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TRAINING TIPS AND TACTICS

TRAINING TIPS AND TACTICS Module 3 - Truck Air and Brakes - Mechanical 1

Module 3 - Truck Air and Brakes - Mechanical

TRAINING TIPS AND TACTICS Module 3 - Truck Air and Brakes - Mechanical 1

General information

System pressures Port numbers Use IMPACT Basic fault finding logic

Contents

Rear circuit

Circuit diagram Footbrake valve Load sensing valve - steel suspension Load sensing valve - graph Load sensing valve - air suspension Load sensing valve - graph Spring brake chamber

Charging circuit

Circuit diagram - steel suspension Compressor Air dryer Governor valve Pressure regulator valve Multi Circuit Protection Valve (MCPV) Overflow valve

Front circuit

Circuit diagram - with steel suspension Footbrake valve Quick Release Valve (QRV) Relay valve Pilot valve Circuit diagram - with air suspension Pilot valve graph

Park circuit

Circuit diagram Park brake control valve Blocking valve Connections at park brake tank Anti-compound valve Trailer brake control valve Spring brake chamber

Auxiliary circuit Circuit diagram

High pressure system

Circuit diagram 7 port MCPV Pressure reduction - front and park circuit

Electronic Braking system (EBS)

Circuit diagram

?????

Electronic Control Suspension (ECS)

Solenoids and circuit diagram

Z Cam brakes Earlier S cam Z cam advantages Automatic adjustment Brake stroke Leading and trailing shoes Measuring lining thickness Shoe remove and refit Tappet components LH and RH components Initial setting of brake shoes

Disc brake

????

About this

Pocket guide

Introduction

This guide is intended as a memory jogger for the knowledge you have gained during your training course.

The guide includes a summary of the material covered in:

Module 3 - Truck Air and Brakes - Mechanical.

Danger,

Warning,

Caution &

Note

In this guide, risk of injury or damage is indicated by the following headings:

DANGER - indicates a risk of serious personal injury or death.

WARNING - indicates a risk of personal injury, or severe product damage.

CAUTION - indicates risk of product damage.

Note - draws attention to special methods or particular features.

Read and implement all DANGER, WARNING and CAUTION instructions.

Replacement

parts

When replacement parts are required, it is essential that only Volvo genuine parts are fitted. If Volvo genuine parts are not used:

- safety features embodied in the vehicle or components may be impaired.

- performance and/or operation of the vehicle or components may be adversely affected.

- Volvo warranty terms may be invalidated.

Specification

Volvo are constantly seeking ways to improve their products, and alterations take place accordingly. Whilst every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of this guide, it should not be regarded as an infallible guide to current specifications of any product.

Neither Volvo, nor the supplier of this guide shall, in any circumstances, be held liable for inaccuracy or the consequences thereof.

Copyright

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transmitted or copied without written permission from Volvo Truck & Bus Ltd.

C
C

Volvo Truck & Bus Ltd. 2004

General information

General information Air system The complete truck air system has five main circuits: - charging

General information

Air system

The complete truck air system has five main circuits:

- charging circuit

- front service circuit (footbrake)

- rear service brake (footbrake)

- park brake circuit

- auxiliary circuit

High pressure

Note: ʻHigh pressureʼ refers to the pressure in the tanks,

system

and certain sections of piping. Not all parts of the system operate at high pressure - see the diagrams in ʻHigh Pressure Systemʼ. All post ʻ98 FM/FH trucks with air suspension have a ʻhigh pressureʼ system. Every tank has 12.0 bar pressure, except the park circuit tank, which has 8.5 bar.

General information High pressure system - cont. The high pressure system can be identified by

General information

High pressure system - cont.

The high pressure system can be identified by a 7 port multi circuit protection valve (MCPV). Unless the truck has full air suspension, no air suspension tank is needed.

Low pressure

All pre ʻ98 FM/FH trucks with air suspension, and all trucks

system

with steel suspension have a ʻlow pressureʼ system.

On trucks with air suspension, every tank has 7.5 bar pressure, except the wet tank which has 12.0 bar pressure.

On trucks with steel suspension, every tank has 7.5 to 8.5 bar pressure.

The low pressure system can be identified by a 5 port MCPV.

General information Air pressure units Air pressure can be expressed in ʻbarʼ or ʻPascalʼ: 1

General information

Air pressure

units

Air pressure can be expressed in ʻbarʼ or ʻPascalʼ:

1 bar = 100 Kpa (KiloPascal) 10 bar = 1 mPa (MegaPascal)

Port numbers

- general

Valve ports generally conform to a common numbering sequence:

Port 1 - Supply, normally from a tank. If there is more than one supply, a second number is used - e.g. 11, 12.

Port 2 - Delivery, to another component. If there is more than one delivery, a second number is used - e.g. 21, 22.

Port 3 - Exhaust, to atmosphere.

Port 4 - Signal to the valve to operate.

12

General information Use IMPACT To ensure that you are using the latest service information -

General information

General information Use IMPACT To ensure that you are using the latest service information - especially

Use IMPACT

To ensure that you are using the latest service information - especially specifications - always get your information via IMPACT:

Wheel brakes - group 51 Compressed air brakes - group 56

13

General information Air is leaking from a valve. Disconnect pipe(s) from outlet port(s) 2 Is

General information

Air is leaking from a valve. Disconnect pipe(s) from outlet port(s) 2 Is air leaking
Air is leaking from a valve.
Disconnect pipe(s) from
outlet port(s) 2
Is air leaking from the pipe ?
Yes
No
The component connected
to the pipe is leaking. Trace
the pipe back
Renew the valve

Note: The valve may need to be operational. Operate park/footbrake

14

General information Basic air brake fault finding logic The chart above shows the basic logic

General information

Basic air brake fault finding logic

The chart above shows the basic logic to be applied when air is leaking from a valve.

Charging circuit 17

Charging circuit

Charging circuit 2 a 24 3 23 1a 2b 1 14 Charging circuit - steel

Charging circuit

2a

Charging circuit 2 a 24 3 23 1a 2b 1 14 Charging circuit - steel suspension

24

Charging circuit 2 a 24 3 23 1a 2b 1 14 Charging circuit - steel suspension
Charging circuit 2 a 24 3 23 1a 2b 1 14 Charging circuit - steel suspension
Charging circuit 2 a 24 3 23 1a 2b 1 14 Charging circuit - steel suspension
Charging circuit 2 a 24 3 23 1a 2b 1 14 Charging circuit - steel suspension
Charging circuit 2 a 24 3 23 1a 2b 1 14 Charging circuit - steel suspension
Charging circuit 2 a 24 3 23 1a 2b 1 14 Charging circuit - steel suspension
Charging circuit 2 a 24 3 23 1a 2b 1 14 Charging circuit - steel suspension

3

23 1a

2b
2b

1

Charging circuit 2 a 24 3 23 1a 2b 1 14 Charging circuit - steel suspension
14
14

Charging circuit - steel suspension

18

Charging circuit Circuit The components in this circuit are: with steel suspension 1 Compressor 1a

Charging circuit

Circuit

The components in this circuit are:

with steel

suspension

1 Compressor 1a safety valve 2a Air dryer

2b Regeneration tank - not with AIRDRY-E, version 2 trucks

14

Wet tank - if fitted

23

Test point

24

Multi-circuit protection valve

Charging circuit 2 a 23 1a 24 14 3 A 52a 2b B 52b 1

Charging circuit

2a

Charging circuit 2 a 23 1a 24 14 3 A 52a 2b B 52b 1 Charging
Charging circuit 2 a 23 1a 24 14 3 A 52a 2b B 52b 1 Charging

23 1a

24

14 3 A 52a 2b B 52b
14
3
A 52a
2b
B 52b

1

Charging circuit 2 a 23 1a 24 14 3 A 52a 2b B 52b 1 Charging

Charging circuit - air suspension (Pre 98)

20

Charging circuit Circuit with air suspension The main components in this circuit are: 1 Compressor

Charging circuit

Circuit with air suspension

The main components in this circuit are:

1 Compressor 1a safety valve 2a Air dryer

2b Regeneration tank - not with AIRDRY-E, version 2

trucks

14

Wet tank - if fitted

23

Test point

24

Multi-circuit protection valve

52a Pressure limiting valve 52b Pressure limiting valve

A To suspension system

B To suspension tank

Charging circuit 1COMP530 2COMP1080 22

Charging circuit

Charging circuit 1COMP530 2COMP1080 22

1COMP530

Charging circuit 1COMP530 2COMP1080 22

2COMP1080

22

Charging circuit Compressor The compressor is driven by the engine timing gears. Two types of

Charging circuit

Compressor

The compressor is driven by the engine timing gears.

