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Why System
Cleanliness?
Construction Equipment
Oil Contamination
in Blowers
Machine Clearances
to Cleanliness Codes

For FREE INFORMATION Circle 1

Contents
May - June 2005

34

www.practicingoilanalysis.com

10 How Glycol Causes Corrosion


and Oil Ball Damage In Diesel Engines
The bearing overlay can play a critical role in determining bearing
life. This article analyzes two different mechanisms of overlay removal
from production engines operating in major fleets: the overlay loss to
tin migration and overlay loss from coolant leakage.

14 Why System Cleanliness?


This article discusses oil cleanliness and a proven methodology to
accomplish this important task.

18 Synchronizing Oil Cleanliness Standards


to Machine Working Clearances
38

This case study provides oil cleanliness standards for the lubricating
oils used at a nuclear materials management facility. Maintaining such
cleanliness standards is essential to eliminating component wear and
ensures continuous functionality of the lubricating oil properties.

24 Polaris Expands into Western Market


Abundant opportunities in the western mining and off-highway
markets have warranted further expansion of Polaris Laboratories, a
steadily growing fluid analysis company now strategically located
across the United States.

30 Vibration Analyzer Performs Multiple Tasks


A new concept in vibration analysis instrumentation simplifies the
process for those involved in industrial maintenance, servicing and
inspection or the manufacture of rotating and reciprocating machinery.
2

24

34 Oil Analysis Implementation


for First Energy Services
Two maintenance specialists at an oil field construction company
needed a proactive method to find a quick solution before engine,
transmission and pump failures occurred.

46 Sampling Air to Prevent


Oil Contamination in Blowers
At a plant that produces synthetic resins, employees adopted an air
sampling technique to detect air pollutants and particulates in the
piping transfer system.
46

56 Oil Quality Analyzer for Changing Oil by Quality


Lubricants used on transmissions cannot be used continually
because of outside contamination. Because they can destroy the
transmission organization, these oils should be changed on condition.

2
6
32
37

FROM THE EDITOR


PERSPECTIVE
PRODUCT NEWS
GLOBAL TRAINING CALENDAR

38
42
44
51

BELIEVE IT OR NOT
BOOKSTORE
CERTIFICATION UPDATE
MARKETPLACE
Practicing Oil Analysis 1

FROM THE EDITOR

JIM FITCH

What do Canaries and


Ferrous Density Meters
Have in Common?

ou guessed it. They both can forecast


catastrophe.
The use of canaries in coal mines dates
to 1911 when miners carried them in cages
deep into underground shafts. Canaries,
being sensitive to presence of toxic gases
including colorless, tasteless and odorless
carbon monoxide, were sort of a sacrificial
prognostic intelligence system. If there were
poisonous gases in the shafts, the birds
provided a vital early warning
by collapsing or

even dying, allowing the miners to make


a quick escape.
Ferrous density (FD) meters can foretell
disastrous events as well, often in time to
save a machine from sudden operational
failure. Their role is to monitor the density of
a single type of wear metal commonly found
in oil or grease: large ferromagnetic particles
(typically greater than five microns). A ferromagnetic particle is usually composed of
cast iron or low-alloy steel.

Such common metallurgy is deployed in a


wide range of frictional machine surfaces
including bearing rolling elements/raceways,
gears, pistons/cylinders, cams/followers and
many others.
In fact, it would be rare if at least one of
the surfaces in frictional pairs was not
composed of iron or steel. The opposing
surface may be babbitt, brass, aluminum
or steel. Typically, it is this ferrous surface
that is the most critical to long-term
machine reliability while, in contrast, the
nonferrous may be regarded as sacrificial.
As such, a sudden change in the concentration of large ferromagnetic particles in a
lubricating oil or grease could be the telltale precursor that averts a chain reaction
failure or other catastrophic event.

Comparing Elemental Iron


In oil analysis, trending the concentration of iron by means of spectrometric
elemental analysis, is helpful and an important assessment of machine condition.
However, this is not an alternative to
ferrous density measurements. It is widely
understood that elemental spectroscopy
has limited sensitivity to particles larger
than five microns. It is also widely understood that these larger particles are
often the most reliable indication of an
impending failure condition. Many studies
have shown that the more advanced
the state of failure the larger and more
2 May - June 2005

concentrated the wear particles become. It is


even possible for elemental iron to trend
downward during the crucial period just
prior to machine failure (the calm before the
storm). As such, when it comes to wear
debris, the concentration of small particles
alone is not always a reliable indication of
the presence large particles.
Ferrous density meters are known by many
names including direct reading ferrograph,
particle quantifier, wear particle analyzer,
ferrous particle counter and so on. There are
approximately 10 different commercial
instruments targeted for use, either online or
in laboratory applications. However, most
of these are bench-level instruments
intended for on-site oil analysis laboratories.
For this reason, they are most commonly
used as a screen for analytical ferrography.
After all, it does make sense to avoid the
time and expense of preparing a ferrogram if
there are relatively few ferromagnetic particles available for inspection.

Partnering Elemental Iron


with Ferrous Density
Unlike elemental iron, most particles in
the size range detected by ferrous density
meters are also in the size range that can be
filtered. As such, if filters are in use at or
around five microns (say Beta (5) greater
than 200), then the concentration of ferrous
particles should remain fairly stable and low.
In the event that the wear rate should
sharply increase, the material balance is lost
and the equilibrium ferrous density reading
rises to a new plateau. This of course is a
reportable alarm condition. By contrast, the
concentration of elemental iron can increase
progressively over the service life of the oil,
reaching levels in excess of 100 ppm, without
concern in some cases. It is the rate of
increase of iron, not its specific concentration that typically triggers alarms.
In general though, any unusual increase in
either elemental iron or ferrous density is a
Continued on Page 4

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Volume 7 - Issue 6

Practicing Oil Analysis 3

For FREE INFORMATION Circle 3

Continued from Page 3

cause for concern. In most cases, exception


tests should be performed to better characterize the nature and severity of the
problem. By partnering elemental iron with
FD, more precise diagnostics and prognostics can usually be achieved. Following are
general guidelines on these technologies
when used in tandem:
Iron and FD Both Trending Upward
If the iron and FD rate-of-change is
normal, this is not a cause for
concern. However, eventually the oil
will need to be changed or portable
filtration deployed. High concentrations of wear metals contribute to oil
oxidation, abrasion and surface
fatigue, among others.
For a filtered system, upward trends
of both iron and FD may point to a
filter in bypass or an increasing
rate of wear.
4 May - June 2005

Iron Stable but FD Trending Upward


Common problems associated with
precipitous FD trends include misalignment, overloading, lube starvation and
other advanced wear modes.
Filter collapse or surge flow conditions
can contribute to a sudden sharp
increase in FD particles with a moderateto-no increase in elemental iron.
Shock and vibration can resuspend
large ferromagnetic particles that had
previously settled in quiescent zones of
the system.
FD Stable but Iron T rending Upward
This trend pattern may be due to the
increase of nonmagnetic iron particles
in the oil. Examples include red iron
oxide (rust) and stainless steel.
An increase in filtration capture efficiency from caking may have occurred.
Some filters improve in performance
during their service life, especially
under steady flow conditions.

Static particle settling conditions will


more rapidly affect large particles
than small particles (those detected by
elemental spectrometers). Cycling and
peaking turbine generators fall into
this category.
Abrasive wear caused by soot in diesel
engines results in iron that may not be
detected by FD meters. So too, iron
soaps which are the byproduct of antiwear and extreme pressure additives
also tend to range below the radar
screen of FD measurements.
Particles from normal rubbing wear
are also typically less than 10 microns.
In my view, machines that have critical
ferrous surfaces and high mission criticality
are great candidates for ferrous density
meters. Sadly, most commercial oil analysis
programs tend to detour around the use of
this valuable technology. Perhaps you
should review the tests included on your oil
analysis reports to see what is missing. It
could be a life-saving canary. POA

For FREE INFORMATION Circle 4

PERSPECTIVE

JASON KOPSCHINSKY
NORIA CORPORATION

Is Your Oil Analysis


Program Ready
to Retire?
I

n my Perspective column in the JanuaryFebruary issue of Practicing Oil Analysis


magazine, I discussed a situation in which an
externally contracted oil analysis program was
halted when the new maintenance manager
decided the program was nothing more than an
ineffective use of his maintenance budget. This
previous column was an example of how even the
most successful oil analysis programs can fail
under mismanagement.
Proactive maintenance programs, and oil
analysis programs in general, are often inaccurately perceived as peripheral to a plants core
maintenance function. Sadly, this occurs when
those responsible for such programs are misinformed of the significant capabilities of an
independent oil analysis program and the overwhelming potential of an oil analysis program
that is fully integrated with other predictive technologies and tied into core maintenance,
reliability and production goals.
On several occasions, while evaluating and
benchmarking oil analysis programs, it is evident
that the majority of individuals responsible for the
deployment and operation of these program are
misinformed, often through no fault of their own.

No. 1
In my experience, I have seen two kinds of oil
analysis programs. The first is a plant-wide or
corporate-wide initiative to reduce reactive maintenance, increase mechanical reliability and facilitate
root cause analysis. In this class, the goals
and desired benefits are recognized, discussed,
Continued on Page 8
6 May - June 2005

For FREE INFORMATION Circle 5

Continued from Page 6

evaluated and celebrated throughout the


plant. Education, information and awareness fuel this type of program.

No. 2
The second kind of oil analysis program is
common. This class of program, like the first,
can be plant-wide or corporate-wide. It can
be initiated from the top down or the bottom
up, with similar results. The core difference
between the two programs is that the
programs in this second category often look
and feel forced; forced down upon the
individual plant from the corporate or parent

program, and not simply satisfy a political


placement. If the goals of the oil analysis
program are not clearly defined, this oversight is often reflected in the chosen
facilitator. Selecting a facilitator usually
follows one of a few narrow paths. One of
these paths is the political scenario: The
new position must be posted internally
and the job often goes to the one with the
most seniority. Another more desirable
scenario allows the plant or maintenance
manager the flexibility to appoint the
person for the job.
This is where the uninformed plant or
maintenance manager can make or break

When appointing a champion for an oil analysis


program, it is important that the candidate have a
thorough knowledge of all lubricated equipment
within the plant.
company, or pushed up from the maintenance personnel to the plant manager. In
both cases, someone has given in.
Like most extra curricular projects in
maintenance, oil analysis programs tend to
start off small. Perhaps the lube supplier is
taking a few samples each month for
complimentary testing. Maybe you are
sampling a few of your most critical
systems to determine if an oil change is
necessary during the next scheduled shut
down. Regardless of the size of your oil
analysis program, it is important to have a
champion to own and drive the program to
success. The choice for a leader has a direct
relationship to the overall success and life
of the program. In this second kind of oil
analysis program scenario, there is often a
dilemma as to who shall be the one to ride
out this temporary assignment. Aside from
the lack of understanding, this is usually
where the program is set up for failure.
Choosing a program facilitator or
champion must reflect the goals of the
8 May - June 2005

the oil analysis program. When appointing


a champion for an oil analysis program, it
is important that the candidate have a
thorough knowledge of all lubricated
equipment within the plant. This person
must also be able to learn quickly and
adapt what he or she has learned in the
field. He must have a mechanical aptitude
and understand lubricant functions. The
best mechanic or journeyman in the
department is often perfect for this leadership role, but is unlikely to be pulled from
regular maintenance duties to participate
in such a program.
Because this class of oil analysis
program is not regarded as integral to the
overall reliability of the plants assets, it is
considered a low-stress, low-activity role perfect for the employee riding out his last
couple of years until retirement. This
program leader is often perceived as the
best choice for the position.
As the oil analysis program is commissioned, the chosen lube analyst is trained

on the principles of oil analysis and slowly


tries to implement a few of the principles
he or she truly believes in. Little progress is
made over several months because the lube
analyst is still working in other areas of the
maintenance department, and selling
concepts to management is a difficult
pursuit. Several months later after thousands of dollars have been invested, the
program has not proven effective at
increasing equipment reliability, and at
best, has dictated only a few conditionbased oil changes.
Then the long-awaited day before retirement finally arrives. Not only is the
deserving employee ready to spend the rest
of his days in an easy chair, so is the oil
analysis program he worked on for the last
several months of his employment.
Facilitating an oil analysis program that
involves only a single lube analyst can have
disappointing consequences: that all the
information he or she has acquired over the
years is not captured, applied and passed on
to successors. This holds true for many positions within the maintenance department.
The plan of attack for a world-class oil
analysis program can be summed up in
three significant steps:
1) Clearly define the goals you hope to
reach with your program.
2) Take specific actions to achieve these
goals.
3) Measure, evaluate and display the
results of your oil analysis program.
By following these simple steps, you
continuously promote the project and keep
it in the spotlight. The program will have a
much harder time getting lost in the daily
activities of the plant and will create the
awareness needed to keep it moving
forward. Make sure that education and
communication play key roles in your oil
analysis program, and that the chosen
champion does not take the oil analysis
program with him when he retires. POA

