unjuft and impoffible to hinder them,


be

am

minded

fo

perfuaded

of any rank

own

part,

my

will not be the lead injury to thofe

whom

fuppofe that

For

they leave behind.

intereft in

world, and lince fo


to

is

they

and, for the reafons given above, I


it

the matter

is

my

not great

me

to this part of the

much honour

has been done me,

but fince Providence has fent

as

It

if

my

characfler migiit be

eurity againll fraud and impofition,

fliall

feme

fe-

certainly

it as my duty, to do every real fervice in


my power to fuch of my countrymen as (hall fall
in my way, and {hall either dtfire or feem to need
my aflillance.

look upon

T.

W.

IGNORANCE OF THE BRITISH


WITH RESPECT TO

AMERICA,

TO 'THE EDITOR OF THE SC0T5 MAGAZINi:.

Ph iiadelphia, May

Sir,

ISav/
ter,

1771

your Magazine (Appendix 1770) a letfigned E. R. containing feme remarks upon,


in

Dr

and a fevere condemnation of


St

2S.

Boflon, entitled,

Vengeance.'*

''

Innocent

Thefe remarks

obferving, that the fynod of

Lathrop's fermon

Blood crying

for

are introduced with

New- York

and Phila-

delphia had written a letter, and claimed relation to


the church of Scotland
'

on reading of which

we may

and then fays the author,

could nor help thinking,

if

judge of the American church from the

fample here given, that oui\ church derives no great

konour from her weftern prc^geny


flock

is

better than the fample.'

but I hope the

IGNORANCE,

Now, Sir,
Dr Lathrop's
perhaps,

it

to

as

6tC.

305

this author's obfervations on

fermon,

fay

Ihall

cannot be wholly

becaufe,

little

jiiftiiied

yet, if all

circumflances are duly attended to, there

as there

was

Captain

is as little

glory over the people of Bofton,

reafoii to infult or

refentment againft

to excite the public

But what

have only in view,

is

fhortly to expofe the exceffive abfurdity and igno-

rance of bringing in the fynod of

this

way

New- York,

Were

Philadelphia on this occafion.

and

the author of

fermon even a member of the fynod, or any


conneftcd with it, the attempt would be im-

pertinent

becaufe no church can be fuppofed an-

fwerable for the prudence of every particular perfon


connefted with her, efpecially the wifdom or pro-

Does

priety of their publications.

the church of

Scotland defire to be judged by this rule

Nor

not.

to judge
*

v/lU

be guilty of fo

;'

How

the flock

aftonifhing mufl be

when he fuppofes

as

is

better than the

Did

the ignorance of that

Britifii

dominions

in

Ame-

the minifters of Bofton to

be a part of the fynod of


phia

fuppofe

for.

gentleman concerning the


rica,

injuftice,

of her by this her friend and advocate.

hope,' as he fays,

fample

much

New- York

and Philadel-

the fynod's letter fay any fuch thing

Did it not enumerate the provinces in which their


members refide ? Did it not inform the Public, that
it is but feventy years fmce the firft prelbytery met
in this countvy

But give

correfpondent, that

it is

years fince the people of


a colle;^e

at

me

leave to inform your

about one hundred and forty

New-England

Cambrid<^e near Bofton

eftabli(hed

that

therr

5c 6

IGNORANCE OF THE BRITISH

churches are upon the independent plan, and are, in


the four

New- England

dred in number

York and

provinces, above five hun-

whereas the whole fynod of

when

Philadelphia contained,

New-

their letter

v/as written, but one hundred and twenty-feven


members, and does not now amount to one hundred

and

fifty.

do not mean by

connexion with

this to difclaim

They

New- England.

the churches of

are a moil

Nor do

refpelable part of the church of Chrift.

think that any part of the Britifh empire

day equal

to

My

rals.

them

flngle

for real religion and found

purpofe

is

to

is at this

mo-

teach your corre-

ipondent, and your readers in general, not to write

upon American
I tell

a Briton,
{lories

in

affairs unlefs

they underfland them.

you nothing but truth when


I

fay,

that being

have often blufhed in company

narrated of the abfurd and ignorant

which perfons of no inconfiderable

to

manner

(lations in

Britain have talked of things and places in


rica.

of

We

have heard of a gentleman

Commons

frequently

ijland of Pennfylvania

Privy Council,

infilled,

hear

in the

AmeHoufe

making mention of

the

and of another who,

in the

after contradidlion,

on his

being right in his dticription of the ijland of

New-

Jerfey.

But what excels every thing is the following


which I have been alTured by perfons well

ftory,

acquainted with

it,

was

a fadt.

Some

years ago a

frigate came from England, with difpatches for


many, or mofc of the governors of provinces in
North America. The captain had orders to ^c
firfl to Nev/ York, and from thence to proceed to

WITH RESPECT TO AMERICA.

337

Georgia, the Carolinas, Virginia, Maryland, Peiinfylv^ania,

New

will give

New

me

Jerfey and Pennfylvania, I

them

the captain replied,


the matter

in

I will

rjm,

told hini, if

Sir,

will undertake to

forty-eight hours, but if

the rout prefcribed

will not receive

at

the letters for the governors of

have them delivered

you take

he arrived

his dilpatches there, and

The governor

mentioned his orders

you

When

and the Jerfejs.

