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Activated Carbon (Organic Material)

According to Quick (2015), activated carbon is a form of carbon that is shot

through with nanosized holes that increase the material's surface area and allow it to
catalyze more chemical reactions and store more electrical charge.
Candelaria, et al. (2012), Carbon is one of the most abundant elements on the
Earth, and plays a critical role in the bio- and ecosystems as we know them today. For
thousands of years, carbon has also been a source of energy, and human history is
closely associated with the struggle to extract and utilize power from carbon materials
(activated carbon). The technologies that have enabled our modern society such as
automobiles, airplanes, computers, lasers, and portable electronics, just to name a few,
rely on the development of carbon-based materials and on the continued supply of
energy. This energy is either in the form of gasoline or electricity, and is generated
mainly from fossil fuels and biomass.
The literatures above are related to the present study because the proponents
will use activated carbon in designing the storage device.

Boost Converter
According to De Stasi (2015), the boost converter is used to "step-up" an input
voltage to some higher level, required by a load. This unique capability is achieved by
storing energy in an inductor and releasing it to the load at a higher voltage.
Based from ECE Tutorials, a boost converter is a switch mode DC to DC
converter in which the output voltage is greater than the input voltage. It is also called

as step up converter. The name step up converter comes from the fact that analogous
to step up transformer the input voltage is stepped up to a level greater than the input
The literature above is related because the proponents will use boost converter
to convert DC-to-DC to stabilize the current.

According to Hebbar (2009), phones have rechargeable batteries inside which
need to be charged with a DC voltage. Simple phone chargers provide this DC voltage.
These accept AC power supply which gets down converted to smaller AC voltage
through a transformer and is followed an AC-DC converter. After that there is a filter
circuit that cleans the voltage before giving out on the charger pins. This voltage is used
for charging the phone.
The literature above is related to the present study since the built-in-charger will
serve as to charge the battery in alternating current source.

Charge Controller
On the design of an intelligent battery charge controller for photovoltaic panels,
Akarslan (2012) stated that the electricity generations of photovoltaic panels are
strongly related with isolation and temperature. The isolation and temperature are not
stable since the electricity generation of the photovoltaic panels are stable.

Based from Everything You Need To Know About The Basics Of Solar
Charge Controller (2016), charge controller or charge regulator is basically a voltage
and/or current regulator to keep the battery from overcharging. It regulates the voltage
and current coming from solar panels going to battery.
The literatures stated facts about charge controller which is relevant to the
present study for regulating voltage/current.

According to Barder (2012), development is a system-wide manifestation of the
way that people, firms, technologies and institutions interact with each other within the
economic, social and political system. Specifically, development is the capacity of those
systems to provide self-organizing complexity.

Self-organizing complexity in an

adaptive system is never designed or deliberately built: it comes about from a process
of adaptation and evolution. It follows that if we want to accelerate and shape
development, we should focus especially on how the environment can be made most
conducive for self-organizing complexity to evolve.
The literature above describes the word development, in relation to the research
paradigm of the project study.


Fabrication is the manufacturing process in which an item is made from raw or

semi-finished materials instead of being assembled from ready-made components or
parts. Fabrication is performed to make an art or skill and labor, and also to make in
assembling parts or sections. (
The literature above present and describe the word fabrication, in relation to the
research paradigm of the project study.

Power Banks
According to Chick (2014), power banks have become increasingly popular as
the battery life of our beloved phones, tablets and portable media players is outstripped
by the amount of time we spend using them each day. The Power Banks we are talking
about are good for almost any USB charged devices, Cameras, Go Pros, Portable
speakers, GPS systems, MP3 players, Smartphones and even some tablets can be
charged from a Power Bank practically anything that charges from USB at home can
be charged from a Power Bank you just have to remember to keep your Power Bank
charged, too! Power Banks may also be known as Power Stations or Battery Banks,
The literature above is related to the present study because they will both used
power bank as a source of energy.

Rechargeable Battery

Based from Energy Matters Pty Ltd (2015), deep cycle batteries are an energy
storage units in which a chemical reaction occurs that develops voltage and results in
electricity. These batteries are designed to be cycled (discharged and recharged) many
times. A deep cycle battery provides power at a steady rate over a long period.
The literature above is related to the present study since it serves as the power
source of the device.

