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All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM

CONTENT

CONTENT STANDARDS
The learner...

PERFORMANCE
STANDARDS
The learner...

LEARNING COMPETENCY

CODE

The learner...

Grade 4- THIRD QUARTER


Geometry

demonstrates
understanding of the
concepts of parallel
and perpendicular
lines, angles,
triangles, and
quadrilaterals.

is able to construct
and describe parallel
and perpendicular
lines, angles,
triangles, and
quadrilaterals in
designs, drawings
and models.

45. describes and illustrates parallel,


intersecting, and perpendicular
lines.
46. draws perpendicular and
parallel lines using a ruler and
set square.
47. adescribes
and illustrates different
angles (right, acute, and obtuse)
models.
48. using
describes
the
attributes/properties of
triangles and quadrilaterals
concrete
objects or
49.using
identifies
and describes
triangles according to sides
angles.
50. and
identifies
and describes the
different kinds of quadrilaterals:
square, rectangle, parallelogram,
trapezoid, and rhombus.
51. relates triangles to quadrilaterals

Pattern
s and
Algebra

demonstrates
understanding of
concepts of continuous
and repeating patterns
and number sentences.

is able to identify
the missing
element in a
pattern and
number sentence.

52. relates one quadrilateral to


another quadrilateral (e.g. square
53. determines
to rhombus).the missing term/s in a
sequence of numbers (e.g. odd
numbers, even numbers,
multiples of a number, factors of
a number, etc.)
e.g.
3,6,9,_
4,8,12,16,_
(e.g. odd numbers, even numbers,
multiples of a number, factors of a
number, etc.)

OAMOA

54. finds the missing number in


an equation involving
properties of

M4GE-IIIa12.2
M4GE-IIIa12.3
M4GE-IIIb14
M4GE-IIIb15
M4GE-IIIc16
M4GE-IIIc17
M4GE-IIId18.1
M4GE-IIId18.2

M4AL-IIIe-5

M4AL-IIIe13

K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM

CONTENT

CONTENT STANDARDS
The learner...

PERFORMANCE
STANDARDS
The learner...

LEARNING COMPETENCY

CODE

The learner...
operations. (e.g. (4+_) + 8 = 4 +
( 5 + _)

Measurement demonstrates
understanding of the
concept of time,
perimeter, area, and
volume.

is able to apply the


concepts of time,
perimeter, area, and
volume to mathematical
problems and real-life
situations.

55. finds the elapsed time in minutes and


seconds.

M4ME-IIIf11

56. estimates the duration of time in


minutes.

58. visualizes the perimeter of any given


plane figure in different situations.

M4ME-IIIf12
M4ME-IIIg13
M4ME-IIIg48

59. measures the perimeter of any given


figure using appropriate tools.

M4ME-IIIh49

60. derives the formula for perimeter of any


given figure.
61. finds the perimeter of triangles,
squares, rectangles, parallelograms, and
trapezoids.
62. solves routine and non-routine
problems in real-life situations
involving perimeter of squares and
rectangles, triangles, parallelograms,
and trapezoids.

M4ME-IIIh50

57. solves problems involving elapsed time.

63. differentiates perimeter from area.


64. converts sq. cm to sq. m and vice versa.

M4ME-IIIi51

M4ME-IIIi52
M4ME-IIIj53
M4ME-IIIj54

Grade 4- FOURTH QUARTER


65. finds the area of irregular figures made
up of squares and rectangles using sq.
cm and sq. m.
66. estimates the area of irregular
plane figures made up of squares
and rectangles.
67. derives the formulas for the area of
triangles, parallelograms, and trapezoids.

M4ME-IVa55
M4ME-IVa56
M4ME-IVb57

K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM

CONTENT

CONTENT STANDARDS
The learner...

PERFORMANCE
STANDARDS
The learner...

LEARNING COMPETENCY

parallelograms and trapezoids using sq.


cm and sq. m.
69. estimates the area of
triangles, parallelograms,
and trapezoids
70. solves
routine and non-routine
problems
involving
squares, rectangles,
71. triangles,
creates problems(with reasonable
answers) involving perimeter and
area
involving
squares, rectangles,
72. triangles,
visualizes the volume of solid
figures in different situations using
non-standard (e.g. marbles, etc.)
73. derives the formula for the
volume of rectangular prisms.
74. finds the volume of a
rectangular prism using cu. cm
cu.routine
m.
75. and
solves
and non-routine
problems involving the volume of
a rectangular prism.
76. creates problems(with reasonable
answers) involving volume of
rectangular prism.
Statistics
and
Probability

demonstrates
understanding of the
concepts of bar
graphs and simple
experiments.

is able to create and


interpret simple
representations of
data (tables and bar
graphs) and describe
outcomes in simple
experiments.

CODE

The learner...

77. collects data on two variables


using any source.
M. organizes data in tabular form
and presents them in a
single/double horizontal or
vertical bar graph.
79. interprets data presented in
different kinds of bar graphs
(vertical/horizontal,
single/double
80. solves
routine bars).
and non-routine
problems using data presented
in a single or double-bar graph.

M4ME-IVb58
M4ME-IVc59
M4ME-IVc60
M4ME-IVd61
M4ME-IVd62
M4ME-IVe63
M4ME-IVe64
M4ME-IVf65
M4ME-IVf66
M4SP-IVg1.4
M4SP-IVg2.4
M4SP-IVg3.4
M4SP-IVh4.4

K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM

CONTENT

CONTENT
STANDARDS
The learner...

PERFORMANCE
STANDARDS
The
learner...

LEARNING COMPETENCY

CODE

The learner...
81. draws inferences based
on data presented in a
double-bar
graph. outcomes
82. records
favorable
in a simple experiment
(e.g. tossing a coin,
83. expresses the outcome in a
simple experiment in words,
symbols, tables, or graphs.
84. explains the outcomes in an
experiment.
85. solves
routine and
non-routine problems
involving a simple
experiment.
86. creates
problems
involving a simple
experiment.

M4SP-IVh5.4
M4SP-IVi-9
M4SP-IVI-10
M4SP-I1/1-11
M4SP-IVj-12
M4SP-IVj-13

K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM


Code Book Legend

Sample: M7AL-IIg-2
LEGEND

SAMPLE

DOMAIN/ COMPONENT

CODE

Learning Area and


Mathematics
Strand/ Subject or

Grade Level

Uppercase Letter/s

Domain/Content/

Number Sense

NS

Geometry

GE

Patterns and Algebra

AL

Measurement

ME

Statistics and Probability

SP

M7

First Entry
Grade 7

Patterns and Algebra

AL

Component/ Topic
Roman Numeral

Quarter

Second Quarter

II

Week

Week seven

*Zero if no specific quarter


Lowercase Letter/s
*Put a hyphen () in between
letters to Indicate more than a

Arabic Number

Competency

Solves problems
involving algebraic
expressions

CHAPTER 3
NUMBER THEORY AND FRACTIONS
OVERVIEW
This chapter involves lessons on number theory like the concepts of prime
and composite numbers, factors, common factors, and Greatest Common Factor
(GCF), and multiples, common multiples, and Least Common Multiples (LCM). These
concepts are important in the discussion about fractions. In this chapter, the learners
learn to find the factors of a number using listing method and is extended to finding
common factors and Greatest Common Factors (GCF) which are necessary in
expressing fractions to their lowest terms. They also learn to express numbers as
products of their prime factors using factor tree and continuous division.
The concepts of multiples, common multiples, and Least Common Multiples
(LCM), are introduced here as they relate these concepts to finding the Least
Common Denominator (LCD). This is an important skill needed in adding and
subtracting dissimilar fractions.
The skill on expressing fractions to lowest terms is developed using pictorial
models, then the use of computation using the GCF. Likewise, the skill on changing
dissimilar fractions to similar fractions is developed using pictorial models, then
extended to computation using the Least Common Denominator (LCD).
Lessons on addition and subtraction of fractions start with visualizing addition
and subtraction of similar fractions. Pictorial models are used to help learners visualize
addition and subtraction of fractions. Visualizing subtraction of fractions from whole
numbers is introduced using pictorial models where learners see how a whole number
is expressed as a fraction. The skill in adding and subtracting similar fractions is
developed using algorithm. Visualizing addition and subtraction of dissimilar fractions is
developed using pictorial models. This is to help learners in adding and subtracting
dissimilar fractions which is developed using algorithm with the application of finding the
Least Common Denominator (LCD).
Problem-solving lessons involving routine and nonroutine problems involving
addition and subtraction of fractions are included as application. The 4-step plan helps the
learners solve routine problems. Using appropriate strategies are introduced in solving
nonroutine problems. This chapter also provides lessons on creating routine and nonroutine
problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions..
Content Standards: The learner demonstrates understanding of factors and
multiples, addition and subtraction of fractions, and
improper fractions and mixed numbers.
Performance Standard: The learner is able to apply the knowledge of factors
and multiples, addition and subtraction of fractions in
mathematical problems and real-life situations, and
recognize and represent improper fractions and mixed
numbers in various forms and contexts.

110

Pre-Test
I. Read each question carefully. Write only the letter of the correct answer.
1. These are numbers with more than two factors.
a. prime numbers
c. factors
*b. composite numbers
d. multiples
2. Which of the following is a composite number?
a. 47
b. 43
c. 41
3. Which of these numbers is a prime number?
a. 35
b. 48
c. 51
4. Write 16 as a product of its prime factors.
a. 2 x 2 x 3
b. 2 x 3 x 3
c. 2 x 2 x 2 x2 x2
*d. 2 x 2 x 2 x 2
5. What is the greatest common factor of 12 and 18?
a. 3
*b. 6
c. 9
6. What is the least common multiple of 8 and 3?
a. 48
b. 72
*c. 24
7. Which of these fractions is in mixed form?
*a. 7:11

b. 1
5
8. Which of these fractions is equal to 1?

d. 3

c. 9

d. 5
ET

*b. 12
c. 9
8
12
17
9. Which of the following is a proper fraction?
b. 15
4

10

*d. 59

d. 12

a.

*a. 7

*d. 49

d.
5

c. 6

d.101
9

10. Which of the shaded illustrations below shows 2 2 ?


3
vF7

*a.

EV
.14
A r r

AIM

111111111
111111111
b. 11
111111
1

c.

11. The illustration below is equal to

a. 2T

111

A AZAZA

V AN

HIM

11111
1

d.5

b. 21.

12. Which is a set of similar fractions ?


2
1 b.
a. 3
1 , 2 , 3
_
7 6
5
7 8 9
111

c.

1 , 1, 1
2 3 4

*d.

111111

2 , 3, 4
15 15 15

13. Which is the numerator in


a. 20
*b. 11

11 ,

c. 9

14. Which is a set of dissimilar fractions?


a.
1 5 6
b. 2 3
4

d. 31

c. _3 _4 6
7'6'

d. _5, 1 3
8 8 '8

3
15. Which is equal to 4 T ?
a. _14
6
4
1

*a. 2

19

11 *b.

c.

4
3

5
c. iT

b. .71

d.

d. ,T1

17. If a whole number is divided into 9 equal parts, what fraction


represents the two parts?
2

1
c. 4

d.

5
*c.
9

d. 3

*a.

4 1 5
18. In 9 + 9 = 9 ' which is the sum?
1
a.
9

19.
1
a.

4
b. _
9

6
The lowest term of 9 is
b. 2
c. 1
9
_
3

6
20. What is the equivalent fraction of, ,:?
4
1
a.
b.
*c.
15
15

1
10

*d.

d.

3
15

21. A fraction whose numerator is bigger than the denominator is


called _________.
a. whole number
c. mixed number
b . proper fraction
*d. improper fraction
112

22.

45
The lowest term of
1
*a. 2 1
b. 2-2

90

is

3
c. 2

43
d. =

,1
Change z T to improper fraction.

23.

a.

19
c 20

24.Which fraction is equivalent to


8 ? a.

2
10

b. 9
15

c. 8
12

*d. 18
24

II. Add or subtract. Write your answers in lowest terms. Write


only the letter of the correct answer.
3
2_
5
1
5
1
b.
d.
*a.
c.
1.
+
8
16
16

_3-

T-

Ti

72
- 6 = a.

4
*b.
9
5

4. 15 - 12 = a.1412

b.1412

6 31
5. Y31 +

9
b. 1
". 24

T=

*a.z

7
d.

' 18

5
*c. 14w

5
15

2
d.14122

c. 1 z

d.1 z

Ill. Read the word problems very carefully. Answer each question
2 points
3
9
each)
Anthony used ,71 meter from a ) meter of bamboo for his project. How
long was the piece of bamboo left?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

What is asked in the problem?


What are the given facts?
What operations are we going to use?
Write the number sentence.
What is the answer to the problem?

113

IV. Read, analyze, and solve. Show your solutions and answers. (2 points each)
1. Anne has 8 guavas and Lourdes has 14 guavas. If they will give
some guavas to their group mates, what is the greatest number of
guavas that each of their group mates gets if each of them gives
the same number of guavas? (Ans. 2 guavas)
2. Eggs are sold in trays of 4 and 6. What is the smallest number of
eggs that can be sold using the trays? (Ans. 12 eggs)
3. Kim is preparing fruit salad. She puts k,4 kilogram of grapes
and kilogram of pineapple. How many kilograms of fruits did
she put together in her fruit salad? (Ans. 1 kilogram)
4. Mother uses : hour to cook menudo. She uses 5 hour to cook afritada.
Which of the two viands uses more time to cook?(Ans. Menudo)
5. Diana had : plate of pansit on the table. When Rex arrived, he ate
1
4

2. Whatpartofthepansitwasleft?(Ans.plate)
3

6. Makisig had 7, meter of ribbon. He used 3 of it for his gift to his


mother. How many meter of ribbon was left? (12 meter)
7. In a birthday party, Bianca ate s of the whole cake while Billy ate ';
of the same cake. What fraction of the whole cake did they eat
altogether? (Ans.

Lesson 26: Prime and Composite Numbers


Week 1
Objectives: Differentiate prime from composite numbers
Identify the factors of a given number up to 100
Value Focus: Acceptance and belongingness
Prerequisite Concepts and Skills:
Mastery of the multiplication basic facts
Materials: Multiplication Star, 100-chart, TG 4 and LM Math Grade 4
References: K to 12 Grade 4 Curriculum, LM Math Grade 4 pages 85 to 87
Instructional Procedure:
A. Preliminary Activities
1. Drill
Have a drill on multiplication basic facts using this Multiplication Star.
The number at the center which is a multiplier can be replaced with
other multipliers.

2. Review
Conduct a review on the commutative property of multiplication.
Relate this with the basic multiplication facts, for example: 9 x 8 = 8 x 9
3. Motivation
Play the Game "The boat is sinking, group yourselves into________
Do these several times with different numbers in a group.
Ask: How did you find the game?
What have you noticed when you had to group yourselves
according to a specific number in a group? Were there instances
that all groups had equal number of members? Were there
instances when some of you were left out of any group? What
does this mean?
Lead the pupils to see that a certain number of pupils may or
may not be distributed equally in groups.
Ask: What important value did you realize after the game? (Lead
them to see that valuing acceptance and belongingness when
dealing with other individuals is important).
115

B. Developmental Activities
1. Presentation
Present these tasks to the class.
A. Given the following numbers as products, how will you know which
ones have more than 2 factors and those with onl 2 factors?
12

18

13

24

19

29

23

B. Using the table below, write the numbers in the appropriate column.
Numbers with more than 2 factors

Numbers with only 2 factors

2. Performing the Activities


Group the pupils into six working teams and have them perform the
tasks. Solution: Finding pairs of factors for each number.
12 = 1 x 12
2x6
3x4
36 = 1 x 36
2 x 18
3 x 12
4x9
6x6

18 = 1 x 18
2x9
3x6
24 = 1 x 24
2 x 12
3x8
4x6

13 = 1 x 13
13=1=13
13+13 = 1
23 = 1 x 23
23 + 1 = 23
23 + 23 = 1

The factors of 12 are 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 12. The


factors of 18 are 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, and 18. The
factors of 24 are 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24.
The factors of 36 are 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 12, 18,
and 36.

7=1x7
7+1=7
7 +7 = 1

29 = 1 x 29
29=1=29
29=29= 1

19 = 1 x 19
19 + 1 = 19
19 + 19 = 1

The factors of 13 are 1 and 13.


The factors of 19 are 1 and 19.
The factors of 7 are 1 and 7.
The factors of 29 are 1 and 29.
The factors of 23 are 1 and 23.