York, he delivered

to

in three

you, perhaps they

months.

do not care

Hick to

your

my

mod

To which

a farthing

about

inilruclions.

obedient,

humble

fervant,

X.Y.

ADDRESS
TO THE

INHABITANTS OF JAMAICA,
and other West-India
IN

Islands,

BEHALF OF THE

COLLEGE OF NEW-JERSEY.

Gentlemen,
to begin this addrefs by a laITbouredunneceflary
encomium on learning in general, or the
is

importance of public feminaries for the inllrulion


of youth.
celTity in a

Their ufe

new

in

every country, their ne-

or rifmg country, and particularly

the influence of fcience in giving a proper diredion

and

full

force to induilry or enterprize, are indeed

fo manifefl, that they are either admitted

by

all,

or

the exceptions are fo few as to be wholly unworthy

of regard.
In a more private view, the importance of eduoation

is little lefs

evident.

It

promotes virtue and

ADDRESS,

Sec.

309

On

happinefs, as well as arts and induflrj.

on the former,

as

me

fuffer

it is

make

to

that, if there

remark, not quite

any

is

unneceflary to enlarge

ju(t

comparifon on

this,

only

common,

fo

this fubjecV,

the children of perfons in the higher ranks of

and efpeclally of thofe

and diligence

rife to

who by

own

their

opulence, have, of

life,

adlivitj

others,

all

the greatell need of an early, prudent, and

The wealth

conducted education.

to

well

which thej

becomes often a dangerous temptation,


in which they enter upon life re-

are born,

and the ilation

quires fuch duties, as thofe of the


fcarcely be fuppofed capable of,

iinejfl

talents can

uiilefs

they have

been improved and cultivated with the utmoft care.

Experience fhews the ufe of a


both thefe views.

from

-^ices

more

to

It

by giving eafy

accefs

pleafures, and infpiring the

mind

of a certain clafs,

refined

with an abhorrence of low


brutal converfation.
ceffity to thofe

felves

riot,

It is alfo

who do

alone, but

fervice

liberal education in

generally a prefervative

is

and contempt for

of acknowledged ne-

not wifh to live for them.-

would apply

their talents

to

the

of the Public and the good of mankind.

Education

is

therefore of equal importance, in order

with dignity and elegance, or

either to

enjoy

employ

to the benefit of fociety in offices 01

it

life

power

or Lrult.

But leaving thefe general


it

topics, or rather, taking

for granted that every thing of this

telligent perfons, efpecially parents,

and

felt,

intended to

kind

is

by in-

both believed

proceed to inform the public, that


folicit

Vol. VIII.

it

is

benefadions from the wealthy

Dd

ADDRESS IN BEHALF OF

3TO
and generous,

in behalf of a

College of confiderable

ilanding, founded at Naflau-Hall, in Princeton, Nevv-

In order to this

erfey.

To

I.

it

neceliary for

is

fliew the great advantage

it

will

inhabitants of the Weft: Indies, to have

power

to fend their children to

be to
it

me,
tJie

in their

approved places of

education on the continent of America, inftead of

being obliged to fend them over, for the very ele-

ments of

fcience, to

South or North Britain.

2.

To

point out the fituation and advantages of the College

And

of New-Jerfey in particular.

as I

was never

a lover either of florid dilcourfes or oftentatious pro-

mi fes,
with

I Ihall

endeavour

and decency which are

fome

rifon in

On

the

That
rica
in

fo nectilkry,

where compa-

refpefts cannot be avoided.

flrll

of thefe points let

it

be obferved,

places of education on the continent of

much

are

nearer to the

Great Britain, and yet

move

handle thefe two points

to

pOiCble fimplicity, and with that referve

all

Weft

fufficiently diftant to re-

home and

the temptation of running

in idlenefs.

This

is

a circuinftance

things being fuppofed equal,


lidtrable.

Parents

may

of their children, and

Ame-

Indies than thofe

is

lurking

which, other

by no means inccn-

hear

much

may

even

oftener from and


vifit

them,

as

is

known

to

lofs of

time for bufinefs, and to the advantage of

own

their

have been the cafe here, with no great

They may

health.

alfo

much more

fpeedilv and certainly be infotmed, whether they


are profiting and
rerr,.

have

\e or continue

indeed

is,

refpeds.

if I

It is

juftice

them

done them or not, and

at pleafure.

millake not,

vvell

The

diilance

propoitioned in

all

fuch as to allow of the advantages

3II

THE COLLEGE OF NEW-JERSEY.

mentioned, and yet fo great as to favour

now

jufl

the behaviour and inftrudion of the youth.

have

obferved, in the courfe of four years experience, that


thofe

who came from

the greatefl diliance have, in

general, behaved with moft regularity.

moved from their


them to fupport a

relations,

it

Being re-

becomes neceflary for

character, as they find themfelves

companions, teachers, and indeed


treated by
according to their behaviour.
all other perfons,
their

This

is

fo true, that if parents are obliged to place

their children out of their

miles diftance

own

families, an

hundred

better than twenty, and fo of every

is

other proportion,

till

we come

to the hurtful

ex-

treme.

Let

it

be further obferved, that the climate of the

continent of

healthy in

North America

the
is

Weft

certainly

and probably

itfelf,

the conftitutions

is

of thofe

alfo

much more

more

fuited to

who have been born

Indies, than that of

in

Great Britain. Health

the foundation of every earthly blefling, and ab-

folutely neceflary, both to the receiving inftruclion

and being able in riper years to apply

in" youth,

to

its

proper ufe.

importance of this to

every one

feel the

children.

