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Topic page no.



Circuit symbol
Theory and working
Energy losses


It gives me an immense pleasure to be associated
with this project Transformer. The project was a
joyous learning process and helped me in linking
my theoretical knowledge with my practical
The project has also been completed under the
supervision of my teacher Mr. Manoj Kumar. I am
highly indebted to her for her able guidance,
valuable suggestions and constant encouragement
during the course of his work.
I also express my gratitude and sincere thanks to
my principal . for the moral
support extended during the tenure of the project.
In the end, I am grateful to my parents, other
faculty members of the school and friends for their
valuable suggestions given to me in completing
this project.
Date Name of the student

The transformer is a device used for converting a low
alternating voltage to a high alternating voltage or a high
alternating voltage into a low alternating voltage. It is a
static electrical device that transfers energy by inductive
coupling between its winding circuits. Transformers range
in size from a thumbnail-sized coupling transformer
hidden inside a stage microphone to huge units weighing
hundreds of tons used in power plant substations or to
interconnect portions of the power grid. All operate on the
same basic principles, although the range of designs is
wide. While new technologies have eliminated the need
for transformers in some electronic circuits, transformers
are still found in many electronic devices. Transformers
are essential for high-voltage electric power transmission,
which makes long-distance transmission economically
practical. A transformer is most widely used device in
both low and high current circuit. In a transformer, the
electrical energy transfer from one circuit to another
circuit takes place without the use of moving parts. A
transformer which increases the voltages is called a step-
up transformer. A transformer which decreases the A.C.
voltages is called a step-down transformer. Transformer
is, therefore, an essential piece of apparatus both for high
and low current circuits.

It is based on the principle of
mutual induction that is whenever
the amount of magnetic flux linked
with a coil changes, an e.m.f is
induced in the neighbouring coil.

A transformer consists of a rectangular soft iron
core made of laminated sheets, well insulated from
one another. Two coils p1 & p2 and s1 & s2 are
wound on the same core, but are well insulated
with each other. Note that the both the coils are
insulated from the core, the source of alternating
e.m.f is connected to p1p2, the primary coil and a
load resistance R is connected to s1 s2, the
secondary coil through an open switch S. Thus
there can be no current through the secondary coil
so long as the switch is open.
For an ideal transformer, we assume that the
resistance of the primary& secondary windings is
negligible. Further, the energy loses due to
magnetic hysteresis in the iron core is also
negligible. For operation at low frequency, we may
have a soft iron. The soft iron core is insulating by
joining thin iron strips coated with varnish to
insulate them to reduce energy losses by eddy
currents. The input circuit is called primary. And the
output circuit is called secondary. An ideal voltage
step-down transformer. The secondary current
arises from the action of the secondary EMF on the
(not shown) load impedance. The ideal transformer
as a circuit element
When an altering e.m.f. is supplied to the primary coil p1p2, an alternating
current starts falling in it.The alternating current in the primary produces a
changing magnetic flux, which induces alternating voltage in the primary as
well as in the secondary. In a good-transformer, whole of the magnetic flux
linked with primary is also linked with the secondary, and then the induced
e.m.f. induced in each turn of the secondary is equal to that induced in each
turn of the primary. Thus if Ep and Es be the instantaneous values of the
e.m.f.s induced in the primary and the secondary and Np and Ns are the no.
of turns of the primary secondary coils of the transformer and, D / dt =
rate of change of flux in each turn of the coil at this instant, we have

Ep = -Np D/dt (1)

Es = -Ns D/dt (2)

Since the above relations are true at every instant, so by dividing 2 by 1,

We get Es / Ep = - Ns / Np (3)

As Ep is the instantaneous value of back e.m.finduced in the primary coil p1,

so the instantaneous current in primary coil is due to the difference (E Ep)
in the instantaneous values of the applied and back e.m.f. further if Rp is the
resistance o, p1p2 coil, then the instantaneous current Ip in the primary coil
is given by I =E Ep / Rp E Ep = Ip Rp

When the resistance of the primary is small, Rp Ip can be neglected so

therefore E Ep = 0 or Ep =E Thus back e.m.f = input e.m.f

Hence equation 3 can be written as Es / Ep = Es / E= output e.m.f / input

e.m.f = Ns / Np = K where K is constant, called turn or transformation ratio.

In a step up transformer Es > E so K > 1, hence Ns > Np

In a step down transformer Es < E so K < 1, hence Ns < Np

If Ip=value of primary current at the same instant t and Is =value of sec.

current at this instant, then Input power at the instant t = Ep Ip and Output
power at the same instant = Es Is If there are no losses of power in the
transformer, then Input power = output power or Ep Ip = Es Is Or Es / E p =
Ip / Is = K . Thus a step up transformer in reality steps down the current &a
step down transformer steps up the current.
Efficiency of a transformer is defined as the ratio of
output power to the input power i.e. = output
power / input power = Es Is / Ep Ip
Thus in an ideal transformer, where there is no
power losses, = 1. But in actual practice, there
are many power losses; therefore the efficiency of
transformer in practice is less than one.

In practice, the output energy of a transformer is always
less than the input energy, because energy losses occur
due to a number of reasons as explained below.
1. Loss of Magnetic Flux: The coupling between the coils
is seldom perfect. So, whole of the magnetic flux
produced by the primary coil is not linked up with the
secondary coil.
2. Iron Loss: In actual iron cores in spite of lamination,
Eddy currents are produced. The magnitude of eddy
current may, however be small. And a part of energy is
lost as the heat produced in the iron core.
3. Copper Loss: In practice, the coils of the transformer
possess resistance. So a part of the energy is lost due to
the heat produced in the resistance of the coil.
4. Hysteresis Loss: The alternating current in the coil
tapes the iron core through complete cycle of
magnetization. So Energy is lost due to hysteresis.
5. Magnetostriction: The alternating current in the
transformer may be set its parts in to vibrations and
sound may be produced. It is called humming. Thus, a
part of energy may be lost due to humming.
A transformer is used in almost all a.c. operations
In voltage regulators for T.V., refrigerator, computer,
air conditioner etc.
In the induction furnaces.
A step down transformer is used for welding
A step down transformer is used for obtaining large
A step up transformer is used for the production of X-
Rays and NEON advertisement.
Transformers are used in voltage regulators and
stabilized power supplies.
Transformers are used in the transmissions of a.c.
over long distances.
Small transformers are used in Radio sets,
telephones, loud speakers and electric bells et..
Physics teacher- Mr. Manoj Kumar