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Question :

You need to see the last fifteen lines of the files dog, cat and horse. What command
should you use?
Answer: default tail display last 10 lines
# tail -n 15 god cat horse
it will show the last 15 lines in 3 files

Or

Either User

tail -n 15 dog cat horse


or
tail --line=15 dog cat horse

Question :
To display a list of all manual pages containing the keyword "date", what command
would you type?

Answers:
man -k date

or

date --help & man date


Both Commands will display the manual pages for date.

Or

"apropos"
Example:
"apropos network" will display all commands and their section containing the
keywork "network"

Question :
Which of the following interprets your actions when typing at the command line for
the operating system? Choose One

a. Utility
b. Application
c. Shell
d. Command

Answer: c

A shell is a program that acts as an intermediary between the user and the
operating system. It interprets what you type and passes it to the operating
system. (Or) linux architecture is as follows
kernel
shell
application and command
user
shell acts as middleware between user and os allow user to enter command then
give it to os for processing and then shell displays the result .

Question :
Who owns the data dictionary?

The SYS user owns the data dictionary. The SYS and SYSTEM users are created
when the database is created.

Question :
When typing at the command line, the default editor is the _____________ library.

Answer: readline

By default, your shell used the readline library in emacs mode as its
command line editor.

Question :
What is the minimum number of partitions you need to install Linux?
What command can you use to review boot messages?

a. Minimum two partition.


1. Root
2. Boot
b. vi /var/log/message
dmesg (dmesg)will show you the logged messages at boot time .most information
is about detected hardware at boot time

or

1. Minimum two partitions need to install Linux


root(/) and swap
root-(Min 2.5GB)
swap-(size RAMx2 but maximum 4GB)

2.cat dmesg and /var/log/messeges

Question :
What daemon is responsible for tracking events on your system?

Answer: syslogd

The syslogd daemon is responsible for tracking system information and saving it to
specified log files.

Question :
What command you execute to display the last five commands you have entered?
Which partitions might you create on mail server HDDs other than the root, swap
and boot partitions?
Which partitioning tool is available in all distributions?
Which two commands can you use to delete directories?
Which file defines all users on your system?
Answers:

1. history|tail -5
2. /var
3. fdisk, parted
4. rm, rmdir
5. /etc/passwd

Or

1) history 5 is also enough ,,,, but the thing is 5 will display even current command
so use history 6 to show past 5 commands.

2) fdisk

3)cat /etc/passwd //to see all users

4)rmdir -d or rmdir -r -f

5)/etc/passwd

Question :
What command is used to remove the password assigned to a group?

Answer: gpasswd -r

The gpasswd command is used to change the password assigned to a group. Use
the -r option to remove the password from the group.

Question :
What is difference between user right and user permission?

Answers:

user rights:user rights is that user is authorized to used password.if his


password/file/dir is expired he is not able to login

user permission:permission is user is permitted to to use file/directory.that is


authentication
if he is authentication for particular file or not.

it might be true as per my suggestion.

Question :
Describe the boot process of your favorite Linux in as much detail as you can.

Answers:

Booting process : first BIOS loads the boot loaders, then boot loaders loads the
kernel ,then kernel mount the file systems and drivers installation will takes place
and in it will be loaded.
Or

Boot process takes place in 4 scenes with 4 main characters.

Scene 1
when the computer is switched on,it automatically invokes BIOS[a ROM chip
embedded in the motherboard].The BIOS will start the processor and perform a
POST[power on self test] to check whether the connected device are ready to use
and are working properly.
Once the POST is completes BIOS will jump to a specified location in the RAM and
check for the booting device.The boot sector is always the first sector of the hard
disk and BIOS will load the MBR into the memory.

Scene 2
Here the boot loader takes the control of the booting process.LILO or GRUB are the
boot loaders commonly available. It will help the user to select various boot
options.Depending on the boot option selected the kernel is loaded.

scene 3

After kernel is loaded the kernel will take the control of the booting process and it
will initialize all the hardwares including I/O processors etc.kernel then creates a
root device and mounts the partitions.