And whether

or not,

the obfervation itfelf

leave to be decided

who have

been

in

education

me

juft
all

both countries, and the informa-

Having touched on

make

is

by the judgment of

tion they will readily give to thofe

to

it

make
his oWn

Perental tendernefs will

who have

not.

thefe circumftances, let us try

the comparifon as to the fubilance of the


itfelf.

to write

Here,

am

fenfible,

it

with the utmoft circumfpe61ion,

behoves
to avoid

giving offence, and that to fome this will appear.

ADDRESS

312

BEHALF OF

IN*

at lirfl fight, altogether iinpoffible.

not without the greateft hopes, that


fully to prove

the

propofition

without giving zny

ground

jiift

of refiedion and candour.

higher opinion

of,

and not

am/howevef,
be able

I fhall

have

laid

down,

of offence to perfons

No man
many have

can have a
a

more tho-

rough acquaintance with the means of education

at

prefent in Great Britain, than the author of this

w^ho was born in the neighbourhood of

addrefs,

Edinburgh, educated in

it,

and fpent the greatefl

part of his after-life in conilant interccurfe and great

intimacy with the members of the univerfity of

He

Glafgow.

therefore fays

it,

both with pleafure

and gratitude, that any young gentleman


ftriftly fober in his

behaviour, and

who

who

is

applies v/ith

lleadinefs and diligence, has all poffible advantages,

North

particularly in

which he

Britain, with

is

beft

acquainted, for improving himfelf in clailic literature, in every branch

of fcience, and efpecially in

the jullly valued knowledge of the force and propriety of the Engliib language, and in true taile

including

that

all

Nay^

the general expreffion of the Belles Lettres.


further,

he admits and

of fortune,

who would

affirms,

that

give the

lafl

liGi to

the education of a

parts,

would do well

ples are fixed, and

his

appear, that

and higheif po-

him, after his princi-

judgment a

little

fome of the

But notwithftanding

Great Britain.
they

any gentleman

young man of promifing

to fend

for a year or two, to

fions, if

may
it

be

ufually comprehended under

is

fo called, it

is

would be much more

tage of the geatleuicn of the

Weft

matured,

univerfities of

thefe concef-

hoped
to the

Indies,

it

will

advanto.

give

313

THE COLLEGE OF NEW- JERSEiT.

college edutheir children their grammar-fchool and


arts, in an
at Icaft to their firft degree in the
cation,

American feminary,
ability and integrity,

Britain

conduaed by perfons of
than to fend them to Great
if

and that for two important reafons

the better to fecure their inftruftion

firft,

and, fecondly,

for the prefer vation of their morals.


their inllru6lion.
I. For the greater fecurity of

The

colleges in Britain have

by no means

that for-

teach thofe
cible motive that we have, not only to
every one
that
fee
to
but
who are willing to learn,

be obliged

to

fludy, and adlually learn, in propor-

Thefe old foundations have


many ages, have had their charader fo

tion to his capacity.

flood fo

long eliabiifned, and are indeed fo well

be

filled

do not

known

to

with men of the greateft ability, that they


much as feel any injury, in point of repu-

fo

alfrom one or more coming out of college


I
is,
truth
The
moft as ignorant as they went in.
it.
by
do not think they ought to lofe any character

tation,

that it is owing to the idlenefs


and not the infufficiency of
boy,
the
of
or profligacy
numbers of one clafs are
the
When
the mailer.

Every one knows,

perfrom an hundred to an hundred and thirty, or


college,
in
live
not
haps more, and when they do
how is it poffible the mafter can keep them to their
difcern
private ftudies, or even with any certainty
good prowhether they ftudy diligently or not.

and fpeedily diftinguifhed by his own


performances, by the efteem, attachment, and proat all, hurt
grefs of the diligent, but very little, if

feffor is eafily

by

the ignorance of the negligent.

Dd5

I write thefe

ADDRESS

3^4

BEHALF OF

IN

who know them

things to vaft numbers

as well as

Ame-

I do; and I could ealilj produce gentlemen in

who have

rica,

felves to be

freely and generoufly confefled

unhappy

any body fay

refle6l

them-

Let not

proofs of their truth.

upon the teachers for not


them to apply. The num-

ufing difcipline to oblige

bers are fo great, that to try and judge every negle<3:

would take more time than they have

To

whole work.

this

very often happen that

boys

in early life

cither

may

for their

be added, that

may

it

perfons to whofe charge

:the

are fent from

the

Wtfl

Indies,

not themfelves judges, or, from their fitu-

iire

ation and bufinefs, have few opportunities of know^-

ing whether they profit or not.

On
lica

other hand, the

th(i

have

diligence, as one or
us,

young feminaries
Hake

in

Ame-

for their

their character ccnllantly at

two untaught coming out from

As to
we have

us in the moft fenlible manner.

affels

the college of New-Jerfey in particular,

ieen tne importance of this in fo llrong a light, that


"whereas before v/e had half-yearly,

we now

havt^

quarterly examinations, carried on with the utmoft

when

flri&efs,

graded to the
thefe

trials

all

who

iiiferior

are found deficient are declafs.