For FREE INFORMATION Circle 6

TECHNOLOGY

How Glycol Causes Corrosion


and Oil Ball Damage
In Diesel Engines
BY J.A. MCGEEHAN, CHEVRONTEXACO, AND P.R. RYASON

he bearing overlay can play a critical


role in determining bearing life. The
authors analyzed two different mechanisms of overlay removal from production
engines operating in major fleets. The first
involves the loss of tin in the overlay and
the second was due to a small coolant leak.
Both were returned at low mileage.

Overlay Loss to Tin Migration


Bearings were returned from the field due
to a camshaft bushing spinning after short
mileage: 280,000 miles (448,520 km).
An investigation into the problem revealed
that two different bearing suppliers
provided bearings for this application and
one suppliers bearing had failed more
Crankcase Oil

frequently in both engine dynamometer and


field tests. Both exhibited overlay removal
in the field.
Neither of these bushings had a nickel
dam between the overlay and the lining. In
examining new bearings from both suppliers,
it was found that the tin in the overlay had
migrated during manufacture and reacted
with the copper of the lining. Based on X-ray
diffraction analysis, the bushing with the
shortest life had formed Cu3Sn at the
overlay-lining interface. Its thickness was
approximately 77 micron inches. The overlay
contained seven percent tin. In contrast, the
other bearing formed Cu6Sn5 with a thickness of 48 micron inches. Its overlay content
was 19 percent tin.

Coolant Droplets

Oil Balls

The migration of tin from the overlay


resulted in loss of the overlay due to corrosion. When the camshaft contacted the hard
and brittle intermetallic compound of Cu3Sn,
it caused the bearing to spin, resulting in an
engine failure. The solution to the problem is
the use of a nickel dam between the overlay
and copper lining, in addition to careful
control of temperatures during bearing
manufacture to prevent tin migration.

Overlay Loss from


Coolant Leakage
In 1978, bearings with only 200,000
miles (320,100 km) were returned for
analysis to determine the cause of overlay
removal. Examination of the failed bearings in the SEM showed that there were
spherical particles embedded in the
surface. Electron beam microprobe
analysis (EBMPA) of the particles revealed
three kinds of particles:
1. White spherical particles containing the
additive elements: 50 percent calcium,
15 percent phosphorous, 6 percent
sulfur and 20 percent oxygen.

Coolant Leak

Reaction

Figure 1. Mechanism of oil ball formation


in crankcase oil with coolant leak.
10 May - June 2005

2. Black irregularly shaped particles,


mostly carbonaceous with small
amounts of calcium, phosphorous and
sulfur present.
3. Small numbers of sand (SiO2) particles
embedded in the exposed copper-lead
alloy areas.
Continued on Page 12

For FREE INFORMATION Circle 7

Continued from Page 10

The spherical particles plowed into and


embedded in the overlay. These spherical
particles were also present in the engine
sludge. The average particle sizes in the

Oils balls found in bearing overlay


(1,000x magnification)
(RSO3)2Ca +
Calcium
Alkylaryl
Sulfonate
(RO)2Ca
+
Calcium
Alkyl
Phenate
[(RO2)PS2]2Zn +
Zinc DialkyI
Dithiophosphate
3Ca(OH)2 +
Calcium
Hydroxide
3Zn(OH)2 +
Zinc
Hydroxide
+
Ca(OH)2
Calcium
Hydroxide
Zn(OH)2
+
Zinc
Hydroxide

2H2O
Water

2H2O
Water

2RSO3H
Alkylaryl
Sulphonic
Acid
2ROH
Alkyl
Phenol

10H2O
Water

2H3PO4
Phosphoric
Acid
2H3PO4
Phosphoric
Acid
H 2S
Hydrogen
Sulfide
H 2S
Hydrogen
Sulfide

4ROH
Alkyl
Alcohol
Ca3 (PO4)2
Calcium
Phosphate
Zn3 (PO4)2
Zinc
Phosphate
CaS
Calcium
Sulfide
ZnS
Zinc
Sulfide

overlay were 15 microns: in the sludge the


particle sizes ranged from 4 to 12 microns.
Shortly after this work, Magan Patel
(Cummins Engine Company) reported on
spherical particles abrading connecting rod
bearings.1 Because the elemental composition of these particles was similar to the
elemental composition of the additive
package, the term oil balls was applied to
these spherical particles. In Patels work, the
particle size range was found to be 5 to 40
microns. He also observed that coolant or
water contamination accelerated, connecting
rod bearing overlay removal by oil balls.
Laboratory experiments by Godfrey
showed that oil balls could be produced by

Ca(OH)2
Calcium
Hydroxide

Ca(OH)2
Calcium
Hydroxide

Zn(OH)2
Zinc
Hydroxide
+
6H2O
Water

6H2O
Water

H 2O
Water

4H2S
Hydrogen
Sulfide

2H3PO4
Phosphoric
Acid

mixing two percent glycol with a typical fully


formulated engine oil in a beaker at 150C
for two hours. Hydrolysis of overbased
calcium sulfonates and zinc dithiophosphates will lead to inorganic salts that, in
principle, may react to form very hard precipitates in calcium-containing oils (Table 1).
Additionally, both H2S and H3PO4 may
react with either calcium carbonate (from
the overbased detergent) or with calcium
hydroxide, forming either CaS or Ca3(PO4)2
(calcium phosphate). These reactions will
preferentially occur in the water phase. In
the crankcase, the oil is vigorously agitated
by the actions of the crankshaft and the
connecting rods. Any aqueous or glycolcontaining phase will be well dispersed in
the form of small droplets. Consequently,
precipitates that form in these droplets will
also have a spherical shape, hence the
formation of ball-like (spherical) inorganic
concretions (Figure 1). Calcium phosphate
is very hard (RC ~48). In fact, it is a major
constituent of bones and teeth. Hence,
those oil balls that survive being embedded
in overlay are likely to be those concretions
that are rich in this very hard material. POA
Reference
1. M. Patel. Influence of Oil Balls on Premature
Overlay Removal of Diesel Engine Connecting Rod
Bearings. SAE Paper 810501.

Would You Like to Contribute?

H 2O
Water
Hard Elements

Are you a technical expert? We want to publish


your oil analysis article in Practicing Oil Analysis.
To submit a technical article, review the
guidelines at www.practicingoilanalysis.com and
send your case study to jkucera@noria.com.

Table 1. Formation of oil balls. Hydrolysis reaction for calcium-containing oil.

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Every other Thursday, we e-mail Filtration Tips to thousands of lubrication professionals who want to learn
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Subscribe today at www.FiltrationTips.com


12 May - June 2005

For FREE INFORMATION Circle 8

RELIABILITY

Why System
Cleanliness?
BY DOUG MCBRIDE, TEMPLE INLAND

hy is there such a big emphasis on


oil cleanliness? The question has
been asked numerous times over the years
by maintenance technicians and managers
alike. Our oil is clean and we have no
problems to speak of is an all-too-familiar
response. In this age of evolving ideas and
technological trends, reliability has become
the answer as an increasing number of
companies make the paradigm shift to a
new accountability and better asset
performance. This article discusses oil
cleanliness and a proven methodology to
accomplish this important task.

Purpose of Cleanliness
Why is it important to improve the
cleanliness of circulating oil systems?
Circulating oil systems include bearing lube
systems, hydraulic systems and gearbox
lube systems. For years, oil cleanliness has
been somewhat of a neglected subject,
often thought of as out of sight, out of
mind. In this age of competitive markets
and small profit margins, the competitive
edge is derived from the ability to produce
the highest quality product at the lowest
cost. This is driven by consumer demand
and implemented through the concept of
Step 1

reliability. This is not a new concept, just


one that is now taking on a new importance. Reliability is about being able to rely
on equipment to produce what it is scheduled to produce, when it is scheduled to
produce it, for as long as it is scheduled to
produce it with no interruptions.
Oil is used for the purposes of
lubrication, power transmission, surface
protection, heat transfer and surface
cleansing. In order for a surface to
degrade, there must be something to
abrade it (hard particles), adhere to it
(break the lubrication boundary), or attack
it (corrosion) in some way. The primary
method of defense against degrading
forces is the lubricant film. Oil characteristically collects dust, dirt and other
contaminants unless it is purposely
prevented from doing so. Therefore, it is
the responsibility of every individual who
comes in contact with the lubricant to
prevent its contamination through
rigorous application of clearly defined
clean-handling practices.
The bare minimum requirements for
contamination control include:
1. New oil filtration. The first step in
providing clean oil is to have a good
filter in place to catch contaminants
that reside in the oil when first delivered to the plants, whether in drums,
pails or bulk deliveries. A filter system
or cart must be employed at the first
Continued on Page 16

14 May - June 2005

For FREE INFORMATION Circle 9

Continued from Page 14

intrusion into the oil container and at


each lubricant transfer thereafter.
2. Effective headspace control. If oil is
circulating in a reservoir or churning
around the inside of the housing, then
air is sure to enter, replacing the
changing volume of oil, as the air level
changes. In that instance, the air must
be filtered to remove all of the fine
particulates that suspend continually
in the atmosphere. This will help

prevent atmospheric ingression of


contaminants.
3. Effective transfer and periodic filtration capability. Quick-connects should
be installed on transfer hoses to
prevent contamination of the transfer
hose from the immediate environment
and to provide leak-free connections
to tanks or reservoirs. Quick-connects
also provide a means for off-line filtration should a contaminant level rise
above the target set for the machine.
Step 2

System Control
and Feedback
There must be a mechanism to measure
the initial condition and measure for effectiveness of any applied effort. Oil analysis
particle counting is the preferred method,
and can become a powerful tool when
conducted with precision. Sample port
location is of vital importance to the acquisition of good data.
Correctly installed sample ports on a
machine are required to get a consistent and
representative sample of oil. Without representative data, the decision-making process is
compromised. The proper location of a
sample port is upstream of a return-line filter
on the oil return to the reservoir. Locating a
sample port downstream of a filter is useless
for general system monitoring, due to the
effect of the filter trapping most of the particulate contamination, but can provide insight
on filter element effectiveness. The purpose
of a correctly installed sample port is to
monitor the complete system to determine
the condition and cleanliness levels of the oil.