Scene 4
INIT is loaded.

Or

First bios select the boot priority,then first sector of hard disk MBR(448 bytes),that
is a boot loader.it contains linux and other os details also can select linux or other
os booting
then kernel initialization
1.device detection
2.device driver initialization
3.mount root file system read only
4.loads initial process
Init initiliazation
1.init runlevel
2.system initial scripts
3.initials x in run level 5

or

first go to BIOS(Basic Input Output System),


Post (Power on self Text) if all hardware connectivity are ok or not check,
bootstrap-where to boot the device selected,Ex,Floppy,Cdrom,PXE,
MBR(Master Boot Record) stored temporarly,
MBR content 512MB
Active Patition 2
Partition Information 64
IPL(Initial Programme Loader) 446,
/boot/grub/grub.conf check
1 stage installed IPL
2 Stage installed vmlinuz,initrd,
->/etc/fstab check the root file system,
-> initscript check the run levels
-> /etc/inittab
check the run levels,admin which run level using.
->display the login prompt

or

Booting Process In Linux coontains 2 Stages.They are


1)BIOS
2)POST
'BIOS' stands for Basic Input Output System. BIOS fist runs Pogram called
unLevel.POST 'Power On Self Test'
In Second Stage it reads Data from Inittab file and switches to
that Runlevel.

Question :
Which file defines all users on your system?

Choose one:
a. /etc/passwd
b. /etc/users
c. /etc/password
d. /etc/user.conf

Answer: a

The /etc/passwd file contains all the information on users who may log into your
system. If a user account is not contained in this file, then the user cannot log in.

Question :
What command would you type to use the cpio to create a backup called
backup.cpio of all the users' home directories? _____________

Answers:

Answer: find /home | cpio -o > backup.cpio

The find command is used to create a list of the files and directories contained in
home. This list is then piped to the cpio utility as a list of files to include and the
output is saved to a file called backup.cpio.

Question :
What is kernel updation?

Kernel updation is upgrading kernel version. To update kernel either you can enroll
yourself to the official website of red hat or you can simply download the latest
kernel version and then running rpm -u kernel version. But this method is not
recommended, it is better to install the new kernel and let the older version of it
remain untouched so that you can revert back the changes.
Or

for upgrading kernel

rpm -ivh package name .


..kernel cannot be upgraded by -uvh ..it is for other packages except kernel
upgrade:)

or

<b>Kernel Update:</b>

Improvements to existing kernels are released & distributed as kernel updates


(new releases or patches) The process of upgrading our running kernel to this new
release or any other stable version is known as Kernel Update.
The kernel's of specific distributions are given by their respective owners. the
original kernel released by community can be found here: kernel.org.

This process is also called as <b>kernel compilation</b>, when we compile the


kernel from source code. to know how see http://kernelnewbies.org

<b>Why need an update?</b>


A Linux Kernel is nothing but a complex data structure. so as soon as security holes
are detected, it is fixed, or expand the data structure to support more hardware
(say more RAM support), or to update the international standards, or algorithm
improvements for scheduler, memory management, processor capabilities, etc..,
and many more reasons for which the international open source community is
consistently working to fix the above issues, as part of this process, at certain
stages (called milestones), they release the kernel source code or simply the
patches (contains difference between a certain kernel version & the latest one) in
http://kernel.org

Question :
Which daemon controls the network service -> POP3 mail service?

A) inetd
B) pop3d
C) maild
D) nntpd
E) pmaild

Answers:

Answer: A - The inetd superdaemon controls the POP3 mail service. The POP3 mail
service runs through the superdaemon, not on its own. Answers c and e point to
nonexistent, or at least nonstandard daemons. Answer d points to the Usenet news
daemon.

Question :
What is difference between AT and CRON?

cron can be set onlyf or a particular time but at is used to schedule and execute
Question :
What command can you use to review boot messages?