So impartially

been conducted, that nothing

ufual than for thofe

who

is

hav;

more

fufpe6l themfelves, efpe-

cially if tht:ix relations are near, to pretend ficknefs

and avoid the examination, that they

wards

fall

Further,

back without the

all

to

inuft of necefTity be in their

chamber

is

it

after-

the fcholars with us, as foon as they put

en the g^own, are obliged


nor

may

diilionour of a fentence.

in

lodge in college, and


in ftudy

hourx

the leaft difHcult to difcover, whether

THE COLLEGE OF NEW- JERSEY.

The

they apply carefully or not.


in college,

that they

fo

315

teachers alfo live

have every

advan-

poflible

tage, not only for aflifting the diligent, but ftimula-

tin^ the flothful.

The

2.

fecond reafon for preferring an American

education

is,

may be more

that their morals

tually preferved.

This,

by

cious parents, will be held a point of the

fequence.
cious habits

complained

The danger they


by being

the caufes of

If fo,

fent to Britain, has

it,

it

laft

con-

run of contrafting vi-

of, ajid therefore,

of experience.

effec-

virtuous and judi-

ail

been often

fuppofe,

matter

is

will not be difficult to affign

which may be

fafely mentioned,

becaufe they carry no imputation upon the fchools


or colleges to which they are fent.
are,

The very name


in

They

generally

and are always fuppofed to be of great wealth.

it

of a

Weft Indian has come

Now

great opulence.

in all the great

towns

it is

in Britain,

to

imply

weil'knov/n that,
a fet of proHigate

boys, and fometiraes artful perlbns farther advanced


in life, attach themfelves to fuch as are well fup-

money, impofe upon their youth and


them in every irregular defire,
and lead them both into idlenefs and vice. There

plied with

fimplicity, gratify

are alfo, in every confiderable place in Great Britain, but efpecially the

principal cities

where the

colleges are llxed, a conltant fucceflion and variety

of intoxicating diverlions, fuch as balls, concerts,


plays, races, and others.

Thefe, whatever

may

be

pleaded for fome of them, in a certain meafure, for


thofe

further advanced, every body muft

acknow-

ledge are highly pernicious to youth in the


ft ages

of their education.

The

firfl

temptation becomes^

ADDRESS

3l6

much
when an

BEHALF OF

IN

the Wronger, and indeed almoft

fo

acquaintance with thefe things

ed as fafhionable
plifhment of a

life,

man

and neceflary

of breeding.

young perfons of

fed that

Is

irrefiftibie,
is

confider-

to the
it

accom-

to be fuppo-

great fortune,

when they

can be immediate partakers, will wait with patience


for the proper time

when they may be permitted

view with caution fuch fcenes of


contrary,

it

may

them with

into

youth

and,

all

when

may

On

to

the

be expefted that they will give


the impetuoiity and raihnefs cf
their parents expect

turn well ftored with

phy, they

diffipation?

find

them

to re-

learning and philofo-

claffic

them only

well" acquainted W"ith

the laws of the turf or gaming table, and expert in


the ufe of the reigning phrafes of thofe honourable
arts.

What

proviiion

is

made

for preferving and

proving the morals of the fcholars with us,


till

come

to fpeak of the conftitution

this part of the fubjecS, I

two

and

But before

of the college of New-Jerfey.

muft

im-

leave

lituation
I

difmifs

jufl repeat, that the

reafons I have given againfl. a Britifh education

do, and were intended only to conclude again ft fend-

ing boys in earlj

life.

At

that time they aie inca-

pable of reaping the advantages chiefly to be valued


in a Britifn education.

Thefe

are, not only hearing

and being able to judge of the public performances


of

men

of

letters, in the pulpit,

at the bar,

and in

parliament, bat being introduced to the acquaintance, and enjoying the converfation of

nence.

This

is

a favour that

men

of emi-

would not be granted

to boys, and, if granted, could be of

no fervice, but

contributes, in the higheft; degree, to the delight

THE COLLEGE OF NEW- JERSEY.


and

have

left

fomc of the

little claffic

Experience

of riper years.

inftruclioii of thofe

feems greatly to confirm

this, for,

317

as

many boys

knowledge, though fupported

cxpence, fo thofe
in this country,

who

with

bcft fchools in Britain

received

their

and went home to

great

at

education

fiill:

have

finifh it,

leldom returned witliout great and real improvement.


In addition to thefe arguments in behalf of
rican colleges,

drawn from

who

of the youth

rals

the inflru<5lion

are fent to them,

help mentioning one other which

weight in a view fomewhat

mud

different.

leges muft neceflarily, in time, produce a

young men proper


tutors in

who

cannot

have great

Thefe

col-

number of

to undertake the office of private

There are fome

gentlemens' families.

prefer a private to a public education at any

rate, efpecially in the


it

Ame-

and mo-

very

firft

neceffary, as not being able

ftages,

to

and fome find

fupport the ex-

pence of fending their children fo early, and keeping them fo long from home.

Now

all

who know

the fituatlon of things in Britain, muft be fenCblc

how

difficult it is to

get

young men of capacity or

expectation to leave their native country in order to

undertake the inftruclion of gentlemciis children.


In this

office

there

is little

profpedl of increafe of

fortune, to balance the rifk of going to a

new and

dangerous, or fuppofed dangerous climate.

who

thofe

are

born and educated

not only increafe the

they

number of fuch

America

But
will

teachers, bu^

have no fuch hideous apprehenfions of


any part of the continent or iflands. What-

vv'ill

going to
ever

in

is

done, therefore, to raife and fupport proper

ADDRESS IN BEHALF OF

31

America,

ferainaries In

by

afliired is

Weft

will,

in lime, be followed

and general benefit, which

this great

very

much needed

in

many

have been

or moll of the

India iflands.

