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Nickelcadmium battery

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Nickelcadmium battery

From top to bottom: "Gumstick", AA, and AAA Ni


Cd batteries
Specific energy 4060 Wh/kg
Energy density 50150 Wh/L
Specific power 150 W/kg
Charge/discharge efficiency 7090%[1]
Self-discharge rate 10%/month
Cycle durability 2,000 cycles
Nominal cell voltage 1.2 V

The nickelcadmium battery (NiCd battery or NiCad battery) is a type of rechargeable


battery using nickel oxide hydroxide and metallic cadmium as electrodes. The abbreviation NiCd
is derived from the chemical symbols of nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd): the abbreviation NiCad
is a registered trademark of SAFT Corporation, although this brand name is commonly used to
describe all NiCd batteries.

Wet-cell nickel-cadmium batteries were invented in 1899. Among rechargeable battery


technologies, NiCd rapidly lost market share in the 1990s, to NiMH and Li-ion batteries; market
share dropped by 80%.[citation needed] A NiCd battery has a terminal voltage during discharge of
around 1.2 volts which decreases little until nearly the end of discharge. NiCd batteries are made
in a wide range of sizes and capacities, from portable sealed types interchangeable with carbon-
zinc dry cells, to large ventilated cells used for standby power and motive power. Compared with
other types of rechargeable cells they offer good cycle life and performance at low temperatures
with a fair capacity but their significant advantage is the ability to deliver practically their full
rated capacity at high discharge rates (discharging in one hour or less). However, the materials
are more costly than that of the lead acid battery, and the cells have high self-discharge rates.

Sealed NiCd cells were at one time widely used in portable power tools, photography equipment,
flashlights, emergency lighting, hobby R/C, and portable electronic devices. The superior
capacity of the Nickel-metal hydride batteries, and more recently their lower cost, has largely
supplanted their use. Further, the environmental impact of the disposal of the toxic metal
cadmium has contributed considerably to the reduction in their use. Within the European Union,
NiCd batteries can now only be supplied for replacement purposes or for certain types of new
equipment such as medical devices.[2]

Larger ventilated wet cell NiCd batteries are used in emergency lighting, standby power, and
uninterruptible power supplies and other applications.

Contents
1 History

o 1.1 Recent developments

2 Characteristics

o 2.1 Voltage

o 2.2 Charging

o 2.3 Overcharging

3 Electrochemistry

4 Vented cell batteries

5 Applications

6 Popularity

7 Availability

8 Comparison with other batteries

9 Memory effect

10 Environmental impact

11 See also

12 Notes

13 References
14 External links

History
The first NiCd battery was created by Waldemar Jungner of Sweden in 1899. At that time, the
only direct competitor was the leadacid battery, which was less physically and chemically
robust. With minor improvements to the first prototypes, energy density rapidly increased to
about half of that of primary batteries, and significantly greater than leadacid batteries. Jungner
experimented with substituting iron for the cadmium in varying quantities, but found the iron
formulations to be wanting. Jungner's work was largely unknown in the United States. Thomas
Edison patented a nickel or cobaltcadmium battery in 1902,[3] and adapted the battery design
when he introduced the nickeliron battery to the US two years after Jungner had built one. In
1906, Jungner established a factory close to Oskarshamn, Sweden to produce flooded design Ni
Cd batteries.

In 1932 active materials were deposited inside a porous nickel-plated electrode and fifteen years
later began on a sealed nickel-cadmium battery.

The first production in the United States began in 1946. Up to this point, the batteries were
"pocket type," constructed of nickel-plated steel pockets containing nickel and cadmium active
materials. Around the middle of the twentieth century, sintered-plate NiCd batteries became
increasingly popular. Fusing nickel powder at a temperature well below its melting point using
high pressures creates sintered plates. The plates thus formed are highly porous, about 80 percent
by volume. Positive and negative plates are produced by soaking the nickel plates in nickel- and
cadmium-active materials, respectively. Sintered plates are usually much thinner than the pocket
type, resulting in greater surface area per volume and higher currents. In general, the greater
amount of reactive material surface area in a battery, the lower its internal resistance.

Recent developments

Today, all consumer NiCd batteries use the "swiss roll" or "jelly-roll" configuration. This design
incorporates several layers of positive and negative material rolled into a cylindrical shape. This
design reduces internal resistance as there is a greater amount of electrode in contact with the
active material in each cell.

Characteristics
The maximum discharge rate for a NiCd battery varies by size. For a common AA-size cell, the
maximum discharge rate is approximately 1.8 amperes; for a D size battery the discharge rate
can be as high as 3.5 amperes.[citation needed]

Model-aircraft or -boat builders often take much larger currents of up to a hundred amps or so
from specially constructed NiCd batteries, which are used to drive main motors. 56 minutes of
model operation is easily achievable from quite small batteries, so a reasonably high power-to-
weight figure is achieved, comparable to internal combustion motors, though of lesser duration.
In this, however, they have been largely superseded by lithium polymer (Lipo) and lithium iron
phosphate (LiFe) batteries, which can provide even higher energy densities.

Voltage

NiCd cells have a nominal cell potential of 1.2 volts (V). This is lower than the 1.5 V of
alkaline and zinccarbon primary cells, and consequently they are not appropriate as a
replacement in all applications. However, the 1.5 V of a primary alkaline cell refers to its initial,
rather than average, voltage. Unlike alkaline and zinccarbon primary cells, a NiCd cell's
terminal voltage only changes a little as it discharges. Because many electronic devices are
designed to work with primary cells that may discharge to as low as 0.90 to 1.0 V per cell, the
relatively steady 1.2 V of a NiCd cell is enough to allow operation. Some would consider the
near-constant voltage a drawback as it makes it difficult to detect when the battery charge is low.

NiCd batteries used to replace 9 V batteries usually only have six cells, for a terminal voltage of
7.2 volts. While most pocket radios will operate satisfactorily at this voltage, some
manufacturers such as Varta made 8.4 volt batteries with seven cells for more critical
applications.

Charging

NiCd batteries can be charged at several different rates, depending on how the cell was
manufactured. The charge rate is measured based on the percentage of the amp-hour capacity the
battery is fed as a steady current over the duration of the charge. Regardless of the charge speed,
more energy must be supplied to the battery than its actual capacity, to account for energy loss
during charging, with faster charges being more efficient. For example, an "overnight" charge,
might consist of supplying a current equals to one tenth the amperehour rating (C/10) for 1416
hours; that is, a 100 mAh battery takes 10 mA for 14 hours, for a total of 140 mAh to charge at
this rate. At the rapid-charge rate, done at 100% of the rated capacity of the battery in 1 hour
(1C), the battery holds roughly 80% of the charge, so a 100 mAh battery takes 120 mAh to
charge (that is, approximately 1 hour and fifteen minutes). Some specialized batteries can be
charged in as little as 1015 minutes at a 4C or 6C charge rate, but this is very uncommon. It also
greatly increases the risk of the cells overheating and venting due to an internal overpressure
condition: the cell's rate of temperature rise is governed by its internal resistance and the square
of the charging rate. At a 4C rate, the amount of heat generated in the cell is sixteen times higher
than the heat at the 1C rate. The downside to faster charging is the higher risk of overcharging,
which can damage the battery.[4] and the increased temperatures the cell has to endure (which
potentially shortens its life).

