You are on page 1of 24

Vector Calculus at A Glance

unification of calculus and vector


methods
Most important application - analysis
of motion in space
Vectors use as the input and output
of certain operators.
The following table summarizes the
sorts of objects we get by doing this,
and what their derivatives and
integrals are called.

The column labeled Function gives the


domain and range of the type of function
considered.
Function

Notation

Name

r (t )

curve

f (p), p point in 2-space

scalar field

or 3-space

Derivati

d
r (t )
dt

grad f ,

parameterized
surface

F (p), p point in 2-space


or 3-space

div F
vector field

curl F

CHAPTER 4 DIFFERENTIAL
VECTOR CALCULUS
4.1 Vector Functions and Space
Curves
4.2 Unit Tangent and Normal
Vectors
4.3 Motion in Space: Velocity
and Acceleration
4.4 Directional Derivatives and
Gradient
4.5 Vector Fields
4.6 Divergence and Curl

REVIEW: Vectors
Scalar a quantity only with its magnitude
Example: temperature, speed, mass, volume
Vector a quantity with its magnitude and
its direction
Example: velocity acceleration, force
z

k
j

Vector is denoted by A, A or A.
OA - position vector
AB - displacement vector
4

Vector Form of a Line Segment


If r0 is vector in 2-space or 3-space with
its initial point at the origin, then the line
that passes through the terminal point of r0
and is parallel to the vector v can be
expressed in vector form as r r0 tv .

r0

t(r1

r0 ) or r

(1 t )r0

tr1

Vector Algebra
Addition

associative law
A (B C ) (A

B)

commutative law A

A
5

multiplication by scalar
kB
B

distributive law

k (B

C)

kB )

kC

unit vectors: i , j , k

A
i

A1, A2, A3
1, 0, 0 , j

A1i

A2 j

0, 1, 0 , k

Unit vector, u of v : u

A3 k
0, 0, 1

v
v

scalar product (dot product)

A B

A B cos

A B

B A

A (B

C)

A B

A1B1

AB

A B

A C

A2B2

A3B3

vector product (cross product)

A B sin

AB

A B
A

(B

A (B

C)

(A

B) C

C)

A1

A2

A3

B1

B2

B3

A1

A2

A3

B1

B2

B3

C1

C2

C3

4.1 Vector Functions and Space


Curves
4.1.1 Vector-valued function
Definition 4.1
A vector-valued function ( or simply vector
function) is a function whose domain is a set
of real numbers and whose range is a set of
vectors.
Vector function, r (t ):

r (t )

f (t ), g(t ), h(t )

where f, g, and h are real-valued functions


called the component functions of r ; t is the
independent variable (time).

Note
If domains are intervals of real numbers,
the vector functions represent a space
curve

If domains are regions in the plane, the


vector functions represent surfaces in
space.

Example 4.1
Find the domain of the vector function

r (t )

ln t i

Solution
Component 1, f : t

Component 2, g : t

Component 3, h : any t
Therefore, domain D is

1 and 1

10

4.1.2 Graph of a Vector Function


Consider a particle moving through space
during a time interval I. The coordinates
are seen as functions defined as:

f (t ) , y

g(t ) , z

The points (x, y, z )

h(t ) , t

(1)

(f (t ), g(t ), h(t ))

make up the curve in space, called the


particles path.
Eqn. (1) parametrize the curve. A curve in
space can also be represented in vector
form. The vector

r (t )

f (t )i

g(t )j

h(t )k

is the particles position vector.

11

Definition 4.2
Let F be a vector function, and suppose
the initial point of the vector F (t ) is at the
origin. The graph of F is the curve traced
out by the terminal point of the vector
F (t ) as t varies over the domain set D.
12

Example 4.2
Sketch the graph of the vector function

r (t )

ti

(t 2

3)j ,

Label the position of r ( 2), r (1) and r (2).

13

Example 4.2a
Sketch the graph of the vector function

F (t )

(3

t )i

(2t )j

( 4

3t )k

for all t.
Solution
The graph is a collection of all points
(x, y, z ) with

t ,y

2t , z

3t

fo all t.
These are parametric equations for the line
in 3 that contains the point P0(3, 0, 4) and
is aligned with the vector v
i 2 j 3k .