Two types of compressor are used from late 2001 onwards:

- twin cylinder 2COMP1080 is used on all trucks with air suspension.

- single cylinder 1COMP530 is used with steel suspension, where air consumption is lower.

Power

reduction (PR)

The PR function relieves pumping pressure from the compressor, and thereby reduces the amount of power taken from the engine.

Charging circuit PR function - twin cylinder When air pressure from the air dryer over-comes

Charging circuit

PR function - twin cylinder

When air pressure from the air dryer over-comes valve spring force, the sliding inlet and exhaust valves open. The open valves allow air to re-circulate from one cylinder to the other, only a very small amount of air is delivered to the air dryer. This small air flow is used to minimise oil pass-over from the compressor, and to cool and clean the air dryer exhaust.

PR function - single cylinder

The PR function for a single cylinder compressor is similar to that for the twin cylinder, but the air passes into a dead volume in the cylinder head.

Charging circuit Compressor Air inlet - the compressor must be able to draw in a

Charging circuit

Compressor

Air inlet - the compressor must be able to draw in a

checks

sufficient amount of air to work efficiently. Always ensure that the air inlet is unobstructed.

Delivery pressure - to check delivery pressure, fit a test gauge to the test point on the delivery pipe. Remember - the pressure will drop to zero when the compressor is unloaded.

Charging time - (truck with rear air suspension), as a guide, with an engine speed of approx. 3000 rev/min, and an empty system, it takes approx. 3 minutes to reach max. pressure.

Charging circuit Compressor checks - cont. Air leaks - to isolate an air leak, always

Charging circuit

Compressor checks - cont.

Air leaks - to isolate an air leak, always disconnect the trailer air connections.

Before assuming that the compressor is a at fault, always check for:

- air inlet obstruction.

- leaks in pipes/ connections/other components.

- correct governor valve operation.

If the compressor has a PR function, disconnect the signal pipe from the compressor cylinder head, and check if the governor valve is signalling too early.

Whilst the pipe is disconnected, check the mechanical operation of the PR valve by pressing against the piston to ensure that it moves smoothly and returns fully.

Charging circuit 1 2 3 28

Charging circuit

Charging circuit 1 2 3 28

1

2

Charging circuit 1 2 3 28

3

Charging circuit Air dryers Air dryers are used to dry, clean and cool air from

Charging circuit

Air dryers

Air dryers are used to dry, clean and cool air from the compressor. They have a renewable cartridge filled with water absorbing granules - ʻdesiccantʼ. The cartridge usually has an oil separator which helps to remove oil passed over from the compressor. Oil contamination reduces the effectiveness of the desiccant.

Four types of air dryer are in use - three single tower and one twin tower. All dryers - except AIRDRY-E - use a regeneration tank.

Single tower

1 Wabco

2 Haldex

3 Knorr

These dryers have integral pressure regulating (governor)

Charging circuit 30

Charging circuit

Charging circuit 30

30

Charging circuit Twin tower This is Wabco dryer, which has a remote mounted governor valve.

Charging circuit

Twin tower

This is Wabco dryer, which has a remote mounted governor valve.

Dryer faults

The most common symptom of a faulty air dryer is slow air build up due to partial blockage of the cartridge.

A

completely blocked cartridge will allow no air flow, and

will cause the safety valve in the compressor delivery pipe

to

blow-off.

Leaks -

Single tower dryers should not have any air leaks from the

single tower

exhaust port when the compressor is charging.

After the dryer unloads, it can take up to 30 sec. for the regeneration tank to discharge through the dryer exhaust.

If discharge takes too long, a fault in the non-return valve is indicated.

Charging circuit Leaks - twin tower With this dryer, one tower is regenerating whilst the

Charging circuit

Leaks - twin tower

With this dryer, one tower is regenerating whilst the other is charging. The regenerating tower will leak a small amount of air when the other is charging. This small leakage is not a fault.

If you are in doubt about how much air is leaking, it can be checked using tool 999 8050.

Charging circuit C 0 2 J B 2 1 A 4 4 A G F

Charging circuit

Charging circuit C 0 2 J B 2 1 A 4 4 A G F H

C

0 2 J B 2 1 A 4 4 A G F H M I
0
2
J
B
2
1 A
4
4
A
G
F
H
M
I
E
1587 / 1939
L
D
+ 15
K
Charging circuit AIRDRY - E This is an electronically controlled dryer fitted to version 2

Charging circuit

AIRDRY - E

This is an electronically controlled dryer fitted to version 2 trucks. This dryer uses the wet tank for regeneration.

It is controlled by the vehicle ECU (VECU), and can be

tested and calibrated using VCADS Pro. Note: Calibration must be carried out whenever the dryer cartridge or compressor is renewed.

A - Compressor

function

G - Unloader & PR

B - Cooling coil

J - Non-return valve

C - Air dryer

K - Data bus

D - Vehicle ECU

L - Ignition feed

E - Wet tank

M - Heating element

Charging circuit AIRDRY - E - cont. When the air dryer has reached operating pressure,

Charging circuit

AIRDRY - E - cont.

When the air dryer has reached operating pressure, solenoid (G) is energised allowing air to pass to the compressor to activate the ʻpower reductionʼ function.

For regeneration, solenoid (F) is energised by the VECU, allowing some of the wet tank air to go back through the air dryer desiccant.

Air leaks

If air is leaking from the air dryer exhaust, disconnect all electrical plugs.

Air leakage should stop. If it does not stop, the air dryer is faulty.

Charging circuit 1 Supply from wet tank 2 Output signal to air dryer port 4.

Charging circuit

1 Supply from

wet tank

2 Output signal to air dryer port 4.

3 Exhaust

Charging circuit 1 Supply from wet tank 2 Output signal to air dryer port 4. 3

P3

P2

P1

Charging circuit 1 Supply from wet tank 2 Output signal to air dryer port 4. 3
Charging circuit Governor valve The valve shown is a remote mounted type used with the

Charging circuit

Governor

valve

The valve shown is a remote mounted type used with the Wabco twin tower air dryer. A common location is at the side of the battery box.

Cut out

pressure

Cut in

pressure

The governor valve controls the compressor output. When system pressure reaches that set by the governor valve, port 2 is opened, and system pressure - entering the valve via port 1 - is fed back to the air dryer and compressor. This cut out pressure opens the compressor inlet valves, and air compression stops.

When system pressure falls below the valve setting - cut in pressure - port 2 is closed so system pressure is no longer fed from the valve. The compressor valves now close and air compression starts again.

Charging circuit Governor valve faults A faulty governor valve will cause one of two symptoms:

Charging circuit

Governor

valve faults

A faulty governor valve will cause one of two symptoms:

- system pressure too low.

- system pressure too high, which will cause the safety valve to blow.

Use IMPACT to find the correct pressures.

Checking cut

out pressure

Connect a pressure gauge to the wet tank, and release some of the pressure. Start the engine, and build up pressure until the compressor is unloaded, and the gauge reading is no longer rising - this is cut out pressure.

Charging circuit Checking cut in pressure Release pressure from the wet tank a little at

Charging circuit

Checking cut

in pressure

Release pressure from the wet tank a little at a time. The pressure reading will fall, and then start to rise - this is cut in pressure, which should be approx. 1 bar to 1.5 bar lower than cut out pressure.

Adjusting the

pressure

Note: Only cut out pressure can be adjusted. If cut out pressure is correct, but cut in pressure is not, the valve must be renewed.

Remote

mounted

valve

Integral valve

To raise the cut out pressure, turn the adjusting screw outwards - anti-clockwise.

To raise the cut out pressure, turn the adjusting screw inwards - clockwise.

Charging circuit 42

Charging circuit

Charging circuit 42

42

Charging circuit Pressure The pressure limiting valve, fitted before the 4 circuit limiting valve protection

Charging circuit

Pressure

The pressure limiting valve, fitted before the 4 circuit

limiting valve

protection valve, limits the maximum pressure allowed into the brake circuits. It is fitted mainly to trucks with air suspension. With an empty system, the valve is fully open, and closes when the set pressure at port (2) is reached.