The safe temperature range when in use is between 20 C and 45 C. During charging, the
battery temperature typically stays low, around the same as the ambient temperature (the
charging reaction absorbs heat), but as the battery nears full charge the temperature will rise to
4550 C. Some battery chargers detect this temperature increase to cut off charging and prevent
over-charging.
When not under load or charge, a NiCd battery will self-discharge approximately 10% per
month at 20 C, ranging up to 20% per month at higher temperatures. It is possible to perform a
trickle charge at current levels just high enough to offset this discharge rate; to keep a battery
fully charged. However, if the battery is going to be stored unused for a long period of time, it
should be discharged down to at most 40% of capacity (some manufacturers recommend fully
discharging and even short-circuiting once fully discharged[citation needed]), and stored in a cool, dry
environment.

Overcharging

Sealed NiCd cells consist of a pressure vessel that is supposed to contain any generation of
oxygen and hydrogen gases until they can recombine back to water. Such generation typically
occurs during rapid charge and discharge and exceedingly at overcharge condition. If the
pressure exceeds the limit of the safety valve, water in the form of gas is lost. Since the vessel is
designed to contain an exact amount of electrolyte this loss will rapidly affect the capacity of the
cell and its ability to receive and deliver current. To detect all conditions of overcharge demands
great sophistication from the charging circuit and a cheap charger will eventually damage even
the best quality cells.[5]

Electrochemistry
A fully charged NiCd cell contains:

a nickel(III) oxide-hydroxide positive electrode plate

a cadmium negative electrode plate

a separator, and

an alkaline electrolyte (potassium hydroxide).

NiCd batteries usually have a metal case with a sealing plate equipped with a self-sealing safety
valve. The positive and negative electrode plates, isolated from each other by the separator, are
rolled in a spiral shape inside the case. This is known as the jelly-roll design and allows a NiCd
cell to deliver a much higher maximum current than an equivalent size alkaline cell. Alkaline
cells have a bobbin construction where the cell casing is filled with electrolyte and contains a
graphite rod which acts as the positive electrode. As a relatively small area of the electrode is in
contact with the electrolyte (as opposed to the jelly-roll design), the internal resistance for an
equivalent sized alkaline cell is higher which limits the maximum current that can be delivered.

The chemical reactions at the cadmium electrode during discharge are:

The reactions at the nickel oxide electrode are:

The net reaction during discharge is


During recharge, the reactions go from right to left. The alkaline electrolyte (commonly KOH) is
not consumed in this reaction and therefore its specific gravity, unlike in leadacid batteries, is
not a guide to its state of charge.

When Jungner built the first NiCd batteries, he used nickel oxide in the positive electrode, and
iron and cadmium materials in the negative. It was not until later that pure cadmium metal and
nickel hydroxide were used. Until about 1960, the chemical reaction was not completely
understood. There were several speculations as to the reaction products. The debate was finally
resolved by infrared spectroscopy, which revealed cadmium hydroxide and nickel hydroxide.

Another historically important variation on the basic NiCd cell is the addition of lithium
hydroxide to the potassium hydroxide electrolyte. This was believed[by whom?] to prolong the
service life by making the cell more resistant to electrical abuse. The NiCd battery in its modern
form is extremely resistant to electrical abuse anyway, so this practice has been discontinued.

Vented cell batteries

View of a vented cell aircraft battery from the side

Structure of a cell in a vented cell battery


Vented cell (wet cell, flooded cell) NiCd batteries are used when large capacities and high
discharge rates are required. Traditional NiCd batteries are of the sealed type, which means that
charge gas is normally recombined and they release no gas unless severely overcharged or a fault
develops. Unlike typical NiCd cells, which are sealed, vented cells have a vent or low pressure
release valve that releases any generated oxygen and hydrogen gases when overcharged or
discharged rapidly. Since the battery is not a pressure vessel, it is safer, weighs less, and has a
simpler and more economical structure. This also means the battery is not normally damaged by
excessive rates of overcharge, discharge or even negative charge.

They are used in aviation, rail and mass transit, backup power for telecoms, engine starting for
backup turbines etc. Using vented cell NiCd batteries results in reduction in size, weight and
maintenance requirements over other types of batteries. Vented cell NiCd batteries have long
lives (up to 20 years or more, depending on type) and operate at extreme temperatures (from 40
to 70 C).

A steel battery box contains the cells connected in series to gain the desired voltage (1.2 V per
cell nominal). Cells are usually made of a light and durable polyamide (nylon), with multiple
nickel-cadmium plates welded together for each electrode inside. A separator or liner made of
silicone rubber acts as an insulator and a gas barrier between the electrodes. Cells are flooded
with an electrolyte of 30% aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide (KOH). The specific gravity
of the electrolyte does not indicate if the battery is discharged or fully charged but changes
mainly with evaporation of water. The top of the cell contains a space for excess electrolyte and a
pressure release vent. Large nickel-plated copper studs and thick interconnecting links assure
minimum effective series resistance for the battery.

The venting of gases means that the battery is either being discharged at a high rate or recharged
at a higher than nominal rate. This also means the electrolyte lost during venting must be
periodically replaced through routine maintenance. Depending on the chargedischarge cycles
and type of battery this can mean a maintenance period of anything from a few months to a year.

Vented cell voltage rises rapidly at the end of charge allowing for very simple charger circuitry to
be used. Typically a battery is constant current charged at 1 CA rate until all the cells have
reached at least 1.55 V. Another charge cycle follows at 0.1 CA rate, again until all cells have
reached 1.55 V. The charge is finished with an equalizing or top-up charge, typically for not less
than 4 hours at 0.1 CA rate. The purpose of the over-charge is to expel as much (if not all) of the
gases collected on the electrodes, hydrogen on the negative and oxygen on the positive, and
some of these gases recombine to form water which in turn will raise the electrolyte level to its
highest level after which it is safe to adjust the electrolyte levels. During the over-charge or top-
up charge, the cell voltages will go beyond 1.6 V and then slowly start to drop. No cell should
rise above 1.71 V (dry cell) or drop below 1.55 V (gas barrier broken).[citation needed]

In an aircraft installation with a floating battery electrical system the regulator voltage is set to
charge the battery at constant potential charge (typically 14 or 28 V). If this voltage is set too
high it will result in rapid electrolyte loss. A failed charge regulator may allow the charge voltage
to rise well above this value, causing a massive overcharge with boiling over of the electrolyte.
[citation needed]
Applications

Eight NiCd batteries in a battery pack

Sealed NiCd cells may be used individually, or assembled into battery packs containing two or
more cells. Small cells are used for portable electronics and toys (such as solar garden lights),
often using cells manufactured in the same sizes as primary cells. When NiCd batteries are
substituted for primary cells, the lower terminal voltage and smaller ampere-hour capacity may
reduce performance as compared to primary cells. Miniature button cells are sometimes used in
photographic equipment, hand-held lamps (flashlight or torch), computer-memory standby, toys,
and novelties.

