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, .

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ISBN 966-7423-34-4 , 2001

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,
, ,
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(
)
.


.

.
,
,
, , .
. I
,
. II

.

3
I.



. .

( AN)
, ,
( )
.
( h),
an h. :
a ship an anchor
a dictionary an oil
a horse an hour

.
:
I am a sailor. .
We are sailors. .


the ,
,
.
,
, . :
The book that I am reading is on the , ,
table. .
The books that I am reading are on the , ,
table. .

He is a boatswain. . (
).

4
He is the new boatswain. (
;

).


. :
The price of gold is rising. .
Caviar is a delicious appetizer. .
Jealousy can cause tragedies. .

,

,
. :
The gold of this ring is very old. .
The honesty of our chief officer is
above question. .

: , ,
, ,
. :
Henry lives in New York City on the -,
corner of Broadway and 72nd Street. 72- .
It was a freighter sailing regularly from ,
Hamburg to Cartagena.
.

, ,
,
. :
London is the capital of Great Britain. .
The London residence of the Queen is
Buckingham Palase. .
Broadway is famous for its theaters.
.
The Broadway season has just started.
.

5

, . :
the United States of America
the Soviet Union
the United Kingdom
the Peoples Republic China
the German Democratic Republic

,
:
the Netherlands
the Ukraine
the Congo
the Hague

, , , ( )
.
:
the Amazon River
the Mississippi River
the Volga River
the Himalayas
the Pamir
the Urals ()
the Atlantic Ocean

,
. :
John's house
my friend's office

,
. :
my cabin
his book
her cat
our house

1. There is a good Italian restaurant


nearby. .

2. I would like to have a cup of coffee.


.

3. John is an officer. .

4. Jack is the officer of the watch.


( ).

5. I require a pilot. .

6. Stop where you are and wait for the


pilot. .

7. Last night I saw a new movie.


How did you like the movie? .
?

8. Tom is going to buy a new car. ( )


.

9. m is going to insure the car.


.

10. I am reading an interesting book. .

11. The book that I am reading is on the , ,


table. () .

12. The sun was shining. .

13. Linda is the daughter of


wellknown captain. .

14. The Alexander Pushkin is ship


of the Odessa Shipping Company. .

15. Because of the bad weather, we -


could not arrive at the port of
Liverpool on time. .

7
16. Our Master is an experienced
person. .

17. You are right. The food here could .


be better. .

18. They offered us food and drink.


.

19. They went to the Alps ever


summer. .

20. This ship will go to Genoa soon.


.


,

,
.
of, to, with, by
: of , to , by,
with . :
An employee of the company .
Give this book to Mr. Smith - .
I go to work by bus .
I write with a pen .

:
(Common Case) (Possessive Case).
.
.

, .

(, , .).

-'s. :
my wife's dress

8
John's letter
his friend's hope
the sailor's answer
a week's delay
the company's financial situation
the program's success
Vonnegut's novels

,
-s, .
:
companys' offices
ships crews
the passengers cabins
my friends' letters
the parents house

,
-s (women, men, children etc.),
's ( ). :
the children's room ( )
women's rights
men's labor

,
.


,
-s (. . s
). :
chair chairs; cook cooks; month months; boat boats; engineer
engineers; vessel vessels; cabin cabins; answer answers.
-s, -ss,
-x, -ch, -ich,
-es. : bus buses; actress actresses; box
boxes; wish wishes; church churches; winch winches.
,
-, ,
: i;

9
-es. : story stories; city cities; lady ladies; army
armies; secretary secretaries; comedy comedies; tragedy tragedies.
,
. :
buoy buoys; day days; boy boys; key keys; play plays; journey
journeys; valley () valleys.
, -f, -fe,

: f fe -ves. : knife knives; leaf
() leaves; half halves; life lives; shelf () shelves; thief
() thieves; wife wives; wolf wolves.
, f
, i.
( ) .
-,
:
1) -es ,
. : hero heroes; echo echoes; tomato
tomatoes; potato potatoes; veto vetoes; manifesto manifestoes;
tornado tornadoes.
: piano pianos; cello
cellos; solo solos; photo photos.
2) ,
-s.
: portfolio portfolios; radio radios; studio studios.
, ,

: -s, -es. : domino dominos, dominoes; flamingo
flamingos, flamingoes; mango mangos, mangoes; volcano volcanos,
volcanoes; zero zeros, zeroes.

. :
man men; woman women; child children; foot feet; tooth teeth;
goose () geese; louse () lice; mouse mice.
, ,

.
: analysis analyses; bacterium
bacteria; basis bases; crisis crises; datum data (); ellipsis
ellipses; hypothesis hypotheses; phenomenon () phenomena;
stimulus stimuli; synthesis syntheses; thesis theses.