Numbers with more than 2 factors

Numbers with only 2 factors

12, 18, 24, and 36

13, 7, 19, 29, and 23

3. Processing the Activities


Ask the groups to present and discuss their answers on the
board. Expected answers:
We listed pairs of factors for each of the given numbers.
We listed the factors of each number.
We grouped the numbers based on the headings in the table. Introduce
the term prime numbers for numbers greater than 1 which can be exactly
divided by itself and 1 and composite numbers for those numbers with
more than 2 factors.
116

4. Reinforcing the Concept and Skill


A. Discuss the presentation on page 86 of LM Math Grade 4.
B. Display a 100-chart. Let the pupils do these steps.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11 12 13 14 15
16
17
18 19 20
21 22 23 24 25
26
27
28 29 30
31 32 33 34 35
36
37
38 39 40
41 42 43 44 45
46
47
48 49 50
51 52 53 54 55
56
57
58 59 60
61 62 63 64 65
66
67
68 69 70
71 72 73 74 75
76
77
78 79 80
81 82 83 84 85
86
87
88 89 90
91 92 93 94 95
96
97
98 99 100
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.

Copy the chart in their notebook.


Cross off 1.
Cross off all multiples of 2 except 2.
Cross off all multiples of 3 except 3.
Cross off all multiples of 5 except 5.
Find the number that is not yet crossed off.
Cross off all of its multiples except the number itself.
Repeat the last step until there are no numbers to be crossed off.
Write your observation about the numbers that were crossed off.
Write your observation about the numbers that were not crossed off. Ask
the pupils to work on exercises A and B under Get Moving on page 86,
LM Math Grade 4. Check the pupils' answers. For mastery, have them
answer exercises A, B, and C under Keep Moving on pages 86 to 87 of
LM Math Grade 4. Check the pupils' answers.

5. Summarizing the Lesson


Summarize the lesson by asking: What is a prime number?
What is a composite number? How do you determine whether a
number is prime or composite?
A prime number is a number with only two factors: one and itself.
A composite number is a number with more than two factors. The
number of factors determines whether a number is prime or
composite
6. Applying to New and Other Situations
Have the pupils do the exercises under Apply Your Skills on page
87, LM Math Grade 4. Encourage some pupils to show and discuss their
answers.
C. Assessment
Write P on the blank if the number is prime and C if
composite. Write your answers on your answer sheet.
1) 63
4) 69
5) 87
2) 49
___3) 37
6) 99
117

D. Home Activity
Remediation
List down the factors of each number. Then, write if it is prime or composite.
1) 16
2) 19
3) 40
4) 32
5) 29

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Enrichment
Do what each item tells you to do.
Find the sum of the largest and the smallest prime numbers below 100.
Find the sum of the prime numbers immediately before and after 50.
Find the difference between the largest prime and composite
numbers below 100.
Find the product of the prime numbers between 20 and 30.
Find the product of the first 3 composite numbers.

Lesson 27: Finding the Common Factors and the Greatest Common Factor
(GCF) Week 2
Objectives: Write a number as a product of its prime factors
Find the common factors and the greatest common factor
(GCF) of two numbers using the following methods: listing,
prime factorization, and continuous division
Value Focus: Helpfulness
Prerequisite Concepts and Skills:
Mastery of the basic multiplication basic facts
Identifying prime and composite numbers
Materials: Number cards for the "Naming the Baby" activity
References: K to 12 Grade 4 Curriculum, LM Math Grade 4 pages 88 to 91
Instructional Procedure:
A. Preliminary Activities
1. Drill
Have a drill on the basic multiplication facts using the game "Naming the Babies"
Name two numbers or factors which when multiplied give
the following numbers.
24

36

42

56

64

(You may provide other numbers for this drill.)

118

2. Review
Conduct a review on identifying prime and composite numbers.
Provide examples and exercises for this.
3. Motivation
Show a picture of a boy helping his father in a bakeshop. Ask the
pupils to tell something about the picture. Elicit the value of helpfulness.
Ask: How do you show helpfulness at home? In school? Is it
good to be helpful? Why?
B. Developmental Activities
1. Presentation
Present this problem to the class.
Arnel helps his father in their bakeshop. They bake 48 cupcakes and
60 cookies. They plan to pack them separately in small boxes. What is
the biggest number of cupcakes and cookies that can be placed in boxes
if these are of the same number?
Have the pupils read the problem. Then ask: What did Arnel and his
father bake? How many cupcakes were baked? How many cookies were
baked? What do Arnel and his father plan to do with the cupcakes and
cookies? How will you solve for the answer to the problem?
2. Performing the Activities
Group the pupils into 6 working teams and have them perform the task.
Solution 1: Finding the Common Factors and Greatest Common
Factor (GCF) by listing the factors of 48 and 60
The factors of 48 are 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24 and 48
The factors of 60 are 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 12, 15, 20, 30 and 60
Common Factors: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 12
Greatest Common Factor: 12
Solution 2: Finding the Greatest Common Factor (GCF) of 48 and
60 by prime factorization.
Writing each number as a product of its prime factors using a factor tree.
48
60
2 x 24

2 x 30

2 x 12
3 x 43 x 5

2x2
119

2 x 15

48 =2x2x 2x2x3
60 = 2 x 2 x 3 x 5
Common Prime Factors: 2 x 2 x 3
Greatest Common Factor or GCF: 12
Solution 3: Finding the GCF of 48 and 60 by continuous division.
2

48 60

24 30

12

15

GCF: 2 x2 x3 = 12
3. Processing the Activities
Ask the groups to present and discuss their answers on the
board. Expected answers:
We solved problems by first finding the common factors and then
the Greatest Common Factor (GCF) by the listing method.
We also solved for the answer by writing each number as a product
of its prime factors using factor tree or prime factorization, then
multiplying the common prime factors to get the GCF.
We also solved the problem by continuous division. Emphasize
that prime factors are factors which are prime numbers.
4. Reinforcing the Concept/Lesson
A. Discuss the presentation on top of page 89 of LM Math Grade 4.
B. Have the pupils do the following activities.
List the factors of each number below.
a) 16
b) 24
c) 30
d) 36
e) 54
Write each number as a product of its prime factors using factor tree.
a) 12
b) 18
c) 24
d) 16
e) 30
Find the Greatest Common Factor of the following pairs of
numbers using the following methods: Listing, Prime factorization,
and Continuous Division.
a) 12 and 16 b) 18 and 24 c) 20 and 30 d) 36 and 54
Ask the pupils to work on exercises A and B under Get
Moving on pages 89 to 90, LM Math Grade 4. Check the pupils'
answers. For mastery, have them answer the exercises under Keep
Moving on page 90 of LM Math Grade 4. Check on the pupils'
answers
120

5. Summarizing the Lesson


Summarize the lesson by asking:
What is prime factorization?
What are common factors?
What is Greatest Common Factor or GCF of two numbers?
How do we find the Greatest Common Factor (GCF) of two given numbers?

Prime factorization is the process of writing a number as a product of its


prime factors.
Common factors are factors common to two numbers.
Greatest Common Factor or GCF is the biggest factor common to two
numbers.
We find the Greatest Common Factor (GCF) of 2 numbers by listing
method, prime factorization, and continuous division.

Continuous Division is done following the steps below:


Write the numbers horizontally and find a prime number that will divide
the numbers, if possible.
Divide by that prime number and write the quotients below the dividends.
Copy any numbers not divided below them.
Continue the process until no two numbers have a common prime divisor.
Multiply all the prime divisors common to the given numbers to get the GCF.
6. Applying to New and Other Situations
Have the pupils do the exercises under Apply Your Skills on page 91
LM Math Grade 4. Encourage some pupils to show and discuss their answers.
C. Assessment
Do the following activities. Write the answers on your answer sheet. Write
each number as a product of its prime factors using the factor tree.
5) 64
1) 28
2) 40
6) 72
3) 42
7) 81
4) 27
8) 100
Find the Greatest Common Factor (GCF) of the given number pairs
by listing method, prime factorization, and continuous division.
5) 18 and 27
1) 16 and 24
6) 36 and 45
2) 20 and 30
3) 21 and 35
7) 48 and 56
4) 32 and 40
8) 63 and 72
D. Home Activity
Remediation
Provide the following exercises. You may give more.
Write each number as a product of its prime factors.
1) 12
4) 27
5) 33
2) 14
3) 20
6) 48
121

List the factors of each number in a pair. Give their common factors and GCF.
7) 15 and 18 9) 16 and 32
8) 20 and 28 10) 18 and 30
Enrichment
Ask the pupils to answer the following questions.
1. What is the Greatest Common Factor of 2 x 2 x 3 x 5 and 2 x 3 x 3 x 5?
2. What is the Greatest Common Factor of 2 x 3 x 5 x 7 and 2x2x3x5x 7?
3. What is the GCF of 120 and 160?
Lesson 28: Finding the Common Multiples and Least Common Multiple (LCM)
Week 3
Objectives: Identify the multiples of a given number up to 100
Find the common multiples and Least Common Multiple (LCM) of
two numbers using the following methods: listing, prime
factorization, and continuous division
Value Focus: Respect for others
Prerequisite Concepts and Skills:
Skip counting
Writing a given number as a product of prime factors
Materials: Flash cards, manila paper, TG and LM Math Grade 4
References: K to 12 Grade 4 Curriculum, LM Math Grade 4 pages 92 to 95
Instructional Procedure:
A. Preliminary Activities
1. Drill
Let the pupils do skip counting through hand rhythmic activity.
Provide skip counting exercises for 2, 3, 4 , 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, etc.
2. Review
Review how to write a number as a product of its prime factors.
Then, give the following exercises. Write each number as a product
of its prime factors.
1) 8
6) 25
2) 9
7) 18
3) 12
8) 24
4) 7
9) 56
10) 30
5) 16

122

3. Motivation:
Have a game on grouping the pupils according to_________
You may consider the grouping according to height, age, favorite color,
fruits, food, etc. At the command, "Group yourselves according to______
the pupils will go to the respective groupings.
Ask the pupils what they have realized after the game. Lead a discussion on
individual differences and commonalities of children. Elicit the value of respect
for others. Emphasize that everyone is a unique person, thus everyone
deserves respect from others.
Say: "Like all of us, numbers also have commonalities. Let's see what
these are."
B. Developmental Activities
1. Presentation
Sheila owns a dry good store and Jackie owns a restaurant. They buy
their goods and supplies every six weeks and eight weeks respectively. If
they buy their goods in the department store this week, on what week will
they buy again their good and supplies at the same time?
Ask: Who owns a dry good store? Who owns a restaurant?
When does Sheila buy her goods and supplies? What about Jackie?
What does the problem ask for?How will you solve for the
answer to the problem? Can you think of ways to solve it?
2. Performing the Activities
Group the pupils into 6 groups. Give each group a Manila
paper and pentel pen for their solutions and answers.
Solutions: Solving this problem requires finding the least
common multiple of numbers.
6
8

a. By Listing Method
12 18
30 36
32 40
16

42
56 64

54 60 66
78 84
80 88 96 104 112

The common multiples of 6 and 8: 24, 48,


72,... LCM of 6 and 8 is 24
b. By Prime Factorization
6= 2x3
8= 2x2x2
LCM: 2x2x2x3=24
c. By Continuous Division 2
68
2 3 4
3 3 2
2 1 2
1 1
LCM: 2x2x2x3=24
123

90
96
120 128

3. Processing the Activities


Let the groups present their outputs.
Ask: How did you solve for the correct answer? Which multiples are
common to 6 and 8? What is the smallest multiple common to 6 and
8? Introduce the term least common multiple or LCM as the smallest
multiple common to 2 numbers.
4. Reinforcing the Concept and Skill
Discuss the presentation on page 92 of LM Math Grade
4, then give the following exercises.
A. Find the least common multiple of each pair of numbers. Write your
answer on the blank before each number.
_________1) 12 and 4 _____________________4) 9 and 8
_________2) 8 and 12 ______________________5) 10 and 12
_________3) 7 and 6
B. Ask the pupils to work on items A and B under Get Moving on pages
93 to 94 of LM Math Grade 4. Check the pupils' answers. For
mastery, have the pupils do the exercises under Keep Moving on
page 94, LM Math Grade 4.
5. Summarizing the Lesson
Lead the pupils to give the following generalization by
asking: How do you get the least common multiple of numbers?
To find the LCM of two given numbers, we do any of
the following methods:
1. Listing Method
List some multiples of two given numbers.
Write the common multiples.
The smallest common multiple is the LCM.
2. Prime Factorization
Write each number as a product of its prime factors.
Multiply the common prime factors to get the least common multiple.
3. Continuous Division
Write the numbers horizontally and find a prime number
that will divide the numbers, if possible.
Divide by that prime number and write the quotients below the
dividends. Copy any numbers not divided below the dividend.
Continue the process until the quotients are 1.
Multiply all the prime divisors and the last set of quotients
to get the LCM.
6. Applying to New and Other Situations
Ask the pupils to do items 1 to 3 under Apply Your Skills on page 95,
LM Math Grade 4.

124

C. Assessment
a. Find the LCM of each pair of numbers using the indicated method.
1) 6 and 12 (listing method)
2) 9 and 12 (prime factorization)
3) 45 and 50 (continuous division)
b. Find the LCM using any method.
4) 12 and 18
5) 24 and 36
D. Home Activity
Remediation
Find the LCM of the following pairs of numbers.
1 )
6 a n d 9
4 ) 9 a n d 1 5
2) 18 and 30
5) 30 and 40
3) 45 and 27
Enrichment
Find the LCM of the following sets of numbers.
4) 6, 9, and 12
1) 3, 4, and 6
2) 5, 8, and 20
5) 12, 18, and 24
3) 4, 6, and 12
Lesson 29: Solving Real-Life Problems Involving GCF and LCM
of Two Given Numbers
Week 4
Objective: Solve real-life problems involving GCF and LCM of two given numbers
Value Focus: Helpfulness and thriftiness
Prerequisite Concepts and Skills:
Mastery of the basic multiplication facts
Writing a number as a product of its prime factors
Finding common factors and Greatest Common Factor of 2 given numbers
Finding multiples and Least Common Multiple of 2 given numbers
Materials: cards with number pairs for the drill activity, problem written on the chart
References: K to 12 Grade 4 Curriculum, LM Math Grade 4 pages 96-98
Instructional Procedure:
A. Preliminary Activities
1. Drill
Have a drill on:
finding common factors and Greatest Common Factor of two given
numbers
finding common multiples and Least Common Multiple of 2 given numbers
125

12 and 16

15 and 25

24 and 36

18 and 27

30 and 40

You can use the following exercises


Find the common factors and GCF of the following number pairs.

Find the common multiples and LCM of the following number pairs.
6 and 8

9 and 15

10 and 12

15 and 20

14 and 21

(You may use other materials for this drill)


2. Review
Conduct a review on how to express a number as a product of
its prime factors. Provide examples and exercises for this.
3. Motivation
Show a picture of a girl helping her mother in a flower shop. Ask the
pupils to tell something about the picture. Elicit the value of helpfulness.
Ask: How do you show helpfulness at home? In the school? Is it good to
be helpful? Why?
B. Developmental Activities
1. Presentation
Present each problem to the
class. Problem A
Elvira is going to prepare bouquets of roses and bouquets of
daisies. She has 36 roses and 24 daisies. What is the greatest number
of each flower that she can use in a bouquet if bouquets have the same
number of flowers?
Have the pupils read the problem. Then ask: What is Elvira going to do
with the flowers? How many roses does she have? How many daisies?
Problem B
Divina is going to prepare bouquets of roses with 5 roses to a bouquet
and bouquets of daisies with 6 daisies to a bouquet. What will be the
smallest number of roses and daisies that she will need for her bouquets?
Have the pupils read the problem. Then ask: What is Divina
planning to do? How many roses will she need to prepare a bouquet of
roses? How many daisies does she need to prepare a bouquet of
daisies? How will you solve for the answer to each problem?

126

2. Performing the Activities


Group the pupils into six working teams and have them perform the tasks.
Problem A
Solution 1: Finding the Greatest Common Factor (GCF) by listing
the factors of 36 and 24.
The factors of 36 are 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 36
The factors of 24 are 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24
Common Factors: 1, 2, 3, 4,6, and 12
Greatest Common Factor: 12
Solution 2: Finding the Greatest Common Factor (GCF) of 36 and
24 by prime factorization.
36 = 2 x 2 x 3 x 3
24 = 2 x 2 x 2 x 3
Common Prime Factors:
2x2x3
GCF: 12
Solution 3: Finding the GCF of 24 and 36 by continuous division.
2

24 36

12

18

6
2

9
3

GCF: 2 x2 x 3 = 12
Problem B
Solution 1: Finding the Least Common Multiple (LCM) by listing
some multiples of 5 and 6
Multiples of 5: 5, 10, 15,20, 25, 25, 30,35, 40 45, 50, 55, 60, ...
Multiples of 6: 6, 12, 18,24, 30, 36, 42, 48, 54, 60..
Common Multiples of 5 and 6: 30, 60, ...
Least Common Multiple (LCM): 30
Solution 2: Finding the Least Common Multiple (LCM) of 5 and 6
by prime factorization.
5=1x5
6=2x3
LCM= 1x 2 x 5 x 3 = 30
Solution 3: Finding the Least Common Multiple (LCM) of 5 and 6
by continuous division.