Specialty NiCd batteries are used in cordless and wireless telephones, emergency lighting, and
other applications. With a relatively low internal resistance, they can supply high surge currents.
This makes them a favourable choice for remote-controlled electric model airplanes, boats, and
cars, as well as cordless power tools and camera flash units.

Larger flooded cells are used for aircraft starting batteries, electric vehicles, and standby power.

Popularity
Advances in battery-manufacturing technologies throughout the second half of the twentieth
century have made batteries increasingly cheaper to produce. Battery-powered devices in general
have increased in popularity. As of 2000, about 1.5 billion NiCd batteries were produced
annually.[6] Up until the mid-1990s, NiCd batteries had an overwhelming majority of the market
share for rechargeable batteries in home electronics.
At one point, NiCd batteries accounted for 8% of all portable secondary (rechargeable) battery
sales in the EU, and in the UK for 9.2% (disposal) and in Switzerland for 1.3% of all portable
battery sales.[7][8][9]

Now, in the EU and under the Battery Directive, sales of NiCd batteries to consumers for
portable use has been greatly restricted.

Availability
NiCd cells are available in the same sizes as alkaline batteries, from AAA through D, as well as
several multi-cell sizes, including the equivalent of a 9 volt battery. A fully charged single NiCd
cell, under no load, carries a potential difference of between 1.25 and 1.35 volts, which stays
relatively constant as the battery is discharged. Since an alkaline battery near fully discharged
may see its voltage drop to as low as 0.9 volts, NiCd cells and alkaline cells are typically
interchangeable for most applications.

In addition to single cells, batteries exist that contain up to 300 cells (nominally 360 volts, actual
voltage under no load between 380 and 420 volts). This many cells are mostly used in
automotive and heavy-duty industrial applications. For portable applications, the number of cells
is normally below 18 cells (24 V). Industrial-sized flooded batteries are available with capacities
ranging from 12.5 Ah up to several hundred Ah.

Comparison with other batteries


Recently, nickelmetal hydride and lithium-ion batteries have become commercially available
and cheaper, the former type now rivaling NiCd batteries in cost. Where energy density is
important, NiCd batteries are now at a disadvantage compared with nickelmetal hydride and
lithium-ion batteries. However, the NiCd battery is still very useful in applications requiring
very high discharge rates because it can endure such discharge with no damage or loss of
capacity.

When compared to other forms of rechargeable battery, the NiCd battery has a number of
distinct advantages:

The batteries are more difficult to damage than other batteries, tolerating deep discharge
for long periods. In fact, NiCd batteries in long-term storage are typically stored fully
discharged. This is in contrast, for example, to lithium ion batteries, which are less stable
and will be permanently damaged if discharged below a minimum voltage.

The battery performs very well under rough conditions, perfect for use in the portable
tools.

NiCd batteries typically last longer, in terms of number of charge/discharge cycles, than
other rechargeable batteries such as lead/acid batteries.
Compared to leadacid batteries, NiCd batteries have a much higher energy density. A
NiCd battery is smaller and lighter than a comparable leadacid battery, but not a
comparable NiMH or Li-ion battery. In cases where size and weight are important
considerations (for example, aircraft), NiCd batteries are preferred over the cheaper
leadacid batteries.

In consumer applications, NiCd batteries compete directly with alkaline batteries. A Ni


Cd cell has a lower capacity than that of an equivalent alkaline cell, and costs more.
However, since the alkaline battery's chemical reaction is not reversible, a reusable Ni
Cd battery has a significantly longer total lifetime. There have been attempts to create
rechargeable alkaline batteries, or specialized battery chargers for charging single-use
alkaline batteries, but none that has seen wide usage.

The terminal voltage of a NiCd battery declines more slowly as it is discharged,


compared with carbonzinc batteries. Since an alkaline battery's voltage drops
significantly as the charge drops, most consumer applications are well equipped to deal
with the slightly lower NiCd cell voltage with no noticeable loss of performance.

The capacity of a NiCd battery is not significantly affected by very high discharge
currents. Even with discharge rates as high as 50C, a NiCd battery will provide very
nearly its rated capacity. By contrast, a lead acid battery will only provide approximately
half its rated capacity when discharged at a relatively modest 1.5C.

The maximum continuous current drain of NiCd battery is commonly around 15C.
Compared to NiMH battery where usable maximum continuous current drain is not more
than 5C.

Nickelmetal hydride (NiMH) batteries are the newest, and most similar, competitor to
NiCd batteries. Compared to NiCd batteries, NiMH batteries have a higher capacity
and are less toxic, and are now more cost effective. However, a NiCd battery has a
lower self-discharge rate (for example, 20% per month for a NiCd battery, versus 30%
per month for a traditional NiMH under identical conditions), although low self-discharge
("LSD") NiMH batteries are now available, which have substantially lower self-discharge
than either NiCd or traditional NiMH batteries. This results in a preference for NiCd
over non-LSD NiMH batteries in applications where the current draw on the battery is
lower than the battery's own self-discharge rate (for example, television remote controls).
In both types of cell, the self-discharge rate is highest for a full charge state and drops off
somewhat for lower charge states. Finally, a similarly sized NiCd battery has a slightly
lower internal resistance, and thus can achieve a higher maximum discharge rate (which
can be important for applications such as power tools).