10

,
, . :
a good actor ; a good actress ; a large
box ; large boxes .
:
Doctor Bell is very old. .
has a young wife. .
Jack is tall. .
Ann is short. .
Mr. Cooper is thin. .
Mrs. Cooper is fat. .


(Degrees). , , :
(Positive), (Comparative)
(Superlative).
.

-r. : young younger; old older.
,

-r. : fine finer.
,
, i ( -r). : pretty
prettier; happy happier; dirty dirtier.

more ()
.

more. : beautiful more beautiful; difficult more
difficult; prudent () more prudent.
(
) . , , : good
better; bad worse.
:
New York is larger than Paris. - , .
The sailor is younger than the Master. , .
This ship is older than that one. , .
April is warmer than March. .
11
The sooner the better. , .
The moor the better. , .


-est
. ,
,
.

-est . : tall the
tallest; strong the strongest; big the biggest; dirty the dirtiest.
,
-st. : fine the
finest; late the latest.
, i ( -est).
: busy the busiest; happy the happiest; pretty the prettiest.
,
,
( ) .
: thin thinner the thinnest; hot hotter the hottest.

most, .

. : beautiful the most
beautiful; difficult the most difficult; important the most important;
prudent the most prudent.
,
, . .
. , , : good better the best; bad
worse the worst.
:
Pacific Ocean is the largest ocean in the
world. .
Great Britain is one of the most
developed European countries. .
Jack is the youngest crew member on
the ship. .
This is the prettiest dress in the store.
.
January is the coldest month of the
year. .
12

IT
it
:
1) . it


. it
, , , ,
. , it
,
(, , ). :
a) Where is my pipe? ?
It is on the desk. .
I saw it on the desk some minutes
ago. .
b) Where is your suitcase? ?
It is in the closet. () .
I don't know. I've not seen it. He . .
c) Where is Vera's letter? ?
It is on the sofa. .
I can't find it. .
d) Where is my watch? ?
It is on the bookshelf. .
I've not seen it. .

2) . It

. it
. :
It is a life-boat. .
I know it. .
I'm going to do it. .

3) () (
). it
:

13
) , ,
. :
It is spring now. .
It is warm in the cabin. .
It is cold today. .
It is dark. .
It is getting dark. .
It is raining. ( ).
It often rains in March. .
It is a beautiful day. .
It is nine oclock now. 9 .
It is midnight now. .
It is a long way from here to India. .

) , ,
. :
It is dangerous to alter course to port. .
( it , to alter
).
It is important to learn new English
words every day. .
It is necessary to lubricate the deck
equipment. .
It is safe to fire a rocket. .
It is hard to learn a foreign language in
a short time. .

4) it. it
, , . ,

it is... that. It is (was) +
+ that + + . :
It was yesterday that we arrived at the
port of Liverpool. .
It was in Boston that I ran into my old
friend. .
It is in this scientific journal that you
will find the necessary information. ()
.

14
it is...
. it
it.
:
It was mother who sent John the letter
last week. ( ). .
: Mother sent John a letter last
week. .
It should be emphasized that these -
results have not yet been confirmed. ,
( ). .


(Relative Pronouns) who, whom; which, that
.
,
.
, .
who whom ,
which . That
, .
who
, whom (
whom who).
that (
who that).
whose , ,
, . Whose .
,
, , .
:
1. John is the sailor who kept watch ,
yesterday. .
2. The lady who called you is here. ,
.
3. Jack is the mechanic who fixed my ,
car. .
4. There are many people who have ,
quitted smoking. .
5. The gentleman whom you met on the ,
deck is a captain. , .
15
6. He is a man whom I always admired. ,
.
7. Our Master is the man whose orders ,
must be executed immediately
.
which, whom, that ,
.
:
1. That is my friend I met in Boston. ,
.
2. The woman you met at the entrance ,
is our passenger. .
3. Is that the ship I saw in the port of ,
Odessa? ?
4. Here is the magazine you gave me ,
last night. .
5. The young woman you see on the ,
deck is our cook. , .

MUCH , MAN Y, L ITT L E , FE W


Much () little ()
( salt, rain, time). Many () few ()
(
lesson, newspaper, student).
:
There are many vessels at sea. .
Mr. Jones drinks a lot of coffee. - .
Alex has few (many) friends in New -
York City. () .
He made few (many) mistakes at his
examination. () .
There is little oil in this tank. .