I will

now

proceed to fpeak a

of the confli-

little

tution and advantages of the college of

New-Jerfey

in particular.

About twenty-four years

ago, feveral gentlemen

and minifters in this province, by the friendihip and

patronage of Jonathan Belcher, Efq. then Governor,


obtained a YQvy ample royal charter, incorporating

them under

the title of Truftees of the College of

New-Jerfey

and giving them the fame privileges

and pov/ers that are given to the


Univerfities, or

Great

Britain.'

Englifli

their

polTelTed of

any public encourage-

ment, immediately began the

by

two

They, although only

a naked charter, without

foon after,

any other Univerfity or College in

and very

inftitution,

own adlivity and zeal, and the


who had the higheft opinion

benevolence of others

of their integrity, raifed a noble building, called


Naffau-Hall, at Princeton, New-Jerfey.
chofe to do, though

it

great intention was to

This they

wafted their capital, as their

make

efFeftual provifion, not

only for the careful inftruftion, but for the regular

government of the youth. There all the fcholars


are lodged, and alfo boarded, except when they have
exprefs licenfe to board out, in the prefident's houfe
or elfe where.

The

regular courfe of inftruftion

is

in fourclafTe?,

exaftly after the nianner, and bearing the

the claiies in. the Engliih univerfities

Sophomore, Junior, and Senior.

names of

Freftiman,

In the

firll

year

THE COLLEGE OF NEW- JERSEY.


they read Latin and Greek, with the

Grecian antiquities, and rhetoric.

3I9

Roman and

In the fecond,

continuing the ftudy of the languages, they learn a

complete fyflem of geography, with the ufe of the


globes, the

principles of philofophy, and

firlt

elements of mathematical knowledge.

The

the

third,

though the languages are not wholly omitted,


chiefly

employed

And

fophy.

the fenior year

ing the higher

is

mathematics and natural philo-

in

claffics,

employed

is

in

read-

proceeding in the mathe-

matics and natural philofophy, and going through


a courfe of moral philofophy.

In addition to thefe,

the Prefident gives ledlures to the juniors and fe-

which confequently every (Indent hears twice


firfl upon chronology and hifto-

nlors,

over in his courfe,

ry, and afterwards

He

upon compofition and

has alio taught the French language

and

will continue to be taught to thofe

it

fire to

criticifm.

lall

learn

winter^

who

de-

it.

During the whole conrfe of

their ftudies, the

three younger claffes, two every evening formerly^

and

now

three, becaufe of their increafed

number,

pronounce an oration on a ftage erected for that


purpofe
they

in the hall,

may

learn,

by

immediately

after prayers, that

early habit,

prefence of mind,

and proper pronunciation


fpeaking.

in

public

This excellent practice, which has been

kept up almoil from the


leo-e,

and gefture

firft

foundation of the col-

has had the moil: admirable

efted:s.

The

fe-

nior fcholars, every live or fix weeks, pronounce


orations of

thc^ir

own

compolition, to which

^11

per-

fons of any note in the neighbourhood are invited


or admitted.

ADDRESS IN BEHALF OF

320

The

college

now

is

fi)rni(hed

important helps to inftnitlon.

The

agronomy

leffons of

houfe, Efq. which

is

the moft excellent in

upon

its

way,

poflefTes, the

upon the orrery

are given

reckoned, by the beft judges,


its

and when what

the moft

and con(lruted by David Ritten-

lately invented

duced

all

library con-

of valuable books.

a very large collection

tains

with

The

is

kind of any ever yet procommiffioned, and

is

now

added to what the college already

apparatus for mathematics and natural

philofphy will be equal,

not fuperior, to any on

if

the' continent.

As we have
alter

it

for

never yet been obliged to 6mit or

want of

commencement on
ber, when,

lail:

a fixed annual

is

Wednefday of Septem-

after a variety of public

ways attended by
company from the
and the

fcholars, there

the

cities

of

a vaft concourfe

exercifes,

different parts of this

New York

Audents whofe fenior year

is

al-

of the politeft
province,

and Philadelphia, the


expiring, are admitted

to the degree of Bachelors of Arts

the Batchelors

of three years Handing, to the degrees of Mafters

and fuch other higher degrees^ granted,

regularly claimed, or the Truftees think

iiow upon thofe

by

who

have

as are either
lit

to

be-

diflinguillied thernfelves

their literary productions,

or their appearances

in public life.

On

the day preceding the

year, there was, and

it

will

commencement

laft

continued every

l>e

year hereafter, a public exliibition, and voluntary


contention for prizes, open for every
college.

Thefe were

firit,

member

of

fecond, and third prizes,

on each of the following fubjedts

i.

Reading the

^ll

THE COLLEGE OF NEW- JERSEY.

Englifh language with propriety and grace, and being able to anfwer

queftions on

all

orthography

its

Reading the Latin and Greek


languages in the fame manner, with particular at4.
tention to true quantity.
3. Speaking Latin.
and grammar.

2.

Pronouncing Englifti orations.