Pre ʻ98 types

Pre ʻ98 valve types - identifiable by the long bolt in one end - are adjustable. The valve allows a wet tank pressure of 12 bar, and limits pressure in the brake circuits to approx. 7.5 bar.

Port numbers;

1 - Supply from wet tank

2 - Delivery to port 1 of MCPV.

Charging circuit P1 P2 44

Charging circuit

P1 P2
P1
P2

44

Charging circuit Truck version 2 valves Valves fitted to truck version 2 are not adjustable.

Charging circuit

Truck version

2 valves

Valves fitted to truck version 2 are not adjustable. The valve reduces the pressure to the footbrake valve and MCPV - ports (11) and (12).

Port numbers;

1 - Supply from service tank

2 - Delivery to footbrake valve and MCPV.

Use IMPACT to find the correct pressure.

Checking the

pressure

Connect a pressure gauge to the front or rear brake tank, and release pressure down to approx. 5 bar. Start the engine, build up pressure, and note the maximum pressure in the tank.

Charging circuit 46

Charging circuit

Charging circuit 46

46

Charging circuit Multi circuit protection valve - MCPV The MCPV - or 4 circuit protection

Charging circuit

Multi circuit protection valve - MCPV

The MCPV - or 4 circuit protection valve - separates the 4 main circuits to ensure that a leak in one circuit does not affect any other circuit. The MCPV also ensures that the air tanks charge in the correct sequence.

port valves are fitted with steel suspension (low pressure system).

5

port valves are fitted with air suspension (FM/FH) from ʻ98. See ʻHigh pressure systemʼ.

7

Port numbers

1

Supply in from wet tank.

- pre ʻ98

21 Delivery out to rear service tank.

22 Delivery out to front service tank.

23 Delivery out to park tank.

24 Delivery out to auxiliary manifold (Note: no tank)

Charging circuit Port numbers 1 Supply in from wet tank. - post ʻ98: 21 Delivery

Charging circuit

Port numbers

1 Supply in from wet tank.

- post ʻ98:

21 Delivery out to front service tank.

22 Delivery out to rear service tank.

23 Delivery out to park tank.

24 Delivery out to auxiliary manifold (Note: no tank)

Valve versions - 5 port

There have been four versions of the 5 port valve, the design of which affects the charging sequence or drain back features.

Charging circuit Version 1 Tank charging sequence: One of the service circuits > park >

Charging circuit

Version 1

Tank charging sequence:

One of the service circuits > park > auxiliary > the other service circuit. This meant that the truck could be driven with only one service circuit completely filled.

EU legislation then demanded that vehicles be capable of stopping within a defined distance as soon as the vehicle could be driven - i.e. when the park brake was released - so version 2 was introduced.

Version 2

This valve has by-pass channels in the front and rear service circuits, which allow the charging sequence:

Both service circuits, at the same time > park > auxiliary.

Charging circuit It was then noted that, a truck parked overnight could leak air from

Charging circuit

It was then noted that, a truck parked overnight could leak air from one of the service circuits which, again, meant that the truck could be driven with only one service circuit completely filled - so version 3 was introduced.

Version 3

This valve has a choke valve fitted in port 22 - rear service circuit. If this circuit leaked down to 2.9 to 3.4 bar, the choke valve allowed the park tank to leak to atmosphere via a vent on top of the valve between the four ports. Note: This leak - whenever rear service pressure is less then choke valve activation pressure - is normal, and IS NOT a fault.

Charging circuit However, many technicians thought this leak was a fault, and renewed the valve

Charging circuit

However, many technicians thought this leak was a fault, and renewed the valve - so version 4 was introduced.

Version 4

This valve still has the choke valve fitted but, instead of leaking to atmosphere, the park tank drains into the rear service tank.

This valve is in current use - all version 2 trucks have this valve fitted

Has the valve got by-pass channels ?

To check if an MCPV has by-pass channels:

Connect test gauges to the wet tank and front and rear service tanks. Completely drain the air system and start the engine If both service tanks charge at the same time, the valve has by-pass channels.

51

Charging circuit Has the valve got a choke drain valve ? To check if an

Charging circuit

Has the valve got a choke drain valve ?

To check if an MCPV has a choke drain valve:

Connect test gauges to the rear service tank and park tank. Release pressure in the rear service tank down to approx. 3 bar.

Valve version 3

If park tank air now leaks from the exhaust port - in the centre of the MCPV four elements - a choke valve is fitted.

Valve version 4

If park tank air now drains into the rear service tank - a choke valve is fitted.

Note: This is a normal function of the valve - the valve is NOT faulty.

Charging circuit MCPV without choke drain valve Note : When draining either service tank, the

Charging circuit

MCPV without

choke drain

valve

Note: When draining either service tank, the park tank must not drain at all. If it does, the non-return valve is faulty, and the complete 4 circuit protection valve must be renewed.

MCPV common

faults

Input blocked - no build-up of brake systems.

One element stuck closed - no build-up of one brake system.

Air leak - valve faulty (But! remember the choke valve operation)

Charging circuit P1 P2 Note porting differences in this area 54

Charging circuit

P1 P2
P1
P2
Charging circuit P1 P2 Note porting differences in this area 54

Note porting

differences in

this area

54

Charging circuit Overflow valve This valve is fitted only to trucks with air suspension. It

Charging circuit

Overflow valve

This valve is fitted only to trucks with air suspension. It is normally located on a crossmember under the 5th. wheel.

Two types - Type 52a

Opening pressure - to system

Ports

This valve is always fitted to trucks with air suspension, and has no return flow. The valve ensures that the braking system reaches a pre- determined pressure before it opens and allows air to enter the suspension system.

Version 1 trucks - 6.7 to 7.0 bar. Version 2 trucks - 7.0 to 7.3 bar.

Port 1 - supply from wet tank. Port 2 Delivery to air suspension system

Charging circuit 56

Charging circuit

Charging circuit 56

56

Charging circuit Easy check - type 52a valve Completely drain the air system, including the

Charging circuit

Easy check - type 52a valve

Completely drain the air system, including the air suspension system, so that the chassis is sitting on the suspension bump stops.

Connect test gauges to the wet tank and the test point on the delivery from 52a.

Start the engine, and watch the gauges.

When pressure in the wet tank reaches the opening pressure of 52a, the gauge on 52a delivery should start to rise. The air bags should start to fill, raising the chassis.

Charging circuit 17 P1 P2 Note porting differences in this area 58

Charging circuit

17 P1 P2
17
P1
P2

Note porting

differences in

this area

58

Charging circuit Type 52b This valve is fitted to trucks with an air suspension tank,

Charging circuit

Type 52b

This valve is fitted to trucks with an air suspension tank, downstream from 52a, and has a return flow path. The valve ensures that the air bellows are filled before the air tanks, so that the truck reaches normal ride height as soon as possible.

Opening pressure - to tank

Version 1 trucks - 10.0 to 10.4 bar. Version 2 trucks - 10.0 to 10.3 bar.

Ports

Return flow

Port 1 - supply from 52a. Port 2 - delivery to air suspension tank.

The valve has full return flow, so that air can pass from outlet (2) through non-return valve (17) to inlet (1) if pressure is lower in this connection - i.e. if the driver operates the control to raise the suspension.

59

Charging circuit 1 2 3 60

Charging circuit

Charging circuit 1 2 3 60

1

Charging circuit 1 2 3 60

2

Charging circuit 1 2 3 60

3

Charging circuit Three versions There are three versions of the valve. Version 1 Version 2

Charging circuit

Three versions

There are three versions of the valve.

Version 1

Version 2

Version 3

Version 1 is fitted to FL10 and pre ʻ98 FH.

Version 2 is fitted to FM/FH version 1 trucks.

Version 3 is fitted to FM/FH version 2 trucks.

Rear circuit 63

Rear circuit

Rear circuit 37 12 24 33 4 4 30 33 10 S P 2 56

Rear circuit

37 12 24 33 4 4 30 33 10 S P 2 56
37
12
24
33
4
4
30
33
10
S
P
2
56

64

Rear circuit Main The main components in the rear brake circuit are: components 10 Foot

Rear circuit

Main

The main components in the rear brake circuit are:

components

10

Foot brake valve

12

Rear service tank

30

Anti-compound valve

? Load sensing valve

33 Spring brake chambers

?? ABS valves

?? Trailer brake control valve

56 Air bags

Rear circuit P12 P22 P11 P21 P 66

Rear circuit

P12 P22 P11 P21 P
P12
P22
P11
P21
P

66

Rear circuit Footbrake valve
Rear circuit
Footbrake valve

Primary circuit

Ports - non EBS

The footbrake valve is divided into two separate circuits - primary and secondary.