A little . :
Give me a little salt, please. , .

a few ()
. :

16
A few minutes later Bob called me.
.

SO ME ANY
some any
,
. some any
.
Some 1) ; 2)
, where, when, how .;
3) , . :
1. Give me some tea. , , .
2. You should add some salt to the
potato salad. .
3. Where can I get some hot water? ?
4. Could I have some more coffee? ?

Any 1) 2)
( . . , . ., ,
). :
1. I have not taken any audio-cassettes ()
with me. .
2. Boris doesn't make any spelling ()
mistakes. .
3. There is not any oil in the tank. .
4. Have you bought any sugar? ?
5. Do you have any spare time today? ?
6. Is there any news? ?

,

. :
1. I don't have any video-cassettes at ()
home. .
I have no video-cassettes at home.
2. I don't have any money with m. () .
I have no money with me.

17
3. There are not any boxes on the () .
deck.
There are no boxes on the deck.
4. He never gives his son any money.
.

Some any :
-,
-

-,
-,
,

:
1. There was an article about it in -
some British magazine.
2. Put some water in that glass.
.
3. There were some officers on the
bridge. () - .
4. Here are some books for you. .
5. Some sailors don't speak English
really well. -
.

Any
. :
You may take any presents you like.
, .

SOMETHING NYTHING; SOMEBODY ANYBODY ETC.


Some any c -thing, -body, -one,
-where... yope ,
some any.
Something -; -

18
anything -; ;
,

somebody, someone -; -

anybody, anyone -; , ;
,

somewhere -, -; -, -

anywhere -; -; , ; ,
(
).

1. There is somebody (someone) - .
knocking at the door.
2. There isn't anybody (anyone) at the .
door.
Nobody (no one) is at the door.
3. Somebody (someone) will be at - .
home.
4. I'm afraid there isn't anybody , .
(anyone) at home.
5. Is there anybody (anyone) at home? - ?



, . . .

to. :
Keep clear of approach channel.
.
Go to Emergency Anchorage.
.
Proceed along the ice channel. .
Stay where you are. , .

19
Prepare to receive tow line.
.

to do not.
to do .
.

. : Do not follow me!

dont. : Dont close the door!

Do not anchor in position
Do not dredge anchor. .
Do not overtake. .
Dont cross the fairway. .
Dont pass ahead of me. .
Dont enter traffic lane. .


,
(, , . .).
,
to.
,

.
Present Infinitive (Active Passive)
.

MAY, MIGHT
May + Present Infinitive , , ,
, . Might may
, may).

May I navigate by myself? ?
Of course, you may. .
May I enter the traffic lane?
?
May I proceed? ?
Yes, you may. No, you mustn't. . .
No, don't*.

20
CAN, COULD
Can + Present Infinitive . Could
can. Could + Infinitive

.

Can you join the convoy?Yes, I
can. ? .
Can you navigate a sailing ship?
Yes, I can. ? .
I cannot keep my present course. .
Can you steer the ship? Yes, I can. ? .
We could swim fast when we were at ,
school.

MUST
Must + Present Infinitive
, , ,
, ).
mustn't (must not)
(), . . m.
( , )
needn't (need not).
Must
.
must have to + Present Infinitive (
). :
had to take a taxi to get to the port ,
on time. .
I'll have to go to the supermarket
tomorrow. .

NEED
Need + Present Infinitive (Active Passive)

.

*
() , may,
: No, you mustn't No, dont.
21
Must I take a pilot? Yes, you must. ? .
No, you needn't. , .
You must keep radio silence in this
area unless you have messages about ,
a casualty.
.

SHOULD, WOULD
should would
,
. Would 1)
; 2) ; 3) , .
Should ,
, , (
, , , ).
should
ought to + Infinitive.

You should be more careful. .
You shouldn't interfere in other
people's affairs. .
Jack should be more attentive. -,
.



( ,
). , ,
, .

PRESENT SIMPLE (PRESENT INDEFINITE TENSE)


,
Present Simple (
) Present Continuous ( ). Present
Continuous , , (
) . ,
,
Present Simple.
:
I work we work
you work you work
22
he, she, it works they work

, ,

-s.
, - (, to study),
-ies (he studies).
to go to do.
Present Simple -es:
he (she, it) goes; he (she, it) does.
-es
, : s, ss, ch, sh, tch, x, z; ,
I touch ( ); he touches; I rush ( ); he rushes.

1. I always get up at 7 oclock. 7 .
2. usually does his morning .
exercises.
3. The navigators keep watch on the
bridge twice a day. .
4. The Earth goes round the Sun. .
5. We speak Russian. -.

Present Simple
to do.
,

, Present Simple
do,
( ).
Present Simple does
( ) do (
)
, (
do). to work:
do I work? do we work?
do you work? do you work?
does he work? do they work?
does she work?
does it work?