127

5 1
`I
1
LCM=2 x 3 x 5 = 30
3. Processing the Activities
Ask the groups to present and discuss their answers on the board.
Expected answers:
For Problem A
We used the 4-step plan in solving problems involving GCF and LCM
of two numbers: Understand, Plan, Solve, and Check and Look
Back.
We solved for the answer by listing method, prime factorization,
and continuous division.
4. Reinforcing the Concept and Skill
Discuss the presentation on top of page 96 of LM Math Grade 4.
Have the pupils solve the following problems.
1. Aira baked 60 cupcakes and 48 cookies. If she is going to pack
them in boxes of cupcakes and boxes of cookies, what is the
most number of each item will the boxes contain if these are
of the same number?
2. Aling Maring is going to sell suman in bundles. What is the least
number of suman that she could sell in bundles of 3 and 5?
Ask the pupils to solve the problems under Get Moving on page 97,
LM Math Grade 4. Check their answers. For mastery, have them
solve the problems under Keep Moving on page 97 to
98 of LM Math Grade 4. Check the pupils' answers.
5. Summarizing the Lesson
Summarize the lesson by asking: How do we solve problems
GCF
andplan
LCMinofsolving
two given
numbers?
involving
We use the
4-step
problems
involving GCF

and LCM of two given numbers. Understand, Plan, Solve,


and Check and Look Back
We solve for the answer by listing method, prime
factorization, and continuous division.

6. Applying to New and Other Situations


Have the pupils do the exercises under Apply Your Skills on page 98,
LM Math Grade 4. Encourage some pupils to show and discuss the answers.
128

C. Assessment
Read and solve each problem. Write your answers on your answer sheet.
1. Mr. Roldan's class is composed of 28 boys and 35 girls. If he is going to make
groups of boys and groups of girls for the activities, what is the biggest number
of children in the group if they are of the same number?
2. Dade is going to pack puto in boxes of 6 and 12 pieces. What is the
smallest number of puto that she can pack using the boxes?
D. Home Activity
Remediation
Provide more practice on finding the GCF and LCM of two numbers.
Then, give problems similar to those given in the lesson.
Enrichment
Read and solve each problem. Write the answers in your notebook.
1. Oranges are sold in boxes of 6, 8, 10, and 12. How can Mario buy 60 oranges?
2. A bell rings every 15 seconds. A horn blows every 30 seconds. If Kathy heard the two
sounds at 9:00 a.m., at what time will she hear the sounds together again?

Lesson 30: Creating Problems Involving GCF and LCM


Week 4
Objective: Create problems involving GCF and LCM with reasonable answers.
Value Focus: Using spare time for hobbies
Prerequisite Concepts and Skills:
Mastery of the multiplication basic facts
Knowledge on finding the GCF and LCM of two given numbers
Materials: flash cards, dart board, TG and LM Math Grade 4.
References: K to 12 Grade 4 Curriculum, LM Math Grade 4 pages 99 to 101.
Instructional Procedure:
A. Preliminary Activities
1. Drill
Have a drill on solving problems involving finding the GCF and
LCM. Provide exercises on this.
2. Review
Have a review on how to find the GCF and LCM of two numbers,
then provide these exercises.

129

FindtheGCF

and LCM.
6 and 12

8 and 10

18 and 24

15 and 45

24 and 16

9 and 27

17 and 51

24 and 36

28 and 42

12 and 18

3. Motivation
Talk about the favorite collection.
Ask: Do you have a favorite collection?
What do you collect for your hobby?
Instill the value of "using spare time" for a favorite hobby.
B. Developmental Activities
1. Presentation
Present these problems to the class. Ask the pupils to give
some questions about the problem.
Problem A
Three boys went swimming at the beach. After swimming, they
collected shells. They collected 48 white shells and 60 brown shells. What
was the greatest number of shells they collected per hour if they collected
the same number of shells per hour?
Problem B
Jason and Anselmo are going to pack old books with 6 Mathematics
books and 8 English books in a box. What will be the smallest number of
Mathematics and English books that they can pack if these are of the
same number?
Discuss with the class each problem.
Ask: How will you solve the first problem? The second problem?
Emphasize that the first problem involves finding the GCF, while the
second problem involves finding the LCM.
Ask: Can you create problems similar to these problems?
2. Performing the Activities
Group the pupils into four working teams. Ask the groups to create
a problem similar to the ones given. Give them enough time to
perform the task.
3. Processing the Activities
Let the groups present and discuss the problem they have created.
Ask: How did you create a problem similar to the ones given?
Expected answers:
We familiarized ourselves with the concept and its application to reallife situation.
We thought of the type of problem we wanted to create.
We read some problems similar to the ones given and studied their
solution.
130

4. Reinforcing the Concept and Skill


Discuss the presentation on top of page 99 of LM Math Grade 4.
Then, give the following exercises.
A. Have the pupils create a problem similar to the one below.
Teacher Marlyn and Teacher Rema are planning a field trip for their
classes. There are 30 boys and 42 girls in all. The pupils will be grouped
into Teams of Boys and Teams of Girls. What is the largest number of
pupils in a group so that each group has the same number of pupils?
How many groups of boys will be formed? How many groups of girls will
be there?
B. Ask the pupils to work on exercises A and B under Get Moving on
page 100. Check on their answers.
C. For more practice, let them answer the exercises under Keep Moving on
page 100 of LM Math 4. Check on the pupils' answers.
5. Summarizing the Lesson
Summarize the lesson by asking: How do we create problems
involving GCF and LCM?

Familiarize oneself with the concept, and its application in real-life


situations.
Think of the type of problem you want to create.
Read some problems and study their solutions.
6. Applying to New and Other Situations
Have the pupils do the exercises under Apply Your Skills page
101, LM Math Grade 4.
C. Assessment
Create a problem involving GCF and LCM for each set of
information given below.
1. 48 cookies, 64 cupcakes, packages of cookies and
cupcakes biggest number of cookies and cupcakes in a
box
2. 6 love birds, 15 doves, birds in a cage, smallest number of birds
D. Home Activity
Remediation
Complete the problems by making a question.
1. During the Home Economics class, Mina gathered 40 pieces of
ampalaya and Abdul gathered 48 pieces of eggplant. They want to
bundle them with the same number of each vegetable in each bundle.
2. Andre wants to donate 140 pieces of ballpen and 80 notebooks to the
pupils of Rosario Elementary School. He wants to pack them in boxes.

131

Enrichment
Create 2 problems involving finding GCF and LCM.
Lesson 31: Identifying Proper Fractions, Improper Fractions,
and Mixed Numbers
Week 5
Objective: Identify proper fractions, improper fractions, and mixed numbers.
Value Focus: Helpfulness
Prerequisite Concepts and Skills:
Visualizing and representing fractions that are less than one, equal
to one, and greater than one
Materials: Pictures showing fractional parts
References: K to 12 Grade 4 Curriculum, LM Math Grade 4 pages 102 to 104
Instructional Procedure:
A. Preliminary Activities
1. Drill
Have a drill on visualizing and identifying fractions using pictures.
Example: Write the fractional part of the boxed picture.

2. Review
Have a review on representing fractions through sets, regions,
etc. Provide exercises where pupils will represent fractions through
sets, regions, etc.
3. Motivation
Ask: How many of you go to the market with your parents? What do you buy
from the market? Why do you have to go to the market with your parents?
B. Developmental Activities
1. Presentation
Have the pupils read and understand the situation below.
One Saturday morning, Albert accompanied his mother to the market to
buy ingredients for their dish. They bought 4kilogram of potatoes,
4

kilograms of chicken, and i kilograms of potatoes. Albert carried the


132

Ask these questions:


What ingredients did Albert and his mother buy?
What do you think is Albert's mother going to cook?
What kind of a boy is Albert?
Will you do the same to your mother?
Infuse the value of being helpful.
2. Performing the Activities
Group the pupils into six working teams.
Using regions, let the pupils illustrate the fractions used in the
problem. Have them identify the kinds of fractions shown by the regions.
Let them present their output.
Expected answers:
11

1 kg
4

kg

k4g

1
- kg

1
4

kg

11
4 kg

3 ,_
4gK
Less than one whole

1
kg
4
l
i
4 kg

kg
4
1
4

-kg
4

1 kg

1
4

kg
4

1
kg

11

- kg

1 1
4 kg

4 kg

kg

3
1 4 kg

kg

More than one whole

Combination of a whole and


part of a whole

3. Processing the Activities


After the activity, ask the pupils to say something about the activity.
Ask: What can you say about the first fraction? Can you give other
examples? What can you say about the second fraction? Can you
give other examples?
What is a mixed number?
Introduce the term proper fraction for a fraction whose numerator is
smaller than the denominator; improper fraction for a fraction whose
numerator is equal to or greater than the denominator; and mixed number
for a fraction which is a sum of a whole number and a fraction.
4. Reinforcing the Concept and Skill
Using flash cards with fractions (proper fraction, improper
fraction, and mixed number), choose three pupil leaders to hold the signs:
Proper fraction, improper fraction, and mixed number. Let pupils group
themselves into three and by groups, let them form their lines at the center.
The teacher flashes the cards. The first group will go to the pupil
leader to give the answer for the card. Once finished answering, they will
go back to their own seats.
Examples:
8
5
7
9

3
4

12
5
133

1
417

Discuss the presentation on page 102 of LM Math Grade 4, then give


the following exercises.
Write P if the given is a proper fraction, I if it is an improper fraction,
and M if it is a mixed number
7
15
6
1) _
3)
5)
.3
6
1
2) 1

4) 3
8

Ask pupils to answer the items under Get Moving on page 103 of
LM Math Grade 4,
Check the pupils' answers.
5. Summarizing the Lesson
Lead pupils to generalize as follows:
A fraction whose numerator is less than the denominator is called
proper fraction. It is a fraction greater than 0 but less than 1.
A fraction whose numerator is equal to or greater than the denominator
is called improper fraction. It is a fraction equal to 1 or greater than 1.
A fraction which is a combination of a whole number and a
proper fraction is called a mixed number.
6. Applying to New and Other Situations Write the
given fractions in the appropriate column.
5
12
8
6 4 4
3
9
7
5
Proper Fractions

Improper Fractions

64 4
3
Mixed Numbers

Ask the pupils to answer the item under Apply Your Skills on
page 104, LM Math Grade 4.

C. Assessment
Ask pupils to answer the exercises under Keep Moving in page 103 of
LM Math Grade 4.

134

Have the pupils answer the following:


Put the fraction under its correct name.
Check the answer after the given time.
9
8

3
7

15
17

5
6

Proper Fractions

13
11

7
5

4
10

19
16

21
9

6
13

Improper Fractions

Mixed Numbers

D. Home Activities
Remediation
Write P if the given is a proper fraction, I if it is an improper
fraction, and M if it is a mixed number.
________1. 6- 8 _________________3
'17
1

25

______5. 9 5 8

4
______2.8 _______________4.
Enrichment
Read and then answer the question.

. 7i
A meat vendor sold 5-, kilograms of chicken to Maricns, kilograms to
Glesy and kilogram to Jim.
Name the proper fraction, improper fraction, and mixed number
given in the situation.
Lesson 32: Changing Improper Fractions to Mixed Numbers and Vice Versa
Week 5
Objective: Change improper fractions to mixed numbers and vice-versa
Value Focus: Being helpful
Prerequisite Concepts and Skills:
Operations of whole numbers
Identifying proper fraction, improper fraction, and mixed number
135

Materials: ball, flash card (division and multiplication)


Reference: K to 12 Grade 4 Curriculum, LM Math Grade 4 pages 105 to107
Instructional Procedure:
A. Preliminary Activities
1. Drill
Use flash cards for the basic facts in multiplication and division.
Find the product/quotient.
Example:
4x6
6x7
5x4
3x9
8x5
48+6
22 2
18+3
15 3
35 + 5
2. Review
Conduct a review on identifying proper fractions, improper fractions,
and mixed numbers through "Pass the Ball Game." Play a music while a
pupil passes the ball to another. This continues until the music stops. (The
teacher decides when to stop the music.) As soon as the music stops,
whoever pupil holds the ball will stand and identify whether what is written
on the flash card is a proper fraction, improper fraction, or mixed number.
Examples:
11
7
8
9
3
3_
4
5
8
11
10
T
3. Motivation
Ask: How often do you have visitors during weekends? What do you do if
you have visitors? How can you entertain the visitors? Infuse the
value of extending help to the family in every little way.
B. Developmental Activities
Presentation
Present the following problems.
Problem 1
Mother baked cassava cakes for her visitors. She asked Maria to slice
the cakes into eighths. When Maria ate one slice, she noticed that she made m
cakes. How many whole cakes and slices will be served to the visitors?
8

Ask: What did mother bake for her visitors?


How many slices of cakes did mother request Maria to prepare?
How many eighths did Maria make out of the cassava cakes?
What does the problem ask for?
How will you solve the problem?
Problem 2

Aling Nena bought 2 i kilograms of beef. How many fourths of a


kilogram of beef does she have?

136

Ask: How many kilograms of beef did Aling Nena


buy? What does the problem ask for? How
will you solve the problem?
2. Performing the Activities
Ask the pupils to group into five.
Have them solve the two problems.
Problem 1
Solution 1: By drawing regions

8
8

8
8

Ti

7
7
1 whole + 1 whole = 2 wholes and 8 or 2 8
Solution 2: By division
23
8 - 23 + 8 = 2 remainder 7
Express the remainder as a fraction

23 .

7
2

8 8

Problem 2
Solution 1: By drawing regions

MN
MN

4
4

MN
MN

4
4

MN
MN

3
4

M . ,

. m l

3
4

1 1

. 1 .

Solution 2: By multiplying the denominator by the whole number


and adding the numerator to the product.

137

= (4x 2 )+ 3 =
4

8 + 3 = 11
4
4

3. Processing the Activities


Ask pupils what they did to arrive at an answer to each problem.
For Problem 1:
23
We used regions to show Ti .
23

We counted how many eighths (is ) there are in all in T i .