Value of Knowledge

Step 3

16 May - June 2005

The most important factor contributing to


oil cleanliness is the human element. The
importance of a qualified, well-trained lubrication technician cannot be stressed enough.
The responsibility of providing clean oil to the
equipment falls squarely upon the shoulders
of the lubrication technician, or whomever is
responsible for maintaining oil levels.
He or she must be dedicated to the craft
and knowledgeable about contamination
control. The lubrication technician must
implement all of the proper procedures to
minimize the risk of contaminant ingression
and to remove the contaminants in the
supplied product. The technician must also
follow proper procedures for extracting
samples to minimize the effects of contaminants introduced when drawing the sample.
The technician is the key to the success of a
well-designed and well-implemented lubrication program.

It is a proven fact that surfaces degrade through the process of


abrasion, adhesion and corrosion. Seventy percent of all surface
degradation (machine wear) is attributed to these three factors.1
Contamination control is a systematic process that addresses
these issues. It is a complex technology that has a direct correlation with reliability.

Value of Reliability
Regarding reliability, it stands to reason that if there are fewer
particles in the oil, there will be less abrasion, adhesion and corrosion. If there is less abrasion, adhesion and corrosion, the
equipment will last longer. If the equipment lasts longer, it will
perform its designed function over a longer period of time and the
equipment will be more reliable.
In the final analysis, clean oil decreases the lifetime operating
expense on the equipment, which maximizes the lifetime usefulness, which produces a greater return on investment. Improved
reliability will put a company at the top of the ladder of preferred
manufacturers or suppliers with the highest quality product at the
lowest cost. In the end, this allows for a higher profit margin and
an increase in the shareholders return. POA
Reference
1. Professor Earnest Rabinowicz, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

For FREE INFORMATION Circle 10

For FREE INFORMATION Circle 11

Practicing Oil Analysis 17

CASE STUDY

Synchronizing
Oil Cleanliness Standards to
Machine Working Clearances
BY J.M. WEIKSNER, WESTINGHOUSE SAVANNAH RIVER

his case study discusses oil cleanliness


standards for the lubricating oils used
at Savannah River Site (SRS), a nuclear
materials management facility for the
U.S. government Department of Energy.
An evaluation of the clearances within
machine operating components and the
consequences of surface wear and particle
contamination interfering with the lubrication film between contact surfaces provide
the basis for these cleanliness standards.

More than
160,000
80,000
40,000
20,000
10,000
5,000
2,500
1,300
640
320
160
80
40
20
10
5
2.5
1.3
0.64

Particles per mL
Up to
Scale number (R)
and including
320,000
25
160,000
24
80,000
23
40,000
22
20,000
21
10,000
20
5,000
19
2,500
18
1,300
17
640
16
320
15
160
14
80
13
40
12
20
11
10
10
5
9
2.5
8
1.3
7

Table 1. Allocation of Scale Numbers


18 May - June 2005

Under normal operating conditions, maintaining these cleanliness standards is


essential to eliminating component wear
and ensures continuous functionality of the
lubricating oil properties.

Job of Lube Oil


The primary function of lubricating oil is
to separate surfaces, reduce friction and
absorb heat. Secondary responsibilities
include regulating temperature, flushing
contaminants, controlling corrosion and
providing hydromechanical performance.
Improper lubricating oil type, contaminated oil, poor equipment operation, poor
maintenance or poor component manufacturing reduce the ability of the lubricating
oil to function. These factors can disrupt
the hydrodynamic or elastohydrodynamic
(EHD) lubrication film between the
metal surfaces leading to premature wear
of the metal surfaces and high overall
operating costs.
When metal-to-metal or particle-tometal contact exists because of a loss or
interference in the lubricating film, adhesive
Shaft Size
(inches)
1
1.5
2
3
6

Class 1
(RC8-Loose)
63 to 191
83 to 228
101 to 260
132 to 315
211 to 439

and abrasive wear occurs. This generates


more friction, heat and wear particles that
further contaminate the oil. Even under
ideal conditions of manufacturing, operation and maintenance, other contaminants,
such as dirt and moisture, can get into
lubricating oil. If dirt or silica particles are
large enough they can cause interferences
between metal contact surfaces. Moisture,
on the other hand, breaks down viscosity
and alters the chemical properties of the
oil. Analysis of lubricating oil will identify
the source of a contaminant, whether the
chemical properties of the oil are intact and
if machine wear is occurring. It is important
to be able to relate results of a lubrication
analysis to the oil chemical properties, the
various types of metals used in manufacturing the rotating elements, and the
operating conditions of a machine.
Controlling oil cleanliness minimizes the
effects solid particle contamination can
have on interfering with the lubricating oil
film. It also maintains separation of the
metal surfaces.

Class 2
(RC7-Free)
35 to 102
45 to 122
55 to 142
73 to 170
117 to 239

Continued on Page 20

Class 3
(RC5/RC6-Medium)
22 to 64
30 to 76
35 to 86
48 to 124
76 to 150

Class 4
(RC4-Snug)
0 to 25
0 to 30
0 to 32
0 to 37
0 to 45

Table 2. Class of Fit, Micron Clearances; Running Class (RC) Fits RC4 to RC8

For FREE INFORMATION Circle 12

Continued from Page 18

Origin of Contamination
In addition to wear debris and dirt
(silica), solid particulate contamination in
oil can come from seals, gasket materials

and scale products in reservoirs and oil


storage containers. Regardless of the solid
contaminant type, when the size of the
particulate is greater than the clearance
between metal rotating surfaces, abrasion

The primary function of lubricating oil is to separate surfaces, reduce friction and absorb heat.
Secondary responsibilities include regulating
temperature, flushing contaminants, controlling
corrosion and providing hydromechanical
performance.
Bearing Size
(inches)

Deep Groove Ball Bearings


(microns) 3

POM Journal Bearings


(microns) 4

1
1.5
2
3
6

5 to 20
6 to 20
8 to 28
10 to 30
18 to 53

50 to 164
50 to 174
80 to 239
100 to 306
100 to 333

Table 3. Bearing Component Micron Clearances


ISO Oil Grade Classification
32
46
68
100
150
220
320
460
680

Cleanliness Code (R4/R6/R14)


16/14/11
16/14/11
17/14/12
18/15/13
18/15/13
19/16/14
19/16/14
19/16/14
20/18/14

Table 4. SRS Oil Cleanliness Standards


ISO Viscosity Grade Classification
32
46
68
100
150
220
320
460
680

Machine or Equipment Description


Hydraulics, lightly loaded slideways
Hydraulics, rotary screw compressors
Vertical motors, turbines, journal bearings, pumps
Reciprocating air compressors, angle drives, conveyors
Gear reducers, screw conveyors, feeders
Turbine drives, cooling tower drives, heavily loaded
slideways
Gear reducers
Exhausters, vacuum pumps, large conveyor drives
Gear drives
Table 5

20 May - June 2005

and fretting of the metal surfaces occurs.


Once abrasion or fretting starts, the lubricant functions are adversely affected and
additional surface damage will result. The
continuous contact between particulate
and metal generates additional wear debris
and larger particulate. To quantify the
amount and size of solid particulate
contamination in oil, the International
Organization for Standardization (ISO)
has developed standard ISO 4406:1999.
This standard, shown in Table 1, provides
the method for coding oil cleanliness based
on the solid particulate micron size and
the amount of that size particulate present
in the oil. Oil cleanliness standards
established by ISO in 1999 correlate to
the identification of solid particulate
measuring 4, 6 and 14 microns in size
(represented as R4/R6/R14) according to the
quantity of these solid particles found per
each milliliter of oil.
The ISO particulate size classification
R4/R6/R14 can be compared to tolerances
(fits) or clearances between machined
components. Methods for calculating the
running and sliding fits for machined
components are established by the
American Standards Association (ASA)
B4.1.1 Table 2 provides the typical clearances in microns for various shaft size and
shaft/housing combinations and for
various machine fit classifications.
Most industrial plant equipment is
manufactured to either a Class 2 or Class 3
fit. Precision rotating components such as
rolling element bearings are manufactured
to closer clearances between contacting
metal surfaces. Table 3 provides the
normal static unmounted manufacturer
internal clearances for a typical deep
groove ball bearing and a polyoxymethylene (POM) composite journal bearing for
the same shaft sizes as shown in Table 2. (It
should be noted that internal rolling
element clearances will vary between the
type of rolling element bearing such as a
deep groove ball bearing and a spherical

roller bearing. Typically the internal clearances for other types of rolling element
bearings will be greater than the values
shown in Table 2 for the deep groove ball
bearing. It should also be noted that a
POM composite bearing consists of materials such as tin, bronze, steel and copper
components that will start to show up in
lubricating oil should friction occur
between rotating surfaces. Bearing manufacturers offer more precision-made
bearings with closer internal clearances as
well as bearings with greater-than-normal
internal clearance. Care should be taken to
ensure the correct bearing is selected for a
given application and procedures are
adhered to for proper installation.)
Although the clearances shown in Tables
2 and 3 appear to provide sufficient separation of metal surfaces for particles in a
R4/R6/R14 size classification, when rolling
element bearings are installed properly, the
clearance is reduced to approximately half
the values shown in Table 3. For example, a
one-inch rolling element bearing installed
on a Class 2 or Class 3 machined one-inch
shaft will have an operating or running
clearance between 2.5 and 10 microns
when installed properly. If the installed
one-inch bearing is lubricated with oil
containing solid contamination of any
source that is equal to or greater than 2.5
microns, abrasive or fretting wear may
occur. An operating or running clearance
would typically be between these values
except for the highly loaded areas of
the rotating components. A significant
amount of particulate contamination in
lubricating oil that is greater than the
clearance between contact surfaces will
generate noise and vibration, and raise
operating temperature due to the heat
caused by increased friction. It is therefore
important to have good maintenance,
good operating practices, trained
mechanics and oil free of solid particulate
contamination.

For FREE INFORMATION Circle 13

Clearances
Other types of oil-lubricated components
such as gears, hydraulic motors, hydraulic
pumps and compressors are equally important when considering oil cleanliness and
the effect solid particulate contamination
can have on the rotating metal surfaces.
Enclosed helical, herringbone, bevel, spur

and worm gears are manufactured to clearance ranges between 0 to 203 microns.
Because of the extreme contact pressures
and slower operating speeds of gear
rotating drives, higher viscosity lubricating
oils with extreme pressure additives are
used. Unit contact pressures between
Continued on Page 22

Practicing Oil Analysis 21

the primary equipment components such


as gears or rotors, the same system oil may
be lubricating the shaft bearings and seals.
One must consider all equipment components in establishing an oil cleanliness code
that correlates to smallest clearance maintained between contacting surfaces.
Once cleanliness codes are established, oil
samples should be taken periodically
from operating equipment and storage
containers to determine if contamination is
present. When contamination is found, the
origin or source can be determined by identifying the particle material and type of
wear that is occurring.