The primary trade-off with NiCd batteries is their higher cost and the use of cadmium. This
heavy metal is an environmental hazard, and is highly toxic to all higher forms of life. They are
also more costly than leadacid batteries because nickel and cadmium cost more. One of the
biggest disadvantages is that the battery exhibits a very marked negative temperature coefficient.
This means that as the cell temperature rises, the internal resistance falls. This can pose
considerable charging problems, particularly with the relatively simple charging systems
employed for leadacid type batteries. Whilst leadacid batteries can be charged by simply
connecting a dynamo to them, with a simple electromagnetic cut-out system for when the
dynamo is stationary or an over-current occurs, the NiCd battery under a similar charging
scheme would exhibit thermal runaway, where the charging current would continue to rise until
the over-current cut-out operated or the battery destroyed itself. This is the principal factor that
prevents its use as engine-starting batteries. Today with alternator-based charging systems with
solid-state regulators, the construction of a suitable charging system would be relatively simple,
but the car manufacturers are reluctant to abandon tried-and-tested technology.[citation needed]

Memory effect
NiCd batteries may suffer from a "memory effect" if they are discharged and recharged to the
same state of charge hundreds of times. The apparent symptom is that the battery "remembers"
the point in its charge cycle where recharging began and during subsequent use suffers a sudden
drop in voltage at that point, as if the battery had been discharged. The capacity of the battery is
not actually reduced substantially. Some electronics designed to be powered by NiCd batteries
are able to withstand this reduced voltage long enough for the voltage to return to normal.
However, if the device is unable to operate through this period of decreased voltage, it will be
unable to get enough energy out of the battery, and for all practical purposes, the battery appears
"dead" earlier than normal.

There is evidence that the memory effect story originated from orbiting satellites, where they
were typically charging for twelve hours out of 24 for several years.[10] After this time, it was
found that the capacities of the batteries had declined significantly, but were still fit for use. It is
unlikely that this precise repetitive charging (for example, 1,000 charges/discharges with less
than 2% variability) could ever be reproduced by individuals using electrical goods. The original
paper describing the memory effect was written by GE scientists at their Battery Business
Department in Gainesville, Florida, and later retracted by them, but the damage was done. It is
unlikely to be a real phenomenon, but has taken on a life of its own as an urban myth.[citation needed]

The battery survives thousands of charges/discharges cycles. Also it is possible to lower the
memory effect by discharging the battery completely about once a month.[citation needed] This way
apparently the battery does not "remember" the point in its charge cycle.

An effect with similar symptoms to the memory effect is the so-called voltage depression or lazy
battery effect. This results from repeated overcharging; the symptom is that the battery appears to
be fully charged but discharges quickly after only a brief period of operation. In rare cases, much
of the lost capacity can be recovered by a few deep-discharge cycles, a function often provided
by automatic battery chargers. However, this process may reduce the shelf life of the battery.
[citation needed]
If treated well, a NiCd battery can last for 1,000 cycles or more before its capacity
drops below half its original capacity. Many home chargers claim to be "smart chargers" which
will shut down and not damage the battery, but this seems to be a common problem.[citation needed]

Environmental impact
NiCd batteries contain between 6% (for industrial batteries) and 18% (for commercial batteries)
cadmium, which is a toxic heavy metal and therefore requires special care during battery
disposal. In the United States, part of the battery price is a fee for its proper disposal at the end of
its service lifetime. Under the so-called "batteries directive" (2006/66/EC), the sale of consumer
NiCd batteries has now been banned within the European Union except for medical use; alarm
systems; emergency lighting; and portable power tools. This last category has been banned
effective 2016.[11] Under the same EU directive, used industrial NiCd batteries must be collected
by their producers in order to be recycled in dedicated facilities.

Cadmium, being a heavy metal, can cause substantial pollution when discarded in a landfill or
incinerated. Because of this, many countries now operate recycling programs to capture and
reprocess old batteries.

See also
Battery holder

Battery recycling

Comparison of battery types

List of battery sizes

List of battery types

Power-to-weight ratio

Notes
1.

Valen, Lars Ole and Shoesmith, Mark I. (2007). The effect of PHEV and HEV duty cycles
on battery and battery pack performance (PDF). 2007 Plug-in Highway Electric Vehicle
Conference: Proceedings. Retrieved 11 June 2010.
"Batteries - Environment - European Commission". ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 18 October
2014.
US Patent 0692507
NiCad Battery Charging Basics
GP Nickel Cadmium Technical Handbook
"Solucorp Unveils Pollution Preventing, Self-Remediating Ni-Cd Battery to International
Markets". Business Wire. 2006-10-19. Retrieved 2008-08-01.
Battery Waste Management, DEFRA, 2006
INOBAT statistics, 2008
EPBA statistics, 2000
Goodman, Marty (1997-10-13). "Lead-Acid or NiCd Batteries?". Articles about Bicycle
Commuting and Lighting. Harris Cyclery. Retrieved 2009-02-18.

1. "MEPs Ban Cadmium from Power Tool Batteries and Mercury from Button
Cells." European Parliament.

References
Bergstrom, Sven. "NickelCadmium Batteries Pocket Type". Journal of the
Electrochemical Society, September 1952. 1952 The Electrochemical Society.

Ellis, G. B., Mandel, H., and Linden, D. "Sintered Plate NickelCadmium Batteries".
Journal of the Electrochemical Society, The Electrochemical Society, September 1952.

General Electric, "NickelCadmium Battery Application Engineering Handbook", 1971

Marathon Battery Company, "Care and Maintenance of NickelCadmium Batteries"

SAFT, "NiCd Aircraft Batteries, Operating and Maintenance Manual (OMM)", 2002

External links
"Nickel-Cadmium Battery Lasts as Long as the Car." Popular Science, August 1948,
pp. 113118.

NiCd Aircraft Batteries, Operating and Maintenance Manual (PDF)

MarathonNorco Aerospace Ni-Cd Aircraft Batteries, Operating and Maintenance Manual


(PDF)

[hide]

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Baterai Nikel Kadmium

Baterai Nikel - Kadmium digunakan sebagai baterai dalam berbagai peralatan luar
angkasa sejak tahun 1970-an. Misalnya pada satelit dan beberapa peralatan luar
angkasa. Umumnya peralatan tersebut didesain sedemikian rupa sehingga dapat
menghemat pemakaian ruangan dalam pesawat.

Baterai ini menggunakan nikel oksida sebagai elektode positif (katode), senyawa
cadmium sebagai electrode negative (anode), dan larutan KOH sebagai elektrolit.
Baterai nikel cadmium ini dapat diisi ulang dan bertahan 10-20 tahun di luar angkasa.
Saat sedang digunakan, baterai tersebut mengubah energy kimia menjadi energy listrik
dan sebaliknya, mengubah energy listrik menjadi energy kimia saat sedang diisi.

Nickel Cadmium, alias NiCad, merupakan batere isi ulang pertama dan yang paling
murah sehingga banyak dipakai di mainan anak-anak dan berbagai gadget. Pengisian
ulang dayanya relatif cepat, tetapi memiliki efek memori. Jika dayanya belum habis saat
Anda melakukan isi ulang akan terbentuk kristal-kristal besar yang membatasi daya
yang disediakan di kali berikutnya. Selain itu kendati tidak dipakai, batere akan
kehabisan seluruh dayanya setelah sekitar 90 hari.