We formed a whole number, then wrote the remaining parts as a
fraction.
For Problem 2:
3
We drew regions to show 2 i.
We divided the numerator by the denominator, then expressed
the remainder as a fraction.
Provide immediate feedback/remedial measures to incorrect answers.
Emphasize that the first example shows the process on how to change
an improper fraction to a mixed number, while example 2 shows the
process on how to change a mixed number to an improper fraction.
4. Reinforcing the Concept and Skill
Discuss the presentation under Explore and Discover on page
105, LM Math Grade 4, then given the following activities.
Change the following to mixed numbers or improper fractions.
5
5
835
1) 41
6 2) 7 _ 3)
4)
4
Let the pupils answer the exercises under Get Moving and
Keep Moving on pages 106 and 107, LM Math Grade 4.
5. Summarizing the Lesson
Lead pupils to generalize as follows:
To rename an improper fraction as a mixed number or whole number,
divide the numerator by the denominator and express the remainder if
any, as a fraction.
To rename a mixed number as an improper fraction, multiply the
denominator by the whole number, then add the numerator to the
product. Write the sum over the given denominator
6. Applying to New and Other Situations
Let pupils answer the exercise under Apply Your Skills on
page 107, LM Math Grade 4

138

C. Assessment
Let the pupils answer the following items.
Change the following fractions to improper fractions or mixed numbers.
1

)13
2

12
2) 12

7
10

3) 88

D. Home Activities
Remediation
Fill in the box with the correct number.
2
1
8
2) 8
1)
=

15
5) 10 7

4) 6

3 )

15
2 - 2

Enrichment
Answer the following questions.
1. How many thirds are there ins?
2. is equal to how many tenths?
io
Lesson 33: Changing Fractions to Lowest Terms
Week 5
Objective: Change fractions to lowest terms
Value Focus: Helpfulness and industry
Prerequisite Concepts and Skills:
Dividing numbers
Prime and Composite Numbers
Finding the Greatest Common Factor
Materials: flash cards, charts
References: K to 12 Grade 4 Curriculum, LM Math Grade 4 pages 108 to
110 Instructional Procedure:
A. Preliminary Activities
1. Drill
Conduct a review on writing a number as a product of its prime factors
using factor tree or continuous division. Then give the following exercises:
Find the prime factors of the following using factor tree
or continuous division.
1) 16
2) 28
3) 45
4) 64

139

5) 72

2. Review
Conduct a review on finding the GCF using prime factorization,
listing method, and continuous division. Then, give the following
exercises.
Find the GCF of the following numbers.
1) 12and18
3)12and64 5)14and54
2) 16 and 48
4) 18 and 27
3. Motivation
Talk about doing household chores.
Ask: Who among you enjoy helping your mother do the home
chores? Why do you have to help? If you do home chores,
what benefits can you get from them?
B. Developmental Activities
1. Presentation
Present the situation on page 108, LM Math Grade 4.
Ask the pupils to read and understand it. Then, ask the following questions:
Who helps Edward in cleaning the backyard?
How many hours do they spend cleaning the backyard?
How will you describe Nhel?
What does the problem ask you to find?
Instill the value of sharing a fraction of one's time to help.
How will you solve for the answer to the problem?
2. Performing the Activities
Encourage pupils to work by pairs.
Expected answer:
To change 24 to lowest term,
Solution: Finding the GCF of 2 and 24
a. by listing method: Factors of
2 : 1 Factors of 24: 1 2 3, 4,
6, 8, 12, 24
GCF: 2
b. By dividing the numerator and denominator by their GCF.
2

24 = 24

1
= 12

c. By using prime factorization, cancellation of common prime factors,


then multiplying the remaining factors to get the answer
2

1 x ___________________1
24 = 1 x '2 x 2 x 2 x 3
= 12

3. Processing the Activities


As a follow up, request some pupils to show and discuss their answers.
Ask: How did you solve the problem?
How did you change

L to lowest term?
140

Answers:
We solved for the GCF first, then divided the numerator and denominator by
the GCF to get the fraction in lowest term.
We wrote each number as a product of its prime factors. Then, we cancelled the
common prime factors, and multiplied the remaining prime factors to get the
numerator and denominator of the fraction in lowest term.
4. Reinforcing the Concept and Skill
Ask pupils to answer A, B, and C exercises under Get Moving,
pages 108 and 109 LM Math Grade 4. After the given lime, check the pupils'
answers. Allow pupils to answer exercises A and B under Keep Moving,
pages 109 and110 LM Math Grade 4. Check the pupils' answers.
5. Summarizing the Lesson
Lead the pupils to generalize as follows:
A fraction is in its lowest term if the numerator and the denominator
have no other common factor except 1.
To reduce a fraction to its lowest term, divide the numerator and
the denominator by their GCF (Greatest Common Factor).
6. Applying to New and Other Situations
Let pupils answer the problems under Apply Your Skills, page 110,
LM Math Grade 4.
C. Assessment
Express each fraction to its lowest term.

1)

8
10

2)

9
12

3)

6
15

4)

4
12

3
5) 18

D. Home Activity
Remediation
Fill in the box with the correct numerator or denominator.
1) 371 =
4) 6 =

12
g 18

__________________ 15
7)

10)

4
2) 5 15=

14
3) =

6 24
5) 7 = _________

6) T. = 4
16

5 25
8) =

39
9)7 = __________

7 218
=IL 48

141

Enrichment
Write in lowest terms.
9
4
1
=
2
'15
' TO =
14
6. 2 8 =

21
7. 4 2 =

12
'16=

10
8. 1 6=

15
' TO =

6
'U=

15
30
9. T.5 = 10. 35 =

Lesson 34: Visualizing Addition and Subtraction of Similar


Fractions Week 6
Objective: Visualize addition and subtraction of similar fractions
Value Focused: Keeping oneself physically fit _1
Prerequisite Concepts and Skills:
Changing fractions to lowest terms
Identifying/Naming Fractions
Materials: Fraction Chart, flash cards
References: K to 12 Grade 4 Curriculum, LM Math Grade 4 pages 111 to 114
Instructional Procedure:
A. Preliminary Activities
1. Drill
Conduct a drill on naming fractions for the shaded regions.
Name the shaded parts.
a.

d.

c.

e.

2. Review
Have a review on changing improper fractions to mixed numbers
and vice versa using the game "Where Is My Partner"?
Provide each pupil with a card containing either an improper fraction
or a mixed number. See to it that each fraction has an equivalent fraction,
either an improper fraction or a mixed number. When all pupils have
their cards, say "Mix, then find your partner." Examples are given. You can
have more.
142

3. Motivation
Talk about ways of keeping physically healthy
Ask: Do you like to jog? Are you jogging
alone? Why do you have to exercise?
What benefits can you get from jogging?
B. Developmental Activities
1. Presentation
Present this situation to the class.

John and Raul jog regularly. One morning, John jogged i kilometer
while Raul jogged
kilometer. How many kilometers did John and Raul jog
altogether? How much farther did John jog than Raul?
Ask: Who jog regularly?
What part of a kilometer did John jog one morning? What about
Raul?
What does the problem ask you to find?
How will you solve for the answer to the problem?
2. Performing the Activities
Let the pupils work in groups of 5.

5 i =
Say: "Using the fraction chart and a number line, solve for i + n
Solution 1: using a fraction chart:
1 whole
1
1
2

1
3

1
3

1
4

1
4

1
5

1
1
10

1
11

1
11

1
12

1
12

1
10

1
12

1
11
1
12

9
1
10
1
11

1
12

1
7

1
10

1
12

1
12

1
12

1
9

1
10
1
11

1
8

1
10
1

1
7
1
8

11
1
12

1
6

1
8

1
1
10

1
11

1
7

7
1

1
6

1
8

1
5

1
6

1
7

1
8

1
5

1
6

1
7

8
1

1
5

1
6

1
7

1
4

1
5

1
6

1
10

1
3

1
10

1
11
1
12

1
10

1
11
1
12

1
11
1
12

From the fraction chart, draw out from the pupils which strip helps to
solve our problem.
143

1
8

1
8

1
8

1
8

1
8

1
8

kilometer

1
8

1
8

1
8

1
8

kilometer 8

1
8

8
8 kilometer
Answer: John and Raul jogged a distance of 8 or 1 kilometer.
8
John 5 kilometer
8

1
a

83
km John jogged farther than Raul - km

kilometer -

3
kilometer
8

=2
8 kilometer

Answer: John jogged 8 or Zi km farther than Raul. Solution


2: using a number line
8 kilometer or 1 kilometer

kilometer - John

1
8

2
8

3
8

kilometer

4
8

144

5
8

Kilometer - Raul
8

6
8

7
8

8
8

kilometer 8
3 kilometer
8

1
3
4
5
8
8
8
1
8 2 kilometer farther or 4 kilometer in lowest term
1
8

1
6
8

1
7
8

8
8

Encourage pupils to report their output and discuss their solutions.


3. Processing the Activities
How did you find the activity?
How were you able to solve for the answer to the problem?
Expected answers:
We enjoyed doing the activity.
We used the fraction chart and a number line to visualize the distance
jogged by John and Raul altogether ( : km + 2

km = kmorkm 1)

We also used the fraction chart and number line to show how much
farther John has jogged than Raul.
5
3
2

1
8

km - 8 km =
km or 4 k m
Emphasize that the answer should be reduced to lowest term like:
2
1
8
4
4. Reinforcing the Concept and Skill
Discuss the presentation under Explore and Discover, page 111 of
LM Math Grade 4. Let the pupils read and understand the problem.
Ask the pupils:
What did Joseph and his mother do near Sto. Domingo?
What did they do to the cake they bought?
How many parts of the cake did they eat?
What value did they show when they brought the rest of the
cake home?
If you were Joseph, would you do the same?

145

By working in groups of 4, find the sum or difference of the following:

a.

1 111111111 I I I I I
3
8

6
8

d.

c.
4

8+8=

e.

h.

-5 = n

10

=n

f.

9
1
0

4
-9
- -5
10=n

3
10 -

g.

2
2

12 =

2
- 9n

For more practice, let the pupils answer the exercises under Get Moving
and exercise A of Keep Moving on pages 112 and 113, LM Math Grade 4.
5. Summarizing the Lesson
Guide the pupils to generalize as follows:
In visualizing the sum or difference of similar fractions, we may use a fraction
chart, regions, or a number line.
6. Applying to New and Other Situations
Ask the pupils to answer exercise A under Apply Your Skills on
page 114, LM Math Grade 4. Check the pupils' answers after the
given period of time.
C. Assessment
Ask pupils to answer Keep Moving Set B 1 to 6 on page 113 of LM Math Grade 4.
D. Home Activities
Remediation
Provide similar exercises for children to work on at home.
Enrichment
Ask the pupils to answer exercise B under Apply Your Skills on page
114 of LM Math Grade 4.

146

Lesson 35: Adding and Subtracting Similar Fractions


Week 7
Objective: Perform addition and subtraction of similar fractions
Prerequisite Concepts and Skills:
Identifying similar fractions
Changing fractions to lowest terms
Materials: Fractions written on flash cards, chart
References: K to 12 Grade 4 Curriculum, TG and LM Math Grade 4 pages 115 toll 7
Instructional Procedure:
A. Preliminary activities
1. Drill
Pairing Game. Have a drill on basic addition facts. Use flash cards or
window cards. Encourage pupils to answer with speed and accuracy.
2. Review
Have a review on changing fractions to lowest terms.
Provide exercises written on flash cards.
3. Motivation
Talk about garbage disposal and the practice of segregating
biodegradable and non-biodegradable materials..
Ask: What do you usually do with the empty plastic bottles at
home? What other things can be recycled? Emphasize the
importance of recycling, reusing, and reducing.
B. Developmental Activities
1. Presentation
Present the problem under Explore and Discover on pages 115 and
116, LM Math Grade 4. Have them read the problem.
Ask: What was the project of the SPG of Bussing School? What
recyclable items did they collect? What does the problem ask for?
How will you solve the problem?
2. Performing the Activities
Group the pupils into six working teams. Let them think of ways to
solve the problem.

147

Expected answers:
Solution 1 for question 1: By drawing regions

2
4

1
4

2 kilograms
4
3
Answer: kg of recyclable items were collected in all.
Solution 2 for question 1: by adding the numerators of the fractions
and writing the sum as a fraction using the common denominator.
2
3
4+

= 4 kilogram in all Solution 1

for question 2: By using fraction charts

2
4

4
Answer. There were a kg more of plastic bottles than disposable spoons and forks.
Solution 2 for question 2: By subtracting the numerators of the
fractions, then writing the difference as a fraction using the common
denominator
44

4 1 kilogram

After all groups have finished their output, let them display
their work on the board.
3. Processing the Activities
Ask the groups to present and discuss their answers on the board.
Ask: How did you solve for the answers?
Expected answers:
For question 1:
1
We drew regions to show 2and .71
Then, we combined the regions.
We added the numerators of the fractions, then wrote the sum
148

as a fraction using the common denominator.


For question 2:
2

We used fraction charts for -4 and then, determined how


2
i 1
much bigger i s than .
We subtracted the numerators, then wrote the difference as a
fraction using the common denominator.

4. Reinforcing the Concept and Skill


Discuss the other examples on adding and subtracting
similar fractions.Then, give the following activities:
A. Ask the pupils to answer the activity under Get Moving on page 116,
LM Math Grade 4.
B. Ask them also to answer the activity under Keep Moving on pages 116
and 117, LM Math Grade 4.
5. Summarizing the Lesson
Lead the class to give the following generalization by asking: "How
do we add/ subtract similar fractions?"
To add similar fractions, add the numerators, then write the sum as a
fraction using the common denominator. Reduce the answer to lowest
term, if possible.
To subtract similar fractions, subtract the numerators, then write the
difference as a fraction using the common denominator. Reduce the
answer to lowest term, if possible.
6. Applying to New and other Situations
Let the pupils do the exercises under Apply Your Skills on page 117,
LM Math Grade 4.
C. Assessment
Find the sum or drfference. Express your answers in lowest terms if
needed. Write the answers on your answer sheets.
3
1
3
3
2
3
2
5
1) 5 + 5
2) 6+ 6
3) 8 8 +
4)
Ti. + 4
5)

9)

3+5
7
7
2

- 3

6)

1 10 )
3

- -3

78

7)

10

-5
10

8)
6

3
6

3
8

D. Home Activity
Remediation
Fill in the box with the correct number.

2
3
)7+7=7

2
3
2) 6 + 6 = 6
149

5
) 10 + 10 = 10

A,
4)

13 11
15 + 15 = 15

11
5
) 20 + = Y:1

Enrichment
Solve each problem. Simplify the answer, if possible.
1. Every Saturday, Alma spends 3 of an hour sweeping the yard and 2 of an hour
cleaning the house. What part of an hour does she spend in doing the
household chores?
2. Rodel is a Grade 4 pupil. He lives ; km from school. Bert, his classmate, lives 5
km from school. Who lives farther from school? How much farther?
8

3. Maria bought 3 kg calamansi. She used ; kg to prepare calamansi juice


and i kg to marinade their food. How many kilograms of calamansi were
used? How many kilograms of calamansi were not used?
Lesson 36 : Visualizing Subtraction of a Fraction from a Whole Number
Week 6
Objectives: Visualize the subtraction of a fraction from a whole number
Subtract fractions from a whole number
Value Focus: Sharing
Prerequisite Concepts / Skills:
Renaming a whole number as a fraction
Subtracting similar fractions
Materials: Chart, flash cards
References: K to 12 Grade 4 Curriculum, LM Math Grade 4 pages 118 to 120
Instructional Procedure:
A. Preliminary Activities
1. Drill
Conduct an oral drill on subtracting similar fractions.
4
3
4
2
E x a m p l e s :

4 4

6
5

3
8
3

5
6 6 8 T i

(Provide more exercises of this kind.)

150

2. Review
Have a review on renaming a whole number as a fraction.
234
Examples: 1 = 2' 3, 71

234
2 2 ' 1 ' 171
=1

(Provide more exercises of this kind.)


3. Motivation
Talk about friendship with neighbors.
Ask: Who among you have friends in your neighborhood?
Have you experienced sharing what you have with your friends?
What things do you usually share with them?
How did you feel after sharing something?
B. Developmental Activities
1. Presentation
Present this problem.
Ervin bought 1 meter of plastic cover for his notebook. He shared
his plastic cover with his classmate and only 't meter was left with him.
What part of the plastic cover did Ervin share?
Ask: What did Ervin buy?
What did he do with the plastic cover?
What kind of boy is Ervin? If you were Ervin, will you do the same?
What is asked for in the problem?
How will you solve for the answer to the problem?
2. Performing the Activities Group the pupils
into five, then ask them to think of ways of
finding the answer to the problem. Solution 1:
Using an illustration
4
1 meter = 4 meter

4
3 meter plastic cover shared

151

meter plastic cover left

Solution 2: Using a number line.


1 meter

< I
0

.i

.i

.i

.i

.i

3
4 meter plastic cover shared

meter plastic cover left

Ask pupils to present their output.


3. Processing the Activities
After presenting the output, ask:
How did you solve for the answer to the problem?
How did you find the activity?
How were you able to find the answers?
Expected answers:
We used an illustration and a number line to solve for the
answer to the problem.
4

We renamed 1 as 4 to make subtraction possible.


1
We cut 4 3 from 4 and have 4
left. 4

4. Reinforcing the Concept and Skill


Present this problem.
5
Father bought 2 kilograms of dragon fruit. He shared 0 kilogram
to his neighbor. How many kilograms of the dragon fruit were v
left? Ask: How will you solve the problem?
Say: Think of ways on how will you solve the problem?
Solution 1:

kg shared

8
2 kg = 1-8 kg
5
8
2 = 18

3
1-8 kg left
5

8 = 1 8kilograms left
152

Solution 2:
2 kgs = 1-8 8 kgs

1
8

2
8

1 8 kilograms left
Let the pupils answer the exercises under Get Moving on page 118,
LM Math Grade 4. For more practice, ask the pupils to answer the
exercises under Keep Moving on pages 119 to 120, LM Math Grade 4.
5. Summarizing the Lesson
Guide the pupils to generalize as follows:
To visualize subtracting a fraction from a whole number, use
regions or number lines.
6. Applying to New and Other Situations
Ask pupils to answer Apply Your Skills A. numbers 1 to 10 on page
120, LM Math Grade 4.
C. Assessment
Draw regions or a number line to find the answer.