23
,
who (), what (), which ()
( ),
do (does) .
:
1. Who keeps watch every day? ?
2. What comes next? ? ?
3. Which of these sailors plays chess?
?
Present Simple :
Yes, I do. Yes, we do.
Yes, you do. Yes, you do.
Yes, he does. Yes, they do.
Yes, she does.
Yes, it does.
Present Simple :
No, I don't. No, we don't.
No, you don't. No, you don't.
No, he doesn't. No, they don't.
No, she doesn't.
No, it doesn't.

doesn't, don't
, .

1. Do you get up early? ?
2. Do they execute the orders of the
Master? ?
3. Do you speak English? -?
4. Does he work for a shipping
company? ?
5. Does he work on the ship A? ?

Present Simple do not


does not ,
to.
Present Simple
to work:
I do not work we do not work
you do not work you do not work
he does not work they do not work
24
she does not work
it does not work
don't, doesn't
.

1. I don't scrub down the deck every .
day.
2. We don't work in a factory. .
3. They don't work in store. .
4. The Smiths don't like to travel. .
5. I don't want to go to the meeting. .
6. doesn't live in Boston. .
7. He isn't painting the deck
equipment at this time. .



: 1) (Infinitive); 2)
(Past Simple Tense); 3) (Past
Participle). :
1) to work worked worked 2) to eat ate eaten
to open opened opened to come came come
to talk talked talked to put put put
to walk walked walked to write wrote written
to wait waited waited to know knew known
to look looked looked to give gave given
to stay stayed stayed to take took taken
,

.
, , ,
(
)
-ed .
Past Simple ( ) Past
Participle ( )
.
Regular Verbs
( ).

25
. . (Irregular Verbs)
.
.
* * *

,
-ed,
. :
a) -ed [id] t, d. :
arrested
corrected
wanted ,
demanded
landed
b) -ed [d] (
d), . :
opened
informed
staved
played
continued
) -ed [t] (f, k, p, s,
sh, x, ch) -t. :
cooked ,
helped
worked
pushed
sniffed ,
lunched
possessed

, -ed
i. :
to carry carried
to try tried
to study studied
, , . .,
i. :
to enjoy enjoyed ().
26
,
, Past Simple Past
Participle . :
to stop stopped
to plan planned
to permit permitted
to sob sobbed (; ).
-r,
:
1) r , ,
. :
to occur occurred ()
to prefer preferred ()
2) r , (
). :
to appear appeared ()
to fear feared ()
,
ed d. :
to live lived
to hire hired
to telephone telephoned
to like liked
to place placed
to move moved
* * *
.
200 . ,
.
.
.
( , ).
:
a) to sing sang sung b) to speak spoke spoken
to swim swam swum to forget forgot forgotten
to begin began begun to take took taken
to win won won to give gave given
to hold held held to write wrote written

27
c) to sell sold sold d) to send sent sent
to bring brought brought to build built built
to buy bought bought to lend lent lent
to teach taught taught

e) to put put put f) to be was, were been


to set set set to have had had
to shut shut shut to do did done
to burst burst burst to go went gone
to spread spread spread


.
( ).
:
a) ;
b) en Past Participle;
c) d t;
d) d t;
e) ;
f) .



. :
1) to lie lay lain ,
2) to lay laid laid ,
3) to sit sat sat
4) to set set set , ; ;

5) to rise rose risen ; ;
6) to raise raised raised ; ;

to lie
1. The chart always lies on that table.
.
2. I would like to lie down for a while.
.
3. I cannot fall asleep if I lie on my ,
back. .
to lay
1. Lay your hat on the chair. .
28
2. He laid his binoculars on the shelf.
.
3. Right now I am laying the book on ()
the desk. .
to sit
1. Jack usually sits near the exit.
.
2. Let's sit down for a while. (.:
).
3. Mr. Brown sat in a chair and read -
the paper. .
to set
1. You should not set the lamp too
near the curtain. .
2. Don't forget to set the table. (e) .
3. Steward has already set the table. .
to rise
1. The sun rises in the east. .
2. The sun has not risen yet. .
3. We watched the sun rise. ,
.
to raise
1. Children raise their hands to speak -
in class. ,
.
2. The landlord has raised the rent for
our apartment. .
3. His salary was raised by seven
percent. .
, to lie, to sit, to rise
, . . . to lay,
to set, to raise , . .
. :
I lay down on the sofa. .
laid the book on the table. .
We can sit here. .
The steward set the plates on the .
table.
Prices for consumer goods rise every
month. .
Mr. Smith raised his employee's -
salary. .
29
PAST SIMPLE (PAST INDEFINITE TENSE)
,
(Past Simple Tense) ,
. . (Regular Verbs,
Irregular Verbs).
-ed . :
I worked we worked
you worked you worked
he worked they worked
she worked
it worked

(
200 ) ,
.
. :
I swam we swam
you swam you swam
he swam they swam
she swam
it swam
,
. ,
.
(Past Simple Tense) ,
,
. , , ,
.
, .
, .
, .