Answer: dmesg

The dmesg command displays the system messages contained in the kernel ring
buffer. By using this command immediately after booting your computer, you will
see the boot messages.

Question :
What is contained in the directory /proc?
Choose one:

a. System information
b. Administrative procedures
c. Boot procedures
d. Documentation on your system

Answers:

Answer: a

The /proc directory is a virtual filesystem that contains system information.

/proc is a virtual filesystem, it contains system information, eg. /proc/meminfo


contains memory information and /proc/cpuinfo contains CPU information

Question :
You have been assigned the task of determining if there are any user accounts
defined on your system that have not been used during the last three months.
Which log file should you examine to determine this information?
Choose one:

a. /var/log/wtmp
b. /var/log/lastlog
c. /var/log/utmp
d. /var/log/messages

Answers:

Answer: b

The /var/log/lastlog file contains information on the time each user defined in the
passwd file last logged into the system.

Question :
What text filter can you use to display a binary file in octal numbers?

Answer: od

The od text filter will dumpt the contents of a file and display it in 2-byte octal
numbers.
Question :
You want to create a compressed backup of the users' home directories so you
issue the command gzip /home/* backup.gz but it fails. The reason that it failed is
that gzip will only compress one _______ at a time.

Answer: file

The gzip utility cannot compress multiple files in a single operation.

Question :
How Does Linux Kernel Versioning Work?

Answers:

At any given time, there are several "stable" versions of Linux, and one
"development" version. Unlike most proprietary software, older stable versions
continue to be supported for as long as there is interest, which is why multiple
versions exist.

Linux version numbers follow a longstanding tradition. Each version has three
numbers, i.e., X.Y.Z. The "X" is only incremented when a really significant change
happens, one that makes software written for one version no longer operate
correctly on the other. This happens very rarely -- in Linux's history it has
happened exactly once.
The "Y" tells you which development "series" you are in. A stable kernel will always
have an even number in this position, while a development kernel will always have
an odd number.
The "Z" specifies which exact version of the kernel you have, and it is incremented
on every release.
The current stable series is 2.4.x, and the current development series is 2.5.x.
However, many people continue to run 2.2.x and even 2.0.x kernels, and they als o
continue to receive bugfixes. The development series is the code that the Linu x
developers are actively working on, which is always available for public viewing,
testing, and even use, although production use is not recommended! This is part of
the "open source development" method.
Eventually, the 2.5.x development series will be "sprinkled with holy penguin pee"
and become the 2.6.0 kernel and a new stable series will then be established, and
a 2.7.x development series begun. Or, if any really major changes happen, it might
become 3.0.0 instead, and a 3.1.x series begun.

Question :
You have entered the following cronjob. When will it run? 15 * * * 1,3,5 myscript
Choose one:

a. at 15 minutes after every hour on the 1st, 3rd and 5th of each month.
b. at 1:15 am, 3:15 am, and 5:15 am every day
c. at 3:00 pm on the 1st, 3rd, and 5th of each month
d. at 15 minutes after every hour every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday

Answer: d

This would run at 15 minutes after the hour on every Monday, Wednesday, and
Friday of every month no matter what the date.
Question :
Your default umask is 002. What does this mean?
Choose one:

a. Any file you create will have the permissions set as owner and group having read
and write permissions; others as read only.
b. Any file you create will have the permissions set as owner and group having
read, write and execute permissions; others as read and execute.
c. Any directoy you create will have the permissions set as owner and group having
read, write and execute permissions; others as read and write permissions.
d. Any directory you create will have the permissions set as owner and group
having read and write permissions; others as read only.

Answer: a

The digits of your umask represent owner, group and others in that order. The 0
gives read and write for files and the 2 gives read only for files.

The 0 gives read and write and execute permissions for owner and group and the 2
gives read and execute permissions for others. Ans. is b.