1.13

2. 2 1
5

3. 3 5

4. 2 3
10

5. 4 1

D. Home Activity
Remediation
Write a subtraction sentence for each of the following illustrations.
taken away

1.

- - >

taken away

2.

Enrichment:
Answer Apply Your Skills B. 1 and 2 on page 120, LM Math Grade 4.
153

Lesson 37: Visualizing Addition and Subtraction of Dissimilar Fractions


Week 8
Objective: Visualize addition and subtraction of dissimilar fractions
Value Focus: Sharing
Prerequisite Concept/Skills:
Visualizing addition and subtraction of similar fractions
Finding the least common multiple
Changing fractions to lowest term
Materials: Fraction Chart, flash cards, strips of papers
References: K to 12 Grade 4 Curriculum, LM Math Grade 4 pages 121 to 123
Instructional Procedure:
A. Preliminary Activities
1. Drill
Conduct a drill on adding and subtracting similar
fractions. Provide exercises on this.
3
5
9
7
Examples: 8 + 8
10
10
2. Review
Have a review on finding the Least Common Multiple (LCM)
of two numbers. Provide exercises on this.
Examples: Find the LCM of these numbers.
a. 4, 2
b. 6, 8
c. 3, 9
d. 3, 4
3. Motivation
Ask pupils to group themselves into four and bring out their paper
strips and crayons. Show a strip similar to the ones they have.
Say: The whole strip is considered 1 whole. If you fold it into two,
how do you call a part?
2
Say: Show a fraction equivalent to us ing your strip of paper.
Ask the class to use different folds to shows . Each member
of the group will have different folds to represent the given fraction.
Example: 23 =

The group with the most number of correct folds wins.

154

B. Developmental Activities
1. Presentation
Present these problems.
Problem A

Sheryl has bibingka. She shared 71 with her classmate.


What part of the bibingka was left?
Problem B
4
3
Anton shared
meter and meter of bamboo with his friends
for their projects. How many meters of bamboo did Anton share in all?

Say: Use drawings, illustrations, or paper folding to find the answer.


Emphasize that they will solve two problems.
What is asked in the situation?
What are the given facts?
How will you answer the problem?
What is the number sentence?

2. Performing the Activities


7
1
Using a paper strip, show 8 4 = n.
1
Let pupils represent 7 and
4 using a paper strip.
8

2
48

5
8

1
Tt is equal to

5
bibingka was left
3

Expected answer:

6
or 10

4
10

3_ 6
5 10

4 6 10

10 + 10 = 10 or 1 whole
Answer: Anton shared 1 meter of bamboo.
155

3. Processing the Activities


Looking back at the examples, ask: How did we visualize subtracting and
adding dissimilar fractions? Emphasize that using regions and other models,
we can visualize adding and subtracting dissimilar fractions.
4. Reinforcing the Concept and Skill
Discuss the presentation under Explore and Discover on page 121,
LM Math Grade 4.
Let pupils answer the exercises under Get Moving A and B on page 122,
LM Math Grade 4.
Check after a period of time.
Ask pupils to answer the exercises under Keep Moving item
numbers 1 to 10 on page 123, LM Math Grade 4
Check pupils' answer after the given period of time.
5. Summarizing the Lessons
Lead the pupils to generalize as follows:
Visualizing addition and subtraction of dissimilar fractions can be done
by using regions and other models.
6. Applying to New and Other Situations
Ask pupils to solve the problems under Apply Your Skills on page
123, LM Math Grade 4. Check the answers of pupils after a given time.
C.Assessment
Ask the pupils to solve the following by drawing regions or using a number line.
4
1
3
5
2
1
8
3
7
2
3) + 4)
1) 5 + 2 2) 74 +
3 6 'T) - T
.
5)

D.Home Activity
Remediation
Create a mathematical sentence for each figure below.
Fl Li
+-=
I__I H

2.

Enrichment
Find the answers using drawings or illustrations.
4)=
3
1
9
5
1
3)
1)
+ 3=
5)
3

1_

Ti + 71 =
5_

6)

156

2
12+3=

9
u

2_
-

Lesson 38: Adding and Subtracting Dissimilar Fractions


Week 6
Objective: Perform addition and subtraction of dissimilar fractions
Value Focus: Sharing
Prerequisite Concepts and Skills:
Adding/Subtracting similar fractions
Finding the LCM of two numbers
Materials: Activity cards for drill activity
References: K to 12 Grade 4 curriculum, LM Math Grade 4 pages 124 to 126
Instructional Procedure:
A. Preliminary Activities
1. Drill
Conduct a drill on adding/subtracting similar fractions.
Ask: How do you add/subtract similar fractions? What can you say
about their denominators?
Have the pupils dd or subtract the following:
3
a.

d.

1
7

.1+ 1
2

52

b.

c.

e.

Provide more exercises if necessary.


2. Review
Review finding the Least Common Multiple (LCM) or Least
Common Denominator (LCD) Encourage the pupils to demonstrate
speed and accuracy.
1
1)
2
2)

1
and
3
and T.

1
3)
3
4)

2
and
1
and 2

2
5)

1
and

2
6) 5 and

3. Motivation
Say: You have learned to visualize adding and subtracting
dissimilar fractions.
Ask: Would you like to add and subtract fractions without using
pictures or models?
157

B. Developmental Activities
1. Presentation
Present a proble9 to the class.
3
Marie shared 74 slice of a cake to her friend. Her sister shared I slice of
a cake with her friends. How many slices of cake did they share
altogether? Who shared more cake? By how much?
Ask: Who among you love to eat cake? How do you feel eating cakes?
What occasions do you experience eating cakes?
Do you share what you have, like cakes to others? Why?
What do you feel when others become happy because you've
shared something to them? Instill the value of sharing.
Emphasize that not only material things can be shared.
Going back to the problem, ask how much cake Marie shared with
her friends. How about her sister? What does the problem ask you
to find?How will you solve for the answers to the problem?
2. Performing the Activities
Group the children into five working teams. Ask the groups to work
cooperatively in finding the answers to the problem. Give them
enough time to think and perform the task.
Expected answers.
Solution 1 for questions 1 and 2: By drawing a picture
I
2
3
5
+8 = 8 slice of cake shared in all
2
8
3
1
= 8 Marie's sister shared 8 more cake.
8

3
8

Answer: Marie and her sister shared i slices of cakes altogether.


Marie's sister shared more by 1 slice.
Solution 2 for questions 1 and 2: By changing to similar fractions
1 2
2 I + 8 3 = 8 5 where 8 is the LCD of 4 and 8.
4 8
3
8

2
8

1
8

After all the groups have finished, ask them to display their output
on the board and ask them to discuss their answers.
3. Processing Activities
After all the groups have presented their answers, ask: "How did you
find the activity? How were you able to add and subtract dissimilar
fractions? What did you do?"

158

Expected answers:
We drew pictures for the problem.
We changed the dissimilar fractions to similar fractions by first
finding the LCM or LCD.
Then, we added the numerators of the fractions and wrote the
sum as a fraction using the common denominator for question
1.
And for question 2, we subtracted the smaller fraction from the bigger
fraction by subtracting the numerators and wrote the difference as a
fraction using the common denominator.
Discuss with the pupils the ways on how they were able to add and subtract
dissimilar fractions. Lead the pupils to see that when adding/subtracting dissimilar
fractions, they must first change them to similar fractions by looking for the LCM
first which is called the Least Common Denominator.
4. Reinforcing the Concept and Skill
Discuss the presentation under Explore and Discover on page 124,
LM Math Grade 4. Then, give the following exercises.
A. Ask pupils to add/subtract.
51
32
61
2)3)
1) 8+ 3

4)

52
6
1
5)
6)
83
x 4 1
B. Ask pupils to work on items 1 to 8 under Get Moving and items 1
to 10 under Keep Moving on pages 126, LM Math Grade 4.
5. Summarizing the Lesson
Guide pupils to give the following generalization by asking: How do
you add dissimilar fractions? How do you subtract dissimilar fractions?
To add or subtract dissimilar fractions:
1. Look for the LCM or LCD of the fractions.
2. Change the dissimilar fractions to similar fractions.
3. Add or subtract the fractions.
4. Reduce the answer to Lowest terms if needed.
6. Applying to New and Other Situations
Ask pupils to do items under A and B of Apply Your Skills on page
126, LM Math Grade 4.
C. Assessment
A. Add the following:
3 1
2+ 1
1) 4 + 2 2) W

4
3)

159

1
V 4
7

B. Subtract the following:


2 1
5 1
4) T. - 2
5)
D. Home Activity
Remediation
A. Add the following:
1) 2 1+ 2

2)

31
7
4+

B. Subtract the following:


3 1
4 1
i) 71 2)
Enrichment
A. Find the sum:
9
1
1)
TO + T

2)

B. Find the difference:


20
1
1)

40
2

7
3)

8
2)

2
+3

3)

5
1

Lesson 39 : Solving Word Problems Involving Addition and/or Subtraction of


Fractions Week 8
Objective: Solve word problems involving addition and/or subtraction of fractions
Value Focus: Thoughtfulness
Prerequisite Concepts and Skills
Changing improper fractions to mixed numbers and vice versa
Changing fractions to lowest terms
Changing fractions to similar terms
Adding/subtracting similar fractions
Adding/subtracting dissimilar fractions
Materials: Chart, flash cards
References: K to 12 Curriculum for Grade 4, LM Math Grade 4 pages 127 to 129

160

Instructional Procedure
A. Preliminary Activities
1. Drill
Conduct a drill on adding and subtracting fractions.
34
43
Examples:

T-I=

+ 15 = N

(Provide exercises.)
2. Review
Have a review on changing dissimilar fractions to similar fractions.
Change the following dissimilar fractions to similar fractions.
2
2
35
22
34
1) 5' 4
2)
3)
4)
4 12
4
4
3. Motivation
Give these situations for the learners to think about and provide answers.
a. You know the length of a rope you used for your project. You want to find
out how long was the rope left from the rope you bought.
What will you do?
b. Your mother bought a certain kilogram of fish, beef, and chicken. You
want to know how many kilograms of meat in all she bought. What will
you do?
c. Your father gathered some kilograms of camote. You want to find out how
many kilograms of camote were left after sharing some with his friend and
selling some in the market. What will you do?
B. Developmental Activities
1. Presentation
Present this problem. Ask the class to read and understand it.
Krisbakedabananacake
forher,71.
family. Her brother
her sister ate .1Who ate more? How much more?

ate

10

Ask: Who baked a cake?


What portion of the banana cake did Kris' brother eat?
What about her sister?
What kind of a sister is Kris?
Are you going to do the same? Why?
Instill the value of being thoughtful.
Ask: What does the problem ask for?
How will you solve the problem?
2. Performing the Activities
Ask the pupils to solve the problem by pairs.
10 4 20 20 20

161

while

Understand
Know what is asked in the problem? Who ate more? By how much?
Know the given facts. *) and ;II
Plan: Determine the operation to use. Subtraction
Draw a picture to represent the problem.
1
10
/-1-1

1
20
1-4-1

11712r111 I 1 I I I 1 I I I I I I 1
3
10

I = 20

1 _ 5
4 - 20
Solve: Think of the solution to the problem.
For the first question: By comparing the size, 3 is
larger than 4 . For the second question: Looking at the
illustration, 1 5 3 6
= and =
4 20
10 20
6
20

20

20

Check and look back: Looking at the illustration, .T0 is bigger than ;.
6
1
5
20
is 20
more than 2 0
Answer: Kris' brother ate more by 20 part.
Have the pupils share their answer with the class.
3. Processing the Activities
After sharing the answers, let the pupils express their thoughts
about the activity. Appreciate their thoughts then ask:
How did you solve the problem?
Expected answers:
We followed these steps in solving the problem.
Understand the problem
We knew what the problem asked for.
We wrote down the given facts.

162

Plan
We determined the operation to use.
We thought of the solution to the problem. Solve
We drew a picture for the problem.
We thought of a solution to the problem
Check and Look Back
We checked if our answer makes sense.
We stated the complete answer.

4. Reinforcing the Concept and Skill


Discuss the presentation under Explore and Discover on page 127,
LM Math Grade 4. Then, ask the pupils to answer Get Moving
Exercise numbers 1 to 3 on page 128, LM Math Grade 4.
For more practice, let the pupils answer Keep Moving
Exercises on page 128, LM Math Grade 4.
5. Summarizing the Lesson
Lead the pupils to generalize as follows:
In solving problems, we follow these
steps: Understand
Know what the problem asked
Know the given
facts Plan
Determine the operation to use
Write the number
sentence Solve
Show the solution to the
problem Check and Look
Back
Check if the answer is reasonable
State the complete answer
6. Applying to New and Other Situations
Ask pupils to solve the problems under Apply Your Skills on page 129,
LM for Grade 4. Check the pupils' answers after a given period of time.
C. Assessment
Read and understand the problems. Then solve.
9

1. Mitchie has ,v) meter of ribbon. Sheena's ribbon is 2 meter longer


than Mitchie's. How many meters of ribbon do the girls have altogether?
2. Jeff jogged : kilometer while Jonathan jogged

L kilometer.

Who jogged longer? by how many kilometer?


3. Elena shared 3 of her chocolate to Lilia. What part was left of
9

15

Elena's chocolate if the original size of the chocolate is .3?


4. Andy has three pieces of wood each measuring : meter, meter, and
2
meter? How long is the wood put together?
3

163

D. Home Activity
Remediation
Read and solve.
1. As a form of exercise, Dr. Gladys walked kilometer and
-6
Dr. Maricris also walked kilometer. Who walked farther and
by how many kilometer?
2. Two whole cassava cakes were prepared by Aling Tess for her daughter's
birthday. She noticed that only 12 of the cassava cake was left.
How much was consumed by the visitors?
Enrichment
Read and solve.
1. Joseph walked $
kilometer in going to school while Michael walked
4
kilometer. Who walked longer and by how many kilometer?
2. Mrs. ;Romero bought
kilogram of cabbage, kilogram of carrots,
and 71 kilogram of tomatoes. How many kilograms of vegetables did
Mrs. Romero buy in all?
Lesson 40: Creating Problems Involving Addition and/or Subtraction of Fractions
Week 8
Objective: Create problems involving addition and/or subtraction of fractions
Value Focus: Accepting social responsibilities
Prerequisite Concepts and Skills:
Adding or subtracting fractions
Reducing fractions to lowest terms
Materials: Flash cards, activity cards, place value chart
References: K to 12 Grade 4 Curriculum, LM Math Grade 4 pages 130 and 131
Instructional Procedure:
A. Preliminary Activities
1. Drill
Have a drill on solving problems involving addition and subtraction of
fractions Provide problems for the learners to solve. An example is given
below. Problem: Lina4went to market to buy some fish. She bought vo
kilogram of tilapia and 5 kilogram of bangus. How many kilograms of fish did
she buy in all? Which fish is heavier? By how many kilogram?
2. Review
Review problem-solving steps and strategies. Ask the learners to
tell what they understand about the following essential guide questions
to problem solving.
164

What is asked in the problem?


What are given?
How will you solve the problem?
What operation/s will be used?
What is the number sentence?
Is the solution or process correct?
What is the answer?
3. Motivation
Talk about fruits and vegetables grown in the farm.
Ask: Have you been to a farm? What did you see there? What are grown
there? Let the pupils share their experiences in the farm.
Values Integration: Elicit from the pupils that growing fruit trees and
vegetables in the farm can improve the food supply
in the community.
B. Developmental Activities
1. Presentation
Present the table below to the class.
The table below shows the number of kilograms of vegetables
harvested by Cyryl and Cyrus.
Cyryl

Eggplant

Cyrus

String beans

kilogram

kilogram

4
4

Based on the table presented, how will you create problems involving
addition, subtraction, or addition and subtraction of fractions?
2. Performing the Activities
Group the pupils into three. Let the groups work collaboratively on
station 1 for group 1, station 2 for group 2, and station 3 for group 3.
Let them present their output one at a time, when done.
Station 1 Addition of Fractions
Direction: Based on the table of data presented, create a problem
involving addition of fractions.
Station 2 Subtraction of Fractions
Direction: Based on the table of data presented, create a problem
involving subtraction of fractions.
Station 3 Addition and Subtraction of Fractions
Direction: Based on the table of data presented, create a problem
involving addition and subtraction of fractions.