The primary circuit is always nearest to the brake pedal, and - except with EBS and early FL6 - the primary circuit is always the rear circuit.

Port 11 - supply from rear tank Port 12 - supply from front tank Port 21 - delivery to load sensing valve port 4, anti- compound valve, and trailer brake control valve. Port 22 - delivery to front circuit quick release valve Port 3 - Exhaust

P = Pedal end

Rear circuit P12 P22 P11 P21 P 68

Rear circuit

P12 P22 P11 P21 P
P12
P22
P11
P21
P

68

Rear circuit Ports - EBS Air leaks - non EBS Port 11 - supply from

Rear circuit

Ports - EBS

Air leaks - non EBS

Port 11 - supply from front tank Port 12 - supply from rear tank Port 21 - delivery to front modulators Port 22 - delivery to rear modulator Port 3 - Exhaust

P = Pedal end

Air leaks from the valve exhaust port (3):

If the leak stops when the park brake is applied, the

footbrake valve is OK.

If the leak does not stop when the park brake is applied, the footbrake valve is faulty and should be renewed.

Rear circuit Air leaks from the valve exhaust port (3) only when the park brake

Rear circuit

Air leaks from the valve exhaust port (3) only when the park brake is OFF:

Port 21 pipe

Disconnect the pipes from ports 21 and 22. If air is escaping from the port 21 pipe, the most likely causes are:

- faulty anti-compound valve. Confirm by disconnecting the pipe from the service port

- faulty trailer brake control valve. Confirm by disconnecting the pipe from port 41.

Rear circuit Port 22 pipe If air is escaping from the port 22 pipe, the

Rear circuit

Port 22 pipe

If air is escaping from the port 22 pipe, the most likely causes are:

- faulty trailer brake control valve. Confirm by disconnecting the pipe from port 42.

- faulty front spring brake chamber. Confirm by

disconnecting the pipe from port 11 on each chamber.

Rear circuit L P2 P1 P2 P4 72

Rear circuit

L
L

P2

P1

P2

P4

72

Rear circuit Load sensing
Rear circuit
Load sensing

valve

Valve with steel suspension

The load sensing valve adjusts the air pressure to the rear brake chambers in proportion to the load on the vehicle.

The illustration above shows the type of valve used with steel suspension. This valve has an integral relay valve. Note: Some very early trucks - e.g. FL6 - have separate load sensing valve and relay valve.

Output pressure is determined by spring deflection, which is mechanically communicated to the valve via a rod and lever (L).

Ports

Testing

Port 1 - supply from rear brake tank Port 2 - delivery to rear brake chambers Port 3 - exhaust Port 4 - signal from footbrake primary circuit - port 21

Connect test gauge to :

- rear brake chamber

- primary circuit signal - port 4

73

Rear circuit P out +/- 0.4 bar Input pressure - from footbrake - 7 bar
Rear circuit
P out
+/- 0.4 bar
Input pressure - from
footbrake - 7 bar
Lever deflection - mm
1
8
80
7
70
6
60
f
5
50
4
40
f
3
30
L = 80 mm
+/- 2 mm
2
20
1
10
00
0 0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
Bogie load - ton
Rear circuit Load sensing valve graph - steel suspension The operating length (L) of valve

Rear circuit

Load sensing valve graph - steel suspension

The operating length (L) of valve operating lever (1) must be accurately set to 80 mm +/- 2 mm.

On the graph above, ʻfʼ represents deflection of lever (1).

ʻfʼ can be used to work out how much load has been added to the truck:

Measure lever deflection before and after adding load.

Example

If deflection changes by 20 mm, approx. 12 tonne has been added.

Note: This calculation is accurate only when springs are new.

Rear circuit P4 P3 P42 P41 P1 P2 76

Rear circuit

P4 P3 P42 P41
P4
P3
P42
P41

P1

P2

76

Rear circuit Valve with air suspension
Rear circuit
Valve with air
suspension

The illustration above shows the type of valve used with air suspension. This valve has an integral relay valve.

Output pressure is determined by the pressure in the rear air bags, which is sensed at ports (41) and (42).

Ports

Testing

Port 1 - supply from rear brake tank Port 2 - delivery to rear brake chambers Port 3 - exhaust Port 4 - signal pressure from footbrake primary circuit - port 21 Port 41 - load signal from air bags Port 42 - load signal from air bags

Connect test gauge to :

- rear brake chamber

- primary circuit signal - port 4

- air bag signal - ports 41 and 42

Rear circuit P out +/- 0.4 bar Input pressure 7 bar bar 8 4 x

Rear circuit

P out +/- 0.4 bar Input pressure 7 bar bar 8 4 x 2 truck
P out
+/- 0.4 bar
Input pressure 7 bar
bar
8
4 x 2 truck
7
6
P Out
5
4
P Air bag
3
2
1
0 0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
Bogie load - ton
Rear circuit Load sensing valve graph - air suspension - 4 x 2
Rear circuit
Load sensing
valve graph - air
suspension -
4 x 2

In the example above, air pressure in the rear air bags has been measured at approx. 2 bar.

Find 2 bar on the LH scale.

Follow the horizontal line until it intersects the ʻP Air bagʼ graph line.

Move vertical up to the ʻP Outʼ graph line.

Move left to the LH scale and read the value. This is the pressure required in the rear brake chambers.

Note: That output pressure is governed around a constant input pressure of approx. 7 bar.

Rear circuit 80

Rear circuit

Rear circuit 80

80

Rear circuit Valve with air suspension and drive and pusher axles The illustration above shows

Rear circuit

Valve with air suspension and drive and pusher axles

The illustration above shows the type of load sensing valve used with air suspension, on a truck with drive and pusher axles. This valve has an integral relay valve.

Output pressure is determined by the pressure in the rear air bags, which is sensed at ports (41) and (42).

Ports

Port 1 - supply from rear brake tank Port 2 - delivery to rear brake chambers Port 3 - exhaust Port 4 - signal from footbrake primary circuit - port 21 Port 41 - load signal Port 42 - load signal

Rear circuit Pneumatic load sensing valve - bar +/- 0.4 8 7 6 P Brake
Rear circuit
Pneumatic load sensing valve - bar +/- 0.4
8
7
6
P Brake
5
Pusher/tag axle
Input brake
pressure is
4
P
Air
bag
3
2
output from
drive axle ʻP
brakeʼ
1
bar
0
7
6
P Brake
5
Drive axle
Input brake
pressure - 7 bar
4
P Air bag
3
2
1
0 0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20 22
Bogie load - ton
82
Rear circuit In the example above, air pressure in the drive axle air bags has

Rear circuit

In the example above, air pressure in the drive axle air bags has been measured at approx. 1.5 bar.

Find 1.5 bar on the LH scale.

Follow the horizontal line until it intersects the drive axle ʻP Air bagʼ graph line.

Move vertical up to cut all three graph lines.

At each point where a graph line is cut, move left to the LH scale and read the value.

Rear circuit 1 3 2 Drive P11 P12 4 Park 84

Rear circuit

1 3 2 Drive P11 P12 4 Park
1
3
2
Drive
P11
P12
4
Park

84

Rear circuit Spring brake
Rear circuit
Spring brake

chamber -

operation

Drive

Park

The spring brake chamber is two chambers back to back - one for footbrake operation and one for park brake operation.

At ʻdriveʼ position, air is fed to the spring brake chamber (1) via port (12). Spring (2) is compressed, and no force is applied to the brakes.

At parkʼ position, air is released from spring brake chamber (1), via the exhaust port on the park brake control valve.

Spring (2) exerts a force on piston (3), and the brakes are applied via push rod (4).

Rear circuit 5 5 5 Service P11 P12
Rear circuit
5
5
5
Service
P11
P12

Mechanical release

86

Rear circuit S e r v i c e Mechanical release No brakes ! -chock

Rear circuit

Service

Mechanical

release

No brakes ! -chock wheels

When the footbrake is applied, air enters service chamber (5) via port (11). Air pressure acts on diaphragm (6) and the brakes are applied via push rod (4).