Question :
How to exclude ip address in dhcp?
my ranges are 192.168.1.2 192.168.1.20
then how do i exclude different ip's like 192.168.1.4 and 7 and 10 from the range
please help me out

You will have to use multiple range statements


range 192.168.1.2 192.168.1.20;
range 192.168.1.23 192.168.1.30;
The above will exclude 21 and 22

Or

subnet 192.168.1.0 netmask 255.255.255.0


{
range 192.168.1.2 192.168.1.3;
range 192.168.1.5 192.168.1.6;
range 192.168.1.8 192.168.1.9;
}

Question :
You need to create a new group called sales with Bob, Mary and Joe as members.
Which of the following would accomplish this?
Choose one:

a. Add the following line to the /etc/group file: sales:44:bob,mary,joe


b. Issue the command groupadd sales.
c. Issue the command groupadd -a sales bob,mary,joe
d. Add the following line to the /etc/group file: sales::44:bob,mary,joe
Answer: d

One of the quickest ways to create a new group is to edit the /etc/group file adding
the groupname, password, GID, and members.

Question :
Which command do you use to change run levels?

A) initlevel
B) runlevel
C) level
D) run
E) init

Answer: E - The command used to change runlevels is init. Answers a, c, and d


point to invalid commands. Answer b is a valid command, but does not set the
current runlevel. The runlevel command displays the current runlevel, and the one
that was used directly before entering this one.

Question :
You want to ensure that your system is not overloaded with users running multiple
scheduled jobs. A policy has been established that only the system administrators
can create any scheduled jobs. It is your job to implement this policy. How are you
going to do this?
Choose one:

a. create an empty file called /etc/cron.deny


b. create a file called /etc/cron.allow which contains the names of those allowed to
schedule jobs.
c. create a file called /etc/cron.deny containing all regular usernames.
d. create two empty files called /etc/cron.allow and /etc/cron.deny

Answer: b

The crond daemon will examine the file /etc/cron.allow whenever a user attempts
to install a cron job. If that user's name is not in the file, he will not be able to
install the cron job.

Question :
Your company has implemented a policy that users' passwords must be reset every
ninety days. Since you have over 100 users you created a file with each username
and the new password. How are you going to change the old passwords to the new
ones?
Choose one:

a. Use the chpasswd command along with the name of the file containing the new
passwords.
b. Use the passwd command with the -f option and the name of the file containing
the new passwords.
c. Open the /etc/passwd file in a text editor and manually change each password.
d. Use the passwd command with the -u option.

Answer: a
The chpasswd command takes a file containing username/password pairs and
makes the appropriate changes to the /etc/passwd file.

Question :
Which of the following commands can you use to cleanly restart a Linux machine?
[Choose all correct answers]

A) reboot
B) init 6
C) init 0
D) shutdown -r
E) shutdown –h

Answers:

Answer(s): A, B, D - The commands used to restart a Linux box are shutdown -r,
reboot, and init 6. Answers c and e are incorrect. Both of these are used to shut
down a Linux box, not restart it.

Question :
In Linux How to exclude ip from the given range please help me out

Answers:

Type system-config-network and configure.

type the 'neat' command

Question :
How to install 8139 realtek drivers in rhel5.0? Please help me out.

Answers:

Download the driver from internet.


then just unzip the tarball using tar -zxvf <rtl8139***.tgz>

then for first compile it using make and make install

For proper installation of the driver read the INSTALL / README file given in the
tarball.

Question :
You have a technician who will come in after hours to install new hardware in your
system. You do not want to give him the root password, but he needs to be able to
shutdown the system. How can you accomplish this?
Choose one:

a. You cannot do this; only root can run the shutdown command.
b. Add his username to the /etc/shutdown.conf file.
c. Add his username to the /etc/shutdown.allow file.
d. Give him the root password and change it when you arrive the next morning.
Answer: c

Any user who is listed in the /etc/shutdown.allow file will be able to run the
shutdown command without being root.

Or

/etc/shutdown.allow file doesn't exist...if it does exist plss tell me where to find
it....