Cleanliness Codes

For FREE INFORMATION Circle 14

Continued from Page 21

particle contaminant and metal surfaces in


gears and bearings can exceed 500,000 psi,
causing significant surface wear. Hydraulic
components including actuators, pumps
and motors have tolerances as close as 5
microns for high-pressure components and
20 microns for low-pressure components.
Rotary screw compressors operate with
22 May - June 2005

rotor end clearances up to 102 microns and


rotor-to-rotor clearances up to 76 microns.
The clearances between rotating
surfaces for each equipment type and the
operating conditions determine the
maximum particulate size that can be
present in the oil before abrasion or fretting occurs due to particulate interference.
Even when clearances are understood for

The majority of rotating equipment at


SRS is manufactured to a Class 2 or Class 3
fit typical of most industrial operations.
Exceptions to this have been identified in
hydraulic components and rotary screw
compressors where closer tolerances exist
between sliding and rotating elements.
Rolling element and journal bearings can
be found in all rotating equipment at
SRS. Clearances in hydraulic components,
rotary screw compressors and bearings are
used to establish an acceptable oil cleanliness that minimizes chances of surface
wear. Table 4 provides the recommended
cleanliness codes for all types and equipment configurations at SRS.
These cleanliness code standards should
be used for both new oil shipped to the site
and for establishing contamination alarm
levels on machines. The allowable level of
particulate for each of the cleanliness
codes is quantified according to Table 1.
Periodic oil samples should be taken to
determine if the oil particulate is within or
below these cleanliness levels. Anytime the
level of particulate concentration exceeds
the established cleanliness code, the oil
should be filtered to remove contaminants
or changed. Removing particulate contamination will prevent surface wear, increase
machine reliability and prolong the life of

the rotating elements. If contamination is


found in new oil, the oil should be returned
to the supplier. Table 5 shows typical
machines or equipment at SRS where the
various ISO viscosity grade oils are used.
The original equipment manufacturer
(OEM) for each machine or equipment
type will provide recommendations for oils
that will conform to one of the ISO oil
grade classifications shown in Table 5.
Once the ISO oil grade classification is
determined, the recommended cleanliness
codes can be used for procurement of new
oil and for monitoring oil cleanliness in
operating equipment. The next higher scale
value for each type oil in service and cleanliness code should be used for establishing
alarms and for initiation of a process for
determining the source of particulate
contaminant. POA
Contributors
1.
2.
3.
4.

Edward M. Blackford, Eaton Corporation


Raymond J. Dalley, Predict USA
Matthew E. McCormack, SKF USA
Shannon Moses, Westinghouse Savannah River
Company
5. Stan R. Parrott, Caterpillar, Inc.
6. Charlie Robinson, Air Centers of SC, Inc.
(Ingersoll-Rand)
7. Donald J. Smolenski, General Motors

References
1. Baumeister and Marks. Standard Handbook for
Mechanical Engineers 7th Edition. McGraw-Hill
Book Company, 1967. p. 8-61 to 8-64. See also
http://homepages.cwi.nl/~dik/english/codes/
stand.html
2. Hall, Holowenko and Laughlin. Schaums
Outline Series Theory and Problems of Machine
Design. McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1961.
3. SKF USA Inc. SKF Product Guide. Publication
100-700, Version 6/2002.
4. SKF USA Inc. SKF Composite Dry Sliding
Bearings Maintenance-free and Space-saving.
Publication 4413E, 1999.

Send Us Your Case Study


We want to publish your success story in Practicing
Oil Analysis. To submit your case study, review the
guidelines at www.practicingoilanalysis.com and
send your case study to jkucera@noria.com.
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Practicing Oil Analysis 23

LAB REVIEW

Polaris Expands
into Western Market
A

bundant opportunities in the


western mining and off-highway
markets have warranted further expansion
of Polaris Laboratories, a steadily growing
fluid analysis company now located across
the United States.
Polaris provides complete testing and
analysis for used oils, fuels, coolants and
water-based industrial fluids as well as
training and consultation services. It has
a diverse customer base with a heavy
emphasis on the mining, construction,
industrial, transportation and power generation industries. The company opened a

new testing facility in Salt Lake City, Utah in


February, making it the third testing facility
Polaris has opened since its inception less
than six years ago.
According to Polaris Chief Executive
Officer Bryan Debshaw, the new laboratory will increase total production capacity
by more than 8,000 samples per month,
allowing it to take on the largest oil analysis
programs in the southwestern part of
the country.
The Salt Lake City facility establishes a
solid Polaris presence in a number of
prominent western markets, Debshaw

said. And it makes a Polaris laboratory


accessible by ground transit within 48
hours from nearly anywhere in the continental United States.
Even with the addition of PolarisSalt
Lake, Debshaw emphasizes that Polaris is
one lab with three locations.
Every location shares the same common
database, he said. Information remains
accurate and accessible to the customer no
matter which location is used for testing.
Access to a bigger and more diverse
marketplace and increasing customer
demand for reliable, quality testing and
fluid analysis training and development are
two immediate factors expected to affect
the new laboratorys early performance.
The Salt Lake facilitys initial production estimates may be rather conservative
and could easily double within 12 to 18
months, said Jeff White, chief science
officer for Polaris.
Headquartered in Indianapolis with a
location in Houston, a production hub of
the worlds oil and gas industry, Polaris is
setting a pace for growth unmatched
in the industry. Polaris, an acronym for
Performance Oil Analysis Laboratory and
Reliable Information Services, is a testament
to the companys emphasis on customer
education and its focus on quality service
initiatives, innovative software applications
and creative information technology (IT)
Continued on Page 26

24 May - June 2005

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For FREE INFORMATION Circle 17

Continued from Page 24

solutions that support the Polaris belief that


proper oil analysis pays off.
Any lab can perform basic tests and
report the results, said Mark Minges, chief
operations officer. Customers should be
able to expect proper methods and accurate results. We focus on the potential that
lies beyond these expectations and thats
how Polaris sets itself apart.

technical support and cutting-edge IT and


data management solutions. The companys
Indianapolis and Houston facilities are
both ISO 17025-certified and accredited
by A2LA. Plans for Salt Lake certification
are in progress.
Polaris management firmly believes ISO
17025 is vital to ensuring consistency in
testing and results reporting. An evolution
of the former ISO Guide 25, ISO 17025 is

Polaris Laboratories provides timely, accurate


data to improve our customers equipment reliability and to reduce their maintenance costs. We do
this by ensuring that all activities are conducted in
strict accordance with our documented quality
system that meets or exceeds the requirements of
ISO 17025 - the Polaris Quality Policy.
The backbone of the companys commitment to superior customer service is
two-fold. First and foremost, Polaris has
become a proven leader in the oil analysis
industry by consistently providing highquality data, fast turnaround, knowledgeable

Figure 2. Polaris Laboratories uses


elemental analysis by inductively-coupled
plasma (ICP) to detect up to 24
elements, measuring less than 5
microns, that can be present in used oil
due to wear, contamination or additives.
26 May - June 2005

now the international standard for calibration and testing laboratories.


ISO 17025 mandates that we formulate
and operate in strict accordance with a documented quality system one that maintains
consistency by monitoring all laboratory and

Figure 3. Titrators are used to determine


both the acid number, or acidity, and
base number, or alkalinity, of an oil.
Increased acidity may indicate oxidation, additive depletion or a change in
the oils operating environment.

administrative processes, procedures, equipment and personnel in order to generate


technically valid results that are traceable
back to the standard, Debshaw said.
Minges states that although ISO 9000
also requires the development of a system
for monitoring quality and consistency,
ISO 17025 demands much more.
ISO 17025s requirements for validating
results, establishing degrees of uncertainty
and conducting proficiency testing are
what distinguish it from ISO 9000, he
said. ISO 17025 certification not only tells
our customers were good at what we do,
but it also tells them were consistent.
As a result, approved methodologies,
including standard operating procedures,
good laboratory practices and environmentally controlled and appropriately maintained
and calibrated equipment have become the
foundation for ensuring quality Polaris
products and services. In keeping with its
philosophy of always exceeding expectations,
the company took ISO 17025 one step further
by obtaining accreditation from A2LA.
A2LAs accreditation of a laboratorys
compliance with ISO 17025 is the highest
level of quality attainable by a testing
laboratory, Minges added. A2LA is dedicated to formally recognizing competent
testing and calibration laboratories and is
considered the most stringent accrediting
body in the industry.
Polaris has written a quality policy,
established a quality system and developed
a quality manual to make this information
available to all laboratory and administrative staff.
These documents serve as the basis for
evaluating the integrity of our tests and
associated reports, Debshaw added.
In addition to quality and consistency,
Polaris places tremendous effort behind
educating its customers. Management
believes that education and effective
communication are invaluable to the
companys overall success at building loyal,

long-standing customer relationships,


according to Debshaw.
Training and educating our customers on
the importance of not only doing oil analysis
but doing it well saves many of them millions
of dollars a year in lost production and
equipment replacement costs, Debshaw
said. The benefits then become obvious.
The companys motto from the beginning Its not just oil analysis, its what we do with
it - still holds true three laboratories later.
Polaris completes most routine testing
within 24 to 48 hours with results
available almost immediately through the
companys free internet reporting service,
Horizon. Customers may also receive their
data via e-mailed files and choose to house
and manage all of their oil analysis
information on their own PC by downloading it into Compass. Developed
exclusively to help Polaris customers make
timely maintenance decisions that improve
asset reliability, both Horizon and
Compass software packages provide a high
standard of performance, according to
Don Woods, chief information officer.
While both programs offer extensive
data management capabilities, Horizon is
designed for those somewhat less technically adept with computers and computer
software, Woods said. Compass appeals
to the power user interested in utilizing the
most sophisticated data mining software
available in the oil analysis industry.
Both programs allow users to get more
for their oil analysis dollar with a series of
reports that monitor oil analysis program
effectiveness.
In-depth reporting capabilities, such as
sample scheduling, sample volume and
sample frequency reports ensure that
sampling is conducted at the proper intervals, Woods said. Severity summary and
problem summary reports quickly pinpoint
maintenance issues, bring focus to a maintenance plan and justify the value of
performing oil analysis and doing it well.

For FREE INFORMATION Circle 18

Each program can generate a turnaround


time report that tracks time elapsed
between the date a sample was taken, the
date it was received by the laboratory and
the date processing was completed.
Identifying bottlenecks throughout the
process maximizes the amount of time
allowed to react to problems, Woods

added. Remember, its not just oil analysis


its what we do with it that makes a
difference to our customers. POA
POLARIS Laboratories
Web site: www.polarislabs.com
7898 Zionsville Road
Indianapolis, IN 46268
Phone: 317-808-3750
Fax: 317-808-3751
Practicing Oil Analysis 27

PRODUCT REVIEW

Vibration Analyzer
Performs Multiple Tasks
D

iagnostic Instruments launches the


Di-440, a new concept in vibration
analysis instrumentation. The Di-440 redefines traditional approaches to vibration
analysis, simplifying the process for those
involved in industrial maintenance, servicing and inspection or the manufacture of
rotating and reciprocating machinery.
The manufacturer has combined the
latest handheld computing technology
with a flexible range of analysis modules to
create a multifunctional easy-to-use tool.

The Concept
The Di-440 provides a simple, userfriendly instrument for a wide range of
maintenance, inspection and analysis
applications. In effect, it combines several
instruments into one rugged handheld
device. The Di-440 allows the user the flexibility to choose from a range of test and
analysis applications. These modular tools
include a user configurable conformance
checker that utilizes existing ISO/BS/ANSI
standards or can be customized by the
user, allowing him to create his own standards. Further applications include a
spectrum analyzer with an easy-to-use
phase vector readout, dual plane static
and dynamic balancing and a
recorder/data logger module.
The key to the Di-440s flexibility is
its modular approach to analysis. Users
can select the applications they require,
creating an instrument tailored to their
needs. Further modules can be installed
later if requirements change, ensuring a
flexible upgrade path without having to
invest in new hardware.

Unique Features
The user-friendly setup of the Di-440 is
its key to success. Each application features
on-screen help and provides a set of
instructions. Images or engineering drawings of actual machinery and transducer
drawings can be downloaded onto the
30 May - June 2005

Di-440 to ensure that measurements are


taken correctly.
To meet the needs of the consultant, the
Di-440 allows a hardcopy to be sent directly
to a portable printer while still in the field.
Data can also be imported directly into
Excel for reporting and graphical representations without the need for additional
software.