Solar Panel
According to Woodford (2016) a solar cell is an electronic device that catches
sunlight and turns it directly into electricity. Solar cells are often bundled together to
make larger units called solar modules, themselves coupled into even bigger units
known as solar panels. Just like the cells in a battery, the cells in a solar panel are
designed to generate electricity; but where a battery's cells make electricity from
chemicals, a solar panel's cells generate power by capturing sunlight instead.
Based from Ecomii a Better Way (2016), solar panels are photovoltaic cells
typically contained corrosive chemicals, do not pollute, require little maintenance and
operate silently from the roof of a building. During daylight hours, photovoltaic panels
produce energy that is fed back into electrical grid, sometimes causing the electronic
meter to run backward. At night, the building uses energy off the power lines as usual,
but the building saves money in its utility bill from the energy produced during the day.

Based from Collins English Dictionary-Complete and Unbridge, 12 Edition

(2014), solar panel is a panel exposed to radiation from the sun, used to heat water or,
when mounted with solar cells to produce electricity directly.
The literatures above stated about the efficient way of saving eneergyis by the
use of the suns energy to provide electricity, which is related to the present study.

According to Schneuwly & Gallay (2010), supercapacitors may be used
wherever high power delivery or electrical energy storage is required. Therefore









complementation of normal batteries. In combination with batteries the supercapacitors

improve the maximum instantaneous output power as well as the battery lifetime. In
order to increase the voltage across a supercapacitor device, a series connection is
needed. An active voltage repartition device has been defined which ensures no overvoltage over any supercapacitor and an optimal efficiency.
Based from Illinois Capacitor, Inc. (2007), supercapacitors have the highest
capacitive density available today with densities so high that these capacitors can be
used to applications normally reserved for batteries. Supercapacitors are not as
volumetrically efficient and are more expensive than batteries but they do have other
advantages over batteries making the preferred choice in applications requiring a large
amount of energy storage to be stored and delivered in bursts repeatedly.

The most significant advantage supercapacitors have over batteries is their

ability to be charged and discharged continuously without degrading like batteries do.
This is why batteries and supercapacitors are used in conjunction with each other. The
supercapacitors will supply power to the system when surges or energy bursts since are
The literatures above are related to the present study because the
supercapacitor will serve as an energy storage device for the prototype.

Related Studies
Activated carbon
As stated by Gherairi, et al. (2013) activated carbons have been widely used as
an active support for the treatment of wastewater. This importance comes from the
possibility of making readily structural modifications leading particularly to the
enhancement of both porosity and specific surface. On the basis of such characteristics,
it has attempted in this study to set up a bi-layer filtration bed made of activated carbon
and sand dune. This pilot was developed essentially for the purification of domestic
wastewater. The efficiency of the resulting filtrating system was assessed from the
monitoring conductivity.
According to Calgon Carbon (2015) activated carbon is the preferred electrode
material in asymmetric batteries and a variety of advanced batteries because of the
exceptionally high surface area and relatively high conductivity of the material. Calgon
Carbons activated carbon products for energy storage were developed with high

activity and high purity to deliver maximum electrochemical performance. Calgon

Carbon is a pioneer in the commercialization of advanced activated carbons for energy
storage, with projects that focus on developing activated carbons for a broad range of
storage applications. To continue to advance the energy storage industry and to create
a source of renewable green energy, Calgon Carbon is actively working on developing
advanced activated carbons for battery storage and other energy storage devices that
are both technically and economically superior to the products available today.
As the demands for energy storage devices become more rigorous, a variety of
battery chemistries are being developed to provide higher energy densities and greater
power output. The use of activated carbon provides additional performance advantages
in asymmetric devices, advanced lead acid batteries and other battery technologies.
The studies above are related to the present study because the proponents will
use activated carbon in designing the storage device with the same application of

Boost Converter
Coates (2016) stated that switched mode supplies can be used for many
purposes including DC to DC converters. Often, although a DC supply, such as a
battery may be available, its available voltage is not suitable for the system being
supplied. For example, the motors used in driving electric automobiles require much
higher voltages, in the region of 500V, than could be supplied by a battery alone. Even if

banks of batteries were used, the extra weight and space taken up would be too great
to be practical. The answer to this problem is to use fewer batteries and to boost the
available DC voltage to the required level by using a boost converter. Another problem
with batteries, large or small, is that their output voltage varies as the available charge is
used up, and at some point the battery voltage becomes too low to power the circuit
being supplied. However, if this low output level can be boosted back up to a useful
level again, by using a boost converter, the life of the battery can be extended.
Based from Daycounter, Inc. (2015), the boost converter is a high efficiency
step-up DC/DC switching converter. The converter uses a transistor switch, typically a
MOSFET, to pulse width modulate the voltage into an inductor.