Or

c. is correct ..
another way is to use a sudo command.

For sudo command again u will need to have root passwrd. So /etc/shutdown.allow
method will be a good option

Question :
The whereis command is helpful in finding the location of a command as well as its
related man page. What is the disadvantage of using it?
Choose one:

a. Since it searches the entire directory tree, the whereis command can take an
excessive amount of time.
b. The whereis command will not find source files located on your system.
c. You have to update the whereis database in order to keep it current.
d. The whereis command only searches known directories that are hard coded into
the command.

Answer: d

The whereis command only searches those known directories that are hard coded
into the command itself.

Question :
You are installing Linux into a computer with two IDE hard drives. You plan on
dividing each hard drive into two partitions. What are the names of the partitions?
Choose one:

a. hda1, hda2, hda3, hda4


b. hda1, hda2, hdb1, hdb2
c. sda1, sda2, sdb1, sdb2
d. sda1, sda2, sda3, sda4

Answer: b

The first letter of the partition names refers to the controller type: 'h' for ide and 's'
for SCSI. The third letter refers to which disk: 'a' for first, 'b' for second, etc., and
the number refers to which partition: '1' for first, '2' for second, etc.
Question :
In order to improve your system's security you decide to implement shadow
passwords. What command should you use?

Answer: pwconv

The pwconv command creates the file /etc/shadow and changes all passwords to 'x'
in the /etc/passwd file.

/etc/passwd file already exists there..


so. give passwords by "passwd "

Question :
You have a tab delimited file called phonenos and want to change each tab to four
spaces. What command can you use to accomplish this?
Choose one:

a. expand -t4 phonenos


b. expand phonenos
c. expand -n4 phonenos
d. expand -t phonenos

Answer: a

By default, expand converts tabs to eight spaces. Use the -t option to change this
behavior.

Question :
You have a file called phonenos that is almost 4,000 lines long. What text filter can
you use to split it into four pieces each 1,000 lines long?

Answer: split

The split text filter will divide files into equally sized pieces. The default length of
each piece is 1,000 lines.

split -l phonenos new


or
split -l 1000 phonenos new

would split the file "phonenos" into files beginning with the name "new" like newaa,
newab ,newac and newad

Question :
What is the real mean of DHCP?

Answers:
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol(DHCP) is a protocol used by networked
devices (clients) to obtain the IP address.

Question :
I have created a file with vi editor with -x option.
#vi -x hello.sh

This is an encrypted file with password.


when i again open this file, it ask me to enter a password before editing it.

Can i remove that password, but i dont want to delete that file.

Answers:

open ur file with vi and type the following


:set key=

Including the :(colon) symbol


This will set ur key to blank

Question :
What can you type at a command line to determine which shell you are using?

Answers:

echo $SHELL

The name and path to the shell you are using is saved to the SHELL environment
variable. You can then use the echo command to print out the value of any variable
by preceding the variable's name with $. Therefore, typing echo $SHELL will display
the name of your shell.

There are different types of shell are available in Linux:-


1-c shell
2-ksh
3-tcsh
4-/bin
5-nologin

Question :
What are seven fields in the /etc/passwd file.

Answers:

The seven fields required for each line in the /etc/passwd file are username, UID,
GID, comment, home directory, command. Each of these fields must be separated
by a colon even if they are empty.

Question :
You have a tab delimited file called phonenos and want to change each tab to four
spaces. What command can you use to accomplish this?
Choose one:

a. expand -t4 phonenos


b. expand phonenos
c. expand -n4 phonenos
d. expand -t phonenos

Answers:

Answer: a

By default, expand converts tabs to eight spaces. Use the -t option to change this
behavior.

Question :
A PC in a private network (on a DSL connection) should be reachable from the
outside. How would you solve this?

Answers:

if the private n/w of which the comp. is a part belongs to same ISP
BY which we are trying to access the computer we can access that from the "comp.
near me " application of my network plces but the condition is that there should be
no firewall protection.