Baterai nikel-kadmium merupakan baterai kering yang dapat diisi ulang. Sel ini
biasanya disebut nicad atau bateray nickel-cadmium. Reaksi yang terjadi pada
baterai nikel-kadmium adalah:

Cd(s) + 2OH-(aq) Cd(OH)2(s) + 2e- (anoda)

NiO2(s) + 2H2O + 2e- Ni(OH)2(s) + 2OH-(aq) (katoda)

Reaksi keseluruhan adalah:

Cd(s) + NiO(aq) + 2H2O(l) Cd(OH)2(s) + Ni(OH)2(s)

Baterai nikel-kadmium merupakan zat padat yang melekat pada kedua elektrodenya.
Baterai nikel-kadmium memiliki tegangan sekitar 1,4V. Dengan membalik arah aliran
elektron, zat-zat tersebut dapat diubah kembali seperti zat semula.

NiCad / NiCd (Nickel Cadium)

Baterai Nickel Cadmium (NiCad) yang diproduksi pertama kali tahun 1946, merupakan
baterai yang dibuat dari campuran Nikel dan Cadmium. Keunggulannya adalah ringan,
lebih awet, charging efisien, dan hambatan internal yang kecil sehingga tegangannya
stabil. Tegangan baterai NiCad adalah 1,2 Volt, dengan kecepatan penurunan energi
10% per bulan. Dalam penggunaan sehari-hari, baterai NiCad ini bisa diadu dengan
baterai alkalin. Kekurangan baterai NiCad adalah biaya pembuatannya mahal,
kapasitas berkurang jika tidak baterai dikosongkan (memory effect), dan tidak ramah
lingkungan (beracun).

Baterai Nikel-Kadmium

Baterai Nikel-Kadmium
Baterai Nikel Kadmium (NiCd) pertama kali ditemukan di Swedia, oleh Waldmar
Jungner pada tahun 1899. Namun baru diproduksi secara masal pada tahun 1960an. Baterai jenis
ini memiliki tegangan sel sebesar 1,2 Volt dengan kerapatan energi dua kali lipat dari baterai
asam timbal. Baterai NiCd termasuk golongan baterai yang dapat diisi ulang (rechargeable
battery).
Baterai NiCd menggunakan nikel untuk elektroda positif dan kadmium untuk negative.
Baterai nikel kadmium memiliki nilai hambatan intenal yang kecil dan memungkinkan untuk di
charge dan discharge dengan rate yang tinggi. Umumnya baterai jenis ini memiliki waktu siklus
hingga lebih dari 500 siklus. Salah satu kekurangan baterai jenis nikel kadmium adalah adanya
efek ingatan (memory effect) yang berarti bahwa baterai dapat mengingat jumlah energi yang
dilepaskan pada saat discharge sebelumnya.
Efek ingatan disebabkan oleh perubahan yang terjadi pada struktur kristal elektrode
ketika baterai nikel kadmium diisi muatan listrik kembali sebelum seluruh energi listrik yang
terdapat pada baterai nikel kadmiun dikeluarkan/digunakan. Selain itu, baterai nikel kadmium
juga sangat sensitif terhadap kelebihan pengisian, sehingga perlu perhatian khusus pada saat
pengisian muatan listrik pada baterai. Dengan kata lain, pengisian ulang harus dilakukan pada
saat daya baterai benar-benar habis. Karena baterai NiCD memiliki memory effect, semakin lama
kapasitasnya akan menurun jika pengisian belum benar-benar kosong.
Cadmium memiliki energi potensial reduksi standar (Eored) sebesar -0.40 V, sedangkan
E red Nikel sebesar -0.25 V (Daftar Eored beberapa zat terlampir). Oleh karena Eored Nikel lebih
o

besar (lebih mendekati positif, yang berarti kecenderungan mengalami reduksi lebih besar),
maka dalam sistem baterai NiCd, yang menggunakan Nikel dan Cadmium sebagai elektroda,
elektroda Nikel akan mengalami reduksi (di sebut sebagai katoda), sedangkan elektroda
Cadmium mengalami oksidasi (disebut sebagai anoda), selama reaksi spontan yang
menghasilkan listrik (discharge). Selanjutnya, elektroda Nikel akan disebut sebagai elektroda
positif, sementara elektroda Cadmium disebut sebagai elektroda negatif. Reaksi kimia yang
berlangsung di dalam baterai NiCd melibatkan air dan zat elektrolit KOH, serta bersifat dapat
balik (reversible). Oleh karena itu, baterai dapat diisi ulang ataurechargeable, dengan
membalik reaksi yang semula mengubah energi kimia menjadi energi listrik, kepada reaksi
balikan yakni, mengubah energi listrik menjadi energi kimia. Pada reaksi balikan, elektroda yang
semula mengalami reduksi akan mengalami oksidasi, begitupun sebaliknya untuk elektroda yang
semua mengalami oksidasi akan mengalami reduksi. Sehingga, katoda dan anoda berubah pada
reaksi kebalikan.
Selama penggunaan baterai sebagai sumber energi listrik bagi berbagai alat elektronik, baterai
NiCd melakukan reaksi kimia. Adapun prinsip Elektrokimia yang bekerja adalah bahwa pada
baterai terjadi reaksi oksidasi dan reduksi yang menyebabkan pergerakan elektron, sehingga
dihasilkan arus listrik. Berikut ini adalah reaksi kimia yang terjadi selama penggunaan baterai
(discharge) :
Positif (reduksi) : 2NiOOH + 2H2O + 2e- --> 2Ni(OH)2 + 2OH-
Negatif (oksidasi) : Cd + 2OH- --> Cd(OH)2 + 2e-
reaksi net ion : 2NiOOH + 2H2O + Cd --> 2Ni(OH)2 + Cd(OH)2