Charge Controller
Aben (2015) pointed out that charge controller, charge regulator, or battery
regulator limits the rate at which electric current is added to or drawn from electric
batteries. It prevents overcharging and may prevent against over voltage which can
reduce battery performance or lifespan and may pose a safety risk. Without the charge
controller the current from the module will flow into a battery whether the battery needs
to be charging or not. If the battery is not fully charged, unregulated charging will cause
the battery voltage to reach exceeding high levels, thus causing severe gassing
electrolyte loss and some internal heating.
The study above is related because the charge controller will help in regulating

Corral Jr (2012) stated in his study Multi-functional Rechargeable Battery
Charger can be charged using an AC/DC charger. It uses a circuit wherein the power
supply is converted from AC to DC to charge the battery.
The study above is related to the present study since the built-in-charger will
serve as to charge the battery.

Akrani 2012 said that development is a specialized activity. It is done to improve
the existing product or to introduce a new product in the market. It is also done to
improve the earlier features or techniques or systems. Generally, it means a newproduct development. New-product development means to introduce a brand-new
product in the market. It means to add a fresh product to an existing line of products.
The study above is related because it describes the word development, in
relation to improving the existing device.


Power Banks

Francisco (2006) stated in his study that power bank is essentially a portable
charger that makes using your smartphones on the go much easier and more
convenient. This technology is a must-have for travelling sales people, students, and
virtually anyone that needs to ensure they never run out of battery throughout a busy
day. These mobile Power Banks can charge your phone or other devices as many as
three times under one full charge.
He (2016) mentioned in his study that power banks are devices that are used to
charge mobile phones, tablets, laptops, mp3 players and mp4 players anytime and
anywhere. With the use we subject are devices to, it is important to have a power bank
to be able to keep these devices up and running all the time. Power banks can give you
uninterrupted access to play games on your laptops, instant message on the internet,
use social networking platforms and book airline, train and bus tickets at the drop of a
The studies above and the Development and Fabrication of Solar Organic
Power Bank is very related since they both use power bank as source of energy.

Rechargeable Battery
Byoungwoo Kang Gerbrand Ceder (2009) stated in his study Battery Materials
for Ultrafast Charging and Discharging, the storage of electrical energy at high charge
and discharge rate is an important technology in todays society and can be enable
hybrid and plug-in hybrid vehicles and provide for wind and solar energy.

The study above is related to the present study because the proponents will use
the same principle of the rechargeable battery.

Solar Panel
Italia (2010) pointed out in his study Solar Converter Charger, as an improvised
converter with the use of solar panel, that converts light energy to electric energy. The
Solar Converter Charger has four parts first, the solar panel which can produce electric
power through solar cells, the solar energy will be transfomedto electrical power,
second, a converter which can convert AC to DC, third an inverter which can convert
12V DC solar panel to AC, fourth, the battery which serves as the storage of electricity.
The study above is related because the proponents will use solar panel as an
alternative source of energy for the prototype.

Vuorilehto & Nuutinen (2014) stated that supercapacitors are energy storages
having similarities with both batteries and conventional capacitors. Unlike batteries,
supercapacitors store electrical energy, not chemical energy. Unlike capacitors
supercapacitors contain moving ions.
Supercapacitors can be fully charged and discharged in seconds, even in several
degrees below zero, almost linear voltage curves enables very accurate state of charge
(SoC) estimations, supercapacitors can be charged and discharged even up to a million











supercapacitors have very high self-discharge vs. batteries.

Based from EngineeringShock (2015),

supercapacitors are like other

capacitors, only they have enormous power storage capabilities. Capacitors have two
storage variables: Maximum charging voltage and capacitance (Measured in Farads).
Capacitance is a measure of how much energy can be stored in a capacitor. A typical
power supply capacitor or audio coupling capacitor would have a capacitance of around
0.0001 farads, which is relatively large. A supercapacitor normally has a capacitance
of between 1 to 3000 farads, which make them good substitutes for batteries!
The studies above are related to the present study because the supercapacitor
will serve as an energy storage device for the prototype.

Definition of Terms
Activated Carbon.
Built-in-charger. Serves as the AC power source of the power bank.
Charge Controller. Serves as the indicator for the power bank.
Power Bank.

Rechargeable Battery. Serves as the power source of the power bank.
Solar Panel. Serves as an alternative power source of the power bank.


Solar panel 5.5V 160mA


2pcs 1N4007 diode


1pc 47 ohm resistor




(18650 cell) rechargeable battery


5v 1A output Boost Step-up module