The parking brakes can be released without air pressure. Mechanical release may be needed during repairs or vehicle recovery.

DANGER Chock wheels before brake release. If there is no air in the system and the brakes are mechanically released, there will be no brakes at all.

If there is air in the system and the brakes are mechanically released, there will be no parking brake.

To release the brakes, turn bolt (7) fully anti-clockwise.

CAUTION Do not use air/power tools on the bolt.

87

Rear circuit 1 2 3 Air leak Common air leak points are: points 1 Push-rod

Rear circuit

1 2 3
1
2
3

Air leak

Common air leak points are:

points

1 Push-rod seal.

2 Diaphragm - via the ʻtell-taleʼ hole.

3 Spring brake piston seal.

Rear circuit Leak check - service brakes Renew diaphragm With the footbrake applied, check for

Rear circuit

Leak check

- service

brakes

Renew

diaphragm

With the footbrake applied, check for leaks at the tell tale hole, and push-rod. Leaks from these points indicates a ruptured service diaphragm, which can be renewed as a separate part.

Fully unscrew the release bolt.

Note: On new type chambers, with captive nut, 45 turns will fully release the bolt.

Remove the clamp bolt and clamp, and renew the diaphragm.

No park

brake !

DANGER Bolt must be screwed fully back in after repairs. If this is not done, there will be no park brake.

Note: On new type chambers, with captive nut, turn bolt 45 turns until it stops, and the red plunger is fully down.

89

Rear circuit Leak check - park brakes
Rear circuit
Leak check
- park brakes
1
1

Seal (1) around the park brake piston normally prevents air transfer from the park brake chamber to the service brake chamber. If this seal leaks, air will leak from the load sensing valve/ relay valve, or a brake modulator, when the park brake is released.

Front circuit 91

Front circuit

Front circuit 11 12 24 14 33 10 P12 P22 S 33 P P11 P21

Front circuit

11 12 24 14 33 10 P12 P22 S 33 P P11 P21
11
12
24
14
33
10
P12
P22
S
33
P
P11
P21

7

Front circuit 11 12 24 14 33 10 P12 P22 S 33 P P11 P21 7

7

8

92

33

Front circuit 11 12 24 14 33 10 P12 P22 S 33 P P11 P21 7

2

Front circuit 11 12 24 14 33 10 P12 P22 S 33 P P11 P21 7

33

Front circuit Main components - circuit with steel suspension The main components of the front

Front circuit

Main components - circuit with steel suspension

The main components of the front brake circuit are:

10 - footbrake valve - front circuit section

?? - quick release valve (or relay valve if pilot valve fitted) ??- pilot valve (if front air suspension fitted)

33 - brake chamber

11- front circuit air tank ??- pressure limiting valve

Front circuit 12 22 11 21 P 94

Front circuit

12 22 11 21 P
12
22
11
21
P

94

Front circuit Footbrake valve
Front circuit
Footbrake valve

Primary circuit

The footbrake valve is divided into two separate circuits - primary and secondary.

The primary circuit is always nearest to the brake pedal, and - except with EBS and early FL6 - the primary circuit is always the rear circuit.

P = Pedal end

For more information about the footbrake valve, see ʻ Rear Circuitʼ.

Front circuit P4 P1 2 P4 P3 96

Front circuit

P4

P1 2 P4 P3
P1
2
P4
P3
Front circuit Quick release
Front circuit
Quick release

valve

The quick release (QRV) valve is located close to the brake chambers. This location provides a short path for exhaust air from the chambers, so the brakes rapidly release.

A QRV may be fitted in the front brake circuit, park brake circuit or both circuits.

QRV - front circuit

When the footbrake is applied, air pressure entering at port (1) pushes down diaphragm (2) to close off exhaust port

(3).

Air passes to the brake chambers via ports (4).

When the brake is released, air is exhausted at the footbrake valve, and pressure at port (1) is removed. Diaphragm (2) is pushed up by exhaust air pressure entering via ports (4). Valve exhaust port (3) is opened and air is rapidly released from the brake chambers.

Front circuit P1 P4 P4 P3 Park brake applied Park brake released 98

Front circuit

P1 P4 P4 P3
P1
P4
P4
P3

Park brake applied

Park brake released

Front circuit QRV - park circuit When the park brake is released, air pressure entering

Front circuit

QRV - park circuit

When the park brake is released, air pressure entering at port (1) pushes down diaphragm (2) to close off exhaust port (3). Air passes to the brake chambers via ports (4), compressing the coil spring to release the brakes.

When the park brake is applied, air is exhausted at the park brake valve, and pressure at port (1) is removed. Diaphragm (2) is pushed up by exhaust air pressure entering via ports (4). Valve exhaust port (3) is opened and air is rapidly released from the brake chambers, allowing the coil spring to apply the brakes.

Front circuit P4 P2 P2 P3 100
Front circuit
P4
P2
P2
P3
100
Front circuit R e l a y v a l v e Like the QRV,

Front circuit

Relay valve

Like the QRV, the relay valve is located close to the brake chambers for rapid brake application and release.

A

relay valve may be fitted in the front brake circuit, rear

brake circuit, park brake circuit or all circuits.

 

When front load sensing is fitted - long wheelbase 4 axle trucks -the QRV is replaced by a relay valve, controlled by

a

pilot valve.

Relay valve

Port 1 - supply from air tank - front, rear or park

101

ports

Port 2 - to brake chambers - service or park

Port 3 - exhaust Port 4 - signal - via anti-compound valve - from either footbrake valve port 21 or 22, or from park brake valve Port 21

Front circuit P4 P2 P2 P1 P3
Front circuit
P4
P2
P2
P1
P3

Brakes OFF

- supply (1) closed

- exhaust (3) open

Brakes applying

- supply (1) closed

- exhaust (3) closed

Relay valve function

Brakes applying

- supply (1) open

- exhaust (3) closed

102

Front circuit Brakes held Brakes released
Front circuit
Brakes held
Brakes released

- supply (1) closed

- exhaust (3) closed

- supply (1) closed

- exhaust (3) open

Front circuit Relay valve leaks Air leaks from the exhaust port when the footbrake is

Front circuit

Relay valve

leaks

Air leaks from the exhaust port when the footbrake is applied:

- the relay valve is faulty, and must be renewed.

Air leaks from the exhaust port when the footbrake is released:

- the most likely cause is a faulty brake chamber. Confirm this by disconnecting the pie from port (11) from each chamber.

Front circuit P2 P1 P4 P 106

Front circuit

P2

P1 P4 P
P1
P4
P

106

Front circuit Pilot valve Ports Long wheelbase rigid trucks with 4 axles have a tendency

Front circuit

Pilot valve

Ports

Long wheelbase rigid trucks with 4 axles have a tendency for front wheel brakes to lock when the truck is unladen or partially laden. To counteract this tendency, a pilot valve is fitted in conjunction with a relay valve. The pilot valve acts as a load sensing valve for the front

axles, and is controlled by a signal from the rear load

sensing valve.

Port 1 - supply from footbrake port (22) Port 2 - delivery to front relay valve port (4)

Port 4 - signal from rear load sensing valve port (2)

P - plugged

Note: If the rear load sensing valve is incorrectly set, the front brake pressures will be incorrect.

Front circuit 8 3 11 33 33 7 7 2 10 S 9 P 33
Front circuit
8
3
11
33
33
7
7 2
10
S
9
P
33
33
S
108
Front circuit Main components - circuit with front air suspension
Front circuit
Main
components -
circuit with front
air suspension

The main components of this circuit are:

10 Foot brake valve

11 Front service tank

?? Quick release valve, or relay valve ?? Pilot valve

33 Brake chambers

?? ABS valves ?? Trailer brake control valve ?? Rear load sensing valve

S Signal to pilot valve

Front circuit Input pressure P= 7 bar Pressure at front brake chambers - bar A

Front circuit

Input pressure P= 7 bar

Pressure at front brake chambers - bar

A copy of the graph is located either behind the grill, or on the driverʼs door

7 6 5 4 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
7
6
5
4
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Signal pressure from

rear load sensing valve - bar

grill, or on the driverʼs door 7 6 5 4 0 1 2 3 4 5

110

Front circuit Pilot valve graph Test points The pilot valve is not adjustable. If pressures

Front circuit

Pilot valve

graph

Test points

The pilot valve is not adjustable. If pressures do not correspond with the above graph, the valve must be renewed.