Salah satu karakteristik baterai NiCd adalah bahwa zat elektrolit tidak berperan secara
langsung, tapi berperan dalam transportasi OH-. Sementara itu, apabila seluruh NiOOH telah
diubah menjadi Ni(OH)2 dan atau seluruh Cd telah menjadi Cd(OH)2 maka diperlukan 'pengisian
ulang' baterai agar ia dapat digunakan kembali. Hal tersebut dilakukan dengan membalik reaksi
melalui pemberian arus listrik (sesuai prinsip elektrolisis, mengubah energi listrik menjadi energi
kimia). Ketika arus listrik diberikan, maka elektron akan bergerak menuju kutub baterai yang
lebih positif dan menyebabkan reaksi kimia kebalikan sebagai berikut :
Negatif (reduksi) : Cd(OH)2 + 2e- --> Cd + 2OH-
Positif (oksidasi) : 2Ni(OH)2 + 2OH- --> 2NiOOH + 2H2O + 2e-
reaksi net ion : 2Ni(OH)2 + Cd(OH)2 --> 2NiOOH + 2H2O + Cd
Pengaliran arus listrik memaksa terjadinya oksidasi-reduksi di dalam baterai, sehingga
kondisi kembali seperti sebelum digunakan. Tetapi, apabila terjadi overcharge (seluruh
Ni(OH)2 dan atau Cd(OH)2 telah diubah menjadi NiOOH dan Cd tetapi arus listrik masih tetap
dialirkan), maka arus listrik akan tetap memaksa terjadinya oksidasi dan reduksi, dan reaksi
tersebut dilakukan pada air sesuai persamaan berikut :
Positif : 4OH- --> O2 + 2H2O + 4e-
Negatif : 2H2O + 4e- --> 2OH- + H2
net ion reaction : 2OH- --> H2 + O2
Tetapi, reaksi antara oksigen dan hidrogen dapat menyebabkan ledakan dalam proses
pembentukan air dengan E = -285.8 kJ/mol (E = perubahan entalpi, tabel entalpi pembentukan
beberapa zat terlampir). Oleh karena itu, gas harus dialirkan secara tepat, atau pembentukan
salah satu gas harus dicegah. Hal kedualah yang dilakukan para pembuat baterai NiCd, yakni
mencegah pembentukan gas Hidrogen. Untuk melakukan hal tersebut, kapasitas elektroda negatif
dibuat lebih besar dibandingkan elektroda positif sehingga, elektroda positif akan 'terisi penuh'
lebih dahlu dari elektroda negatif.

Baterai NiCd sendiri biasa digunakan di berbagai alat elektronik seperti peralatan remote control,
lampu darurat, serta beberapa peralatan tanpa kabel yang lain.
Jenis Jenis Baterai Sekunder
Posted by Chairul Hudaya 3 August 2011 5 Comments
Filed Under asam timabl, baterai sekunder, battery, jenis jenis baterai, lead acid, lithium,
lithium ion, nickel metal hydride, secondary battery

Baterai dibagi menjadi dua kelompok utama yaitu baterai primer (primary battery) dan baterai
sekunder (secondary battery). Baterai primer adalah baterai yang dapat digunakan sekali saja
setelah energi yang ada didalamnya habis digunakan. Sedangkan baterai sekunder
memungkinkan penggunaan energi berkali-kali dengan melakukan pengisian muatan listrik
kembali (rechargeable). Jenis-jenis baterai sekunder diantaranya adalah :

1. Baterai Asam Timbal (Lead Acid)

Baterai SLA merek YUASA

Baterai asam timbal adalah baterai sekunder yang paling banyak dikembangkan di dunia. Baterai
jenis ini pertama kali ditemukan oleh Gaston Plant pada tahun 1859. Baterai asam timbal
banyak digunakan untuk aplikasi otomotif, sehingga dinamakan juga sebagai baterai SLI
(Starting, Lightning and Ignition). Penggunaan masal baterai jenis SLI dikarenakan material
untuk membuat baterai tersebut cukup murah namun baterai memiliki performa cukup baik.
Akan tetapi, untuk aplikasi yang membutuhkan daya yang lebih tinggi dengan waktu yang relatif
lama, baterai SLI tidak dapat digunakan. Hal ini karena baterai asam timbal hanya memiliki
kedalaman pelepasan muatan listrik (Depth of Discharge DOD) sebesar 50 % saja.

Baterai jenis asam timbal tersusun atas timbal dioksida sebagai katoda, sepon logam timbal
sebagai anoda dan asam sulfat sebagai elektrolitnya. Setiap sel memiliki tegangan sebesar 2 Volt.
Keuntungan penggunaan baterai jenis asam timbal diantaranya adalah kuat, murah, handal,
toleran terhadap kelebihan pengisian, impedansi internal yang rendah, dan banyaknya
perusahaan pembuat baterai jenis ini di berbagai belahan dunia. Sedangkan kekurangan dari
baterai jenis SLI ini diantaranya adalah sangat berat, memiliki efisiensi energi yang rendah
(sekitar 70%), berbahaya jika kelebihan panas pada saat pengisian, memiliki waktu siklus yang
rendah (300-500 siklus), dan materialnya berbahaya bagi lingkungan.

Dengan memodifikasi elektroda dan susunan internal baterai, jenis-jenis baterai asam timbal
dapat dibedakan menjadi baterai timbal-kalsium, baterai timbal-antimoni dan baterai asam timbal
yang elektrolitnya terpisah (sealed lead acid SLA)
2. Baterai Nikel Kadmium

Baterai Nikel Kadmium

Baterai nikel kadmium ditemukan tahun 1899, namun baru diproduksi secara masal pada tahun
1960an. Baterai jenis ini memiliki tegangan sel sebesar 1,2 Volt dengan kerapatan energi dua kali
lipat dari baterai asam timbal. Sebagai katoda, baterai ini menggunakan nikel hidroksida
Ni(OH)2 dan kadmium (Cd) sebagai anodanya yang dipisahkan oleh alkalin potasium hidroksida
sebagai elektrolitnya. Baterai nikel kadmium memiliki nilai hambatan intenal yang kecil dan
memungkinkan untuk di charge dan discharge dengan rate yang tinggi.

Umumnya baterai jenis ini memiliki waktu siklus hingga lebih dari 500 siklus. Salah satu
kekurangan baterai jenis nikel kadmium adalah adanya efek ingatan (memory effect) yang berarti
bahwa baterai dapat mengingat jumlah energi yang dilepaskan pada saat discharge sebelumnya.
Efek ingatan disebabkan oleh perubahan yang terjadi pada struktur kristal elektrode ketika
baterai nikel kadmium diisi muatan listrik kembali sebelum seluruh energi listrik yang terdapat
pada baterai nikel kadmiun dikeluarkan/digunakan. Selain itu, baterai nikel kadmium juga sangat
sensitif terhadap kelebihan pengisian, sehingga perlu perhatian khusus pada saat pengisian
muatan listrik pada baterai.

3. Baterai Nikel Metal Hidrida

Baterai Nikel Metal Hidrida

Baterai nikel metal hidrida sebenarnya memiliki karakteristik yang sama dengan baterai nikel
kadmium. Perbedaannya terletak pada penggunaan material untuk anodanya. Bila pada baterai
nikel kadmium, kadmium digunakan sebagai anoda, maka pada baterai jenis ini metal hidrida
yang digunakan. Metal hidrida terbuat dari campuran lanthanium yang dapat menyerap dan
menghasilkan hidrogen. Baterai jenis ini memiliki kerapatan energi dua kali lebih besar
dibandingkan dengan baterai jenis asam timbal dan 40 % lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan
baterai nikel kadmium.

