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ENT145/3 Materials Engineering

Tutorial 2 (Answer)

1. A steel bar 100 mm long and having a square cross section 20 mm on an edge is pulled in tension with a load of 89,000 N, and experiences an elongation of 0.10 mm. Assuming that the deformation is entirely elastic, calculate the elastic modulus of the steel.

elastic, calculate the elastic modulus of the steel. 2. A cylindrical specimen of aluminum having a

2. A cylindrical specimen of aluminum having a diameter of 20 mm and length of 210 mm is deformed elastically in tension with a force of 48,800 N. Using the data contained in Table 6.1, determine the following:

a) The amount by which this specimen will elongate in the direction of the applied stress.

b) The change in diameter of the specimen. Will the diameter increase or decrease?

in the direction of the applied stress. b) The change in diameter of the specimen. Will
3. A cylindrical specimen of a hypothetical metal alloy is stressed in compression. If its

3. A cylindrical specimen of a hypothetical metal alloy is stressed in compression. If its original and final diameters are 20.000 and 20.025 mm, respectively, and its final length is 74.96 mm, compute its original length if the deformation is totally elastic. The elastic and shear moduli for this alloy are 105 GPa and 39.7 GPa, respectively.

if the deformation is totally elastic. The elastic and shear moduli for this alloy are 105

4.

A cylindrical rod 100 mm long and having a diameter of 10.0 mm is to be deformed using a tensile load of 27,500 N. It must not experience either plastic deformation or a diameter reduction of more than 7.5 × 10 3 mm. Of the materials listed as follows, which are possible candidates? Justify your choice(s).

than 7.5 × 10 − 3 mm. Of the materials listed as follows, which are possible
than 7.5 × 10 − 3 mm. Of the materials listed as follows, which are possible
5. A cylindrical specimen of aluminum having a diameter of 12.8 mm and a gauge

5. A cylindrical specimen of aluminum having a diameter of 12.8 mm and a gauge length of 50.800 mm is pulled in tension. Use the loadelongation characteristics shown in the following table to complete parts (a) through (f).

in the following table to complete parts (a) through (f). a) Plot the data as engineering

a) Plot the data as engineering stress versus engineering strain.

b) Compute the modulus of elasticity.

c) Determine the yield strength at a strain offset of 0.002.

d) Determine the tensile strength of this alloy.

e) What is the approximate ductility, in percent elongation?

f) Compute the modulus of resilience.

6.

An aircraft component is fabricated from an aluminium alloy that has plane strain fracture toughness of 35 MPa√m. Fracture occurred at a stress of 250 MPa when the maximum internal crack length is 2.0 mm.

a) Determine the value of dimensionless correction factor, Y.

b) If a stress level is increased to 325 MPa and the maximum internal crack length is reduced to 1.1 mm, predict whether any fracture will occur. Compare your answer with existing data. Justify your answer.

Compare your answer with existing data. Justify your answer. 7. An Figure 2 shows the circumferential
Compare your answer with existing data. Justify your answer. 7. An Figure 2 shows the circumferential

7. An Figure 2 shows the circumferential stress σ, (also called hoop stress) in a pressurized cylindrical vessel and is calculated by the equation of = /, where P is the internal pressure, r is the radius of the vessel and t is thickness. The vessel has 914.4 mm diameter, 6.35 mm thickness and an internal pressure of 34.5 MPa. Assume the crack occurred at the center of the vessel and Y = 1.0. For the fracture toughness, K IC and yield strength, σ Y values of each vessel material, refer to Table A1 in Appendix.

a) Compute the critical crack length (2a) if the vessel is made of Al 7178-

T651.

b) If the material of stainless steel (17-7pH) is to be used, compare the difference of the critical crack length (2a) with your answer in (i). Justify your answer.

crack

σ 2a P σ
σ
2a
P
σ

Figure 2

[Gambarajah 2]

t r
t
r

Table A1 Typical Fracture Toughness Values for Selected Engineering Alloys

crack σ 2a P σ Figure 2 [Gambarajah 2] t r Table A1 Typical Fracture Toughness
crack σ 2a P σ Figure 2 [Gambarajah 2] t r Table A1 Typical Fracture Toughness