Test gauge positions:

- top of rear load sensing valve - port 4

- front brake chamber

- rear brake chamber, this pressure reading represents the

signal pressure to the pilot valve - i.e. the bottom scale of the graph.

Locate this pressure on the bottom scale, then move vertical to intersect the plot. Move left to the left hand scale - this is the pressure that should be in the front brake chambers. In the example shown, a signal pressure of approx. 3.5 bar should produce a front chamber pressure of approx. 5.75 bar.

Front circuit Pilot valve Air leak from pilot valve exhaust port when footbrake is faults

Front circuit

Pilot valve

Air leak from pilot valve exhaust port when footbrake is

faults

applied:

- pilot valve is faulty, renew valve.

Front brakes slow to release:

- check/clean exhaust silencers.

Front brakes slow to release - exhaust silencers OK:

- disconnect the pipe from port 2 and lightly press - then

release - the footbrake. Air flow should stop as soon as the footbrake is released.

Park circuit 113

Park circuit

Park circuit 13 33 24 31 14 17 33 30 2b 19 114

Park circuit

13 33 24 31 14 17 33 30 2b 19 114
13
33
24
31
14
17
33
30
2b
19
114
Park circuit Main components The main components in the park brake circuit are: 13 Park

Park circuit

Main

components

The main components in the park brake circuit are:

13

Park brake air tank

17

Blocking (Bromse) valve

19

Park brake control valve

30

Anti-compound valve (Shuttle valve) (2-way valve)

31

Park brake relay valve

33

Spring brake chambers

?? Rear load sensing valve ?? Trailer brake control valve

Park circuit P2 P1 P3 116

Park circuit

P2 P1 P3
P2
P1
P3

116

Park circuit Park brake control valve - FL & Bus This park brake valve is

Park circuit

Park brake control valve - FL & Bus

This park brake valve is fitted to FL6 rigid trucks, and buses.

Ports

Port 1 - supply Port 2 - delivery Port 3 - exhaust

The valve has 2 operating positions - ON and OFF. There is no secondary, or ʻprogressiveʼ function.

Park circuit 118

Park circuit

Park circuit 118

118

Park circuit Park brake control valve
Park circuit
Park brake
control valve

FM/FH

Ports

This park brake valve is fitted to FM and FH trucks.

Port 11 - supply from park brake tank, via non-return valve and blocking valve Port 21 - delivery to signal park brake relay valve Port 22 - delivery to signal trailer brake control valve

The valve has 3 operating positions - ON, SECONDARY and OFF. In ON position, no air is delivered from port 21, but air is delivered from port 22 to ensure that the trailer control valve remains closed - so no air is supplied to the yellow line. In the full secondary position, no air is delivered from either port 21 or port 22.

In OFF position, air is delivered from ports 21 and 22.

Park circuit P2 P P1 120

Park circuit

P2 P P1
P2
P
P1

120

Park circuit B l o c k i n g v a l v e

Park circuit

Blocking valve

The blocking valve is a safety device which ensures that the driver has to press the valve button in to supply air to the park brake circuit to release the brakes. The button cannot be pushed in until pressure in the service tanks is normal.

When pressure in the park tank or wet tank falls to approx. 5 bar, an internal spring pushes the blocking valve piston out.

Ports

Port 1 - supply from park brake tank Port 2 - delivery to park brake control valve

P - Push button in

Park circuit 15 13 1a 2 3 122
Park circuit
15
13
1a
2
3
122
Park circuit Connections at park brake tank
Park circuit
Connections
at park brake
tank

Testing the

park brake

valve

1a Safety valve

13

Park brake tank

15

Non-return (one-way) valve

2 Trailer brake connection

3 Park brake connection

Disconnect the pipe from port 43 on the trailer control valve. When the park brake control is at ON position, and also when it is at OFF position, air should be present.

When the park brake control is at SECONDARY position, no air should be present.

Park circuit P3 P1 4 P3 P2 P2 P1 P3 P2 Ports shown as per

Park circuit

P3

P1 4 P3
P1
4 P3

P2

P2

P1 P3
P1
P3

P2

Ports shown as per valve orientation in park circuit diagram

124

Park circuit Anti- compound Ports This valve may also be referred to as - ʻ2-way

Park circuit

Anti-

compound

Ports

This valve may also be referred to as - ʻ2-way valveʼ ʻshuttle valveʼ

Port 1 - park brake circuit Port 2 - footbrake circuit Port 3 - signal pressure to park brake relay valve

The valve prevents ʻcompoundingʼ of park brake and footbrake pressures - i.e. both pressures being applied to the spring brake chambers at the same time. The valve has a free moving piston (4) which can close off either port (1) or port (2).

Operation

When the park brake is applied, air is exhausted from the park circuit, via the relay valve and park brake control valve, allowing the spring to apply the brakes. If the footbrake is now also applied, pressure at port (2) pushes the piston over to close off port (1).

Park circuit Operation - cont. Testing the valve Footbrake pressure is now also admitted to

Park circuit

Operation -

cont.

Testing the

valve

Footbrake pressure is now also admitted to the park brake chambers, reducing the force exerted by the spring.

Apply the park brake, and note the position of the brake operating levers. Watch the levers, and apply the footbrake. The levers should not move any further in the application direction.

Park circuit P22 P21 P41 P43 P42 P 128

Park circuit

Park circuit P22 P21 P41 P43 P42 P 128

P22

Park circuit P22 P21 P41 P43 P42 P 128

P21

Park circuit P22 P21 P41 P43 P42 P 128

P41

P43

P42

Park circuit Trailer brake control valve - early type This valve is used to control

Park circuit

Trailer brake control valve - early type

This valve is used to control trailer braking.

Ports

Port 41 - rear Port 43 - park (port 22) Port 42 - front Port 22 - red trailer line Port 21 - yellow trailer line

P - from park brake tank

Adjustment

Turn adjustment screw clockwise to increase pressure to trailer.

Park circuit 130

Park circuit

Park circuit 130

130

Park circuit Trailer brake control valve - version 2 trucks
Park circuit
Trailer brake
control valve -
version 2 trucks

Ports

Adjustment

Dump valve

This valve is used to control trailer braking.

Port 1 - supply from park brake tank Port 21 - delivery to red trailer line Port 22 - delivery to yellow trailer line Port 41 - signal from rear service brake - port 21 Port 42 - signal from front service brake - port 22 Port 43 - park brake signal from park brake control valve

Turn plastic adjustment screw anti-clockwise to increase pressure to trailer.

This trailer valve has an internal dump valve. If the yellow trailer line is fractured, the dump valve allows the red trailer line to be dumped via the yellow line.

Park circuit Testing the trailer brake control valve Test gauge positions: - Primary brake signal

Park circuit

Testing the trailer brake control valve

Test gauge positions:

- Primary brake signal at rear load sensing valve.

- Yellow trailer line.

Note: It is essential that the input pressure is reached whilst the foot brake is being APPLIED - not being RELEASED.

If the required input pressure is exceeded whilst the footbrake is being applied, the brake must be fully released, and applied again.

Park circuit P12 134

Park circuit

Park circuit P12 134
Park circuit P12 134

P12

134

Park circuit Spring brake
Park circuit
Spring brake

chamber

Remember !

1 Push-rod

2 Service diaphragm return spring

3 Service brake chamber - nearest to the push rod

4 Service brake diaphragm

5 Captive nut

6 Park brake chamber piston

7 Park brake application spring

8 Park brake chamber - furthest from the push rod

9 Park brake mechanical release bolt

Park brake ON = air OUT of park chamber = spring applies brake. Park brake OFF = air IN to park chamber = spring compressed.

Foot brake ON = air IN to service brake chamber = air applies brake. Footbrake OFF = NO air to service brake chamber.

Park circuit Brake chamber
Park circuit
Brake chamber

faults

With the system at full pressure, and the blocking valve pushed in, release the park brake.

Disconnect the pipe from the service brake chamber. There should not be any air escaping from the chamber.

Check for leaks around the wind off bolt - there should not be any escaping air.

For more information about operation of the spring brake chamber, see ʻRear Circuitʼ.