Keuntungan penggunaan baterai jenis nikel metal hidrida diantaranya adalah rendahnya
impedansi internal, memiliki siklus hidup sebesar 500 siklus, dan memiliki kedalaman pelepasan
energi listrik yang tinggi. Selain itu baterai ini juga cenderung lebih ramah lingkungan karena
tidak mengandung kadmium, raksa maupun timbal. Adapun kekurangan baterai nikel metal
hidrida yang paling menonjol yaitu tingginya kecepatan pelepasan muatan sendiri (self-
discharge), adanya efek ingatan dan memiliki efisiensi energi yang cukup rendah (65 %).

4. Baterai Lithium

Baterai Lithium-Ion

Lithium adalah metal yang paling ringan dan memiliki potensial elektrokimia yang paling tinggi
dibandingkan dengan logam lainnya. Baterai berbasis lithium cukup menjanjikan karena dapat
memberikan kapasitas jenis (specific capacity) sebesar 3.600 Ah/kg. Nilai ini jauh lebih besar
dibandingkan dengan kapasitas jenis dari baterai sekunder jenis asam timbal yang sebesar 260
Ah/kg saja. Penggunaan lithium sebagai baterai, pertama kali dilakukan oleh perusahaan Exxon
(USA) pada tahun 1970 dengan menggunakan LiTiS2 sebagai katoda baterai.

Ada beberapa jenis baterai sekunder berbasis lithium yang berkembang saat ini, diantaranya
adalah baterai lithium-ion, baterai lithium polimer dan baterai lihium sulfur.

Testing NiCd and NiMH Batteries


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Last Updated: Friday, 04 October 2013 10:40
Reprinted courtesy of Vencon technologies

Testing NiCd and NiMH Batteries


by Marc Venis B.A.Sc., M.A.Sc., P.Eng. - President Vencon Technologies Inc.

The key to preventing battery failures is to minimize any misuse and to track their capacity and
other key characteristics. A battery monitoring program will identify a rapidly deteriorating
battery before it actually fails.

The first part of a battery monitoring program is to regularly measure their capacity. Capacity is
the amount of charge available from a battery, measured in ampere-hours (Ah) for large cells,
milliampere-hours (mAh) for smaller cells. A typical AA size battery has a rated capacity of
600mAh, thus it can supply 600mA for at least one hour or 100mA for at least six hours.
Manufacturers conservatively rate battery capacity so that, in general, the measured capacity
(which we discuss below) should be greater than the rated amount.

The basic concept used by all battery analyzers to check capacity is to connect the battery to a
known accurate constant current load and monitor the voltage as the battery discharges (figure
1).

When the battery voltage reaches a predetermined value (the cut off voltage) the load is
disconnected and the elapsed time recorded. The battery capacity is simply the load current
times the elapsed time in hours. Normally, you would start this test with a fully charged battery.
You can check a battery's capacity using this method with only a resistor as load, a voltmeter
and a stop watch. Alternately, you can use a commercial battery analyzer (such as the Ultimate
Battery Analyzer our company makes).

There are many commercial analyzers available, ranging in price from $200 to $2000 or more.
The best one for you depends on features you need and your budget. The less expensive models
are limited in their accuracy and customization. The more expensive models allow you to test
more types of batteries and many batteries at once.

Operation of all the commercial units is similar: first, connect a power source to the analyzer, an
AC plug, a wall adapter (power supply) or a 12V battery. Specify the battery being tested (i.e. a
Motorola 550 cell phone) or specify the test conditions (i.e. number of cells, charging and
discharging current, depth of discharge). Then connect the analyzer to the battery that is being
tested. Press the start button and leave the analyzer and battery alone for a few hours. The
analyzer discharges the battery, measures the discharge time then recharges the batteries. After
the discharge is completed the analyzer shows your battery's capacity.

The measured capacity depends on the following factors: battery temperature, discharge current,
cut-off voltage, and the battery's prior history. Below room temperature (20 degree C) battery
capacity is reduced. You should make all your measurements between 18 degree C and 25
degree C.

What discharge current should you use? Most manufacturers (Sanyo and Panasonic for
example) measure capacity at a discharge rate of C/5, which is called the five hour discharge
rate. For example, a typical AA cell of 600mAh capacity would have a 'C' of 600mA and a C/5 of
120mA. Others measure capacity at a discharge rate of C. Like all batteries, the higher the
discharge current, the less the available capacity. For example, the available capacity with a
discharge at C/5 is about 10% more than that with a discharge at the C rate.

Another possible discharge current would be the actual current drain of the battery while being
used. I recommend that you discharge at between C and C/2.

At what point do you stop the discharge? If you choose too high of a figure you won't fully
discharge the cells. If you choose too low a figure you might force one of the cells into reverse
polarity (not a good situation). Usually a cut-off voltage of 1.05V/cell is used when discharging
at the C/5 rate and 0.9V/cell when discharging at the C rate. Or you can use the formula:

Vcutoff_per_pack=1.2V * (Ncells-1)

Which gives a cut off of 0.9V per cell for a four cell battery pack, and 1.05V for an eight cell
battery pack.

What does prior history have to do with a battery's capacity? A battery that was quick
charged or charged at above room temperature will not generally be fully charged. Nor will a
battery that was charged after being stored for a few months. For these reasons I recommend that
before a capacity test, the battery be charged at C/10 for 18 hours to 24 hours at room
temperature. If the battery had been stored for a few months, is new, or hasn't been tested in a
few months, a second and possibly a third capacity test is recommended.

One additional measurement you can make during a discharge experiment is the "midpoint
voltage." This is the voltage midway through a discharge test. If you have our Ultimate Battery
Analyzer you can simply read it off the graph (midpoint voltage figure 2), otherwise you will
have to use an accurate voltmeter to measure the voltage yourself during the battery discharge.
Record this voltage.

I hope that this information instills in you a bit more confidence in your batteries. Now go and
test your batteries.

How to Test a NiCad Battery

battery image by Sergey Juchkov from Fotolia.com

NiCad batteries (also known as NiCd batteries) are batteries that use nickel and cadmium. People
use these batteries in everything from remote-controlled airplanes to cell phones. If you're
curious about whether the batteries are holding up to their advertised potential or if you just want
to check if the NiCad battery you found in a drawer is still good, testing the battery will reveal
how well it can operate. This will keep you from being stranded when you need the battery the
most.

Things You'll Need


Multimeter

Device that uses battery power (e.g., flashlight)

Basic Voltage Check


Set the multimeter to use direct current (DC) voltage. Batteries always produce this
voltage type.

Touch the red multimeter probe to the positive terminal of the battery.

Touch the black multimeter probe to the negative terminal of the battery.

Look at the multimeter voltage display. The battery isn't suitable for use if the display
shows a number 10 percent or less of the rated battery output.