, .
. :
smoked a cigarette and left the house.
() .
listened to the radio for half an hour.
.

30
, ,

. :
Jack wrote a letter to his mother twice a week.
.
,

. :
turned off the radio and went to bed.
.

1. Olga and I talked over the phone
two days ago. .
2. I sailed on board a passenger ship
last year. .
3. Igor scrubbed down the deck .
yesterday.
4. A dry cargo ship entered the port
two hours ago. .
* * *
1. Michael slept all day on Sunday. .
2. Our ship left the port of Odessa last
week. .
3. The Chiefmate kept the watch
yesterday. .
4. I told John about my trip.
.

Past Simple
to do.
Past Simple did
( )
,
( to). :
did I work? did we work?
did you work? did you work?
did he work? did they work?
did she work?
did it work?

Past Simple :
31
Yes, I did. Yes, we did.
Yes, you did. Yes, you did.
Yes, he did. Yes, they did.
Yes, she did.
Yes, it did.

Past Simple :
No, I didn't. No, we didn't.
No, you didn't. No, you didn't.
No, he didn't. No, they didn't.
No, she didn't.
No, it didn't.

didn't
, .
Past Simple:
No, I did not. No, we did not.
No, you did not. No, you did not.
No, he did not. No, they did not.
No, she did not.
No, it did not.


1. Did you work for the Shipping ( )
Company last year?
?
2. Did George work in a factory last
month? ?
3. Did Ann tell you about her trip?
?
4. Did Boris keep the watch last ?
night?
5. Did Olga give you her new ()
telephone number? ?
* * *
1. Where did you live last year? I ( )
lived in Odessa last year. ?
.
2. Where did you work last month?
I worked for the Shipping Company ?

32
last month.
.

Past Simple did not (


)
, to.
Past Simple
to work:
I did not work we did not work
you did not work you did not work
he did not work they did not work
she did not work
it did not work
didn't .

1. The ship didn't enter the port at .
night.
2. Henry didn't keep the watch .
yesterday.
3. It didn't snow last winter. .
4. I didn't write letters last week
because I was very busy. , .

FUTURE SIMPLE (FUTURE INDEFINITE TENSE)


Future Simple ( ),
,
will (
shall)
( to). :
I will work we will work
you will work you will work
he will work they will work
she will work
it will work

Future Simple.
to work.
Ill work we'll work
you'll work you'll work
he'll work they'll work
she'll work

33
it'll work
Future Simple
( ) . :
Will you write a letter tonight? Yes, I will.
Will he eat later? Yes, he will.
Future Simple
not
will. :
They will meet in 2 hours.
They will not meet in 2 hours.
won't
(= will not), shant (= shall not). :
Shant we meet in 2 o'clock.
He won't be home tonight.
Future Simple
, . :
Will you go to Boston? No, I will not.
No, I won't.
Future Simple
will . :
They will meet in 2 hours.
Will they meet in 2 hours?

1. The motormen will relieve each
other every four hours. .
2. You will enjoy the movie.
.
3. I will finish that letter by four
o'clock. .
4. I will wait for you downstairs. .
* * *
1. I won't (will not) see Mary .
tomorrow.
2. Our ship wont (will not) arrive at
the port of Liverpool tomorrow. .
* * *
1. Will the show last more than an
hour? ?
2. Will you return by the end of the ?
month?
3. Will my friend become a navigator? ?
34
GOING TO FUTURE

to be going + Infinitive . :
I believe it is going to snow.
, .
to be going + Infinitive
, , .
, ,
.

- .
:
1. The ship is going to stay in the port
for 3 days. .
2. I'm going to become a motorman. .
3. We are going to buy a color TV set.
.
4. He is going to go to the movies
tonight. .

Present participle

(.: ) (Continuous Tense).

(Present Participle), ,
, : + -ing.
: read-ing; go-ing; call-ing; talk-ing; listen-ing; look-ing.
, ,
, -
. : come, : com-ing; write, : writ-ing; have, : hav-
ing.
,
, -ing
:
1. : stopstopping; putputting.
2. ,
: begin beginning; commit committing.

35
PRESENT CONTINUOUS
Present Continuous
to be + (Present Participle)
.
Present Continuous ,
. , ,
: Peter is reading a paper, , (
) ( ).
, - (. .,
),
. : Peter reads a paper every morning.
.
Present Continuous to be
, . ., .
Present
Continuous .