Question :
The maximum size of the swap partition is _______ MB.

Answers:

Answer: 128

Although the maximum size for a swap partition is 128 MB, you can have multiple
swap partitions.

There is absolutely no 128 MB limit on swap under Linux 2.2.x+ and later kernels,
as there was in the past. The current limits are approximately 2 GB on x86,
PowerPC, and MC680x0 systems, 512 MB on MIPS systems, 128 GB on Alpha, and
a whopping 3 terabytes on UltraSparc platforms.

Question :
You have a technician who will come in after hours to install new hardware in your
system. You do not want to give him the root password, but he needs to be able to
shutdown the system. How can you accomplish this?
Choose one:

a. You cannot do this; only root can run the shutdown command.
b. Add his username to the /etc/shutdown.conf file.
c. Add his username to the /etc/shutdown.allow file.
d. Give him the root password and change it when you arrive the next morning.
Answers:

Answer: c

Any user who is listed in the /etc/shutdown.allow file will be able to run the
shutdown command without being root.

/etc/shutdown.allow file doesn't exist...if it does exist plss tell me where to find
it....

Question :
Which partitioning tool is available in all distributions?

Answers:

The fdisk partitioning tool is available in all Linux distributions. Answers a, c, and e
all handle partitioning, but do not come with all distributions. Disk Druid is made by
Red Hat and used in its distribution along with some derivatives. Partition Magic
and System Commander are tools made by third-party companies. Answer d is not
a tool, but a file system type. Specifically, FAT32 is the file system type used in
Windows 98.

Question :
Which file defines all users on your system?

Answers:

The /etc/passwd file contains all the information on users who may log into your
system. If a user account is not contained in this file, then the user cannot log in.

Question :
You locate a command in the /bin directory but do not know what it does. What
command can you use to determine its purpose.

Answers:

Answer: whatis

The whatis command displays a summary line from the man page for the specified
command.

we can use man and info commands

Question :
You have a file called phonenos that is almost 4,000 lines long. What text filter can
you use to split it into four pieces each 1,000 lines long?

Answers:
Answer: split

The split text filter will divide files into equally sized pieces. The default length of
each piece is 1,000 lines.

split -l phonenos new


or
split -l 1000 phonenos new

would split the file "phonenos" into files beginning with the name "new" like newaa,
newab ,newac and newad

Question :
Is Linux Unix?

Answers:

Officially an operating system is not allowed to be called a Unix until it passes the
Open Group's certification tests, and supports the necessary API's. Nobody has yet
stepped forward to pay the large fees that certification involves, so we're not
allowed to call it Unix. Certification really doesn't mean very much anyway. Very
few of the commercial operating systems have passed the Open Group tests.

Question :
When using useradd to create a new user account, which of the following tasks is
not done automatically.

Answers:

Create the user's home directory.


The useradd command will use the system default for the user's home directory.
The home directory is not created, however, unless you use the -m option.

When useradd command is execuited user is created but password is not


automaically assigned

Question :
You attempt to use shadow passwords but are unsuccessful. What characteristic of
the /etc/passwd file may cause this? Answers:

The password field must not be blank before converting to shadow passwords.

Question :
Which tasks is not necessary when creating a new user by editing the /etc/passwd
file? Answers:
There is no need to link the user's home directory to the shell command. Rather,
the specified shell must be present on your system.

Answers:

There is no need to link the user's home directory to the shell command. Rather,
the specified shell must be present on your system.

Question :
What utility can you use to show a dynamic listing of running processes?
__________

Answers:

Answer: top

The top utility shows a listing of all running processes that is dynamically updated.

top utility is used.


but ps-ef command can also be used .