Auxiliary Circuit

Auxiliary circuit P24 24 138

Auxiliary circuit

P24 24
P24
24
Auxiliary circuit The auxiliary circuit includes - e.g. drivers seat, clutch, gearbox air system, air

Auxiliary circuit

The auxiliary circuit includes - e.g. drivers seat, clutch, gearbox air system, air horns.

The circuit is fed from port (24) of MCPV (1), via in-line air filter (??).

High Pressure System

High pressure system Thick lines = HIGH pressure Thin lines = low pressure 2b 11

High pressure system

Thick lines = HIGH pressure Thin lines = low pressure

2b
2b
11 P1 P21 P22 12 P11 P12 P23 P24 14 24 51 61 56 S
11
P1
P21
P22
12
P11
P12
P23
P24
14
24
51
61
56
S
10
P
= HIGH pressure Thin lines = low pressure 2b 11 P1 P21 P22 12 P11 P12

142

High pressure system Air suspension The ʻhigh pressureʼ referred to is the pressure in wet

High pressure system

Air

suspension

The ʻhigh pressureʼ referred to is the pressure in wet tank (14) and service brake tanks (11) and (12) and associated pipe work, shown by thick lines. The pressure in these circuits is 12 bar. The extra pressure means that - for a given volume - the tanks contain more air. The high pressure system has been introduced so that - on trucks with rear air suspension only - a separate air suspension tank is not required. This gives weight and cost savings. Note: On trucks with air suspension at front and rear, an air suspension tank is still required.

Pressure limiting

valves

Pressure limiting valves (51) and (61) reduce the pressure to 8.1 to 8.5 bar, so all circuits after these valves operate at this pressure. Note: This does not apply to trucks with EBS.

143

High pressure system High or low pressure On all pre ʻ98 trucks, the complete air

High pressure system

High or low pressure

On all pre ʻ98 trucks, the complete air system operated at low pressure.

On all post ʻ98 trucks, the circuits shown in the previous diagram operate at HIGH pressure - except - if the truck has steel suspension all round. In which case the complete air system operates at low pressure.

This means that - if fitted with air suspension - all FM and version 2 FH operate at HIGH pressure.

EBS 1 21 22 11 12 23 24 145

EBS

1 21 22 11 12 23 24
1
21
22
11
12
23
24

145

EBS 7 port MCPV The 7 port MCPV shown above is used with high pressure

EBS

7 port MCPV

The 7 port MCPV shown above is used with high pressure systems.

Port 1 - HP supply from wet tank (14) Port 11 - LP supply from pressure limiting valve (51) Port 12 - LP supply from pressure limiting valve (61) Port 21 - HP delivery to front service tank (11) Port 22 - HP delivery to rear service tank (12) Port 23 - LP delivery to park tank and trailer brake valve Port 24 - LP delivery to ?? (25)

Note: The 2 extra ports - (11) and (12).

EBS 7 port MCPV - cont. Version 1 In common with the 5 port valve,

EBS

7 port MCPV - cont.

Version 1

In common with the 5 port valve, used with low pressure systems, there have been a number of versions of this 7 port valve.

This is the original valve, with no choke drain.

Version 2

Version 3

This valve has a choke drain to atmosphere.

This valve has a choke drain to the rear service tank.

The function of the choke drain valve is the same as for the 5 port valve.

EBS11 51 new type S P P11 P21 10 51 early type 37 P21 1

11
11
51 new type S P P11 P21
51 new type
S
P
P11
P21
10
10
51 early type

51 early

type

37
37
P21 1 P22 24 P11 P12 P24 P23
P21
1 P22
24
P11
P12
P24
P23
EBS 11 51 new type S P P11 P21 10 51 early type 37 P21 1

13

25
25

148

EBS Pressure reduction - front and park circuit The illustration above shows how pressure is

EBS

Pressure reduction - front and park circuit

The illustration above shows how pressure is reduced. MCPV (24) is supplied with air at 12.0 bar via port (1). Air is delivered to front service tank (11) via port (21). From tank (11), air enters pressure limiting valve (51) via port (1).

Air at 7.5 bar is delivered from valve (51) via port (2), and is fed to MCPV port (11). Air is delivered from MCPV port (23) to park tank (13), and

to trailer control valve (37).

A tee off the MCPV supply line feeds the front brake circuit

supply of footbrake valve (10).

On non EBS systems, the feed is to port (12) - secondary circuit. On EBS systems, the feed is to port (11) - primary circuit. Note: New type pressure limiting valve is fitted

to version 2 trucks, and is not adjustable.

Electronic Braking system - EBS

EBS Thick lines = HIGH pressure Thin lines = low pressure 11 P1 P21 P22

EBS

Thick lines = HIGH pressure Thin lines = low pressure 11 P1 P21 P22 12
Thick lines = HIGH
pressure
Thin lines = low
pressure
11
P1
P21
P22
12
P11
P12
24
P23
14
2b
51
61
56
S
P
10
151

P1

P22 24 P24
P22
24
P24

P21

P11

P23

13

S P
S
P
P1 P22 24 P24 P21 P11 P23 13 S P 37 33 33 33 P12 37
P1 P22 24 P24 P21 P11 P23 13 S P 37 33 33 33 P12 37

37

33

33

33

P1 P22 24 P24 P21 P11 P23 13 S P 37 33 33 33 P12 37
P1 P22 24 P24 P21 P11 P23 13 S P 37 33 33 33 P12 37

P12

37

37

25

30
30

31

P1 P22 24 P24 P21 P11 P23 13 S P 37 33 33 33 P12 37

33

37

High pressure system - EBS

152

EBS Info/illust reqʼd 153

EBS

Info/illust reqʼd

EBS 154

EBS

Electronic Controlled Suspension - ECS

ECS 22 4 1/3 21 23 22 21 3 1 22 21 1 3 156

ECS

22

4
4

1/3

21

23

22

21

ECS 22 4 1/3 21 23 22 21 3 1 22 21 1 3 156

3

1

22

21

ECS 22 4 1/3 21 23 22 21 3 1 22 21 1 3 156

1

3

56 56 56 P23 P22 P22 P22 P1/3 56 P21 P21 Y25 Y29 P1 P1
56
56
56
P23
P22
P22
P22
P1/3
56
P21
P21
Y25
Y29
P1
P1
P4
P21
52a
14
56
56
56
ECS P22
ECS
P22

P23

P22

P21

P22

P21

P4
P4

P1/3

P21

ECS P22 P23 P22 P21 P22 P21 P4 P1/3 P21 P3 P1 P1 P3 158

P3

P1

ECS P22 P23 P22 P21 P22 P21 P4 P1/3 P21 P3 P1 P1 P3 158

P1

P3

E C S P o r t s Front axle solenoid 1/3 Supply air and

ECS Ports

Front axle solenoid

1/3 Supply air and drain to drive axle solenoid (port 23)

21 Delivery to LH front air bag

22 Delivery to RH front air bag

4 Supply from wet tank for solenoid valve control

Drive axle solenoid

1 Supply from overflow valve (52a)

21 Delivery to LH drive axle air bag

22 Delivery to RH drive axle air bag

23 Delivery to front axle solenoid valve - plugged if rear air

suspension only

Pusher axle solenoid

1 Supply from overflow valve (52a)

21 Delivery to pusher axle suspension air bags

22 Delivery to RH lift air bag

Z Cam Brakes 161

Z Cam Brakes

Z cam brakes 1 162
Z cam brakes
1
162
Z cam brakes E a r l i e r S c a m The

Z cam brakes

Earlier S cam

The forerunner to Z cam brakes was S cam.

Inefficient

Compared to the Z cam design, the S cam was not a very efficient brake.

Disadvantages

The main disadvantages are:

- as shown in the diagram above, shoe contact force is very

uneven, diminishing rapidly towards the anchor end. This is

largely because the shoes pivot on anchor pins (1), and so are not free to self-centre.

- the only time when contact forces are more even is when the lining is almost worn out.

- bedding in new linings takes a long time.

- there is a risk of the cam going over-centre when drum/ linings are worn.

163

Z cam brakes 5 3 1 2 1 3 5 4 164
Z cam brakes
5
3
1
2
1
3
5
4
164
Z cam brakes Z C a m Brake shoe movement is controlled by a ʻZ

Z cam brakes

Z Cam

Brake shoe movement is controlled by a ʻZ camʼ arrangement, which describes the Z shape formed by struts (1) resting in cam (2). Cam (2) is rotated by the brake lever, and struts (1) push out tappets (3) to force the brake linings into contact with the drum.