I am coming am I coming?
you are coming are you coming?
he is coming is he coming?
she is coming is she coming?
it is coming is it coming?
we are coming are we coming?
you are coming are you coming?
they are coming are they coming?

, Present Continuous
, (
) to be. :
Are you working? Yes, I m. No, I am not.
Is she coming? Yes, she is. No, she is not.
(wht, who, where
. .), . :
Where are you going?
Who is coming?
Present Continuous
to be. :
I'm going we're going
you're going you're going
he's going they're going
she's going
it's going

36

1. I am (I'm) writing a letter. ( ) .
2. I am (I'm) sending a boat to you. .
3. My anchor is dragging. .
4. You are (you're) running into danger. .
* * *
1. I am (I'm) not reading. .
2. You are (you're) not keeping to
your correct traffic lane. .
3. I am not making way through the .
water.
4. The watch officer is not speaking
with the boatswain now. .
,
.
1. The passenger ship is calling at the
port of Naples now. .
2. This passenger ship always calls at
the port of Naples. .
3. I am talking with her now. .
4. I talk with her every day. .

PAST CONTINUOUS
Past Continuous
to be (Present Participle)
.
Past Continuous to work:
I was working we were working
you were working you were working
he (she, it) was working they were working

Past Continuous:
I was not (wasn't) working we were not (weren't) working
you were not (weren't) working you were not (weren't) working
he (she, it) was not (wasn't) working they were not (werent) working

Past Continuous:
was I working? were we working?
were you working? were you working?
was he (she, it) working? were they working?
37
Past Continuous
, (
). :
When I came on boad ship, the watch ,
officer was talking to the pilot.
.
, was talking to the pilot (Past Continuous)
, . . (
.
, . . ).

1. When we left the port of Odessa, it
was raining. , .
2. A tug was towing a passenger ship
when the storm began. , .
3. The cook was preparing the dinner ,
when the boatswain entered the .
galley.
4. The seamen were painting the hull ,
of the ship when the tug approached
the ship. .

Past Continuous
, (
, 6 . , .
.). ,
, , .

1. I was keeping watch on the
navigating bridge yesterday at 6 a. m. 6 .
2. It was raining all day long .
yesterday.
3. Where was your vessel staying at
eight oclock last night? ?
4. At that time our vessel was passing
the lighthouse Rose. .

Past Continuous
always (), constantly (),
never (). Past Continuous
. :
38
She was constantly complaining of ,
being neglected by her friends. .

Past Simple
Past Continuous. , Past Continuous
,
(Past Simple). :
1. The storm began when the ,
passenger liner was crossing the
English Channel. .

(Past Continuous),
(Past Simple).
2. When we were passing Hamburg, -
the weather became worse. , .
3. I was sleeping soundly when the ,
officer knocked at the door. .
4. When the Master entered the
Radio-room the radio-operator was ,
receiving a message of distress. .
5. When Joe came home, his wife was ,
preparing dinner. .

FUTURE CONTINUOUS
Future ontinuous will be
(-ing form). :
I will be working we will be working
you will be working you will be working
he will be working they will be working
she will be working
it will be working
(I'll..., you'll..., she'll..., it'll..., we'll..., they'll)
.

Future Continuous
I will not (won't) be working we will not (won't) be working
you will not (won't) be working you will not (won't) be working
he will not (won't) be working they will not (won't) be working
she will not (won't) be working
it will not (won't) be working

Future Continuous
39
will I be working? will we be working?
will you be working? will you be working?
will he be working? will they be working?
will she be working?
will it be working?
Future Continuous
,
( Present Simple). Future Continuous
,
.

1. If you call him at seven, he will be
watching the news. , ( )

.
2. I'll be working when you return. ,
( ).
3. A tug will be leaving the harbour, ,
when our ship arrives. .

Present Continuous ( , to go, to
come, to leave, to return etc.).
,
(tomorrow, tonight, next week, next Friday etc.). :
Our vessel is arriving at the port of
London today. .
The seamen are painting the hull of
the ship the whole day tomorrow. .

PRESENT PERFECT
Present Perfect
to have
(Past Participle) . :
I have worked we have worked
you have worked you have worked
he has worked they have worked
she has worked
it has worked
,
Present Perfect.
to work.

40
I've worked weve worked
you've worked you've worked
he's worked theyve worked
she's worked
it's worked
Present Perfect :
) , , -
. :
1. 35 countries have signed the Helsinki Agreement.
35 .
Present Perfect ,

.
2. I have slipped my anchor in position
...
. ., ( ).
3. I have lost a man overboard.
.
. . ( ).
4. My radar has become inoperative.
.
, ( ).
b) Present Perfect ,
, .