The Hardware
At the core of the Di-440 lies a cuttingedge mobile computer. This handheld PC
incorporates the same technologies as the
leading commercial PDA devices currently
available, including a 400 MHz Xscale
processor and large internal flash memory.
The result is a powerful device with rapid
processing power capable of taking highresolution measurements. The Di-440s
large color display is readable in any
lighting condition. The instrument also
utilizes Microsofts Windows CE.net operating system, thus providing seamless
connectivity into the PC environment.
Data is easily transferred using ActiveSync
and high-speed USB comms. The large
64-megabyte internal memory and the
choice of SD/MMC, CF or PCMICA
external storage options ensure problemfree data storage.
The rugged Di-440 has a multiple twometer drop test rating and IP 65 sealing to
protect against dust and water ingress. POA

For FREE INFORMATION Circle 19

Moisture Sensor

Particle Monitor
HACH Ultra Analytics offers its PM4000, an
on-line liquid particle monitor that captures realtime contamination and condition information,
understands system dynamics and trends wear
debris levels. The monitor reduces oil sampling,
maintenance costs and downtime, according to
manufacturer. Features long-life laser diode, 0.5 ISO
code accuracy, high-temperature and pressure
capabilities, and port for bottle sampling and
on-line auditing. Large flow path eliminates
blockage. In sizes 4, 6, 14 and 21 m (ISO MTD).

Parkers MS100 moisture sensor provides a


compact, real-time solution to continuous water
contamination condition monitoring in hydraulic
and lubricating systems. It operates with
petroleum/synthetic hydraulic and lubricating oil,
and a phosphate ester version can be specified.
The LaserCM particle analyzer combines laser
technology with white-light six-channel
contamination monitoring. The unit offers a twominute test time, data logging, instant data
retrieval from the handset, 32-character alphanumeric data entry, graphing, automatic logging
of tests via user handset input, storage and data
download into trend analysis software.
For FREE INFORMATION Circle 21

pH and Conductivity Meter


WPA Ltd. introduces the CCMD510, a
combined pH and conductivity meter with
programmable functions such as stability,
electrode diagnosis and auto buffer recognition.
The electrode includes built-in ATC for minimal air
bubble entrapment during measurement. Using
the instrument for both pH and conductivity
testing increases flexibility and provides an
economic method for analysis, according to
manufacturer. Includes a conductivity cell k=10,
pH combination electrode, integral electrode
stand and selection of calibration sachets.
For FREE INFORMATION Circle 22

For FREE INFORMATION Circle 20

Sample Preparation
Teledyne Leeman Labs offers the Profile Plus
ICP spectrometer as an alternative to atomic
absorption spectroscopy. Features include full
wavelength coverage (170 to 780 nm); axial,
radial and dual-view configurations; and onpeak integration for accuracy and precision.
With easy-to-use software, on-line help and
built-in maintenance scheduler. Operating
parameters are computer-controlled, including
sample handling with built-in peristaltic pump.
Spectrometer is self-contained and fits on a
standard lab bench.

PANalytical offers the MiniFuse 2, a


semiautomatic, low-cost, bench-top sample
preparation system for analysis using X-ray
fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy. A platinum
crucible is loaded with accurately weighed
sample and flux. The bead is then heated
automatically to between 1,000C and
1,300C, cast, then cooled for analysis. This
flexible process is suitable for the preparation of
beads from cements, ores, slag, sediments, soils,
rocks, ceramics and metals. Benchtop system
installs on any table. Operation requires only
main power, a cooling water supply and a
standard laboratory exhaust.

The Envirofuge centrifuge removes particle


contaminants to less than 0.5 micron. Centrifugal
force over 2,000 Gs drives contaminants to the
sides of the turbine where theyre compacted into
solid cake for easy disposal. Extends oil life
and time between overhauls, according to
manufacturer MagStar Technologies. By-pass
systems allows for easy installation, cleaning and
continuous engine operation.

For FREE INFORMATION Circle 23

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ICP Spectrometer

32 May - June 2005

Oil Centrifuge

CASE STUDY

Oil Analysis Implementation


for First Energy Services
BY BRETT WINBERG, LUBETRAK

irst Energy Services is an aggressive oil


field construction company operating
more than 125 pieces of Caterpillar equipment and more than 400 pickups and trucks
serving a majority of oil field needs. Its core
business consists of building oil drilling
pads, pipeline construction, fabricating
wells, pipe cleaning and similar jobs. Robbie
Weakland is the company maintenance
operations manager and Billy Waite is the
lead technician at First Energy Services.
As maintenance specialists in their
respective fields, they applied routine

lubrication-related practices including


250-hour engine oil drain intervals for all
Caterpillar equipment and 10,000-mile intervals for over-the-road trucks. Maintaining the
schedule in a geographically distributed operation proved difficult.

Looking for Improvements


Weakland and Waite were interested in
reducing the cost of maintaining the large
fleet of vehicles and machines. With the
assistance from a recognized lubrication
specialist, the group determined that some

improvement could be achieved through


the use of higher performance products.
Following much testing and analysis, the
consultant determined that the quality of
the oils in use was not as high as the
company originally believed. With hard
work and determined mechanics, all of the
equipment and trucks were changed over
to the new brand of oil and fewer lubrication-related problems occurred. However,
large amounts of money were still being
spent on repairs and the desired results
were not fully achieved.

The Next Step


Weakland and Waite attended an oil
analysis training class just before the final
maintenance decision was made to change
lubricants, filters and maintenance
practices. They were introduced to the
concepts of proactive maintenance and
condition-based machine monitoring,
which the two believed held promise for
continued improvements.
To test the concept, they upgraded the
oil analysis program with the help of
LubeTrak to begin to monitor, track and
trend all oil analysis results, including
contaminants, lubricant health and
machine condition properties. The objective was to establish a base line on all the
Caterpillar equipment and identify which
units might be problematic for the coming
production year.
Continued on Page 36
34 May - June 2005

For FREE INFORMATION Circle 26

For FREE INFORMATION Circle 27

For FREE INFORMATION Circle 28

Continued from Page 34

The next objective was to evaluate


pickups and over-the-road trucks.
Additionally, the company tested the use of
off-line filters on cross-country vehicles to
test the prospect of reducing the total
required maintenance. Through the
analysis program, First Energy found
other problems with its engines,
transmissions and other components.

Item
Monthly repair cost
before oil analysis
Monthly repair cost
after oil analysis
Cost of sample
Downtime
percent before
Downtime
percent after

The day it began to fall into perspective


was when high levels of potassium and
positive glycol were reported on a scraper
engine oil sample. Taking the labs advice,
mechanics resampled the engine at 100
hours with the same results. The equipment was immediately shut down and
inspected to determine the root cause,
which was found to be a blown head
gasket. The repair bill for the head gasket

Caterpillar
Equipment
$35,975.00

Heavy
Haul Trucks
$24,400.00

Pumps and
Pickup Trucks
Stationary Equipment
$8000.00
$12,000.00

$22,790.00

$12,220.00

$4900.00

$7700.00

$14.95 Each
57%

$14.95 Each
42%

$14.95 Each
40%

$10.95 Each
38%

39%

19%

13%

9%

Table 1. Oil Analysis Savings


36 May - June 2005

was $400 and saved a $15,000 engine,


thanks to an oil sampling program.
The company has since implemented a
program covering all of the equipment,
from engines to final drives.

Providing Results
Since implementing the new analysis
program, lubricant and maintenance costs
have declined. In particular, new oil and filter
purchases and disposal costs have been
significantly reduced. First Energy Services
has also added training programs for
mechanics and operators to ensure everyone
understands the need for quality and repeatable oil sample collection, and it has installed
proper sample ports on the majority of the
equipment to ensure that a clean representative sample is collected every time.
Savings from improved lubricant quality
and improved oil analysis methods average
$32,765 per month at present, as shown in
Table 1 which shows the savings after using
an oil analysis program. POA

For FREE INFORMATION Circle 29

For FREE INFORMATION Circle 30

May 2005

June 2005

Machinery Lubrication I
9-10 Orapa, Botswana
17-19 Minneapolis, MN
18-19 Buenos Aires, Argentina
18-19 Gdansk, Poland
18-19 Santa Cruz, Bolivia

Effective Contamination Control


9-10 Chester, United Kingdom
20-21 Sunninghill, Johannesburg
South Africa
27-28 Durban, South Africa

Machinery Lubrication II
11-12 Orapa, Botswana
18-19 Bogot, Colombia
Best Practices for Machinery Lubrication I
23-27 Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Oil Analysis for Engineers
30-31 Sunninghill, Johannesburg
South Africa
Oil Analysis I Mobile Equipment Focus
23-24 Pretoria, South Africa
Oil Analysis II Mobile Equipment Focus
25-26 Pretoria, South Africa
Effective Mobil Equipment Lubrication
10-12 Cape Town, South Africa

Effective Mobile Equipment Lubrication


21-23 Boksburg, South Africa
22-24 Sunninghill, Johannesburg
South Africa
28-29 Monterrey, Mexico
29- July 1 Durban, South Africa
Machinery Lubrication I
6-8 Chester, United Kingdom
13-14 Barcelona, Spain
20-21 Antofagasta, Chile
22-24 So Paulo, Brazil
Machinery Lubrication II
15-16 Newark, NJ
15-16 Barcelona, Spain
22-23 Antofagasta, Chile
22-23 Buenos Aires, Argentina
22-23 Gdansk, Poland
Oil Analysis I
6-8 Orapa, Botswana
13-15 Chester, United Kingdom
14-16 Newark, NJ

ICML certification
testing is available
after most of the
courses listed.
Please visit
www.lubecouncil.org
for more information
on certification and
test dates.
(Course is presented in the native
language of the country unless
otherwise noted.)

For more information


on seminar dates and
registration, visit:
www.noria.com or call
800.597.5460

BELIEVE IT OR NOT

Human Error
Destroyed a Gear Box
BY DAVID TROCEL, FERTINITRO

five-year old single reduction


conveyor drive was taken out of
service for a scheduled preventive maintenance inspection and was disassembled.
Prior to the inspection (disassembly), the
unit had been in operation with routine
vibration based surveillance for a full year
since the previous PM inspection. There
was no indication of any mechanical defect
based on the vibration-based condition
assessments.
The craftsman was supposed to disassemble the gearbox, allow for a visual
inspection and then reassemble the
gearbox. After inspecting the gearbox, a

supervisor decided that components were


in sufficiently good condition for
continued use and instructed the
craftsman to clean and reassemble the
unit. The only work performed on the
gearbox was cleaning and an oil change.
The gasket was replaced with one made in
the company shop.
During assembly, the gasket was improperly installed in such a manner that the
gasket blocked the vent port. Once the unit
was put into operation, internal heat lead
to expansion which, with the plugged relief
port, lead to the pressurization of the
gearbox, rupture of the oil seal and loss of

all of the lubricant. The gearbox ran for 48


hours before catastrophic failure of the
pinion teeth occurred, as shown in Figure 3.
As a result of the failure, the site initiated
a triple-redundant visual inspection and
check-off requirement for all machines
disassembled for PM activity, wherein the
machine must be inspected by three
different personnel prior to final closure
and assembly.
In the final synopsis, the site concluded
the following:
1. The root cause of the failure was
breather port blockage, as shown in
Figure 2.
2. The mechanics homemade seal
contributed to the failure, as shown in
Figure 1.
3. Lack of supervision contributed to the
failure.
4. The mechanics low knowledge and
skill level also contributed to the
failure.