Even contact

area

Because they are free to move on the tappet heads and abutments, the brake shoes are self -centring. This arrangement ensures more even lining to drum contact, and provides much more efficient braking.

The shoes are retracted by spring (4), acting on pins (5), when air pressure is released.

Z cam brakes A B 166

Z cam brakes

A
A
Z cam brakes A B 166

B

166

Z cam brakes Automatic The Z cam expander assembly includes an automatic adjustment adjustment mechanism,

Z cam brakes

Automatic

The Z cam expander assembly includes an automatic

adjustment

adjustment mechanism, which compensates for brake lining wear.

When wear clearance needs to be taken up, operation of the brakes causes pinion (5) to rotate leading shoe tappet screw (6). Cross-shaft (7) relays this rotation to trailing shoe tappet screw (3). During the final part of brake release, the tappet screws unscrew from the tappet heads by a small amount, and the brake shoes are moved closer to the drum.

A - tappet with new linings

B - tappet with worn linings

Initial setting of the lining to drum clearance is achieved by pushing in, and turning adjuster stem (8).

Z cam brakes S 168

Z cam brakes

S
S
Z cam brakes B r a k e s t r o k e Correct

Z cam brakes

Brake stroke

Correct brake strokes (S) are very important, for correct operation of the brakes.

The correct stroke for any particular vehicle is determined by:

- brake chamber type and size

- lever length

- air pressure in the chamber

Because of these factors, the stroke is different from model to model.

Use IMPACT

Use IMPACT to find the correct stroke for the vehicle you are working on.

Z cam brakes A A 170
Z cam brakes
A
A
170
Z cam brakes Leading and Each wheel assembly has a leading - or ʻprimary (P)

Z cam brakes

Leading and

Each wheel assembly has a leading - or ʻprimary (P) -

trailing shoes

shoe, and a trailing - or ʻsecondary (S)ʼ - shoe.

The linings are offset on the shoes, leaving a gap between the end of the lining and the end of the shoe, facing the direction of rotation.

Arrows (A) on the end of the shoe indicate the correct direction of drum rotation.

Z cam brakes A B 172

Z cam brakes

A B
A
B

172

Z cam brakes S h o e l o c a t i o n

Z cam brakes

Shoe location

Because they are different, brake shoes must be correctly located.

The smooth radius (A) at one end of the shoe ALWAYS fits against the tappet.

The notched end (B) fits against the fixed abutment.

Wear will eventually cause a flat spot on the radiused end of the shoe. This can prevent free floating of the shoe, leading to brake judder and squeal. The maximum allowable flat spot length is 30 mm.

Z cam brakes 174

Z cam brakes

Z cam brakes 174
Z cam brakes 174
Z cam brakes Measuring lining The thickness of lining material can be measured through thickness

Z cam brakes

Measuring lining

The thickness of lining material can be measured through

thickness

the four inspection holes in the brake backplate.

If access is difficult, it may help to get an accurate measurement by winding off the brake using the manual adjuster. To wind off the brake, first push in the adjuster stem. Count the number of turns, and turn the stem in the same direction as forward drum rotation. Reset the brake shoe adjustment after measurement.

CAUTION To prevent dirt getting into the brake mechanism, refit the covers in the inspection holes.

Z cam brakes P P 999 8550 176

Z cam brakes

P

Z cam brakes P P 999 8550 176

P

Z cam brakes P P 999 8550 176

999 8550

Z cam brakes Shoe remove and refit CAUTION To avoid damage to the ABS pole

Z cam brakes

Shoe remove and refit

CAUTION To avoid damage to the ABS pole wheel, spring expansion tool 999 8550 must be used. Expanding the tool relieves spring pressure from return pins (P), allowing them to be withdrawn and refitted during shoe remove and refit.

CAUTION Do not apply the park brake or footbrake when the brake drum is not fitted. The expander mechanism may be damaged.

If the drum is to be left off for a long period, wind off the spring brake. This will prevent damage if there is loss of air which would normally cause the brake to come on.

Z cam brakes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 250 mm 178

Z cam brakes

1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Z cam brakes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 250 mm 178

250 mm

178

Z cam brakes Tappet components When relining 1 Tappet screw cover 2 3 Stop ring

Z cam brakes

Tappet

components

When relining

1 Tappet screw cover

2

3 Stop ring - prevents tappet from over-adjusting

4 Tappet head

Check condition of tappet screw cover, and tappet seal Renew any damaged component. If the adjuster is dismantled, ensure components are lubricated with the correct high temperature grease.

5 Tappet screw

6 Tappet seal

7 Strut

O-ring

Retraction spring

Because auto. adjustment takes place during the last part of shoe retraction, spring (1) must fully retract the shoes, so the spring must not be weakened or deformed in any way. The gap between the ends of the spring is a measure of the retraction capability of the spring. Max. gap is 250 mm. Note: If one spring needs to be renewed, the opposite spring must also be renewed.

179

Z cam brakes LH thread RH thread Note : The tappet which locates against the

Z cam brakes

LH thread RH thread
LH thread
RH thread

Note: The tappet which locates against the primary shoe always has a LH thread.

RH brake adjuster - GREEN spring - RH pinion gear
RH brake adjuster - GREEN spring
- RH pinion gear

LH brake adjuster - RED spring - LH pinion gear

Z cam brakes LH and RH components Components that differ between LH and RH brake

Z cam brakes

LH and RH components

Components that differ between LH and RH brake assemblies are:

- tappet screw threads

- adjuster pinion gear

- adjuster spring

Z cam brakes 4 Templates for the setting tool: 1 - hub reduction - 999
Z cam brakes
4
Templates for the setting
tool:
1
- hub reduction - 999 8522
3
- front wheel drive - 999 8525
- front axle with basic hub
2 assembly, and axle with unit
hubs - 999 8528
999 8386
182
Z cam brakes Initial setting of brake shoes When new linings/shoes are fitted, initial setting

Z cam brakes

Initial setting of brake shoes

When new linings/shoes are fitted, initial setting of the shoes must be done using tool 999 8386.

The tool has 2 main parts :

1 - shoe setting tool

2 - calibration tool with dial gauge (4).

CAUTION Position of screw (3) is calibrated and locked in a position to represent a standard diameter brake drum. The position of this bolt must NEVER be altered.

Set tappet

Note: Before fitting the shoes, screw both tappet heads

heads

fully in, then unscrew one turn.

Z cam brakes 2 1 3 184

Z cam brakes

2 1
2
1
3
3
Z cam brakes Setting procedure 1 Fit 999 8386 in a vice, and ensure that

Z cam brakes

Setting

procedure

1 Fit 999 8386 in a vice, and ensure that sleeve (1) is securely tightened.

2 With the dial indicator wheel in contact with calibration screw (2), set the indicator to zero.

3 Ensuring that the dial indicator setting is not altered, remove the setting tool from the calibration tool.

Set trailing

shoe first

4 Attach the setting tool to the hub, and turn the hub until

indicator wheel (3) is in line with the second row of rivets at the abutment end of the trailing shoe.

5 Tap the shoe sideways until the indicator is at zero.

Z cam brakes 4 5 186
Z cam brakes
4
5
186
Z cam brakes 6 Turn the hub until the indicator wheel is in line with

Z cam brakes

6 Turn the hub until the indicator wheel is in line with the second row of rivets at the expander end of the trailing shoe.

7 If the indicator is not at zero, turn the manual adjuster until the indicator is at zero.

8 Re-check the abutment end reading. Continue tapping

the shoe and turning the adjuster until the indicator is at zero at both ends of the shoe.

Set leading

shoe

9 Repeat the setting procedure on the leading shoe,

starting at the abutment end, then moving to the adjuster end.

If the indicator is not at zero at the adjuster end, remove cam housing cover (4) and cross-shaft (5).

Z cam brakes Set leading shoe - cont. Note : If the cross-shaft is not

Z cam brakes

Set leading shoe - cont.

Note: If the cross-shaft is not removed, any adjustment of the leading shoe will alter the setting of the trailing shoe.

Continue tapping the shoe and turning the adjuster until the indicator is at zero at both ends of the leading shoe.

10 Refit the cross-shaft - ensure correct tooth mesh - and cam housing cover.

Disc Brake

Disc brake Info/illust reqʼd 190

Disc brake

Info/illust reqʼd

192
192

192