. :
1. I have known our Chief-mate for five years.
.
2. We havent called at this port since last summer.
.
,
(, , to live, to work, to
study, to teach, to read, to write, to travel), Present Perfect ,
( b), Present
Perfect Continuous (have/has been +
(Present Participle)). :
I have (I've) been working we have (we've) been working
you have (you've) been working you have (you've) been working
he has (he's) been working they have (they've) been working

How long have you lived (have you ?

41
been living) here?
I have lived here since 1972. 1972 .
I have been living here since 1972. 1972 .
I have lived here for nine years. .
I have been living here for nine years. .
c) Present Perfect ever
(-), never (). :
1. Has he ever studied English?
No, he has never studied English.
- ?
, .
2. Have you ever visited the Louvre?
No, I have never visited the Louvre.
- ?
, (.: ... ).

1. Our ship has left the port of
Glasgou. .
2. We have been to Australia. .
3. We have had our breakfast. () .
4. I have forgotten her name. .
5. John has stayed home. .

Present Perfect
not
to have. :
I have been in Paris.
I have not been in Paris.


1. We have not left the harbour yet. .
2. I have not found my wallet. .
3. The Master has not been sick. .
4. Our boatswain has not been to
London this year. .

Present Perfect
to have
. :
has worked all day.
Has he worked all day?

42
1. Has the radio-operator received an
urgent message? ?
2. Have you read that book? ?
3. Have you met your old friend?
?
* * *
Have you ever studied English? -
?
Yes, I have. .
No, I havent. .
No, Ive never studied English. ,
.

PRESENT PERFECT AND PAST SIMPLE


Past Simple, Present Perfect
, -
( ),
, yesterday, last night, last week, last year, last Sunday, the day
before yesterday (), an hour ago, a minute ago, two weeks ago; on
Tuesday, May 16; in the spring 1980 etc.
Past Simple. :
1 a) I spoke to Olga an hour ago.
.
b) I have spoken to her about it.
.
2 a) Last week I learned many new English words.
.
b) I have learned many new English words in this course.
() .
3 a) The tanker arrived in the port of Odessa yesterday.
.
b) The tanker has arrived in the port of Odessa on time.
.
4 a) You made a mistake a minute ago.
() .
b) You have made the same mistake several times.
.

43
PAST PERFECT
Past Perfect
to have (. ., had)
(Past Participle) . :
I had worked we had worked
you had worked you had worked
he had worked they had worked
she had worked
it had worked
( paype)
Past Perfect:
Id worked we'd worked
you'd worked you'd worked
he'd worked they'd worked
she'd worked

Past Perfect ,
- , .
, ,
Past Perfect, : 1) Simple
Past; 2) .
Past Perfect
:
1. Kate had left when I telephoned. , ()
.
2. I had seen that movie before last
year's New York Film Festival. -
.
. ,
: ; .
. , (. . ),
Past Perfect.
.
, , Past
Perfect, Past Simpl,
( - ). . .,
Past Perfect (
, - ).
Past Perfect
. :
His friends noticed how sad he was ,
during the dinner. He had got an .
44
unpleasant letter. .
.
(Past Perfect). ,
(Past Simple).
Past Perfect .
,
,
Past Perfect. :
1. When we arrived at the Marine
terminal, the ship had already , .
come.
2. Bob asked me why I had left the ,
party so early. .
3. I asked Jeff where he had spent his ,
vacation. .

1. When he had finished his work, he ,
called his friend. .
2. By noon they had discharged the .
cargo.
Past Perfect had
. :
Jack had left by the time they arrived.
Had Jack left by the time they arrived?
Past Perfect not
had. :
had taken the medicine when I entered the room.
He had not taken the medicine when I entered the room.

FUTURE PERFECT
Future Perfect ( ) will
(shall) have Past Participle ( )
. Future Perfect
to work:
I will have worked we will have worked
you will have worked you will have worked
he will have worked they will have worked
she will have worked
it will have worked

Future Perfect :

45
1) ,
( by).
:
By this time next month, you will
have forgotten all your present .
troubles.
He will have repaired the transmitter
by 3 oclock tomorrow. .

2) ,
. :
I am sure you will have recovered , ,
when I return from Europe. , ()
.
I hope you will have visited your ,
friends before our ship leaves the ,
port. .


1. When Pavel comes home, he will ,
have been a sailor for two years. ,
.
2. A month from now we will have .
came back home.
3. They will have loaded the cargo ,
when your radiogram arrives. .