Additional Thoughts
by the Technical Editor
A depot level disassembly is a thoroughly invasive procedure. Under the best
of circumstances, start-up failure risk is
high following a rebuild. Based on the
apparent condition, without the invasive
human intervention this unit would probably not have failed. What were the options
that could have prevented this occurrence?
Figure 1. Gasket Blocking the Vent Hole
38 May - June 2005

Continued on Page 40

For FREE INFORMATION Circle 31

Continued from Page 38

Figure 2. Vent Hole Behind the Gasket

Figure 3. Severe Wear on the Pinion Gear

1. Add oil analysis as a routine surveillance


tool. The unit was under surveillance
with vibration technology, a useful tool
by itself. Routine oil analysis could have
provided precisely the type of information that reliability management at the
site required to decide to NOT disassemble the gearbox.
2. Training in the use of the available tools.
Vibration-based analysis conducted
properly can tell much of the integrity of
the rotating components, including
gearing condition. Gear condition
analysis is, however, a fairly complex
and difficult exercise. Whether vibration- or oil analysis-based condition
assessment is used, the workman and
supervisors all need to thoroughly
understand how to conduct the measurement and how to interpret the
results in order to believe the analysis
once the data is compiled.
3. Precision repair and rebuild training. It is
a seemingly small thing to make a seal at
the site rather than purchase a seal
designed for the unit from the OEM.
If the seal were properly installed, it may
have been irrelevant. However, a combination of poor understanding of the seal
functional requirement, and a poor
understanding of the need for precision
in installation led to the failure.
4. Review the philosophy of disassembly
for inspection. The risk of catastrophic
failure is great following a rebuild.
Under the best of circumstances, it is
difficult to rebuild anything without
changing some conditions to a less
desirable state. This particular failure
aptly reveals the problem with scheduled replacement or disassembly of
machines. POA

Get case studies about machine condition monitoring and predictive maintenance delivered right to your e-mail inbox bi-weekly.
Subscribe to Norias FREE e-mail newsletter Reliability Case Studies.
Every other Thursday we publish a new case study about how maintenance professionals have used predictive maintenance
technologies like vibration analysis, oil analysis, thermography, and motor current analysis in their reliability programs.

Subscribe today at www.ReliabilityWorld.com


40 May - June 2005

For FREE INFORMATION Circle 33

For FREE INFORMATION Circle 32

For FREE INFORMATION Circle 34

Hand-picked Books for Oil Analysis Professionals

Welcome to Practicing Oil Analysis Bookstore,


designed to spotlight oil analysis-related books.
For a complete listing of books of interest to oil analysis
professionals, check out the Practicing Oil Analysis
Web site at www.practicingoilanalysis.com

NEW
Lubrication Excellence/
Reliability World 2005
Conference Proceedings
Publisher: Noria Corporation
Price: $95.00

Industry Practices for


Electric Motor Bearing
Lubrication
Publisher: Noria Corporation
Price: $129.00

NEW
The Oil Analysis
Handbook
Authors: John Evans and
Trevor Hunt
Price: $69.95

Oil Analysis Basics


Authors: Drew Troyer and
Jim Fitch
Price: $40.00

How to Select A Motor


Oil and Filter for Your
Car or Truck
Author: Jim Fitch
Price: $19.95

How to Sample Oil


Wall Chart
40 x 28
Price: $29.00

42 May - June 2005

For descriptions, complete table of contents and


excerpts from these and other oil analysis-related
books, and to order online visit:

www.practicingoilanalysis.com
or call
1-800-597-5460, ext. 104

You Will Learn How To:


Read and understand oil analysis reports
Tell if you are using the wrong oil
Squeeze maximum life out
of lubricants
Set optimum oil analysis limits
Reduce oil consumption
for easy, near-term savings

Most maintenance programs


achieve only 10 percent of the
benefits available from oil analysis ...
Learn how to get the most out
of oil analysis by attending
these powerful
training sessions.

Enroll Today

800-597-5460
Offering ICML Level I & II
MLA Certification Testing

Level I

Level II

New York, NY

Pittsburgh, PA

June 14-16

July 10-21

Toronto, ON

Las Vegas, NV

August 2-4

Sept. 20-22

New Orleans, LA
Nov. 8-10
Presented By:

Copyright 2005

CERTIFICATION UPDATE

Recently Certified
Professionals
The International Council for Machinery Lubrication (ICML) would like to congratulate professionals worldwide
who have recently achieved certified status through ICMLs certification programs. ICML offers certification in
the areas of Oil Analysis and Machinery Lubrication. The following is a list of recently certified professionals in
the area of Machinery Lubrication who have attained their status as a certified Machine Lubricant Analyst (MLA)
or a certified Machine Lubrication Technician (MLT). Well done!
Jose Aguilar
MLA I, Pro-Lube International Ltd.

Doug Andrus
MLA I, General Mills

Hugh Benedict
MLA I, Metso Minerals

Stephen Blough
MLA I, V&M Star

Timo Bohnacker
MLA I, Holcim (US) Inc.

Victor Costec

MLA I, Cargill Foods

Matt Edwards

MLA I, AET Films

Edgardo Estofanero

MLA I, Sociedad Minera Cerro Verde

Dwayne Jenkins

Jamie Farquhar
David Floyd

MLA I, Guardian Industries

MLA I, Finning Canada


MLA I, International Paper

Ioan Gavris

MLA I, Cargill Foods

MLA I, Pemex Gas &


Petroquimica Basica

MLA I, Standard Gypsum L.P.

Fernando Celestino

Eduardo Hesse
MLA I, Cia.Minera Antamina S.A.
MLA I, Kaydon Custom
Filtration Corp.

Roberto Bustos

MLA I, Cargill Foods

Jon Hershey
MLA I, Pfizer, Inc.

Randy Hall

Randy Hardin

MLA I, Phillips Petroleum Co.

Sam Jewell
Ashley Mayer
MLA I, Noria Corp.

Dale McPhie
MLA I, Pall Corp.

Abe Mejos
MLA I, Cargill Foods

Dan Miller

MLA I, Norske Canada

Jennifer Thorson
MLA I, Cargill

Bob Pearson

Miguel Tokumori

Michael Rainey

MLA I, Sociedad Minera


Cerro Verde

Hever Rascon

MLA I, Texas Genco LLC

Ray Rowen

MLA I, CP&L/Progress Energy

MLA I, Norske Canada


MLA II, Aerospace Testing Alliance
MLA I, Herra Mag S.A. de C.V.
MLA I, Lincoln Electric Systems

Mark Smith

LLA I, Analysts, Inc.

Steve Sullins

MLA I MLA II, Cargill

Brad Thorp

MLA I, Calpine Corp.

Robert Walker
Mike Watford
Robert Winters
MLA II, Entergy Services

James Yarboro
MLA I, CP&L/Progress Energy

Takeshi Yoshinaga
MLA I, The Japan Atomic Power Co.

ICML Exam Calendar

ICML regularly holds exam


sessions throughout the
United States and the world.
Upcoming dates and locations for ICML exam sessions
are listed. ICML can also
coordinate exams locally.
Contact the ICML to coordinate an exam in your area. For
more information e-mail
info@lubecouncil.org or call
918-742-2950.
Exams are available in the
following languages:
English
Spanish
Portuguese
Korean

5/12/2005 A b e r d e e n , S c o t l a n d

6/25/2005 S o P a u l o , S P - B r a z i l

LLA I MLA I MLA II MLT I

MLA I MLT I

5/20/2005 B o g o t , D . C . - C o l o m b i a

7/22/2005 Enid, OK - USA

LLA I MLA I MLA II MLT I

MLT I

5/20/2005 M i n n e a p o l i s , M N - U S A

7/22/2005 P i t t s b u r g h , P A - U S A

LLA I MLA I MLA II MLT I

LLA I MLA I MLA II MLT I MLT II

6/3/2005 S u n n i n g h i l l , J o h a n n e s b u r g
South Africa

LLA I MLA I MLA II MLT I

LLA I MLA I MLA II MLT I

7/29/2005 S a n t i a g o , C h i l e

6/8/2005 C h r i s t l e t o n , C h e s t e r - U K

7/30/2005 Mexico City (Col. Jurez),


D.F. - Mexico

MLT I

LLA I MLA I MLA II MLT I

6/15/2005 C h r i s t l e t o n , C h e s t e r - U K

8/5/2005 S u n n i n g h i l l , J o h a n n e s b u r g
South Africa

LLA I MLA I MLA II

6/17/2005 N e w a r k , N J - U S A

LLA I MLA I MLA II MLT I

LLA I MLA I MLA II MLT I MLT II

8/5/2005 T o r o n t o , O N - C a n a d a

6/24/2005 A n t o f a g a s t a , C h i l e

LLA I MLA I MLA II MLT I

LLA I MLA I MLA II MLT I

6/24/2005 B u e n o s A i r e s , A r g e n t i n a

8/19/2005 S u n n i n g h i l l , J o h a n n e s b u r g
South Africa

LLA I MLA I MLA II MLT I

LLA I MLA I MLA II MLT I

For information regarding the MLA certification or any other ICML


certification program, please visit www.lubecouncil.org
44 May - June 2005

For FREE INFORMATION Circle 35

ADVICE FOR
YOUR LUBRICATION
PROGRAM!
Learn the best practices for selecting, applying,
storing and disposing lubricants. Subscribe to
Machinery Lubrication Magazine today!
To subscribe, visit
MachineryLubrication.com
or call 800.554.7470

For FREE INFORMATION Circle 36

CASE STUDY

Sampling Air to Prevent Oil


Contamination in Blowers
A Proactive Approach
BY ED GOLES, INVISTA COMPANY, MILLHAVEN PLANT

Canadian production site uses highvolume blowers to propel a fine


powder in one of the production processes.
The powder is very fine and becomes
abrasive in high concentrations.

Current State
There are five blowers distributed into
two separate nitrogen draft systems. One
blower operates in standby for one of the
two systems. Nitrogen pushes the powder
from a storage bin through a series of
pipes to the production process, where the
powder is separated from the nitrogen.
The filter houses capture any residual
powder, keeping it from passing through

the blowers. Heat exchanger blockage is


closely associated with the bearing and
blower failures.
The blowers are 250 HP, 3,600 RPM,
2,082 CFM units. The blower sumps (two
per blower) are lubricated with an ISO 150
polyalphaolefin (PAO) synthetic lubricant.
Each sump holds approximately 10 gallons.
If the powder enters the lobed area, it
passes through the polymer seals, abrades
and destroys the oil seals, and proceeds to
abrade and destroy rolling element bearing
surfaces. If the bearing fails in service, the
blower must be replaced. If the conditional
(seal) failure is recognized, the blower can
be removed from service for a seal replace-

ment only. This requires frequent testing


for the presence of the powder in the gas
stream and the lubricant.
A new blower costs $24,400 USD, and
in-house labor for replacement is an
additional $4,600. Seal repair per blower,
providing the bearing and lobes are not
damaged, costs $4,870. Heat exchanger
repair adds $813 to each blower failure.
During the past four years, the site has
experienced three catastrophic failures and
identified required seal replacement on
two other occasions.

The Challenge
The average annual cost for blower
maintenance based on the preceding
inputs is $26,826. This does not include
production opportunity losses. The site
requires a method to assess the existence of
the powder in the gas stream and oil sump
with a high degree of confidence.

Solution
The problem of particulate contamination in the fluid stream can be tracked,
regardless of the nature of the fluid.
Nitrogen, being inert, can be handled relatively easily. To address the risk, the author
adopted an air sampling technique to
detect contaminants in the nitrogen gas
(fluid) stream with a similar approach to
that which might be applied to a hydraulic
oil (fluid) stream.
Figure 1. Sample port (valve with red handle) before in-line filter.
46 May - June 2005

Continued on Page 48

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info@reliabilitycareers.com www.reliabilitycareers.com

For FREE INFORMATION Circle 43

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Continued from Page 46

Figure 2. End view of in-line filter with sample ports before and after filter.