Question :
You want to create a compressed backup of the users' home directories. What utility
should you use? Answers:

Answer: tar

You can use the z modifier with tar to compress your archive at the same time as
creating it.

tar -zcvf filename.tgz file1 file2

This command is used to take a compress backup

Question :
Bob Armstrong, who has a username of boba, calls to tell you he forgot his
password. What command should you use to reset his command? Answers:

Answer: passwd boba

The passwd command is used to change your password. If you do not specify a
username, your password will be changed.

passwd -d boba

This command however disables the disables the existing passwd and boba can
login and issue the same command

$passwd

to set his password

Question :
In order to apply a filesystem to your new partitions you must format them. What
command would you use to create the ext2 filesystem? Answers:

Answer: mkfs

The mkfs command creates the new filesystem on your partition.

/sbin/mke2fs is used for creating ext2 file system

Question :
You have the /var directory on its own partition. You have run out of space. What
should you do?
Choose one:

a. Reconfigure your system to not write to the log files.


b. Use fips to enlarge the partition.
c. Delete all the log files.
d. Delete the partition and recreate it with a larger size.

Answers:

Answer: d

The only way to enlarge a partition is to delete it and recreate it. You will then have
to restore the necessary files from backup.

If we feel that we may need to enlarge the partition in future then we can use LVM
partitions

LVM partitions can be used to enlarge to reduce the partitions

LVM can be used with RAID too

We can also redirect the log files path, so we can store log files on any other
partition or on any other system

Question :
You changed /etc/lilo.conf to cause a boot: prompt to show, however, when you
restart your computer you still do not have a prompt. What should you do?
Choose one:

a. Rename your configuration file to /etc/lilo.conf.new.


b. Install the configuration changes by issuing the command /sbin/lilo
c. Install the configuration changes by issuing the command /sbin/lilo -t
d. Install the configuration changes by issuing the command /sbin/lilo -uAnswers:

Answer: b

You have to reinstall LILO in order for any configuration changes to take effect. This
is done by running /sbin/lilo without any options.

INSTALL LILO RPM


AND CHANGE THE DEFAULT OPTION TO
1 FROM 0 IN GRUB FILE

Question :
Please describe the main stages of a booting Linux machine (x86) to the login
prompt? No ans

Question :
Does Linux Support Virtualized File Systems Like RAID? Answers:

The most recent Linux kernels support software RAID, and they will work with RAID
disk controllers.

Answers:

The most recent Linux kernels support software RAID, and they will work with RAID
disk controllers.

Question :
What is Kernel-Level Threads? Answers:

Kernel-level threads often are implemented in the kernel using several tables (each
task gets a table of threads). In this case, the kernel schedules each thread within
the timeslice of each process. There is a little more overhead with mode switching
from user->kernel-> user and loading of larger contexts, but initial performance
measures indicate a negligible increase in time.

kernel thread is a process that always in kernal mode , it only accesses kernel
address spaces , manageing kernel activities that need to managed on an ongoing
basis .(and not waiting for an interrupt or system call)

Question :
You routinely compress old log files. You now need to examine a log from two
months ago. In order to view its contents without first having to decompress it, use
the _________ utility. Answers:

Answer: zcat
The zcat utility allows you to examine the contents of a compressed file much the
same way that cat displays a file.

grep is preffered over zcat

Question :
You are covering for another system administrator and one of the users asks you to
restore a file for him. You locate the correct tarfile by checking the backup log but do
not know how the directory structure was stored. What command can you use to
determine this?

Choose one:
a. tar fx tarfile dirname
b. tar tvf tarfile filename
c. tar ctf tarfile
d. tar tvf tarfileAnswers:

Answer: d

The t switch will list the files contained in the tarfile. Using the v modifier will
display the stored directory structure.

Question :
What file defines the levels of messages written to system log files? Answers:

Answer: kernel.h

To determine the various levels of messages that are defined on your system,
examine the kernel.h file.

Question :
You suspect that you have two commands with the same name as the command is
not producing the expected results. What command can you use to determine the
location of the command being run? Answers:

Answer: which

The which command searches your path until it finds a command that matches the
command you are looking for and displays its full path.