The preference was determined by ballot, and all
prefent permitted to vote, who were graduates of

Latin verfions.

this or

As
tion

5.

any other college.

to the

by

governed by

college,

no correc-

Such

cannot be

government of the

ftripes

is

permitted.

as

reafon, and the principles of

honour

and fhame, are reckoned unfit for relidence

The

college.

collegiate

cenfures are

i.

admonition by the prelident, profeflbr,


Before the faculty.

which the offender belongs.

and higheft, before

all

fembled in the hall.

4.

And

members of
And, to preferve
the

and dignity of thefe cenfures,

it

Private

or tutor.

whole

3. Before the

2.
to

in

clafs

the iaft

college af-

the weight

has been an efta-

blifhed pradice, that the Iaft or higheft cenfure,


viz. public admonition, ftiall

the fame perfon.

If

it

never be repeated upon

has been thought neceftarj

upon any one, and if


him from falling into fuch

to inflift it

ferve

a fecond time,

it is

this

does not pre-

grofs irregularities

underftood that expulfion

is

im-

mediately to follow.

Through

the narrownefs of the funds, the go-

vernment and inftrution has hitherto been carried


on by a prefident and three

mencement, the
matics

At

truftees chofe a profeflbr

and intend,

Vol. VIIL

tutors.

as

their funds

comof matheIaft

are raifed, to

ADDRESS IN BEHALF OF

322

have a greater number of

and carry

profeflorftilps,

their plan to as great perfection as pofllble.

The above
college

relates Vvholly to

but there

what

alfo at the

is

properly the

is

fame place,

eila-

blifhed under the particular dircdlion and patronage

of the prelident, a grammar-fchool, where boys are

Greek languages with

Latin and

inftrudled in the

the utmoil care, and on the plan of the moft ap-

proved teachers in Great Britain.


large as to

have two mailers

one for writing and arithmetic


fent

with a delign only

It

now

is

for the languages,


;

and

as

fo

and

fome are

to learn the Latin,

Greek,

and French languages, arithmetic, geography, and


the pralical branches of the mathematics, without
going through a

full

college courfe, fuch fcholars

are permitted to attend the inftrution of the clafles

whatever coincides with their plan.

in

now

refolved, at the requeft of feveral

It is alfo

gentlemen,

have an Englifh matter after -next vacation, for


teaching the Engli(h language regularly and gram-

to

matically, and for perfecting

by Engli(h

thofe whofe previous inftru6tion

may have

exercifes

been de-

fetive or erroneous.
I

have thus

laid before the Public

a concife ac-

count of the conftitution of the college of


jerfey, and muil

now

earnellly

recommend

Newit

to

and patronage of then of liberal and


I am fenfible that nothing is
minds.
ingenubus
to write in .behalf of what the
than
more diiTicult,
the affiftance

writer himfelf has Co great a


as neither to

fail

in

pr.rt in

condufting, fo

doing juftice to the fubjea, nor

And
who may have

exceed in improper or A\Togaat profeHions.


yet to

employ

others to write for us,

THE COLLEGE OF NEW- JERSEY.

323

per fens, to

embcUifh

fome pretence,

as

our charaders,

is

The very

indifferent
liable to

for decency and truth,

for

may

is

to write

openly in his

own

be under a neceflity to anfwer

if it is liable to challenge.

it,

This

is

and that

the
1

friends, nor
I will

one can give to the Public

beft fecuritj

perfon, that he

greater fufpicion.

ftill

method

may

have determined to follow

neither offend the delicacy of

my

provoke the refentment of

my

enemies,

endeavour humbly to recommend this college

men

to the attention and efleem of


^and candour, chiefly

of penetration

from fuch circumflances

as

have

little

or no relation

to the perfonal charaders of

thofe

now employed,

but are

and

effential to its fituation

and therefore muff be fuppofed to

Gonffitution,

iiave not only the moff powerful, but the mofl lafl-

The

ing effc^.

circumflances to which

w>uld

intreat the attention of impartial perfons, are

the

following.
I.

The

college of

dependent.

It

New-Jerfey

altogether in-

is

hath received no favour from go-

vernment but the charter, by the particular friendIhip of a

perfon

now

deceafed.

owes nothing

It

but to the benefactions of a Public fo


it

diffufive, that

cannot produce particular dependence, or operate

hy

partial

influence.

From

muft be free from two great


like

number

this

evils,

of folid advantages.

circumftance

it

and derive the

There

is

no fear

of being obliged to chufe teachers upon minifterial

recommendation, or in compliance with the overbearing weight of family intereft.


ry, the truftees are naturally led,

On
and

the contra-

in a

manner

forced, to found their choice-upon the charaders of

ADDRESS IN BEHALF OF

324

the perfons, and the hope of public approbation.

At

the

fame time, thofe concerned

in the inflrudlion

and government of the college, are as far removed

human

as the ftate of

nature will admit, from any

temptation to a fawning, cringing


iervilitj, in the

hope of

la6l

we

find

naturally be ex-

by experience,

that hitherto in

it

the fpirit of liberty has breathed

llrong in all the

and mean

may

In confequence of this
peled, and

fpirit,

court- favour or promotion.

members.

high and

would not be under-

ilood to fay, that a feminary of learning ought to

would
meanly court favour, by profefling myfelf a violent partifan in any prefent difputes.
But furely a
enter deeply into political contention, far lefs
I

conilitution
rit

which naturally tends

to

produce a fpi-

of liberty and independence, even though this

fliould

fometimes need to be reined in by prudence

and moderation,
and vapid

flate

is infinitely

upon the nod of

Another great

thofe in power.

advantage arifing from


are under to

preferable to the dead

of one whofe very cxiilence depends

this,

recommend

fidelity, to the Public.

to lean to on one fide,

is

the obligation

by

ourfelves,

Having no

we

we

diligence and

particular

prop

are obliged to fland up-

by leaning equally on all. We are


from having our fund fo complete as of itfelf

right and firm


fo far

to fupport the neceffary expence,

that the greater

part of our annual income arifes from the payments

of the fcholars, which

we acknowledge

with grati-

tude have been, for thefc feveral years, continually


increafing.
2.