Testing mAh (Milliampere Hours)


Connect the battery to a circuit that will discharge power from the battery. Any device
that relies on battery power should form a sufficient circuit when the device is turned on,
so you can use items like flashlights, toys, radios and other electronics to drain the
battery.

Periodically remove the battery from the circuit, and test the battery voltage with a
multimeter as described in Section 1 until the voltage per cell drops to 1.

Calculate how long it took in minutes to discharge the battery to 1 volt per cell.

Other People Are Reading

o How to Restore a NiCad Battery

o Recondition a NiCAD Battery

Multiply the time for discharge (in minutes) by the current in milliamperes.
Divide the result from Step 4 by 60 to get the battery capacity in milliampere hours
(mAh). This number tells you how long the battery will be operational while connected to
a current and therefore is an indicator of performance quality. Higher mAh ratings
indicate the potential for better usage, while low mAh ratings indicate that the battery is
poor. The mAh rating advertised by battery manufacturers on packaging is an average.
Your circuit may produce a higher or lower mAh, depending on how much energy the
device draws from the battery. Always test all of your batteries on the same device so that
you have a consistent frame of reference.

Tips & Warnings


The second method described here is very useful in comparing different brands of NiCad
batteries that have the same ratings. If you find that one brand consistently has a higher
number of mAh than another, you may want to report your findings to consumer
reporting agencies.

References
John Hunt: Testing NiCd Batteries

Bob Vila: Testing Household Batteries

Science Buddies: Electronics Primer: Using a Multimeter

LITHIUM ION AND NICKEL CADMIUM BATTERY

LITHIUM ION BATTERY

Katoda (positif) : LiCOIIIO2


Anoda (negatif) : lithium manganese dioxide (LiMn2O4)

Larutan elektrolit : LiPF6 (larutan karbonat) (pelarut organik)

Reaksi

Katoda LiCOIIIO2 CoIVO2 + 2Li+ + e-

Anoda Li+ + e- Li

Reaksi keseluruhan LiCOIIIO2 Li + CoO2

Lithium-ion merupakan jenis baterai yang bisa diisi ulang (rechargeable) yang
paling bertenaga dan populer saat ini. Beberapa tahun silam, baterai ini juga kerap
menjadi bahan berita karena sewaktu-waktu bisa meledak dan terbakar. Namun di
samping kepopuleran baterai ini terdapat kelebihan-kelebihan dan beberapa
kekurangan seperti yang sudah disebutkan di atas yaitu menjadi perbincangan
karena dapat meledak dan terbakar. Berikut merupakan beberapa kekurangan dan
kelebihan lithium-ion.

Kelebihan baterai lithium ion:

Lebih ringan. Elektroda baterai lithium-ion terbuat dari lithium yang ringan dan
karbon. Lithium adalah elemen yang sangat reaktif, artinya dia banyak energi
yang dapat disimpan dalam ikatan atomnya.
Lebih bertenaga. Satu kilogram baterai lithium-ion bisa menampung 150 watt
jam, sementara satu kilogram baterai NiMH (Nickel-Metal Hydride) hanya bisa
menamping 100 watt jam
Lebih kuat. Sebuah baterai lithium-ion hany kehilangan 5% isinya setiap bulan,
dibandingkan dengan baterau NiMH yang kehilangan 20% isinya per bulan.
Lebih awet. Baterai Lithium-ion bis menangani ratusan kali siklus isi/kuras
(charge/discharge).
Tidak ada efek memory, itu artinya Anda tidak harus menunggu baterai benar-
benar kosong untuk melakukan pengisian ulang.

Kekurangan baterai lithium ion:

Baterai lithium-ion mulai terdegradasi sejak meninggalkan pabrik. Baterai ini


hanya kuat bertahan 2 sampai 3 tahun, sejak tanggal perakitan, tidak peduli
apakah Anda menggunakannnya atau tidak.
Baterai lithium-ion sangat sensitif terhadap suhu tinggi. Suhu yang tinggi
menyebabkan baterai ini terdegradasi lebih cepat daripada seharusnya.
Usia baterai akan tamat, jika Anda benar-benar menggunakannya sampai
kosong.
Satu set baterai litium-ion memiliki komputer onboard untuk mengaturnya>
Hal ini membuat harga baterai terdongkrak.
Terdapat peluang kecil, apabila proses pengepakannya buruk, baterai akan
meledak/terbakar.

Nickel cadmium battery

Katoda (positif) : NiO(OH)

Anoda (negatif) : Cd

Larutan elektrolit : aqueous KOH dengan konsentrasi 20-324% berat


murni

Reaksi

Katoda 2NiO(OH)(s) + 2H2O(l) + 2e- 2Ni(OH)2(s) + 2OH-


(aq)

Anoda Cd(s) + 2OH(aq) Cd(OH)2(s) + 2e-

Reaksi keseluruhan Cd(s) + 2NiO(OH)(s) + 2H2O(l) Cd(OH)2(s) + 2Ni(OH)2(s)

Baterai Nickel Cadmium merupakan baterai yang dapat diisi ulang kembali. Baterai
ini biasa digunakan pada perangkat elektronik portable, lampu darurat, dan lain-
lain. Baterai ini menggunakan Cd sebagai anoda dan pasta NiO(OH) sebagai
katodanya. Sedangkan elektrolitnya adalah KOH. Baterai ini memiliki beberapa
kekurangan dan juga kelebihan berilut merupakan beberapa kekurangan dan
kelebihan baterai nickel cadmium.

Kelebihan baterai nickel cadmium:


Baterai nikel kadmium memiliki hambatan internal yang kecil dan
memungkinkan untuk dicharge dan discharge dengan rate yang tinggi.
Umumnya baterai jenis ini memiliki waktu siklus hingga lebih dari 500 siklus.
Jika dibandingkan dengan baterai biasa, baterai nikel kadmium atau yang lebih
dikenal sebagai baterai NiCad ini, mempunyai daya tahan sedikit di atas
baterai biasa (dengan catatan kondisi baterai NiCad ini masih baik).

Kekurangan baterai Nickel Cadmium:

Adanya efek ingatan (memory effect) yang berarti bahwa baterai dapat
mengingat jumlah energi yang dilepaskan pada saat discharge sebelumnya.
Efek ingatan disebabkan oleh perubahan yang terjadi pada struktur kristal
elektrode ketika baterai nikel kadmium diisi muatan listrik kembali sebelum
seluruh energi listrik yang terdapat pada baterai nikel kadmium
dikeluarkan/digunakan.
Sangat sensitif terhadap kelebihan pengisian, sehingga perlu perhatian khusus
pada saat pengisian muatan listrik pada baterai.
Biaya pembuatannya mahal
Tidak ramah lingkungan (beracun)