165

Sample problems:
Station 1:

Cyryl and Cyrus al hrvested vegetables. Cyryl harvested 74 kg of eggplant


while Cyrus harvested 71 kg of string beans. How many kilograms of vegetables
did Cyryl and Cyrus harvest in all? :
Station 2:
3
Cyryl and Cyrus harvested vegetables. Cyryl harvested 71 kg of
eggplant while Cyrus harvested i kg of string beans. Who harvested more
vegetables? By how many more kilograms?
Station 3:
Cyryl and Cyrus harvested vegetables. Cyryl harvested kg of eggplant
while Cyrus harvested 71 kg of string beans. If they shared a total of kg of
the vegetables to their friends, how many kilograms of vegetables were
left with them?
3. Processing the Activities
After all groups have presented, ask, how did you find the activity?
How did you create problems involving addition, subtraction, or addition
and subtraction of fractions?
Expected answers:
We familiarized ourselves with the concept of addition and subtraction
of fractions.
We thought of the problem we want to create.
We read sample problems and studied their solutions.
4. Reinforcing the Concept and Skill
Discuss the presentation under Explore and Discover on page 130,
LM Math Grade 4.
Ask the pupils to work on item under Get Moving, page 131 of LM
Math Grade 4. Check the pupils' answers. For mastery, have them answer
the item under Keep Moving on page 131 of LM Math Grade 4. Check on
the pupils' answers.
5. Summarizing the Lesson
Lead the pupils to give the following generalization by asking:
How do you create problems involving addition and/or subtraction of fractions?
To create word problems involving addition or subtraction of
fractions, do the following:
Familiarize yourself with the concept.
Think of the problem you want to create.
a. Consider the character, cite the situation/setting, data presented,
word problem to be created, and the key question.
b. Ensure that the word problem is clearly stated and practical.
Read some sample problems and study their solutions.

166

6. Applying to New and Other Situations


Ask the pupils to answer Apply Your Skills on page 131, LM Math
Grade 4.
C. Assessment
Using the data below, create a one-step word problem involving:
(a) addition of fractions and (b) subtraction of fractions.
Name

Fruits bought

Quantity (in kg)

1. Sha
Banana
14
ron
2. Tam
Guava
14
era
3
Lanzones
3. D
4
an
D. Home Activity
Remediation
Create a one-step word problem involving (a) addition and (b)
subtraction of fractions using the data below.
Enrichment
Create a word problem involving addition and subtraction of fractions
using the data below.
Length of Wood Used

Name

for the EPP Project


(in meter)
m

1. Chito

3
1

3. Tony

-6 M
3
4m

4. Sheryl

5. Dannah

im

167

Summative Test
I. Read each question carefully. Write only the letter of the correct answer.
1. It is a number that can be divided exactly by 1 and itself.
*a. prime number
b. composite number
c. even number d. odd number
2. Which is a composite number?
a.47
b.53
*c.57
d.61
3. Which is a prime number?
a. 99
*b. 97
c. 95
93
4. What is the Greatest Common Factor of 14 and 28?
a.7
b.9
*c.14
d.28
5. What is the Least Common Multiple of 9 and 15?
a.3
b.6
c.15
*d.45
6. How is 48 written as a product of its prime factors?
a. 2 x 2 x 2 x 6
*b. 2x2x2x2x3
c . 2 x 3 x 8
d . 6 x 8
7. Which of these fractions is in mixed form?
6
a. 4
*b. 3- 34

d.

T.

5
c . 3,
a. _3
b. _2
c.
4
5
7
9. Which of the following is a proper fraction?

3
b. _9
c.
4
2
8
10. Which of the shaded illustrations below shows 2
*a.

V V Ki"

11 111

AAA

*d.

V V r/7

d. 3_3
7
3

r7 r V
A A A

c.

d.

11111111
1
1111111
MUM

III

11. The illustration below represents

*a

b. 246

c. 2 3

d. 2 4

12. Which is a set of similar fractions?


a.
c.

d.

168

1
_ 3
8
2

13. Which is the numerator ins ?


a. 3
*b. 5
14. Which is a set of dissimilar
fractions?
1
1
*a. 1 ,
,
7
1
6
3 , 4, 6
c.

7 7

15. What fraction is equal to 4 s ?


24
11
a.
b.
3
3

d.

c.9
,3

b.
d

14
4

*c. 14
3

d. 9
3

16. Which fraction names the shaded part of the rectangle?


1

1
b. 3
4

1
2

*a.

c. _5
8

d. 6
4

17. If a whole number is divided into 6 equal parts, what do you call one part?
1
1
1
*c. 1
a. ,_2
b.
3
6
d. =
9
3
1
4
18. In

= _ 6 , which is the sum?

a. 1

66
b. 62

a.
1
9

b.
4

c. 3,

c. 41. d. 6

*d.

20. The Least Common Multiple of 3 and 8 is________


*a. 24
b. 16
c. 8
21. The Greatest Common Factor of 15 and 25 is_________
a. 3
b. 15
*c. 5
4
22. What is the equivalent fraction of
60 ?
4
1
a.
c.
15
60

d. 3
d. 30

u ..., 8
.
30

15
23. The lowest term of 30 is
*a.

1
2

b. 2

169

c.

d.

3
4

24.

Change 5 3T to an improper fraction.


a.
19
23
b. 12
*c.
4
4
4
25.
6
a.

Which fraction is
equivalent to9
*b.5

d.

20
3

?
9

C.

d.

12

15
10
15
II. Add or subtract. Write your answer in lowest term. Write only the letter
of the correct answer.
32
1 t) = . +i = . =
2 ,) +
2 1
, 32 =

5
*a. 7
a. 2
6

6
b. 7
b.

c.

14

1
5
4
3)
c. 1 2

13

1
*b. 15

a.

U=

8
a. 14., 5

c. 14

1
T 2

b. 14u

14

d. 1

*c. 1

2
4) 15

d.

d.

15

5
*d. 14-6
d. 1
20

Ill. Read the word problems very carefully. Then, answer each question
correctly. (2 points each)
3 71
7i
Antonio lives kilometer away from the school, while John lives kilometer
from the same school. Who lives farther from the school? How much farther?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

What is asked in the problem?


What are the given facts?
Write the mathematical sentence.
Who lives farther to the school?
How much farther?

IV. Read, analyze, and solve. Then, show your solution and answer. (2 points each)
1. Lyka baked 48 cookies and 64 cupcakes. If she will pack these in boxes with
the same number, what is the biggest number of cookies and cupcakes that
can be packed in a box? (16 pieces)
2. Pencils are packed in boxes of 8 and 12. What is the smallest number of
pencils that can be packed using the boxes? (24 pencils)
3. Auring used 12 liter of cooking oil this morning to cook buchi. This
afternoon, she used z liter to fry empanada. How much more of cooking oil
did she use in the morning than in the afternoon? ( 4 = 1 liter)
12
3
170

4. Pabling prepared a mixture of paint. He mixed y liter of green paint


and liter of white paint. How many liters of paint did he mix? Show
your
8
answer using a3diagram. (
liters)
2
5. Rodel painted ,y) of the wall yesterday. He painted s of it this morning.
How much was painted in all? ( )
2
6. A ga so l i n e t a nk w as I f ul l . Af t e P 7 1 t r a ve l l i ng f r om
Vi ga n, i t i s n ow f ul l . How m u ch ga s ol i ne As us ed i n
t r a ve l l i ng ? ( 1 2 l i t er )
7. Alma cut meter form a spool of ribbon 5 meters long. How many
meters were
of ribbon were left? (4-10 meters)

CHAPTER 4
DECIMALS
OVERVIEW
This chapter introduces the concepts of decimals. It starts with visualizing
decimal number and its relationship to fractions. This skill is developed using models
like blocks, grids, number lines, and money.
Renaming decimal numbers to fractions whose denominators are factors of
10 and 100 is taught through the use of diagrams
Place value concepts in decimals are introduced using a place-value chart.
The learners are guided in giving the place value and value of a digit in a decimal up
to hundredths. This is necessary when the learners learn to read and write decimal
numbers, and in rounding decimals.
The learners learn to read and write decimals using their knowledge of place
value and reading decimal fractions and writing them as decimals.
The concept of rounding decimals to the nearest whole number and tenths is
developed using a number line. The learners learn that when rounding decimals, the
same rules are applied when rounding whole numbers. The skills on comparing and
ordering decimals are developed using the place-value chart.

Content Standard: The learner demonstrates understanding of decimals.


Performance Standard: The learner is able to apply knowledge of
decimals in mathematical problems and real-life
situations.

172

Pre-Test
A. Answer the following. Write the letter of the correct answer.
1. Cyrus walked a distance of 0.70 kilometer in going to the market.
Which of the following shows 0.7 kilometer?
a.
*c.

b.

d.
2. Which of the following shows 0.5?
a.

*b.

c.

d.
3. Which of the following shows 50/100?
c.

*b.

d.

4. Which of the following represents 0.75 of One Hundred Pesos?


0 11.

a .
P 0.0

I I

Php

PhP100.00
p

P
0.0

PhP100.00
p

b .

Php
173

*c. ________________
Php o.o

Php 100.00

d.

d.

Phpao

Php100.00

5. Which of the following represents 0.25 of the set of box?


*a.
b.

C.

41

d.
B. Write the following decimal numbers in fractions. Write the letter of the correct answer.
1
1
10
100
*b)
d)
c)
100
100
100
6) 0.01 a) 10
7) 0.15 a)

15
10

*b) 15100
100

8) 0.22 a)

2
10

100

9) 0.75 a)

75
10

b)

75
100
1
b)0 -9

c) 150
100
c) 2 2
10
c)

*b)

75
1

100
150
22
*d)
100
d)

1
d)

75

9
9
90
10)
0.
d)
c) 100
10
100
9
C. Write the following fractions in decimal numbers. Write the letter of the correct answer.
11)10

a) 0.10

b) 0.40

c) 0.04

a) 0.25

b) 0.50

*c) 0.75

a) 0.08

*b) 0.80

c) 0.20

d) 0.90

a) 0.12

b) 0.24

c) 0.36

*d) 0.48

*c) 0.25

d) 0.05

12) 4 3

*d) 0.2

0.34
13) 4
5
14) 12
25
15) a) 0.2

25

b) 0.02

100
D. Write the letter of the correct answer.

174

d)

17. What is the value of 6 in 0.65?


6
6
65
*
a. 10
b. 100
c. 100
d. None
18. What digit occupies the hundredths place in 0.45?
a. 0
b.4
*c. 5
d. None
19. What is the value of 8 in 0.18?
8
8
18
*
a. 10
b 100
c. 100
d. None
20. What digit is positioned in the tenths place in twenty-eight hundredths?
*a.2
b. 8
c. 58
d. None
21. How do you read 0.5?
a. Zero point five
b. Five
*c. Five tenths
d. Five hundredths
22. How do you read 0.24?
a. Zero point twenty-four
b. Twenty-four hundreds
c. Twenty-four tenths
*d. Twenty-four hundredths
23. How do you write forty-seven hundredths in symbol?
a. 4.7
b. 0.04
c. 0.07
*d. 0.47
24. Write four tenths in numerals.
*a. 0.4
b. 0.14
c. 0.04
d. 0.41
25. Write fourteen hundredths in numerals.
a. 4.10
b. 0.40
c. 0.4
*d. 0.14
26.
4.75 rounded to the nearest whole number is
a. 4
b. 7
*c. 5
d. 4.70
27. Round 6.07 to the nearest whole number.
a. 0.6
*b. 6.00
c. 6.70
d. 67.0
28. 23.86 becomes__________when rounded to the nearest tenth.
a. 23.80
*b. 23.9
c. 23.00
d. 23.86
29.
If 15.76 is rounded to tenth, 15.76 becomes
a. 15.00
b. 15.70
*c. 15.8
d. 15.76
30. 75.65 is read as
when you round it to the nearest whole
number.
a. Seventy-five
b. Seventy-five and sixty-five hundredths
c. Seventy-five tenths
*d. Seventy-six
31. Which is larger 1.35 or 1.53.?
a. 1.35
*b. 1.53
c. 1.3
d. 1.5
32. If you compare 4.08 to 4.80,
is the larger number.
a. 4.08
*b. 4.80
c. 4.0
d. 4.8
33. What is the larger number between 1.90 and 1.09?__________
*a. 1.90
b. 1.09
c. 1.0
d. 0.9
a. 1.90,
1.09,
0.70, decimal
0.07 numbers
*b.4.3, are4.45,
4.8,
34. Which
of the
following
arranged
from 4.9
least to
c. 3.08, 3.80, 3.0, 3.8
d. 3.35,
3.53,
3.3, 3.5
35. Which of the following decimal numbers are arranged from greatest to
a. 5.80, 5.90, 5.70, 5.07
b. 7.2,
7.22,
7.20, 7.3
least?
*c. 3.81, 3.18, 3.08, 3.0
d. 9.31,
9.13,
9.3,
9.0
(Note. The letters with asterisk are the answer keys.)

175

Lesson 41: Visualizing Decimal Numbers Using Models like Blocks, Grids,
Number Lines, and Money
Week 8
Objective: Visualize decimal numbers using models like blocks, grids,
number lines, and money to show relationship to fractions
Value Focus: Kindness, sharing
Prerequisite Concepts and Skills:
Fractions with factors of 10 as denominator
Naming fractions for the parts shaded
Materials: Grid paper, play money (paper bills), coins, cubes and blocks,
drawing of a number line
References: K to 12 Grade 4 Curriculum, LM Math Grade 4 pages 133 to136
Instructional Procedure:
A. Preliminary Activities
1. Drill
Have a drill on identifying the number of equal parts the whole is divided.
a.

b.

d.

e.

c.

2. Review
Conduct a review on naming a fractional part.
Ask: What part of the whole is the shaded part?

b.

c.

e.

3. Motivation
Ask the pupils if they have gone to a bakeshop, what things they bought,
and the amount they paid.
176

B. Developmental Activities
1. Presentation
Present this situation to the class.
Tabern went to a bakeshop. He bought a cassava pie for his snack.
He sliced the pie into four equal parts and gave 3 parts to his friends.
What decimal part of the pie was given to his friends?
a. Values Integration
Ask: What trait did Tabern show?
Give emphasis on the situation that shows kindness and sharing.
Lead the pupils to see that valuing kindness and sharing when
dealing with other individuals is important.
How will you answer the question in the problem?
2. Performing the Activities
Solving the problem. Ask the pupils to write in decimal form the part
of the pie given to Tabern's friends.
Have the pupils work on Base Method. Group the class into four.
Each group works in every base simultaneously. Each of them presents
its output.
Base 1 - Use of Blocks/Cubes
Provide model blocks or cubes to each group. Let the pupils
group the blocks or color the blocks to visualize 0.75, the part of
the pie given to Tabern's friends.

Iff frf If
Base 2 - Use of Grid
Provide a grid to each group. Let the pupils color the grid to
visualize 0.75, the part of the pie given to Tabern's friends.

Base 3 - Use of Number Lines


Use the drawing below representing the number line. Have
the pupils color the posts to visualize 0.75, the part of the pie
given to Tabern's friends.
-

1
4

Base 4 - Use of Money


A cassava cake was sliced into four equal parts. Each slice
costs Php75. Suppose the cost of the whole cassava cake is
Php300, how will you visualize 0.75?
177

Cost of
Cassava
Php300.00

Amount per slice or part of the pie

Php75.00

Php75.00

Php75.00

Php.75.00

3. Processing the Activities


Let the groups present their output one at a time. After all groups have
presented, ask, "How did you find the activity? How were you able to
visualize 0.75? In how many ways were you able to show the answer?"
Expected answer: We used blocks, grids, number lines, and money to
visualize 0.75.
4. Reinforcing the Concept and Skill
Discuss the presentation on Explore and Discover on page 133 of
LM Math Grade 4.
Ask the pupils to work on the items under Get Moving, LM Math Grade
4 pages 134 and 135. Check the pupils' answers. For mastery, have them
answer the items under Keep Moving, LM Math Grade 4 page 135.
Check the pupils' answers.
5. Summarizing the Lesson
Lead the pupils to give the following generalization by asking: How do
you visualize decimal numbers? How do you identify the number of equal
parts of the whole unit?
To visualize a decimal number , we use grid, blocks, number line, or money.
6. Applying to New and Other Situations
Ask the pupils to do items 1 to 5 under Apply Your Skills on pages
135 and 136, LM Math Grade 4.
C. Assessment
Using models, visualize the following decimal numbers.
1) 0.20
2) 0.25
3) 0.50
4) 0.75

5) 0.90

D. Home Activity
Remediation
Visualize the following decimal numbers using a grid.
1) 0.10
2) 0.20
3) 0.30
4) 0.40

5) 0.50

Enrichment
Solve these problems.
1. In a long jump contest, Shanot recorded 0.75 meter while Tabern had
a record of 0.50 meter. How much farther did Shanot jump than
Tabern? Draw a number line to show the distance.
2. A patola measures 0.35 meter while an ampalaya measures 0.25
meter. Which is longer? Draw a grid to show your answer.
178

Lesson 42: Renaming Decimal Numbers to Fractions Whose Denominators


are Factors of 10 and 100
Week 8
Objective: Rename decimal numbers to fractions whose denominators are factors
of 10 and 100
Value Focus: Sharing, speed, and accuracy
Prerequisite Concepts and Skills:
Naming fractions for the parts shaded
Fractions with factors of 100 as denominator
Materials: Chart and grid
References: K to 12 Grade 4 Curriculum, LM Math Grade 4 pages 137 to 139
Instructional Procedure:
A. Preliminary Activities
1. Drill
Have a game on naming equal parts.
Materials: flash cards having regions partitioned into equal parts

Sample 1.
Answer: 10 equal parts

Sample 2:

Answer: 4 equal parts


Mechanics:
a) Divide the class into four groups.
b) Flash the cards one at a time.
c) Each member of the group simultaneously goes to the board
and writes the answer.
d) Check the answer.
e) The group having the most number of correct answers wins.

