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Critical Thinking Chapter 1 Questions

1.) Describe a situation where a desktop computer might be preferred over a notebook
computer.

A desktop computer may be preferred if youre looking for a computer with a


higher processing capability.

b) List three advantages of purchasing a notebook computer instead of a desktop


computer

A notebook computer may be more useful if you plan to use it on the go, or in more
than just one place. Its also more useful if you are looking for a computer that isnt too
pricy. (Desktop computers tend to cost more than notebook computers) Finally, if youre
looking for something that has a strong battery life, a notebook computer is for you.

c) Describe a situation or user that would prefer a tablet PC over a notebook computer.

A user who travels around a lot or needs to present projects to co-workers, or at


school would prefer a tablet PC, as they are more portable.

d) Describe two occupations where it would be useful to have a hand-held computer

A hand-held computer would be useful for an office job, as you may need to make
presentations to your co-workers. It would also be easy to have a handheld computer for a
lawyer, who may need to look things up on the go, or check information frequently.

e) Describe how wearable computers are used in the health care industry.

Wearable computers are used in the medical field frequently. Some examples of
wearable computers are heart rate monitors and oximeters. These are used almost daily
by doctors, and help save multiple lives.

2.) List and compare three input devices.


Some common input devices are keyboards, a mouse, and a DVD drive. All of these
provide easier access to the computer. The keyboard directs what letters go where on your
computer screen, the mouse controls the curser, and the DVD drives are used to analyze and play
the disk inserted.

b) List and compare three output devices


Three output devices include the computer monitor, the speakers, and the memory keys.
All of these store data and create an output of it when commanded to. For example, the computer
monitor displayed the information coming from the PC. The speakers take the sound and play it
through the speakers, and the memory keys store memory, and output it when commanded.

c) List and describe two peripheral devices.


A microphone and a webcam are both examples of peripheral devices. Both are either
wireless or wired, and have different purposes. The microphone will capture sound, and the
webcam will capture video.\

d) List three types of ports.


Three example of ports are the USB port, FireWire, and the Bluetooth Ports.

3.) List and describe five components on the motherboard.

The motherboard is the main circuit on the PC. On the motherboard, you can find,
The Expansion boards, the CPU (Central Processing Unit), A bus (A set of circuits that
connect the CPU to other components.), The ROM (Read Only memory) and The RAM
(Random Access Memory)

4.) Describe the flow of data between the components of a computer, starting with input.

The data first starts at the input, where the information is inputted. (Such as, a key
being typed onto a word document), The key will then travel to the device memory, and
to the CPU. After going through the CPU, it will once again go out to the memory, and
then to the ouput (for example, the output is the key being placed onto the word
document)

5.) What is cache memory used for?


The cache memory is used to store frequently used data, so it can easily and
efficiently be retrieved by an application.

6.) Describe one difference between operating system software and application software.
The OS is started at first startup, whilst the application startup must be manually started.
b) List three different operating systems
Three different operating systems include Linux, Windows, and Unix.
c) What does environment refer to?
Environment refers to the computers hardware and software configuration.

d) What is another word for environment?


The term platform is another word used for environment

7.) What is a utility program? Give an example.

Utility programs manage input and output, read and write memory, and manage the
processor. OS functions are implemented through these utility programs. A device driver
is an example of a utility program.

8.) Why is cross-platform connectivity important to many to many computer users?


Cross-platform connectivity is important because it can send/receive information
from another device.

9.) What is the difference between low and high level programming languages
High level programming languages have English like instructions, while Low
level programming languages include machine languages (0 and 1s primarily)

b) List three high-level programming languages


Fortan, C, and Basic are all example of high-level programming languages

c) What is the difference between a compiler and an interpreter?


A
d) List an advantage of using an object-oriented programming language
OOP allows users to create a modules that can be used over and over again in a variety
of different programs.
10.) List four benefits of using a network
A network allows users to reliably share and exchange data, reduces costs by
sharing items such as printers, offers security options to secure access to certain files, and
provides communication tools (email) for network users

11.) What are two common size classifications for networks?


Two common size classifications are LAN (Local Area Network) and HAN
(Home Area Network)

b) What size classification is used to connect devices over large distances?


MAN (Metropolitan Area Network)

12.) What is a network operating system?


A Network operating system is a software that allows users and devices to
communicate over a network.

b) What does a network environment refer to?


A network environment is how network resources are handled.

13.) Describe two common network architecture models

Peer to peer networks and client/server networks are both examples of network
architecture models

14.) What does a physical topology refer to?

A physical topology refers to the arrangement of nodes on a network.

b) What is a node?
A node is a location on a network with a device capable of processing
information.

c) Which topology uses a hub?


A star topology is attached to a hub
d) Which topology connects each node to form a closed loop?
A ring topology is connected to form a closed loop.

e) What is the difference between physical and logical topology


A physical topology refers to the arrangement, while the logical topology refers
to the way data is passed between those nodes

15.) Which netiquette rules apply in your classroom?

All of them apply.

16.) Explain why the binary number system was adopted for use in computers.

The electrical circuits on an IC have one of two states, off or on. Therefore,
the binary number system which uses on (0 and 1) was adopted for use in computers.