This leads

me

to obferve, that

no inconfidcrable recommendation of

it

ought to be

this college to

THE COLLEGE OF NEW-JRSEr.


thofe at a diftance,

that

probation of thofe

who

The nunnber
members of college,

beft.

32^

has the efteem and ap-

it

are neareft

and

it

of under-graduates,
is nt;3r

know

or-

four times that of

college on the continent to the fouthward of

England, and probably greater than that of


This,

put together.

reft

we

it

proper
ati^r

Newall

the

are at liberty to afErm,

has in no degree arifen from pompous defcriptions,


or repeated recommendations in the public papers.

We do

mean

hot

to

blame the laudable attempts of

We

others to do themfelves juftice.


ten found fault with,

negled

in this particular.

only mentioned to

It is

give full force to the argument juft


the

fad

the

name

is

have been of-

and perhaps are to blame for

certainly true.

do not

now

ufed, and

remember

that

of the college of New-Jerfey has been

above once or twice mentioned in the newfpapers


for three years, except in a bare recital of the ats

The

of the annual commencements.


drefs arifes
a

more

from

neceffity,

not choice

prefent adfor

had not

private application been found impradicable,

the prefs had probably never been employed.


3.

It

may

not be amifs to obferve on this fub-

jeft, that the great utility of this feuiinary has


felt

Many

over an extenfive country.

been

of the cler-

gy, epifcopal and prefbyterian, in the different colonies, received their education here,

behaviour and other merit


themfelves.

We

are

we

whofe exemplary

fuifer to

fpeak for

alfo willing that the Public

/hould attend to the charaders and appearance of


thofe gentlemen in the law and medical depart-

ments,

who were

brought up

Ee3

at

Naflau-Hall, and

ADDRESS

^l6
are

now

in the cities

IN

BEHALF OF

New- York and

of

Philadel-

phia, and in different parts of the continent or iflands.

Two

at leaft

of the profeffors of the jufllj celebra-

ted medical fchool lately founded in Philadelphia,

and perhaps the greateft number of their pupils, re-

We

ceived their inftruftion here.

are not afraid,

but even wifh that our claim (hould be decided by

who have come out


which is one of the moft conclufive arguments ; for " a tree is known by its fruits." It is,
at the fame time, an argument of the moft fair and
the conduft of thofe in general

from

us,

is

left

to

be determined by

at their leifure,

and

if

the appeal be not

generous kind, for

mankind

in our favour,
4.

The

it

it

muft be unfpeakably injurious.

place where the college

built is

is

moft

happily chofen for the health, the ftudies, and the

All thefe were particularly

morals of the fcholars.


attended to

when

the fpot

on a

rifing

ground, from whence there

ton

is

eafy gradual defcent for

was pitched upon. Prince-

many

miles on

all

is

an

quarters,

except the north and north- weft, from whence, at


the di (lance of one mile,

of
ful

hills

it

is

covered with woods.

ftieltered
It

by a range

has a moft beauti-

appearance, and in fa6l has been found one of

the hcalthieft places, as

it is

fituated in the

middle

of one of the moft healthful countries on the iVhole


continent.

It

is

upon the great

equally diftant from

New- York

poft road, almoft

and Philadelphia,

fo as to be a centre of intelligence, and

have an eafy

conveyance of every thing neceflary, and yet to be

wholly

free

from the many temptations

in

every

great city, both to the negleft of ftudy and the


practice of yIcq,

The

truth

is,

it

is

to this

happy

THE COLLEGE OF NEW- JERSEY.


circumftance,

wifely attended

fo

traftees, that

we owe our

327

by

to

the

firfl

up

being enabled to keep

the difcipline of the college with fo great regula-

and

rity,

fo

difficulty.

little

We

do not wifh to

take any honour in this refpet to ourfelves.

Doubt-

lek the mailers of every college will do their befl in

But

this refpeft.

who

it is

are in great cities,

not in the power of thofe


to

keep the

to

tions

conceal

do
it

in college,

many tempta-

and can fo eafily and

evil,

after

With

done.

it is

with

difcipline

equal ftridnefs, where boys have fo

eiFe(Elually

us, they live all

under the infpedtion of their mafters

and the village

is

fo fmall,

that

any irregularity

is

immediately and certainly difcovered, and therefore


eafi]y

correded.

has fometimes happened, through

It

rivalfliip

or

malice, that our difcipline has been cenfured as too

This reproach

fevere and rigorous.

always hear,

not with patience only, but with pleafure.

mouth of an

adverfary,

the government

it

flri6t

is

is

that the accufation

wholly without foundation,

of oppredive rigour

is

from the number of

fcholars,

of public cenfures, but above

and the infrequency


all

from the warm,

and almoft enthufiaftic attachment


have

finiflied their courfe.

friendihip be

While we

and regular.

we prove

avail ourfelves of this,

In the

a clear confeflion that

Could

who

of thofe

their efteem

and

expelled in return for an auftere and

rigorous confinement, out of which they had efcaped


as birds out of the fnare of the fowler

We

admit

infupportable to the idle and profligate

that

it is

for

either they will not bear with us, or

not bear with them

but from thofe

we

who have

will

ap

ADDRESS

328

IN

BEHALF

O-F

plied to their fludies, and reached the

we

college,

have, almoft

honours of

thout exception, found

the mod: fincere, alive, and zealous frienddiip.