Question :
What account is created when you install Linux? Answers:

Answer: root

Whenever you install Linux, only one user account is created. This is the superuser
account also known as root.

Question :
The top utility can be used to change the priority of a running process? Another
utility that can also be used to change priority is ___________?Answers:
Answer: nice

Both the top and nice utilities provide the capability to change the priority of a
running process.

nice can be usedd.


for already existing process , renice is used..

Question :
Where are the startup scripts defined?

Choose one:
a. /etc/initd
b. /etc/scripts
c. /etc/start
d. /etc/inittab

Answers:

Answer: d

The /etc/inittab defines which start up scripts to run at each runlevel.

inittab defines the run level but not


the startup scripts.
In the dir. init.d there are different directorys according to run levels where we can
define startup scripts.

What would you type to send the last 20 lines of a text file to STDIN?

A) end -n 20 filename
B) last -n 20 filename
C) head -20 filename
D) end -20 filename
E) tail -20 filename

Answers:

Answer: E - Use the command tail -20 filename to see the last 20 lines of a file.
The answers for a and d both point to an invalid command. The answer for b points
to a valid command. Typing this answer in with a valid file name will even give you
some output. However, the last command tells you who is logged in, it does not
actually list the contents of any file named in the command. The answer for c, the
head command, is used to look at the beginning of a file, not the end.

Question :
While logged on as a regular user, your boss calls up and wants you to create a
new user account immediately. How can you do this without first having to close
your work, log off and logon as root?
Choose one:
a. Issue the command rootlog.
b. Issue the command su and type exit when finished.
c. Issue the command su and type logoff when finished.
d. Issue the command logon root and type exit when finished.

Answers:

Answer: b

You can use the su command to imitate any user including root. You will be
prompted for the password for the root account. Once you have provided it you are
logged in as root and can do any administrative duties.

Question :
In order to prevent a user from logging in, you can add a(n) ________at the
beginning of the password field. Answers:

Answer: asterick

If you add an asterick at the beginning of the password field in the /etc/passwd file,
that user will not be able to log in.

You can also use

passwd -l with the username to lock his account.

Question :
In order to run fsck on the root partition, the root partition must be mounted as
___________.Answers:

Answer: readonly

You cannot run fsck on a partition that is mounted as read-write.

Question :
When you only back up one partition, this is called a ______ backup.
Choose one

a. Differential
b. Full
c. Partial
d. Copy
Answers:

Answer: c

A partial backup is where you select only a portion of your file hierarchy or a single
partition to back up. This is not dependent upon whether or not the file has
changed since the last backup.
Question :
What type of local file server can you use to provide the distribution installation
materials to the new machine during a network installation?

A) Inetd
B) FSSTND
C) DNS
D) NNTP
E) NFSAnswers:

Answer: E - You can use an NFS server to provide the distribution installation
materials to the machine on which you are performing the installation. Answers a,
b, c, and d are all valid items but none of them are file servers. Inetd is the
superdaemon which controls all intermittently used network services. The FSSTND
is the Linux File System Standard. DNS provides domain name resolution, and
NNTP is the transfer protocol for usenet news.

Question :
You wish to restore the file memo.ben which was backed up in the tarfile
MyBackup.tar. What command should you type? Answers:

Answer: tar xf MyBackup.tar memo.ben

This command uses the x switch to extract a file. Here the file memo.ben will be
restored from the tarfile MyBackup.tar.

in the terminal execute the following command tar -xvf MyBackup.tar


Result:It will create a folder in the name of MyBackup inside the folder you can find
the memo.ben.
The options are xvf
x-extract the tar file
v-verbose(Displays the status of the process)
f-it will use the archive file

Question :
Which file do you need to change to alter how the updatedb database is created?
Choose one:

a. /etc/which.conf
b. /etc/conf.updatedb
c. /etc/updatedb.conf
d. /etc/conf.whichAnswers:

Answer: c

The /etc/updatedb.conf file is used to manage the creation of the updatedb


database.