17.) What is the decimal equivalent of 10112?

(11)10
b) What is the decimal equivalent of 2A16?
(42)10

18.) What is Unicode?


Every letter of the alphabet has been given a representation in Unicode

19.) How many bytes of data can 2 GB of RAM store?


2,147,483,648 bytes of data.
b) How many bytes of data can a 500 GB hard drive store?
536,870,912,000 bytes of data.
20.) When would an overflow occur?
An overflow would occur when the number of bytes needed to represent the integer is
greater than the size of four bytes
b) What are real numbers?
Real numbers are numbers that contain decimal points.

21.) What is the difference between a text file and a binary file?
A text file includes all characters and binary files only include 0 and 1s

b.) Explain how an extension distinguishes file types


It comes after the files name (image1.gif, work.odt)

c.) Describe how organizing your files into folders would help you keep organized
It would allow you to find certain things faster. For example, I could put all my
schoolwork in one folder.

22.) List two ways storage devices could be classified and give an example of each.
Internal, such as a hard disk or External, such as a memory key.

23.) List four rules that should be followed to avoid damaging files stored on CDs
Keep them away from magnets, Handle CDs by the center or the edges, Store CDs in a
sleeve to prevent scratches, Keep media away from liquids or moisture

24.) What is the difference between an intranet and an extranet?


An intranet is used by a single organization, while the extranet provides various levels of
access.
b) Who controls the Internet?
Numerous networks linked together.

25.) What problem is associated with using a conventional modem?


Slow access time is associated with a conventional modem.
b) Describe the differences between a DSL modem and a cable modem.
A DSL uses standard telephone lines with data transition while a cable modem transmits
through a coaxial cable.

26.) What is the most widely used internet service?


The World Wide Web.

b) List one benefit of e-mail over standard mail.


It can deliver quicker.

c) Write your email address and label the parts of it


Joshua (username) @ wakelin (host) .net (top-level domain)

d) What are the two requirements for sending and receiving e-mail messages?
E-mail software and an e-mail address

e) List one example of a browser based e-mail site


Gmail.com

27.) Explain why sending an e-mail message should be thought of the same as sending a
postcard
Because thats essentially what it is, an electric postcard.

b) What issues could occur if email etiquette is not followed in a workplace


Someone could potentially get fired.

28.) List three commonly used search engines


Google, Bing, Yahoo
b) Which search engine do you prefer to use, and why
Google, because its quick and easy to remember the URL.

c) Describe the importance of using effective search criteria


Using correct search criteria can increase the chances of you finding what youre looking
for.

29.) Write Search Criteria to locate web pages that contain the following info.
a) Good Miami Restaurants
b) Montreal, Canada Art Museums
c) Nearby Clothing Stores
d) Only Alligators
e) James Patterson bibliography.
f) Garbage in, Garbage out
g) Only George Washington and John Adams
h) Places to travel in Florida.

30.) Why should files only be downloaded from authentic sites?


Because the program may have intent to gather your information, or phish.

31.) List four questions to answer when evaluating a website source


Authors First Name, Authors Last Name, the Date Published, and the Article Title
b) Why is it necessary to cite sources?
So you arent accused of copyright laws. \
c) Perez, Tara Clewiston Kite Surfing emcschool
Tara Perez, Web. August 2nd, 2012.
32.) What is online profiling?
When information about the user is collected by commercial websites.
b) What is a cookie?
A cookie is a text file created by the website about the person accessing there sites
browsing habits.

c) What is a web beacon?


A web beacon are tiny and transparent graphics that are used with cookies to collect info
about the user.

d) Who usually monitors the info collect by web beacons?


By an outside advertising company.

34.) Name and briefly describe one law that helps protect the privacy of an individual.
The ECPA, it makes it a crime to access electronic data without authorization

35.) List three reasons why many schools haves developed an Acceptable Use Policy
To help protect students, to prevent school rules from being broken online, and to
prevent malware being installed on the PC.

36.) What can you do if you are turned down for credit at a bank and believe that the data used
to deny credit is inaccurate?
Contact the bank.

37.) What is necessary for a federal government to authority to access an individuals financial
records?
A search warrant is necessary.

b) What must a financial institute do after releasing an individuals records?


They must notify the individual of who has accessed them.
38.) What is copyright infringement?
Copyright infringement is the illegal use of someone elses work.

b) Why is computer piracy such a concern to software developers?


Because it may jeopardize future development of software.

c) What is a computer virus?


A virus is a program that can replicate without the users knowledge

d) Describe Phishing
Phishing is the act of sending an e-mail to try and trick the user that they are a legitimate
business

39.) What ethical responsibilities does an IT professional have?


System Reliability, and Reliability of the software.

40.) True or False.


a) Software refers to the physical components of the computer. F
b) Linux is an operating system. T
c) A utility program has one clear task. F
d) Assembly language is a high-level programming language. F
e) A WAN connects devices over large areas. T
f) A peer to peer network has a server. T
g) The binary number system only uses 1s and 0s. T
h) A conventional modem transmits data faster. F
i) An email address is required to send e-mails. T
j) The present time is referred to as the industrial age. F
k) Ergonomics is the science that studies safe work environments. T