5.

This college was founded, and hath been con-

du6led upon the moft

catholic

charter recites as or,e of

may have

denomination

religious

The

principles.

grouiids, "

its

free

That every
and equal

liberty and advantage of education in the faid college,

any

different fentiments

Accordingly

ftanding."

religion notwith-

in

are

tbf^re

now, and have

been from the beginning, fcholars of various denominations from the molt diilant colonies, as well as

Wefl- India
fefs,

iflands

and they mull neccffarily con-

met with the kail unesfinefs


Our great advantage
the harmony of the board of

that they never

or difrefpeft on this account.

on

this fubjedt,

truftees,
all

Is

and the perfedt union

in fentiment

among

the teachers, both with the truftees and with one

On

another.
tion

there

this account,

is

neither inclina-

nor occailon to meddle with any controverfy

whatever.
that he

The

author of this addrefs confeffe^,

was long accuftorned

to

the order and dig-

nity of an eftabliihed church, but a church

hath no contempt or deteitation of thofe

And

differently organized.

as

which

who

are

he hath ever been in

that church an oppofer of lordly domination and fa-

cerdotal tyranny, fo he

is

a paffionate admirer of

the equal and impartial fupport of every religious

denomination which prevails


nies,

and

to the

is

perfed

in

in

the northern colo-

Pennfylvania and the Jerfeys,

unfpeakable advantage of thofe happy and

/well-conflituted governments.

With refped

to the college of

New- Jerfey,

every

THE COLLEGE OF mE^-JEKSEY.


fjueftloB

329

about forms of church government

though

tirely excluded, that

fo en-

is

have feen one

fet

of

know

Ccholars begin and finifh their courfe, if they

nothing more of religious controverfy than what


they learned here, they have that fcience wholly to

This

begin.

is

altogether

owing

union of fentiment mentioned above

for

to

the

if

you

place, as teachers in a college, perfons of repugnant


religious

and

muft have more wifdom

principles, they

felf- denial

than ufually

the lot of

fall to

huma-

whole fociety is not divided into parand marfhalled under names, if the changes are

nity, if the
ties,

not frequent, and

be

as well

known

fuch a fociety.

when they take


as

On

any event

place,

they will

that can

happen in

the contrary, there

fo little

is

occafion with us to canvafs this matter at

all,

that,

though no doubt accident mull difcover it as to the


greatell number, yet fome have left the college as

whom

to

am

wholly uncertain,

what denomination they belong.


fliall

be our care, to ufe

every mean

make them good men and good

to

hour, to

at this

It has been,

in our

fcholars

and

power
and

if

this is the cafe, I (hall hear of their future character

and ufefulnefs with unfeigned

fatisfaftion,

under

every name by which a real Proteflant can be diftinguifhed.

Having already experienced the generofity of the


Public

in

many

I cannot but

hope

will not refufe


abilities,

in

parts of the continent of


that the

America,

gentlemen of the

their alTiftance,

iflands

according to their

order to carry this feminary to a far

greater degree of perfe6lion than any to

has yet arrived.

The

which

it

exprefs purpofe to which the

ADDRESS IN BEHALF OF

33
benefactions

now requeued will be applied, is the


new profefforfliips, which will ren-

cftabliihraent of

der the inftitution not only more complete in


:but lefs

burdenfome

to

the important truft.

thofe

who

The whole

branches of ma-

thematics and natural philofophj are


jone profelTor

and the prefident

itfelf,

have undertaken

is

now

taught by

obliged to teach

divinity and moral philofophy, as well as chronolo-

gy, hiftory, and rhetoric, btfides the luperintcndance


The ihort lives of

and government of the v/hole.

the former prefidents have been


to their excc^flive labours

by many

which,

it is

attributed

hoped, will

be an argument with the humane and generous,

to

lead their help in promoting fo noble a dciign,

am. Gentlemen,

Your mofl

obedient,

humble Servant,
NjJau

Hall

fit

Prlnciton,

Mateb

Neiu

ii, 1771.

Jer/cy,'}

J
John Witherspoon.

THE COLLEGE OF NEW- JERSEY.

231

Proper Forms of Donations to the College by Will.

Of Chattels
Item,

A. B. do hereby

I,

fum of

give and bequeath the

unto the Trujlees of the College

of NeW'Jerfeyy commonly
fame to be paid within

my

PerfonaL

deceafe

called NaJJau-Hail^ the

and to be applied

months next
to the ufes

after

and pur-

pofes of the faid College.

Of Real EJlates,
I,

A. B. do give and

the College

devife unto the Truflces

of New-'Jerfey^ commonly

Hall, and to their fucceffors for ever,


tain nielTuage

and trai of land, &c.

END

J.

or VOL. VIII,

RlTtUIh, FKIMJBK^

called
all

of

NaJJuU'

that cer-

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