14

Example 4.3
Sketch the graph of the following vector
function.

F (t )

(2 sin t )i

(2 cos t )j

5k

Solution
Get the parametric equations for the
curve:
x 2 si n t
y 2 cos t
z 5

If we ignore the z equation for a bit well


see that the parametric equations for x and
y give a circle of radius 2 centered on the
z-axis.
The parametric equations here tell us is
that no matter what is going on in the
graph, all the z coordinates must be 5.
15

So, we get a circle of radius 2 centered on


the z-axis and at the level of z=5.

16

Example 4.3a
Sketch the graph of the vector function

F (t )

(2 sin t )i

(2 cos t )j

(5t )k

Solution

17

Example 4.4
Identify the surface that is described by

F (x, y )

xi

yj

(x 2

y 2 )k

Solution
Notice that in this case the vector function
is a function of two variables.
To identify the surface lets go back to
parametric equations.

x, y

y, z

x2

y2

The first two are really only


acknowledging that we are picking x and y
for free and then determining z form our
choices of these two.
The last equation is the one that we want.
We recognize it as the equation of an
elliptic paraboloid.
So the vector function represents an
elliptic paraboloid.
18

Example 4.4a
Find a vector function that represents the
curve of intersection, C, of the paraboloid
z 4x 2 y 2 and the parabolic cylinder
y x 2.
Solution
1. The projection of the curve, C, of
intersection onto the xy-plane is the
2
parabola y x , z 0. Then we can
choose the parameter
x t
y t2
2. Since C also lies on the surface
z 4x 2 y 2 , we have
z 4x 2 y 2 4t 2 (t 2 )2
Parametric equations for C:
2
2
x t, y t , z 4t

4. The vector function:


r (t ) ti t 2 j (4t 2

4t 2

t 4 3.

t 4 )k
19

(Continued)

3-D view:

yz-plane view:

xy-plane view:

xz-plane view:

The End
5

20

Summary
Given any function, we can always write
down a vector form of the equation.
For example the hyperbolic paraboloid
y 2x 2 5z 2 , can be written as:
r (t )

xi

(2x 2

5z 2 )j

zk

There are two ways to get the graph of


a space curve from a vector function.
The first is to think of the graph as the set
of points (x, y, z ) where,
x f (t ) , y g(t ) , z h(t ) , t I
These are also the parametric equations
for the curve.
The second way of thinking of the graph
is to think of
r (t )
f (t ), g(t ), h(t )
as the position vector of the point
(f (t ), g(t ), h(t )).
21

4.1.3 Vector Functions Operations


Theorem 4.1
Let F and G be vector functions of the real
variable t , and let f (t) be a scalar function. Then

G ( t ) F ( t ) G ( t )

F
i.

)(t) f (t) F (t)


(
f
F
ii.
F G ( t ) F ( t ) G ( t )


G ( t ) F ( t ) G ( t )

F
iv.
iii.

Example 4.5

~
~ 2~

Let F 2 t i 5 j t k ,
~ 1~

G (1 t)i k
t ,
~
t ~

H (sin t ) i e j
22

(t )
Find (i) t F ( t ) 3 H
2

(t )
(ii) F ( t ) G

(t )
(iii) F ( t ) H

( t ) G ( t )
(iv) F ( t ) H

Solution

~
~
2~
t~
(i) t (2t i 5 j t k ) 3(sin t~
i e j)
2

~
2
t ~
4~
(2t 3sin t)i (5t 3e ) j t k
3

~ ~ 2~
~ 1 ~
(ii) 2t i 5 j t k (1 t)i k
t

(2t 2t ) t 3t 2t
2

23

~
i

~
j

(iii) F (t) H (t) 2t

~
k

5 t2

sin t

et

~
~ 2
~
t
t e i t sin t j (2te 5 sin t)k
2 t

2t

5 t2

(iv) F (t) H (t) G (t) sin t

et

1 t

0
1
t

5
3
2 t
2e sin t (t t )e
t
t

24