Figure 3. Taking air sample with sampling pump.

48 May - June 2005

Air sampling ports have been installed


before and after gas stream in-line filters. A
specially designed probe that prevents a
release of nitrogen is inserted into the
sampling port. The probe is connected to a
preweighed filter cartridge connected to a
high-volume air sampling pump. The
sampling pump is necessary to eliminate
any effect of a possible pressure differential
around the sample probe inlet.
Each air sample is drawn for a fixed
period of time, then submitted to a local
environmental lab for analysis of total
particulate.
Using the average in-stream velocity as
measured with the velocity probe, and based
on the inside diameter of the pipe, the flow
rate of nitrogen in the system at the time of
sampling is calculated. The flow rate is then
used to determine the concentration by
weight of particulate in the nitrogen transfer
system at the time of sampling.
Leakage problems with filters in the bag
houses can be detected. Additional sample
ports will be installed at individual gas
supply and return lines in time. When
possible, air sampling will be handled in a
similar manner as the existing oil analysis
program. Results will be trended and
alarms set to indicate further maintenance
actions. POA

For FREE INFORMATION Circle 39

For FREE INFORMATION Circle 40

MARKETPLACE

In this directory youll discover top consultants, the best oil companies, expert oil
analysis labs, highly effective service companies, state-of-the-art instruments, the
smartest software, the most reliable sampling hardware, the most efficient filters and
filtration systems . . . and much, much more!
For details or to place a listing, call Brett OKelley at 800-597-5460, ext. 112;
Fax: 918-746-0925, or e-mail bokelley@noria.com.
Filters and Filtration Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Instruments and Test Kits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Laboratories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Lubricants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Lubrication Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Predictive Maintenance Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Reclamation and Flushing Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Sampling Hardware and Bottles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Storage and Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

FILTERS AND FILTRATION SYSTEMS


ASL Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219-736-7177
ASL Technologies manufactures a line of patented electrostatic fluid filtration systems
capable of submicronic particle and water removal to ISO 10/7 at typical ingression levels.
8888 Louisiana St., Merrillville, IN 46410
Fax: 219-736-7458, E-mail: dbickford@aslfilter.com
www.aslfilter.com
AGM Container Controls Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 520-881-2130
3526 East Fort Lowell Rd., Tucson, AZ 85717-0020
Benchmark Oil Flushing Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251-653-7235
Benchmark Services offers high-velocity oil flushing services for lube, hydraulic
and fuel oil systems of any size. Benchmark specializes in flushing everything from
the largest steam turbines to the smallest hydraulic systems. We also offer
hydroblasting, cooler cleaning, on-site turbine oil filtration and reclamation,
coolant system flushing and EHC system flushing. In addition, we custom-manufacture oil filtration equipment and oil/water separators.
6635 Boykin Road, Theodore, AL 36582
E-mail: david@oilflush.com
www.oilflush.com

INTERNORMEN-Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 740-452-7775
INTERNORMEN-Filter offers a complete line including tank top-mounted return-line
filters, suction filters, pressure filters for up to 6000 psi, duplex filters, offline filtration units, complete kidney loop systems, tank breathers and a wide variety of
interchange elements. In addition to the complete line of filter products, there is a CDROM for filter sizing and selection, a contamination control system (CSS I) and test
kits for oil analysis.
900 Air Park Dr., Zanesville, OH 43701
Fax: 740-454-0075, E-mail: sales@atico-internormen.com
www.internormen.com
HYDAC Technology Corp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 610-231-9088
2260 City Line Rd. Bethlehem, PA 18017
ISOPur Fluid Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 888-270-9889
70 Inwood Rd., Rocky Hill, CT 06067
JLM Systems Ltd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 888-736-8645
23091 Westminster Hwy. Richmond, BC Canada V6V 1B9

CCECO Lab and Filtration . . . . . . . . . . . . . 866-GO-CCECO or 253-845-2900


701 N. Levee Rd., Puyallup, WA 98371

Lenz Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 937-277-9364


3301 Klepinger Rd., Dayton, OH 45406

C.C. Jensen Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206-789-1710


1557 NW Ballard Way, Seattle, WA 98107

Livingston & Haven . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 704-588-3670


11616 Wilmar Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28241

Des-Case Corp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .615-672-8800


Des-Case Corp., founded in 1983, is a leading manufacturer of desiccant
breathers designed to extend the productivity of lubricants and related
machinery. Industries worldwide rely on Des-Case breathers to prohibit the
ingression of contaminants into gearboxes, reservoirs and storage vessels.
Des-Case breathers are available through an extensive international distribution
network. Dont overlook this critical element in obtaining world-class
lubrication management.
3045 Union Rd., P.O. Box 1159, White House, TN 37188
Fax: 615-672-0701, E-mail: triggm@des-case.com
www.des-case.com

Donaldson Co. Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800-846-1846


Donaldson is a billion-dollar company with 80+ years of filtration experience. We
offer a full line of hydraulic filters - including high-pressure, medium-pressure, lowpressure, return line and in-tank filters, plus the DuramaxTM high-pressure spin-on.
Donaldson also designs and manufactures housings, heads and replacement filters.
P.O. Box 1299, Minneapolis, MN 55440
Fax: 612-703-4652, E-mail: hydraulicfilters@mail.donaldson.com
www.donaldson.com/en/ih/

Lormar Reclamation Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800-299-3456


2845-D Broce Dr., Norman, OK 73072
Lubrication Systems Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 713-464-6266
1740 Stebbins, Houston, TX 77043

MAHLE Filtersysteme GmbH/Behringer Corp. . . . . . . . . . . . 973-948-0226


MAHLE Filtersysteme manufactures high-quality filtration systems for hydraulic, lubrication and process fluids. MAHLEs complete product line includes disposable,
cleanable and automatic self-cleaning filters for a wide variety of applications from
hydraulic systems and machine tool coolants to fuel oils and gear oils. Protect costly
components by equipping your systems with the best insurance - MAHLE filters.
17 Ridge Road, Branchville, NJ 07826
Fax: 973-948-2562, E-mail: cserv@behringersystems.com
www.behringersystems.com

MP Filtri . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 770-263-0090
1256 C Oakbrook Dr., Norcross, GA 30093

Practicing Oil Analysis 51

Stauff Corp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201-444-7800


Stauff Filtration Technology offers a complete range of filtration products and
services that provide the system designer or user with the highest level of
contamination control demanded by todays most sophisticated applications.
Products include pressure filters, return line filters, elements, spin-on filters,
suction strainers and filler breathers for various hydraulic, lubrication and
fuel oils.
7 William Demarest Place, Waldwick, NJ 07463
E-mail: sales@stauffusa.com
www.stauffusa.com
Solution Recovery Services (SRS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 734-426-9015
237 Dino Dr., Suite B, Ann Arbor, MI 48103
UAS-Kleentek Division . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800-252-4647
KLEENTEK Electrostatic Oil Cleaning Systems draw contaminants as small as .01
micron from lubricants and hydraulic oils, maximizing machine performance while
reducing maintenance and system downtime.
4440 Creek Rd., Cincinnati, OH 45242
Fax: 513-891-4171
www.kleentek.com
Y2K Fluid Power Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 651-415-1864
3020 Centerville Rd., St. Paul, MN 55117
Fax: 651-490-0201, E-mail: y2kfp@aol.com
www.y2kfluidpower.com

INSTRUMENTS AND TEST KITS


Cannon Instrument Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800-676-6232
2139 High Tech Road, State College, PA 16803
www.cannoninstrument.com, E-mail: cannon@cannoninstrument.com
Emerson Process Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .800-675-8033
835 Innovation Dr., Knoxville, TN 37932
Fluitec International . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 706-557-9595
1997 Newborn Rd., Rutledge, GA 30663
Hach Ultra Analytics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800-866-7889
481 California Ave., Grants Pass, OR 97526
Koehler Instrument Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 631-589-3800
1595 Sycamore Ave., Bohemia, NY 11716
MerrillSoft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 877-449-5492
P.O. Box 874 Queen Creek, AZ 85242
Pamas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 918-743-6762
6721 E. 106th Tulsa, OK 74133
PDK Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 727-846-0868
8203 Krystile Circle, Port Richey, FL 34668
Spectro Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 978-486-0123
Analytical instruments for the analysis of wear metals, contaminants, additives and
physical properties in lubricants and fuel. Turnkey laboratories including instruments,
installation, training and service.
160 Ayer Rd., Littleton, MA 01460
Fax: 978-486-0030, E-mail: sales@spectroinc.com
www.spectroinc.com
Vaisala . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 781-933-8029
Vaisala develops, manufactures and markets and electronic measurement systems and
equipment for meteorology, environmental sciences, traffic safety and industries.
10-D Gill Street, Woburn, MA 01801
Fax: 781-933-8029
www.vaisala.com

52 May - June 2005

LABORATORIES
ANA Laboratories Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800-648-2625
Oil, fuel, grease and coolant analysis. A full-service independent laboratory specializing
in predictive and preventive maintenance programs through fluid management.
641 Creek Rd., Bellmawr, NJ 08031
Fax: 856-931-5205, E-mail: lab@analaboratories.com
www.analaboratories.com
Analysts Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800-336-3637
Analysts Inc. is an ISO-certified independent laboratory specializing in oil,
coolant and fuel analysis. Analysts offers complete Internet access to sample reports
and management summaries. National field technical support representatives and
CLS, OMA I & II certified diagnosticians.
20505 Earl St., Torrance, CA 90275
Fax: 310-370-6637, E-mail: analystsinc@analystsinc.com
www.analystsinc.com
Cashman Equipment Company . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800-937-2326
Cashman Equipment Company is your Caterpillar equipment and power solutions dealer. We provide new and used equipment for sale and rental as well as
high-quality parts and service. Cashman has considerable technological
advances over the competition.
Cashman Equipment
Cashman Power Solutions
Cashman Rental
3101 E. Craig Road, North Las Vegas, NV 89030
Fax: 702-633-4699
www.cashmanequipment.com

Engineered Lubricants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314-872-9540


11525 Rock Island Ct., Maryland Heights, MO 63043-3597
Fax: 314-872-9544, E-mail: el67us@msn.com
www.englube.com
Herguth Laboratories Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800-645-5227
Herguth Laboratories Inc. is an ISO-9001:2000 supplier of analytical services.
Core competencies include analysis of oil, fuel, grease, tribological and special
investigations, circOIL and lubrication management software. Quality
programs include: 10CFR50, Radioactive licensed, ISO-9001:2000.
PhD Research Associates, CLS, OMA I and II Certified.
101 Corporate Place, Vallejo, CA 94590
Fax: 707-554-0109, E-mail: lperry@herguth.com
www.herguth.com
Insight Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216-251-2510
12703 Triskett Rd., Cleveland, OH 44111
LubeTrak.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 866-582-3872
11255 South 1740 East, Sandy, UT 84092
Mid Continent Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 605-348-0111
Mid Continent Testing has been providing great customer service since 1985. Our
easy Internet access has made this great service even faster with the option to view
your reports instantly. For oil analysis in the trucking, mining, construction, manufacturing or food-processing industries, contact us to see how we can serve you.
2381 S. Plaza Dr., Rapid City, SD 57702
Fax: 605-721-0265, E-mail: Dean@TheChemistryLab.com
www.Oil-Test.com

National Tribology Services Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 978-535-9990


