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Flanges:

Type of flanges.
Weld neck flange
Slipon flange
Lap joint flange
Blind flange
Flanges with rating class designations 150, 300, 400, 600, 900, 1500, and 2500
The rules in Appendix 2 apply specifically to the design of bolted flange connections
with gaskets that are entirely within the circle enclosed by the bolt holes and with no
contact outside this circle. The hub thickness of weld neck flanges designed to this
Appendix shall also comply with the minimum thickness requirements. These rules are
not to be used for the determination of the thickness of supported or unsupported
tubesheets. These rules provide only for hydrostatic end loads and gasket seating. The
flange design methods are applicable to circular flanges under internal pressure. Rules
for calculating rigidity factors for flanges are provided in Appendix 2. The design of a
flange involves the selection of the gasket (material, type, and dimensions), flange
facing, bolting, hub proportions, flange width, and flange thickness. Flange dimensions
shall be such that the stresses in the flange, calculated do not exceed the allowable
flange stresses. All calculations shall be made on dimensions in the corroded condition.
The ratings in these standards are based on the hub dimensions given or on the
minimum specified thickness of flanged fittings of integral construction. Flanges
fabricated from rings may be used in place of the hub flanges in these standards
provided that their strength, calculated by the rules in this Appendix, is not less than
that calculated for the corresponding size of hub flange. Bolted flange connections for
unfired pressure vessels shall satisfy the requirements in this Appendix. The rules of
this Appendix should not be construed to prohibit the use of other types of flanged
connections provided they are designed in accordance with good engineering practice
and method of design is acceptable to the Inspector. Some examples of flanged
connections which might fall in this category are as follows: (1) flanged covers (2)
bolted flanges using full-face gaskets; (3) flanges using means other than bolting to
restrain the flange assembly against pressure and other applied loads.

MATERIALS
(a) Materials used in the construction of bolted flange connections shall comply with the
requirements of design (b) Flanges made from ferritic steel and designed in accordance
with this Appendix shall be full-annealed, normalized, normalized and tempered, or
quenched and tempered when the thickness of the flange section exceeds 75 mm. (c)
Material on which welding is to be performed shall be proved of good weldable quality.
Satisfactory qualification of the welding procedure under Section IX is considered as
proof. Welding shall not be performed on steel that has a carbon content greater than

0.35%. All welding on flange connections shall comply with the requirements for
postweld heat treatment given in this Division. (d) Fabricated hubbed flanges shall be in
accordance with the following: (1) Hubbed flanges may be machined from a hot rolled
or forged billet or forged bar. The axis of the finished flange shall be parallel to the long
axis of the original billet or bar. (This is not intended to imply that the axis of the
finished flange and the original billet must be concentric.) (2) Hubbed flanges shall not
be machined from plate or bar stock material unless the material has been formed into a
ring, and further provided that: (a) in a ring formed from plate, the original plate
surfaces are parallel to the axis of the finished flange. (This is not intended to imply that
the original plate surface be present in the finished flange) (b) the joints in the ring are
welded butt joints that conform to the requirements of this Division. Thickness to be
used to determine postweld heat treatment and radiography
requirements shall be the lesser of

Special flanges that are required to be designed should only be used as a last resort.
Whenever possible, standard flanges should be utilized. In general, special designs as
outlined in this procedure are done for large or high-pressure designs. Flanges in this
category will be governed by one of two conditions:
1. Gasket seating force, Wm2
2. Hydrostatic end force, H
For high-pressure flanges, typically the hydrostatic end force, H, will govern. For lowpressure flanges, the gasket seating force will govern. Therefore the strategy for
approaching the design of these flanges will vary. The strategy is as follows:

For low-pressure flanges

1) Minimize the gasket width to reduce the force necessary to seat the gasket.
2) Use a larger number of smaller diameter bolts to minimize the bolt circle diameter
and thus reduce the moment arm which governs the flange thickness.
3) Utilize hub less flanges (either lap joint or plate flanges) to minimize the cost of
forgings.

For high-pressure flanges

High-pressure flanges require a large bolt area to counteract the large hydrostatic end
force. Large bolts, in turn, increase the bolt circle with a corresponding increase in the
moment arm. Thicker flanges and large hubs are necessary to distribute the bolt loads.
Seek a balance between the quantity and size of bolts, bolt spacing, and bolt circle
diameter.

Step 1: Determine the number and size of bolts required. As a rule of thumb, start with a
number of bolts equal to the nominal size of the bore in inches, rounded to the nearest
multiple of four. First, calculate Wm1 or Wm2, Am, is equal to the larger of Wm1 or
Wm2 divided by Sa. The quantity of bolts required is:
n = Am/Ra
To find the size of bolt for a given quantity:
Ra= Am/n
With these two equations a variety of combinations can be determined.
Step 2: Determine the bolt circle diameter for the selected bolt size.
C = B + 2g1+2R
The flange O.D. may now be established.
A=C+2E
Step 3: Check the minimum bolt spacing (not an ASME requirement). Compare with the
value of B, in Table 2-5a.
Bs = C/n
Note: Dimensions R,, R, E, and B, are from Table 2-5a.
Step 4: After all of the preliminary dimensions and details are selected, proceed with the
detailed analysis of the flange by calculating the balance of forces, moments, and
stresses in the appropriate design form.

Gasket Facing and Selection


The gasket facing and type correspond to the service conditions, fluid or gas handled,
pressure, temperature, thermal shock, cyclic operation, and the gasket selection. The
greater the hazard, the more care that should be invested in the decisions regarding
gasket selection and facing details. Facings which confine the gasket, male and female,
tongue and groove and ring joint offer greater security against blowouts. Male and
female and tongue and groove have the disadvantage that mating flanges are not alike.
These facings, which confine the gasket, are known as enclosed gaskets and are
required for certain services, such as TEMA Class R. For tongue and groove flanges,
the tongue is more likely to be damaged than the groove; therefore, from a maintenance
standpoint, there is an advantage in placing the tongue on the part which can be
transported for servicing, i.e., blind flanges, man way heads, etc. If the assembly of these
joints is horizontal then there will be less difficulty if the groove is placed in the lower
side of the joint. The gasket width should be made equal to the width of the tongue.
Gaskets for these joints are typically metal or metal jacketed.

The Selection of flange is done as per ASME B 16.5. This code is used for flange upto 24
inch. There are some factors based of which selection of flange is done. These are
temperature, pressure & MOC of flange.
Let us take an example to explain the selection of flange. Assume our flange material is
A-105, our design temperature is 180C and design pressure is 25bar, then as per table
the class/rating of flange will be 300.

Flanged joints and flanged fittings may be subjected to system hydrostatic tests at a
pressure of 1.5 times the 38C (100F) rating rounded off to the next higher 1 bar (25
psi) increment. Testing at any higher pressure is the responsibility of the user, taking
into account the requirements of the applicable code or regulation.
The bore diameter shall be equal to B dimension of the welding neck flange. Other bores
may be furnished by agreement between the end user and the manufacturer. In no case
shall the bore diameter exceed the bore of the same size and class lapped flange.

Flange Facing:
Lap joint Flange
Raised Face
Tongue & Groove
Ring Joint

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