179

2. Review
Conduct a review on naming the fractional parts that are shaded.
Game: Show Me Who I Am
Materials: Show-me-board, chalk, flash cards
Mechanics:
a) Divide the class into four groups.
b) Provide the materials to each group.
c) Give the instructions clearly to the group and flash the cards one at a time.
d) Ask what fractional parts are shaded in 1, 2, 3, or 4 upon flashing each card.
2

3.

4.

e) Each group answers the exercise within 5 seconds.


f) Let the groups raise their "show-me-board" for checking of the answer.
g) The group having the most number of correct answers wins.
3. Motivation
Ask the pupils about the following:
1. favorite color of a cake
2. favorite design of a cake
3. favorite flavor of a cake
4. the parts of the cake they consumed
Let the pupils explain why these are their favorites. Lead them to see bat
these cakes are available in a bakery and sometimes can be baked at home.
B. Developmental Activities
1. Presentation
Present this situation to the class.
Mrs. Paglinawan went to a nearby bakery. She bought a birthday cake
with chocolate flavor for her 9-year old daughter. When she reached home,
she divided the cake into 10 equal parts. If the children shared 0.8 part from
the cake, what fractional part of the cake was shared by the children?
a. Integrate the values of sharing and accuracy.
Ask: What trait did Mrs. Paglinawan show? Emphasize the situation
that shows sharing of blessings to other people and being
accurate in doing anything.
b. Ask: How will you answer the question in the problem?

180

2. Performing the Activities


A. Solving the problem: Ask the pupils to write in fraction form the
parts of the cake the children shared.
Solution 1: Using regions

0.8

8
10

Eight-tenths

Solution 2: Using number line


0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
0 .8 = 8
10

Solution 3: By writing in words then to symbol


0.8 is read and written as eight tenths
To is read and written as eight tenths
0.8 =
o
B. Have the pupils work on renaming decimal numbers to fractions. Group
the class into four. Each group works on every station simultaneously.
Each of them presents its output.
Station 1 - Tenths
Rename the following decimal numbers to fractions:
1) 0.3
2) 0.5 3) 0.7
4) 0.8
5) 0.9
Station 2 - Hundredths
Rename the following decimal numbers to fractions:
1) 0.03 2) 0.05
3) 0.07 4) 0.08
3. Processing the Activities
Let the groups present their output one at a time. After all groups
have presented, ask, "How did you find the activity? How were you able
to rename decimal numbers to fractions? In how many ways were you
able to solve for the answer?"
Say: We first wrote the decimal number as a fraction with 10 or 100 as
the denominator then, reduced it to lowest terms.
4. Reinforcing the Concept and Skill
Discuss the presentation on Explore and Discover on page 137 of
LM Math Grade 4 and the other examples given.
Ask the pupils to work on items 1 to 10 under Get Moving, LM Math
Grade 4 page 138. Check their answers. For mastery, have them answer
the items under Keep Moving, LM Math Grade 4 on page 138. Check the
pupils' answers.
181

5. Summarizing the Lesson


Lead the pupils to give the following generalization by asking: How do
you rename decimal numbers to fractions?
To rename decimal numbers to fractions, write the decimal as a
fraction with 10 or 100 as the denomination, then reduce to lowest term.
6. Applying to New and Other Situations
Ask the pupils to do items 1-5 under Apply Your Skills on page 139,
LM Math Grade 4.
C. Assessment
Express the following as fractions.
1) 0.2
2) 0.04
3) 0.64

4) 0.08

5) 0.56

D. Home Activity
Remediation
Rename the following decimal numbers in fractions.
1) 0.45
2) 0.54
3) 0.65
4) 0.75

5) 0.90

Enrichment
Solve these problems.
1. Glory learned how to cook beef sinigang. She used 0.75 kilogram of radish
and 0.25 kilogram of okra. Express 0.75 and 0.25 in fraction form.
2. Irene bought 0.50 kilograms of fish and 0.70 kilograms of lean meat.
Which is heavier? Write your answer in fractional form.
Lesson 43: Renaming Fractions whose Denominators are Factors of 10
and 100 to Decimal Numbers
Week 9
Objective: Rename fractions whose denominators are factors of 10 and 100
to decimal numbers
Prerequisite Concepts and Skills:
Naming the equal parts and the shaded parts of the fraction
Fractions with factors of 10 and 100 as denominators
Materials: Chart and grid
References: K to 12 Grade 4 Curriculum, LM Math Grade 4 pages 140 and 141
Instructional Procedure:
A. Preliminary Activities
1. Drill:
Have a game on naming the equal parts.
182

Materials: flash cards having regions partitioned into equal parts

Sample:
Answer: 10 equal parts

Answer: 100 equal parts


Mechanics:
a) Divide the class into four groups.
b) Flash the cards one at a time.
c) Each member of the groups simultaneously goes to the board and
writes the answer.
d) Check their answers.
e) The group having the most number of correct answers wins.
2. Review
Conduct a review on naming the fractional part.
Game: Show Me Who I Am
Materials: Cards and show-me-board
Samples of cards:
3
1.

10

2.

Em

mm

m m

- Mechanics:
a) Divide the class into four groups.
b) Ask the group to make a line.
c) Each member of the group answers the exercise within 5
seconds.
d) Time starts as soon as you flash the cards one at a
time and say, "Show me who I am."
e) Ask a member of the group to raise the show-me-board for
checking the answer. The group with the most number of correct
answers wins.
183

3 tenths

10

3. Motivation
Ask the pupils to give situations that they have done to their
classmates which showed kindness. Elicit from them that being kind to
their classmates is important. Emphasize that kindness, be it simple or
complicated, originate from the same humble intention of helping others.
Just like in Mathematics, numbers may come in other forms, like fractions
and decimals but they mean the same.
B. Developmental Activities
1. Presentation
Present to the class the chart below.
Let the pupils study the illustration below and lead them to find out how
fractions and decimals mean the same number.

Ask: What is the equivalent of -o in decimal form? How do you


3
rename .:) to decimal?
Present the illustration below on the board and let the pupils study this.

Let the pupils consider the number of zeros in the denominator.


This tells them the number of digits after the decimal point. In which case
can be written as 0.3.
1
Present another example.
3

Ask: What fractional part of the region is shaded? (7 )


How will you rename in to decimal? (0.7)
io
How do you rename I in decimal form?
Let them consider the number of zeros in the denominator. There are
two zeros, meaning there are 2 digits after the decimal point.
So, 5 = 0.05
um
2. Performing the Activities
Have the pupils work on renaming fractions to decimal numbers. Group
the class into five. Each group works on every station simultaneously.
Each of them presents his/her output.
Station 1: Rename the following fractions to decimal numbers.
1) 1 2) 4
3) 6
4) 4
5) 1
10
10
10
5
2
184

Solutions:
1)

10

= 0.1

2)

k
10 = 0'10 4

3)

= 0.6

4) k = 8 =0.8
5)
1 = 5 =0.5
5
10
2
10
Station 2: Rename the following fractions to decimal numbers:
1)
2) 48
19
4) 16
5)
3)
8
25
100
100
20
50
Solutions:
1
1)
100 = 0.01
16
4)
= 32 = 0.32
50
100

2)
51

48
100 = 0.48
3)
8 = 32
1
25
100 = 0.32

20

100

= 0.95

3. Processing the Activities


Let the groups present their output one at a time. After all groups
have presented, ask, "How did you find the activity? How were you able to
rename fractions to decimal numbers?"
Expected answers:
For fractions with 10 as denominator, we wrote them as decimals with
1 decimal place.
For fractions with 100 as denominator, we wrote them as decimals
with 2 decimal places
For fractions with factors of 10 as denominators, we wrote them first
as fractions in tenths before writing them in decimal form.
For fractions with factors of 100 as denominators, we wrote them first
as fractions in hundredths before writing them in decimal form.
4. Reinforcing the Concept and Skill
Discuss the presentation on Explore and Discover on page 140 of LM
Math Grade 4 and the other examples.
Ask the pupils to work on items 1 to 10 under Get Moving on page 141
of LM Math Grade 4. Check their answers. For mastery, have them answer
the items under Keep Moving on page 141 of LM Math Grade 4. Check
the pupils' answers.
5. Summarizing the Lesson
Lead the pupils to give the following generalization by asking: How do
you rename fractions whose denominators are factors of 10 and 100 to
decimal numbers?
To rename fractions whose denominators are 10 and 100 to decimal
numbers, count the number of zeroes in the denominator. The tenth has
one digit after the decimal point. The hundredths has 2 digits after the
decimal point. Zero is used as a placeholder.
To rename fractions whose denominators are factors of 10 and 100,
first rename the fractions in their equivalent fractions in tenths and
hundredths, then write them as decimal numbers.
185

6. Applying to New and Other Situations


Ask the pupils to do items 1 to 4 under Apply Your Skills on page
141, LM Math Grade 4.
C. Assessment
Express the following as decimal numbers.
7
25
75
1)
2)
3)
4)
10
100
100
100
12
18
3
6)
7)
8)
9)
20
50
25
5
D. Home Activity
Remediation
Rename the following fractions as decimal numbers.
5
10
6
60
3
1) 10
2) 100
)
10
4) 100

3
4
24
20

5)
10)

90
5) 100

Enrichment
Identify a factor from the fruit tree which will produce an equivalent fraction when
multiplied by the given fractions. The denominator should be in the power of 10.
1
7
1) 20 4) 25
1
2) 5 5)

2
4

3
3 ) 50

Lesson 44: Place Value and Value of a Digit of a Given Decimal


Number through Hundredths
Week 9
Objective: Give the place value and value of a digit of a given decimal number
through hundredths
Value Focus: Awareness, cooperation, and alertness
Prerequisite Concepts and Skills:
Distinguishing the different place values of whole numbers
Materials: Cards, place-value chart
References: K to 12 Grade 4 Curriculum, LM Math Grade 4 pages 142 to 144
186

Instructional Procedure:
A. Preliminary Activities
1. Drill/ Review: Mix and Match
Have a game on renaming fractions to decimals and vice versa.
Materials: Complete set of different cards bearing number
phrases, fractions, and decimals
Sample of complete a set:
2
Two out of ten
0.2
Two tenths
10
Mechanics:
a. Provide a card to each pupil.
b. At the signal "go-mix and match," each pupil will go around the class to find
the number phrase, fraction, or decimal number that matches with what
he/she is holding.
c. The first group of four pupils to complete the set correctly, wins.
Values Integration:
Ask: How did you find the activity? Did you cooperate? What traits have you
shown to your classmates? Emphasize to the class the act of
awareness, alertness, and cooperation. Elicit from them the advantages
gained for being cooperative in all activities in the classroom.
2. Motivation
Ask the pupils about the concept or meaning of 6. What does 6 mean
to them? How about 0.6? How do you read it?
Let them read the decimal numbers and emphasize the correct way of
reading decimal numbers.

Value

1
10

1
100

Hundredths

Decimal Point

a)
8

Tenths

Place Value

B. Developmental Activities
1. Presentation
Present the chart to the class.

Let the pupils study the place-value chart, then answer the
following questions:
1. What is the first place value to the right of the decimal point?
What is its value?
187

2. What is the next place value to the right of the tenths


place? What is its value?
3. What is the digit in the ones place? What is its value?
Let the pupils understand that the first place to the right of the decimal
point is the tenths place and has a value of ii), meaning ten times lesser
than the value of the ones place. The next place to the right of the tenths
place is the hundredths place with a value of loo
Let the pupils focus on the value chart presented. Let them understand
that 7 is under the tenths column, the place with the value of 0.1, meaning 7
has a value of ,:, or 0.7. The next digit is 5 which is under hundredths
column, the place with the value of 0.01, meaning 5 has a value of 0.05.
2. Performing the Activities
Have the pupils work on determining the place value and the value of
a digit in the following decimal numbers. Group the class into five. Each
group works on every station simultaneously. Each of them presents
his/her output.
Station 1
Study the numeral 0.65 and answer the following:
1. What is the position of zero? When do you use zero?
2. What digit is immediately after the decimal point? What is its value?
3. What digit is in the hundredths place? What is its value?
Station 2
Using the decimal 0.25, answer the following:
1. What digit is in the tenths place? What is its value?
2. What digit is in the hundredths place? What is its value?
3. What digit is in the ones place? What is its value?
3. Processing the Activities
Let the groups present their output one at a time. After all groups have
presented, ask, "How did you find the activity? How were you able to
determine the place value and the value of a digit in a decimal number?"
4. Reinforcing the Concept and Skill
Discuss the presentation on Explore and Discover on page 142 of
LM Math Grade 4. Ask the pupils to work on items 1 to 8 under Get
Moving on page 143. Check the pupils' answers. For mastery, have them
answer items 1 to 12 under Keep Moving of LM Math Grade 4 on page
143. Check the pupils' answers.
5. Summarizing the Lesson
Lead the pupils to give the following generalization by asking:
What are the place value and the value of the digits after the decimal point?
In a decimal, the place value of the first digit after the decimal point is
tenths and its value is 0.1. The next digit is hundredths and the value is 0.01.
188

6. Applying to New and Other Situations


Ask the pupils to do activity under Apply Your Skills on page 144 of
LM Math Grade 4.
C. Assessment
Give the place value and the value of the underlined digit.
1) 0.56
2) 0.65
3) 0.75
4) 0.85
5) 0.95
D. Home Activity
Remediation: Give the place value and value of the digits 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9.
Decimal Numbers
1) 0.52
2) 0.26
3) 0.29
4) 0.48
5) 0.72

Place Value

Value

Enrichment
Name the place value and the value of the following even-number digits
by completing the table below:
Decimal Numbers
1) 0.23
2) 0.45
3) 0.67
4) 0.76
5) 0.54

Place Value

Value

Lesson 45: Reading and Writing Decimal Numbers through Hundredths


Week 10
Objective: Read and write decimal numbers through hundredths
Prerequisite Concepts and Skills:
Distinguishing the different place values of decimals
Materials: Cards, place value chart
References: K to 12 Grade 4 Curriculum, LM Math Grade 4 pages 145 to 147
Instructional Procedure:
A. Preliminary Activities
1. Drill
Have a drill on renaming fractions to decimals and vice versa.
Provide exercises for the pupils to answer.

189

2. Review
Conduct a review on identifying the place value and value of a
digit in a decimal number. You may do this through a game.

1
2
3
4
5

Give the place value and the value of the underlined digits
Place Value
Value of the Digit
)
0 . 2 2
)
0 . 5 6
)
0 . 7 5
)
0 . 8 9
)
0 . 9 5

3. Motivation
Ask the pupils about the math concept.
Ask: How will you write five tenths or fifty hundredths in decimal
form? How will you read 0.5 or 0.50 correctly?
B. Developmental Activities
1. Presentation
Present the illustration below to the class.
0.5
ones

The location of 5 is in the tenths place.


The number is read as five tenths.

tenths
Present another example:

ones
tenths
hundredths

The location of 5 is in the tenths


place and 0 is in the hundredths
place. To read this, mention the
place value of the last digit of the
decimal number. So, the number is
read as fifty hundredths.

2. Performing the Activities


A. Flash cards one at a time Let the pupils read the decimal numbers.
0.7

0.07

0. 75

0. 08

0.86

B. Have the pupils work by pairs. Each pair works on every station
simultaneously. Each of them will check their answers and present
their output.
Station 1. Write 2 tenths in decimal form. Then, write it in words.
Station 2. Write 20 hundredths in decimal form. Then, write it in words.
190

Station 3. Write 2 hundredths in decimal form. Then, write it in words.


