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Vector Function

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methods

Most important application - analysis

of motion in space

Vectors use as the input and output

of certain operators.

The following table summarizes the

sorts of objects we get by doing this,

and what their derivatives and

integrals are called.

domain and range of the type of function

considered.

Function

Notation

Name

r (t )

curve

scalar field

or 3-space

Derivati

d

r (t )

dt

grad f ,

parameterized

surface

or 3-space

div F

vector field

curl F

CHAPTER 4 DIFFERENTIAL

VECTOR CALCULUS

4.1 Vector Functions and Space

Curves

4.2 Unit Tangent and Normal

Vectors

4.3 Motion in Space: Velocity

and Acceleration

4.4 Directional Derivatives and

Gradient

4.5 Vector Fields

4.6 Divergence and Curl

REVIEW: Vectors

Scalar a quantity only with its magnitude

Example: temperature, speed, mass, volume

Vector a quantity with its magnitude and

its direction

Example: velocity acceleration, force

z

k

j

Vector is denoted by A, A or A.

OA - position vector

AB - displacement vector

4

If r0 is vector in 2-space or 3-space with

its initial point at the origin, then the line

that passes through the terminal point of r0

and is parallel to the vector v can be

expressed in vector form as r r0 tv .

r0

t(r1

r0 ) or r

(1 t )r0

tr1

Vector Algebra

Addition

associative law

A (B C ) (A

B)

commutative law A

A

5

multiplication by scalar

kB

B

distributive law

k (B

C)

kB )

kC

unit vectors: i , j , k

A

i

A1, A2, A3

1, 0, 0 , j

A1i

A2 j

0, 1, 0 , k

Unit vector, u of v : u

A3 k

0, 0, 1

v

v

A B

A B cos

A B

B A

A (B

C)

A B

A1B1

AB

A B

A C

A2B2

A3B3

A B sin

AB

A B

A

(B

A (B

C)

(A

B) C

C)

A1

A2

A3

B1

B2

B3

A1

A2

A3

B1

B2

B3

C1

C2

C3

Curves

4.1.1 Vector-valued function

Definition 4.1

A vector-valued function ( or simply vector

function) is a function whose domain is a set

of real numbers and whose range is a set of

vectors.

Vector function, r (t ):

r (t )

f (t ), g(t ), h(t )

called the component functions of r ; t is the

independent variable (time).

Note

If domains are intervals of real numbers,

the vector functions represent a space

curve

vector functions represent surfaces in

space.

Example 4.1

Find the domain of the vector function

r (t )

ln t i

Solution

Component 1, f : t

Component 2, g : t

Component 3, h : any t

Therefore, domain D is

1 and 1

10

Consider a particle moving through space

during a time interval I. The coordinates

are seen as functions defined as:

f (t ) , y

g(t ) , z

h(t ) , t

(1)

(f (t ), g(t ), h(t ))

particles path.

Eqn. (1) parametrize the curve. A curve in

space can also be represented in vector

form. The vector

r (t )

f (t )i

g(t )j

h(t )k

11

Definition 4.2

Let F be a vector function, and suppose

the initial point of the vector F (t ) is at the

origin. The graph of F is the curve traced

out by the terminal point of the vector

F (t ) as t varies over the domain set D.

12

Example 4.2

Sketch the graph of the vector function

r (t )

ti

(t 2

3)j ,

13

Example 4.2a

Sketch the graph of the vector function

F (t )

(3

t )i

(2t )j

( 4

3t )k

for all t.

Solution

The graph is a collection of all points

(x, y, z ) with

t ,y

2t , z

3t

fo all t.

These are parametric equations for the line

in 3 that contains the point P0(3, 0, 4) and

is aligned with the vector v

i 2 j 3k .

14

Example 4.3

Sketch the graph of the following vector

function.

F (t )

(2 sin t )i

(2 cos t )j

5k

Solution

Get the parametric equations for the

curve:

x 2 si n t

y 2 cos t

z 5

see that the parametric equations for x and

y give a circle of radius 2 centered on the

z-axis.

The parametric equations here tell us is

that no matter what is going on in the

graph, all the z coordinates must be 5.

15

the z-axis and at the level of z=5.

16

Example 4.3a

Sketch the graph of the vector function

F (t )

(2 sin t )i

(2 cos t )j

(5t )k

Solution

17

Example 4.4

Identify the surface that is described by

F (x, y )

xi

yj

(x 2

y 2 )k

Solution

Notice that in this case the vector function

is a function of two variables.

To identify the surface lets go back to

parametric equations.

x, y

y, z

x2

y2

acknowledging that we are picking x and y

for free and then determining z form our

choices of these two.

The last equation is the one that we want.

We recognize it as the equation of an

elliptic paraboloid.

So the vector function represents an

elliptic paraboloid.

18

Example 4.4a

Find a vector function that represents the

curve of intersection, C, of the paraboloid

z 4x 2 y 2 and the parabolic cylinder

y x 2.

Solution

1. The projection of the curve, C, of

intersection onto the xy-plane is the

2

parabola y x , z 0. Then we can

choose the parameter

x t

y t2

2. Since C also lies on the surface

z 4x 2 y 2 , we have

z 4x 2 y 2 4t 2 (t 2 )2

Parametric equations for C:

2

2

x t, y t , z 4t

r (t ) ti t 2 j (4t 2

4t 2

t 4 3.

t 4 )k

19

(Continued)

3-D view:

yz-plane view:

xy-plane view:

xz-plane view:

The End

5

20

Summary

Given any function, we can always write

down a vector form of the equation.

For example the hyperbolic paraboloid

y 2x 2 5z 2 , can be written as:

r (t )

xi

(2x 2

5z 2 )j

zk

a space curve from a vector function.

The first is to think of the graph as the set

of points (x, y, z ) where,

x f (t ) , y g(t ) , z h(t ) , t I

These are also the parametric equations

for the curve.

The second way of thinking of the graph

is to think of

r (t )

f (t ), g(t ), h(t )

as the position vector of the point

(f (t ), g(t ), h(t )).

21

Theorem 4.1

Let F and G be vector functions of the real

variable t , and let f (t) be a scalar function. Then

G ( t ) F ( t ) G ( t )

F

i.

(

f

F

ii.

F G ( t ) F ( t ) G ( t )

G ( t ) F ( t ) G ( t )

F

iv.

iii.

Example 4.5

~

~ 2~

Let F 2 t i 5 j t k ,

~ 1~

G (1 t)i k

t ,

~

t ~

H (sin t ) i e j

22

(t )

Find (i) t F ( t ) 3 H

2

(t )

(ii) F ( t ) G

(t )

(iii) F ( t ) H

( t ) G ( t )

(iv) F ( t ) H

Solution

~

~

2~

t~

(i) t (2t i 5 j t k ) 3(sin t~

i e j)

2

~

2

t ~

4~

(2t 3sin t)i (5t 3e ) j t k

3

~ ~ 2~

~ 1 ~

(ii) 2t i 5 j t k (1 t)i k

t

(2t 2t ) t 3t 2t

2

23

~

i

~

j

~

k

5 t2

sin t

et

~

~ 2

~

t

t e i t sin t j (2te 5 sin t)k

2 t

2t

5 t2

et

1 t

0

1

t

5

3

2 t

2e sin t (t t )e

t

t

24

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