This ISO certified oil analysis lab is known for its powerful approach to measuring
machine abnormal wear metals, rapid turnaround and customized solutions to
clients. Two locations to serve you completely. A Bently family company.
NTS East, 5 Lakeland Park Dr., Peabody, MA 01960
Phone: 978-535-9990, Fax: 978-535-3311
NTS West, 1711 Orbit Way, Minden, NV 89423
Phone: 775-783-4660, Fax: 775-783-4651
E-mail: sales@natrib.com
www.natrib.com

PdMA Corp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 813-621-6463

PdMAs full-service laboratory provides a wide range of tests on oil,


grease, coolants, fuel and transformer oil. We support our clients with
quick service coupled with accurate and concisely reported interpretation
of data.
5909-C Hampton Oaks Pkwy., Tampa, FL 33610
Fax: 813-620-0206, E-mail: cheryl@pdma.com
www.pdma.com
Petroleum Analytical Laboratory Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800-236-9725
Complete testing of oils, greases and coolants. Client oriented, quick turnaround on
oil samples. Internet transfer on oil reports and management summaries.
P.O. Drawer AK, Eaton Park, FL 33840
Fax: 863-667-3031, E-mail: pkentpal@aol.com
Polaris Laboratories LLC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 877-808-3750
7898 Zionsville Rd., Indianapolis, IN 46268
Spectro-Scan Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 985-868-4820
109 Cleveland St., Houma, LA 70363
Staveley Services Canada Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800-897-0067
916 Gateway , Burlington, ON L7L 5K7 Canada

LUBRICANTS
Accu-Lube/ITW Fluid Products Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800-452-5823
3624 W Lake Ave., Glenview, IL 60025
American Refining Group Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 814-368-1200
77 N Kendall Ave., Bradford, PA 16701
Beacon Lubricants Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 814-734-7535
11170 Edinboro Rd., Edinboro, PA 16412

Shell Oil Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800-GO-SHELL


P.O. Box 2463, Houston, TX 77252-2463

LUBRICATION SYSTEMS
A.T.S. Electro-Lube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800-446-0779
A.T.S. Electro-Lube is the premier manufacturer of lubricant dispensers.
Model Options:
Motor Driven - 300 PSI - refillable and capable of lubricating up to 8 points
Electro-Chemical - 80 PSI - single point
130cc, 250cc and 475cc
7388 Wilson Ave., Delta, BC Canada V4G 1H3
Phone: 800-663-8141, Fax: 800-663-8140
E-mail: info@atselectro-lube.com
www.electro-lube.com
U.S. Sales
Phone: 800-446-0779, Fax: 425-644-1768
Lincoln Industrial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314-679-4200
One Lincoln Way, St. Louis, MO 63120-1578
Fax: 314-679-4359, E-mail: kwalsh@lincolnindustrial.com
www.lincolnindustrial.com
Lube Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 920-682-6877
1864 Nagle Ave., Manitowoc, WI 54221
Lubrication Systems Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 713-464-6266
1740 Stebbins, Houston, TX 77043
PdMA Corp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 813-621-6463
5909-C Hampton Oaks Pkwy., Tampa, FL 33610

Benz Compressed Air Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323-722-6603


1530 Date St., Montebello, CA 90640

PREDICTIVE MAINTENANCE SERVICES

Castrol Heavy Duty Lubricants Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800-777-1466


9300 Pulaski Hwy., Baltimore, MD 21220

Advanced Lubrication Specialties Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215-244-2114


420 Imperial Ct. East, Bensalem, PA 19020

ChevronTexaco . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 713-410-9511
1400 Woodloch Forest Dr., The Woodlands, TX 77380-1100

ANA Laboratories Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800-648-2625


641 Creek Rd., Bellmawr, NJ 08031

ConocoPhillips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281-293-1000
600 North Dairy Ashford (77079-1175), Houston, TX 77252-2197

Analysts Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800-336-3637


20505 Earl St., Torrance, CA 90275

Cosby Lubricants & Greases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 619-280-6884


12902 E. Park St., Santa Fe Springs, CA 90670
ExxonMobil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 703-846-1395
3225 Gallows Rd., Fairfax, VA 22037
Fuchs Lubricants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 708-333-8900
17050 Lathrop Ave., Harvey, IL 60426
Kendall Motor Oils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215-977-6700
1801 Market St., Philadelphia, PA 19103-1699
Lubrication Engineers Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800-537-7683
Providing high-quality, high-performance products and services for all
applications, especially the most demanding ones.
300 Bailey Avenue, Fort Worth, TX 76107
www.le-inc.com
ORourke Petroleum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 713-672-4500
223 McCarty Dr., Houston, TX 77029
Royal Purple Ltd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281-354-8600
Royal Purple manufactures a full line of high-performance synthetic lubricants
for industry. These high film strength lubricants are proven to make bearings
and equipment run smoother, cooler, quieter, longer and more efficiently.
One Royal Purple Lane, Porter, TX 77365
Fax: 281-354-7600, E-mail: webmaster@royalpurple.com
www.royalpurple.com

Automation Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800-231-2062


3030 Maxroy St., Houston, TX 77008-9981
Esco Products, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 713-661-5514
Esco Oil Sight Glass - This remarkable and inexpensive oil sight glass should be
installed on every pump in your plant! Available in 1 oz., 3 oz., and custom sizes.
Functions in temperatures from freezing to 150F. Inspect the bearing oil in your
pumps ... easily!
5325 Glenmont Street, Suite C, Houston, TX 77081
www.escopro.com
GasTops Ltd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800-363-8658
1011 Polyteck St., Ottawa, ONT Canada K1J9J3
HSB Reliability Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800-984-0623
800 Rockmead Dr. #180, Kingwood, TX 77339
PANalytical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (31) 546-534-444
PANalytical is the worlds leading supplier of analytical instrumentation and software for Xray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), with more than half a
century of experience. The product portfolio includes a broad range of XRD and XRF
systems and software widely used for analysis and materials characterization.
Lelyweg 1, EA Almelo 7602, Netherlands
Fax: (31) 546-534-598
www.panalytical.com

Practicing Oil Analysis 53

Power Systems Mfg. LLC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 561-354-1100


1440 West Indiantown Rd., Suite 200, Jupiter, FL 33458
Progressive Maintenance Technologies Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800-246-7689
4121 NE Port Dr., Suite C, Lees Summit, MO 64064
TPM Consultants LLC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 810-225-8602
4942 Fairways Dr., Brighton, MI 48116
UE Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800-223-1325
UE Systems offers the Ultraprobe series of ultrasonic instruments for
mechanical inspection and condition monitoring. Now available, Ultrasonic Protocols
to guide condition-based lubrication programs.
14 Hayes St., Elmsford, NY 10523
Fax: 914-347-2181
www.uesystems.com
UVLM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800-736-3757
815 Sunrise Ln., Centralia, WA 98532
Vaisala . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 781-933-4500
100 Commerce Way, Woburn, MA 01801

SAMPLING HARDWARE AND BOTTLES


CheckFluid Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 519-652-6373
We are here to assist you in connecting to micro pressurized fluid and gas systems safely, cleanly and efficiently. We specialize in manufacturing diagnostic and sampling
valves to tap into the amazing value of fluid analysis. Oil sampling valves, bottles, vent
caps, tubing, vacuum sampling pumps - everything that you need.
4500 Blakie Road, Unit 102
London, ON N6L 1G5, Canada
Fax: 519-652-0392, E-mail: info@checkfluid.com
www.checkfluid.com
Schematic Approach Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416-439-9425
1149 Bellamy Rd. N, Unit 23, Toronto, ON M1H 1H7 Canada

SOFTWARE
Insight Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216-251-2510
12703 Triskett Rd., Cleveland, OH 44111
MerrillSoft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .877-449-5492
P.O. Box 874 Queen Creek, AZ 85242

RECLAMATION AND FLUSHING SERVICES

Benchmark Oil Flushing Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251-653-7235


Benchmark Services offers high-velocity oil flushing services for lube, hydraulic
and fuel oil systems of any size. Benchmark specializes in flushing everything from
the largest steam turbines to the smallest hydraulic systems. We also offer
hydroblasting, cooler cleaning, on-site turbine oil filtration and reclamation,
coolant system flushing and EHC system flushing. In addition, we custom-manufacture oil filtration equipment and oil/water separators.
6635 Boykin Road, Theodore, AL 36582
E-mail: david@oilflush.com
www.oilflush.com

Chem-Ecol Ltd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800-263-3939


640 Victoria St., Cobourg, ON Canada K9A 4W4
COT-Puritech . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 888-478-6996
COT-Puritech provides service solutions to all users of industrial lubricants.
Our services span the entire lubricant life cycle, offering a full array of lubricant
system start-up and commissioning programs, in-plant maintenance and
outage services, and lubricant reclamation programs.
Fax: 330-478-6990 , E-mail: sales@cot-puritech.com
www.cot-puritech.com
Kentucky Petroleum Recycling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502-367-7766
6911 Grade Ln., Louisville, KY 40213
Lormar Reclamation Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800-299-3456
Lormar provides rapid, onsite services to solve liquid and solids contamination
problems with mineral oils, water glycol fluids and coolant emulsions. Fluids in bulk
or in operating systems up to 100,000-gallons are purified to exceptionally clean ISO
purity levels. Lormar also sells and leases Westfalia separators, for mineral oil and
metalworking coolant applications, and our own line of high-volume water glycol
reclamation systems. Serving manufacturers and utilities nationally since 1985.
2845-D Broce Dr., Norman, OK 73072
Fax: 405-321-0680, E-mail: info@lormar.net
www.lormar.net
Midwest Oil Refining Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314-427-2662
1900 Walton Rd., St. Louis, MO 63114

54 May - June 2005

STORAGE AND HANDLING


Caddyco . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800-883-3310
200 - 36th Ave. N.E., Minot, ND 58703
Tote-A-Lube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800-849-0591
2700 1st St. North, Suite 211, St. Cloud, MN 56303
Oil Safe Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 815-899-7100
515 De Kalb Ave., Sycamore, IL 60178
Schuetz Container Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 908-963-6944
200 Aspen Hill Rd., North Branch, NJ 08876

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INSTRUMENT REVIEW

Oil Quality Analyzer for


Changing Oil by Quality
BY GANGZHU ZHANG AND RUI ZHANG, TIANHOU ELECTRONIC-TECHNOLOGY CO., LTD.

he recently released Oil Quality Analyzer


provides on-site oil analysts with a new,
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In the 1980s, researchers in China began to
develop the oil quality analyzer, which uses a
dielectric constant differential method for
analyzing oil health and contaminant. Recently
the oil quality analyzer had reached performance levels of similar products in other countries
relating to design structure, specification and
function, according to the manufacturer.
Changes in the following properties can be
generally measured with the unit:
1. Increase in rate of wear debris generation.
2. Change in acid number and base number.
3. Increase in water content.
4. Changed viscosity.
5. Decreasing flash point.

Xian Tianhou Electronic-Technolodgy Co., Ltd.


Web site: http://www.oil8.com/En/index.asp
A1506 Room, Shuangyu Building
158 West Yanta Road
Xian City, Shanxi Province
China 710061
Phone: 0086-29-85220992
Fax: 0086-29-85215296

56 May - June 2005

Lubrication experts generally agree that monitoring changes in viscosity, wear particles, acid
number, base number and water content is important to managing lubricant and machine health.
By monitoring the change of dielectric constant,
an estimate of the composite change in wear particles, acid number, base number and water content
can be obtained. This will help one to better assess
the level of bulk oil contamination.
According to the manufacturer, the oil quality
analyzer is both quick and reliable as a screening
tool, conquering the disadvantages of multiparameter, multi-instrument routine testing of
used oils analysis. POA

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