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Offshore Pipeline installation

techniques

TEC/PLR journes Techniques, 26 juin 2008, Paris


Introduction

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Summary

S-Lay

J-Lay

Reel lay

Flexible / umbilical lay

Towing

Installation phases
Initiation
Abandonment
Shore approach

Tie-in methods

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Conventional laying methods

S-Lay J-Lay

Reel-Lay Flexible /
umbilical lay

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S-Lay

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- TEC/PLR journes Techniques,
S-lay: rigid pipe in shallow water installation

Tensioners

Avoid contact with Top tension


last roller
Maximum lay tension
Min sagbend stress Stinger radius / angle
Max top tension
Max bottom tension
Max catenary length

Installation envelope
Minimum lay tension
Max sagbend stress
Min top tension Ref: Deep Offshore
Sagbend Reference Book
Bottom tension Min bottom tension
Minimum catenary length
Risk of contact with stinger last roller
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S-lay main parameters

Top tension
Max: Limited by tensioner capacity
Min: to maintain the catenary and limit bending stress in the sagbend

Stinger configuration (overbend)


Length, radius, departure angle (ramp angle + tip angle 10 to 40)
Set-up to limit pipe dynamic strain below 0.3% (DNV displacement controlled
condition).
Contact with last roller shall be avoided

Sagbend
Ensure dynamic stress below 87% yield stress (DNV load controlled)

Touch down
Bottom tension: high bottom tension in S-lay
Check curve stability
Check horizontal distance from barge stern to touch down point

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S-lay application

Shallow water
Main application
Typically from 20 to 300m (J-lay not feasible)
Most of S-lay vessels developed for shallow water

Deepwater with steep S-lay


Recent development by Allseas (Solitaire, Audacia) for water depth up to 3000m
Very long stinger with tip close to vertical
Hingh tensile capabilities (up to 1000T)

Station keeping
Anchoring lines
Dynamic Positioning (DP)

Welding capabilities
Multiple welding stations (>5)
Single / double jointing

Laying speed: 2 to 7 km/day


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Some S-lay vessels

Global Hercules

Allseas Audacia Acergy LB200


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J-Lay

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- TEC/PLR journes Techniques,
J-Lay: rigid pipe in deepwater installation

Top tension

Tensioners / Maximum lay tension


Minimum lay tension Clamping system Min sagbend stress
Max sagbend stress Max top tension
Min top tension Ramp angle Max bottom tension
Min bottom tension Max catenary length
Minimum catenary length Installation envelope

Ref: Deep Offshore


Bottom tension Reference Book
Sagbend

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J-lay main parameters

Top tension
Max: Limited by tensioner capacity
Min: to maintain the catenary and limit bending stress in the sagbend

Ramp
Ramp angle: the deeper the closer to vertical (60 to 85)
No or very short stinger

Sagbend
Ensure dynamic stress below 87% yield stress (DNV load controlled)

Touch down
Bottom tension: low bottom tension in J-lay
Check curve stability and vessel bollard pull
Check horizontal distance from barge stern to touch down point

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J-lay application

Deep water
Main application
Typically from 300 to 3000m

Station keeping
Dynamic Positioning (DP) only

Tensioning capabilities
High tension for ultra deepwater or large diameters: up to 1600T (Heerema Balder)
Use of tensioners or J-Lay collars system

Welding capabilities
1 or 2 welding station
Welding of double or quadri joints pre-assembled onshore

Laying speed: 1 to 4 km/day

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Some J-lay vessels

Saipem FDS
Heerema Balder

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Reel-Lay

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- TEC/PLR journes Techniques,
Reel lay

Ref: Deep Offshore


Reference Book

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Reel lay main parameters

Step 1: Reeling
From onshore spoolbase
Minimum wall thickness for reeling to be considered (avoid local buckling)
Small bore pipes, up to 18 OD

Step 2: Unreeling

Step 3: Alignment and straightening


Increased out of roundess after straightening compared to J-lay (to be considered
at design stage)
Potential residual torsion in the pipe after reeling / unreeling: may be a concern for
in-line structures installation (e.g. Dalia)

Step 4: Laying
Same principle as J-lay

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Reel-lay application

Deep water
Main application
Typically from 300 to 3000m

Station keeping
Dynamic Positioning (DP) only

Tensioning capabilities
High tension for ultra deepwater

Welding capabilities
Tie-in or in-line structures welding

Laying speed: up to 20 km/day

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Reel-Lay spool base

Technip Deep Blue at spool base

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Some reel-lay vessels

Subsea7 Seven Oceans

Technip Deep Blue


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Flexible / umbilical lay

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- TEC/PLR journes Techniques,
Flexible / umbilical lay

Ref: Deep Offshore


Reference Book

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Transportation / storage

Reel
Ease of storage, transportation and handling
No additional transpooling required
More transportation and installation vessels available
Limited length (3-4km), depends on umbilical /
flexible diameter and linear weight

Carousel
Required for long umbilicals /
flexibles
Specific installation vessels
required
Additional transpooling

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Transportation / storage

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Installation

Horizontal lay
With horizontal tensioners and
through a gutter / chute

Vertical lay
With vertical tensioners and
through a moonpool or aside the
vessel

Critical phases
Terminations overboarding and
landing
I-tube pull-in

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Towing

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- TEC/PLR journes Techniques,
Towing

Application
Bundles installation
Risers installation
Short pipelines (up to 20km)

On Bottom Tow Controlled Depth Tow

Off Bottom Tow Surface/Near Surface Tow

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Towing
Controlled depth tow
method on Jura (UK)
Tug
Tow head

Bundle

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Towing

Controlled depth tow

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Installation phases

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- TEC/PLR journes Techniques,
Initiation

Pipeline

Anchor pile initiation

FLET (Flowline End Termination)

Cable
Anchor

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Abandonment

Abandonment / recovery head


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Landfall / Shore approach

Pipe welding Cable Trench


Shore pull winch

Laying vessel in fixed position

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Tie-in methods

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- TEC/PLR journes Techniques,
Tie-in methods

Main tie-in methods


Hyperbaric welding (shallow water, by divers, up to 200m)
Subsea flanges (shallow water, by divers, up to 200m)
Mechanical connector (deepwater)

Tie-in procedure
Metrology
Spool fabrication and welding on vessel deck
Overboarding
Landing in final position (alignment / receptacle)
Final tie-in

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Hyperbaric welding

Welding in a dry champer, at sea bottom pressure

Mainly used in the Northsea nowadays

Most reliable tie-in method

Few contractors and equipment available

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Subsea flange

Flange assemby by diver (shallow water)

Use of automated system for deep water (MATIS, Brutus)

Widely used for riser spool tie-in

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Mechanical connectors (deepwater)

Numerous systems
available

Stab & Hinge-over

Horizontal
Vertical

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Tie-in spool installation

Dalia spool overboarding

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