Station 4. Write 7 tenths in decimal form. Then, write it in words. Station
5. Write 75 hundredths in decimal form. Then, write it in words.
3. Processing the Activities
Let the class check their answers by pairs and present their
outputs one at a time. After all pairs have presented, ask, "How did you
find the activity? How did you read and write decimal numbers?"
Say: We read decimal numbers like reading whole numbers. Then, say
the place value of the last digit. We write decimals in tenths as one
digit after the decimal point. We use 0 as a placeholder.
4. Reinforcing the Concept and Skill
Discuss the presentation on Explore and Discover on page 145 of
LM Math Grade 4. Ask the pupils to work on items 1 to 10 under Get
Moving, on page 146 of LM Math Grade 4. Check the pupils' answers.
For mastery, have them answer the items under Keep Moving on pages
146 to 147 of LM Math Grade 4. Check the pupils' answers.
5. Summarizing the Lesson
Lead the pupils to give the following generalization by asking:
How do you read and write the decimal numbers?
Read and write the decimals just like reading and writing whole
numbers. When reading a decimal, we say the place value of the last
digit after the decimal point. Use zero as a placeholder.
6. Applying to New and Other Situations
Ask the pupils to do the activity under Apply Your Skills, on page
147 of LM Math Grade 4.
C. Assessment
Read the decimals and write them in words. Write your answers on
your answer sheet.
1) 0.56
2) 0.65
3) 0.75
4) 0.85
5) 0.95
D. Home Activity
Remediation
Read and write the following decimals in symbols by completing the table below:
Decimal Number
Decimal Number in Symbol
1. Three tenths
2. Four tenths
3. Sixty-seven hundredths
4. Seventy-six hundredths
5. Fifty-four hundredths
191

1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

Enrichment
Read and write the following in words:
0.52 __________________________________________________________
0.26 __________________________________________________________
0.29 __________________________________________________________
0.48 __________________________________________________________
0.72 __________________________________________________________

Lesson 46: Rounding Decimal Numbers to the Nearest Whole Number and
Tenths Week 10
Objective: Round decimal numbers to the nearest whole numbers and tenths
Value Focus: Keeping the body physically healthy
Prerequisite Concepts and Skills:
Distinguishing the different place values of decimals
Reading and writing decimal numbers
Materials: Flash cards, number line
References: K to 12 Grade 4 Curriculum, LM Grade 4 pages 148 to 150
Instructional Procedure:
A. Preliminary Activities
1. Drill
Have a game on identifying the place value of the underlined
digit. Materials: Flash cards
Samples of flash cards with decimal numbers:
0.5

0.11 5

0. 1_,5

0.1 5

0.3.

a.
b.
c.
d.

Mechanics:
Divide the class into groups of two.
Flash the cards one at a time.
Each pupil answers what's on the card.
Check the pupils' answers. The pupil with the most number of correct answers wins.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

2. Review
Have a review on rounding whole numbers.
Number
Round to Tens
Round to Hundreds
456
575
682
735
848
192

3. Motivation
Have the pupils walk 5 steps forward and backward for 2 or 3
times. Ask: How did you find the activity?
Ask the pupils about the forms of exercises that are good for the body.
Elicit from them that exercising regularly is good for the body. This
makes their body physically and mentally fit in doing mathematical
problems and exercises.
B. Developmental Activities
1. Presentation
Present the situation below to the class.
Cyryl and Cyrus were competing with each other to walk a distance in
one minute. Cyryl recorded a distance of 16.67 meters while Cyrus had a
distance of 14.45 meters. Who walked a longer distance in one minute?
Ask: Who were competing to walk in one minute? How long did Cyryl
walk? How about Cyrus? What is asked in the problem? How will
you find the answer to the problem?
2. Performing the Activities
A. Encourage the pupils to work in pairs. Give them time to solve for
the answer to the problem by illustration.
Solution 1: By Using a number line
1
16

17

16.67

16.67 is nearer to 17 than to 16.


Cyryl walked a distance of about 17 meters.
I

14.0

14.45

15.0

14.45 is closer to 14 than to 15.


14.45 rounded to the nearest whole number is
14. Cyrus walked a distance of about 14 meters.
So, Cyryl walked a longer distance than Cyrus.
Solution 2: By following the rules in rounding whole numbers
Round 16.67 to the nearest whole number.
Round off place

16

67
I__

The digit to the right is greater


than 5, so round up
16.67 rounded to the nearest
whole number is 17

193

B. Have the pupils play by pair. The pair who gets the most number
of correct answers wins.
1. Flash the cards one at a time. Let the pupils round the decimal to
nearest whole number.
1.7

2.7

3. 20

4. 08

5.86

2. Flash the cards one at a time. Let the pupils round the decimal to
the nearest tenths.
1.73

2.46

3.29

4.82

5.86

3. Processing the Activities


After all groups have played, ask, "How did you find the activity? How
did you round decimal numbers to the nearest whole number and
tenths?" Expected Answers:
By using a number line
By following the rules for rounding whole numbers
4. Reinforcing the Concept and Skill
Discuss the presentation on Explore and Discover and the other
examples, LM Math Grade 4 on page 148.
Ask the pupils to work on items 1 to 5 under Get Moving on page 149
of LM Math Grade 4. Check their answers. For mastery, have them
answer the items under Keep Moving on pages 149 to 150 of LM Math
Grade 4. Check the pupils' answers. Provide help to those with difficulty in
rounding decimal numbers.
5. Summarizing the Lesson
Lead the pupils to give the following generalization by asking:
How do you round decimal numbers to the nearest whole numbers and tenths?
To round decimals to the nearest whole number and tenths:
a. find the place where rounding is to be done and
b. look at the digit to right of the rounding place.
If that digit is less than 5, round down. If that digit is equal to or
greater than 5, round up.
6. Applying to New and Other Situations
Ask the pupils to do the activity under Apply Your Skills, LM Math
Grade 4 on page 150.

194

C. Assessment
Fill in the table below. Write your answers in your notebook.
Decimals
1)
2)

1.56
2.65

3)
4)
5)

3.45
4.49
5. 72

Round to the Nearest


Whole Number

Round to the
Nearest
Tenths

D. Home Activity
Remediation
Round the following decimal numbers to the nearest whole number and tenths.
Nearest Whole Number
Nearest Tenths
1
)
3
.
5
2
2
)
4
.
2
6
3
)
5
.
2
9
4
)
6
.
4
8
5
)
7
.
7
2
Enrichment
Complete the table below. Write your answers in your notebook.
Round to the Nearest
Whole Number

Decimal Numbers
1. Two and three tenths
2.Three and fourteen hundredths
3. Four and sixty-seven
hundredths
4. Seventy
and sixty-six
hundredthsand fifty-four
5. Eighty-five
hundredths

Round to the
Nearest Tenths

Lesson 47: Comparing and Arranging Decimal Numbers


Week: 10
Objective: Compare and arrange decimal numbers
Value Focus: Honesty
Prerequisite Concepts and Skills:
Distinguishing the different place values of decimals
Ordering whole numbers from least to greatest and vice versa
Materials: Flash cards, number line, place-value chart
195

References: K to 12 Grade 4 Curriculum, LM Math Grade 4 pages 151 to 153


Instructional Procedure:
A. Preliminary Activities
1. Drill
Have a game on comparing whole numbers using these symbols, <, >, or =.
Materials: Flash cards
Samples of flash cards with numbers:
201

a. <
b. >
c. =

241

a. <
b. >
c. =

210

214

321

a<
b. >
c. =

312

300

a<
b. >
c. =

300

451

a. <
b. >
c. =

415

465

a. <
b. >
c. =

456

Mechanics:
a. Divide the class into groups of five.
b. Flash the cards one at a time.
c. Each pupil in a group answers the what's on the card.
d. Check the pupils' answers. The pupil with the most number of
correct answers wins.
2. Review
Have a review on arranging whole numbers from least to greatest or vice versa.
a. Have groups of five.
b. Provide a card with a number to each
member. Sam les:
237

213

231

203

c. Instruct the pupils to arrange themselves using their


cards from least to greatest or from greatest to least.
d. The first group to arrange themselves correctly, wins.
3. Motivation
Ask: Have you experienced buying something in a grocery or sari-sari
store or somewhere?
Values Integration:
Ask some pupils to relate their experiences. Lead them to the
discussion that if the vendor gives an extra change, they should be honest
and have to give it back.

196

B. Developmental Activities
1. Presentation
Present the situation below to the class.
Cyryl, Cyrus, Tabem, and Shanot bought school supplies. After they
paid for the things bought, they noticed that they received different amounts
of change. The table below shows the amounts of change they received:
Name of Children

Amount of Change

1. Cyryl

Php 0.25

2. Cyrus

Php 0.50

3. Tabern

Php 0.75

4. Shanot

Php 0.85

Compare the amounts of change received by Cyryl and Cyrus, Tabern


and Shanot, Cyryl and Tabern, and Cyrus and Shanot. How much did Cyryl
receive? How much did Shanot receive? Who received the least amount of
change? Who received the greatest amount of change?
2. Performing the Activities
Have groups of five. Have the pupils work by stations simultaneously.
Station 1:
Based on the problem presented, compare the amounts of change
and arrange them from least to greatest. Find out also who had the least
amount of change and how much.
Station 2:
Based on the problem presented, compare the amounts of
change and arrange them from greatest to least. Then, find out who
had the greatest amount of change received and how much.
Station 3:
Based on the problem presented, compare the following using <,
>, or =.
y Write our answers
y on our ea er
1 . Cyryl Php 0.25
> Cyrus Php 0.50
2.

Cyrus Php 0.50

Tabem Php 0.75

3.

Tabem Php 0.75

Shanot Php 0.85

4.

Shanot Php 0.85

5.

Tabem Php 0.75

>
=

Cyryl Php 0.25


Cyrus Php 0.50

3. Processing the Activities


After all groups have played, ask, "How did you find the activity?
How did you compare the decimal numbers? How did you arrange
the decimal numbers from least to greatest and vice versa?"

197

Expected answers:
We compared the decimal numbers using the symbols <, >, or =.
We arranged decimal numbers from least to greatest and vice
versa by comparing the decimal numbers first.
4. Reinforcing the Concept and Skill
Discuss the presentation under Explore and Discover and the other
examples, LM Math Grade 4 on page 151.
Ask the pupils to work on the exercises under Get Moving on page
152 of LM Math Grade 4. Check their answers. For mastery, have them
answer the items under Keep Moving on page 153 of LM Math Grade 4.
Check the pupils' answers.
5. Summarizing the Lesson
Lead the pupils to give the following generalization by asking:
How do you compare two decimal numbers? How do you order or
arrange decimal numbers from least to greatest or from greatest to least?
Decimal Numbers are compared using the symbols <, >, or =.
Decimal numbers are arranged from least to greatest or greatest to least
by comparing decimal numbers first.
6. Applying to New and Other Situations
Ask the pupils to do items 1 to 3 under Apply Your Skills on page
153 of LM Math Grade 4.
C. Assessment
A. Compare the decimals using the symbols <, >, or =.
1) 0.56
0.65
2) 0.05
0.50
3) 0.79
4) 0.08
0.80
5) 0.5
0.50
6) 0.60
B. Arrange the decimal numbers from least to greatest.
7)
0.46, 0.09, 0.56, 0.65
8) 0.18, 0.08, 0.81, 0.80
9)

C. Arrange the decimal numbers from greatest to least.


0.78, 0.79, 0.97, 0.87
10) 3.98, 4.01, 3,77, 3. 69

D. Home Activity
Remediation
A. Compare the decimals using the symbols <, >, or =.
1) 0.82 _______0.08
2) 0.95_______0.59
B. Arrange the following decimals from least to greatest.
3) 0.5, 0.8, 0.4, 0.6
4) 0.26, 0.29, 0.24, 0.21
C. Arrange the following decimals from the greatest to the least.
5) 0.4, 0.7, 0.2, 0,6
198

0.97
0.6

Enrichment
Do what each item tells you to do.
1. Write at least five 2-digit decimal numbers that can be rounded to 0.5.
Arrange them from greatest to least.
2. Write all numbers with 2 decimal places between 1.8 and 1.9. Then,
arrange them from least to greatest.
Summative Test
A. Answer the following items. Write the letter of the correct answer.
1. John Dick and his brother walked a distance of 0.50 kilometer going
to school. Which of the followin shows 0.50 kilometer?
a.

b.

c.

*d.

2. Which of the following shows one tenth or 0.1?


a.

b.

c.

*d.

3. Which of the following shows 100/100?


*

b.

c.

199

d.

4. Study the illustration below. Which of the following visualizes 0.25 in Php100.00?
*a.

I
P h p

Php 1

00

b. ____________
P
hb0.0

moo
I

c.
Php 0.0

PbPi oo.00

__________________

d.
Php 0.0

I ___I

PbPi

moo

5. Which of the following visualizes 0.75 of the whole set of blocks?

a . X f f f f
d . x x f f
*
d .

.
x

B. Write the following decimal numbers and fractions in fractions and


decimal numbers, respectively. Write the letter of the correct answer.
'VO9
* b )
6) 0.09a)
10o c)90d) 'fi))
7)

0.25

8)

0.42

9)

0.75

10)

0.90

11)
12)
13)
14)
15)

4/5
3/4
3/10
90/100
95/100

c) 10
25
*c, 42

*b) 1002
b) 10
42

a)

10

b) 75

a) t

b)

a) 0.08
a) 0.25
a) 0.10
a) 0.09
*a) 0.95

*c)

d) 100

100

d)

14020

75

d)

17050

100

*b) 0.80
b) 0.50
b) 0.03
b) 0.9
b) 9.50

200

c) 1*,0
c) 0.04
*c) 0.75
*c) 0.3
*c) 0.90
c) 95.0

*d) 191
d) 0.05
d) 0.34
d) 0.30
d) 0.91
d) 9.51

C. Answer the following items. Write the letter of the correct answers.
16. What digit holds the tenths place in 0.45?
a. 0
*b. 4
c. 5
d. None
17. What is the value of 9 in 0.95?
95
*a. 1,1,
b. 11
c. loo
d. None
18. What digit occupies the hundredths place in 0.95?
a. 0
b. 9
*c. 5
d. None
19. What is the value of 8 in 0.98?
8

a..F3
*b. im
c. .mo
d. None
20. What digit is in the tenths place in fifty-eight hundredths?
*a.5
b. 8
c. 58
d. None
21. How do you read 0.7?
a. Zero point seven
b. Seven
*c. Seven tenths
d. Seven hundredths
22. How do you read 0.70?
a. Zero point seventy
b. Seventy
c. Seventy tenths
*d. Seventy hundredths
23. How do you write twenty-seven hundredths in symbols?
a. 0.7
b. 2.07
c. 27.0
*d. 0.27
24. Write nine tenths in numerals.
*a. 0.9
b. 0.19
c. 9.10
d. 0.09
25. Write nineteen hundredths in numerals.
a.0.9
*b.0.19
c. 9.10
d.0.19
26. If 1.28 is rounded to the nearest whole number, 1.28 becomes
*a. 1.00
b. 1.20
c. 1.3
d. 1.30
27. Round 8.76 to the nearest whole number. It becomes
*a.9.0
b.0.19
c. 9.10
d.0.19
28. 26.65 becomes
when you round it to the nearest tenth.
a. 26.56
b. 26.65
c. 26.60
*d. 26.70
29. 16.26 when rounded to the nearest tenth becomes
a. 16.20
b. 16.26
*c. 16.30
d. 16.36
30. 25.68 is read as
when you round it to the nearest whole number.
a. Twenty-five
b. Twenty-five tenths
c. Twenty-five hundredths *d. Twenty-six
Compare 1.35 and1.53, the larger number is
a. 1.35
*b. 1.53
c. 1.3
d. 1.5
32. Which is bigger than 5.09 ?
a. 5.08
b. 5.07
c. 5.06
*d. 5.12
33.
What is the larger number betw een 7.90 and 7.09?
*a. 7.90
b. 7.09
c. 7.0
d. 0.7
7.90,
7.09, decimal
0.70, 0.07
*b. are2.3,
3.45, from
3.8,least
3.9to greatest?
34. Which ofa.the
following
numbers
arranged
c. 4.08, 4.80, 4.0, 4.8
d. 1.35, 1.53, 1.3, 1.5
35. Which of the following decimal numbers are arranged from greatest to least?
a. 7.80, 7.90, 7.70, 7.07
b.
2.2, 3.22, 3.20, 3.3
*c. 4.81, 4.18, 4.08, 4.0
d. 1.31, 1.13, 1.3, 1.0
31.

201