Future
Simple Future Perfect. :
I will read this book next week.
.
I will have finished reading this book
by tomorrow. .
The vessel will spend six days in the
open sea. .
By tomorrow the vessel will have
spent six days in the open sea. .


Passive Voice ( )

to be + Past Participle ( )
46
.
( to punish ).
Present Simple Passive Voice
I am punished we are punished
you are punished you are punished
he (she, it) is punished they are punished
Past Simple Passive Voice
I was punished we were punished
you were punished you were punished
he (she, it) was punished they were punished
Future Simple Passive Voice
I will be punished We will be punished
you will be punished you will be punished
he (she, it) will be punished they will be punished
Present Perfect Passive Voice
I have been punished we have been punished
you have been punished you have been punished
he (she, it) has been punished they have been punished
Past Perfect Passive Voice
I had been punished
you had been punished etc.
Present Continuous Passive Voice
I am being punished we are being punished
you are being punished you are being punished
he (she, it) is being punished they are being punished
Past Continuous Passive Voice
I was being punished we were being punished
you were being punished you were being punished
he (she, it) was being punished they were being punished

:
Active Voice
Tom delivers the mail. .
Tom delivered the mail. .
Tom will deliver the mail. .
Passive Voice
The mail is delivered by Tom. .
The mail was delivered by Tom. .
The mail will be delivered by Tom.
.

47
, ,
,
. :
Active Voice: Tom delivers the mail.
Passive Voice: The mail is delivered by Tom.

, ,
by. :
. The work is done by Tom.


. :
Present Simple Passive Voice
All the life-boats are painted
regularly. .
Past Simple Passive Voice
This life-boat was painted a month
ago. .
Future Simple Passive Voice
The rest life-boats will be painted
next week.
.
Present Perfect Passive Voice
He has not been seen for a week. .
Past Perfect Passive Voice
The sailor reported that the life-boat , -
had been painted. .
Present Continuous Passive Voice
A new life-boat is being painted on
our ship. () .
Past Continuous Passive Voice
When I returned to that Californian (-
town, the hospital was still being ) ,
built. e
.

: 1)
; 2) , -; 3) -
( ,
).
:
48
1) I am invited to a party. .
.
2) The ships position was defined by -
the Chief-mate.
.

-
.
3) We were asked to come as early as
possible. .
,
. Passive Voice

-. :
1)
. : to
advise ; to ask ; to envy ; to give
; to grant , ; to offer ; to
order ; to pay ; to promise ; to show
; to tell .
:
We were advised to be cautious. -
.
I was asked to call Mr. Johnson. -
.
I was paid cash. .
We were told to wait. .
,

.

Passive Voice :
was shown a book. . (:
The book was shown to him. ).
2)
. , , : to affect
; , ; to assist
; to follow ; to influence ; to join
.
Passive Voice,
. :

49
The ice-breaker was followed by two .
vessels.
- ,
it +
. :
It has been suggested that the shore ,
based radar assistanse is not available.
.
It is seen from Figure 3 that... 3 , ...
It is not known whether... , ......
It was demonstrated that... (), ...
.

not,
,
. :
The merchandise was not delivered .
on time.
The criminal has not been caught by
the police. .
The negotiations will not be finished
next week. .
.
(
) . :
Will the ship holds be cleaned before
loading? ?
Is Mary interested in learning
Russian? ?
Has your position been obtained by ?
radar?
* * *
can, may, must, should
be + Past Participle
( ) .
have to, ought to
be + Past Participle . :
This letter must be written today.
.
This work can be done tomorrow. .
50
The bill has to be paid before the (
end of the month. ) .

1. Greeting cards are sent by most -
Americans at holiday time.
(.: -


).
2. English is spoken all over the -
world. .
3. This fascinating movie will be
seen in many countries. .


(Subjunctive Mood)
, , ,
, . . .,

(Indicative Mood), . . ,
.
.
. , ,
Subjunctive Mood .

,
Simple
Present Tense. :
Subjunctive: He, she, it go, take, have.
Indicative: He, she, it goes, takes, has.
to
be. : be
Present Simple; were
Past Simple Tense ( Past Simple
to be
were).
Subjunctive Mood :
) , , ,
, . . :
It is necessary that he see his lawyer. ,
(.:
... ).
51
It is desirable that Jack's departure be,
postponed. .
It is important that this question be ,
settled as soon as possible. .
I insist that the order be canceled. ,
() .
The officer recommended that the
sailor have a rest. .
) as if, as though (
). :
Boris speaks English as if he were -,
American born. .
Johnson acted as though (as if) he ,
were the owner of the firm. .
George spoke to me as if we were old ,
friends. .
) ,
to wish (
I wish).
, .......
I wish (that) Olga were here now. ,
( ). .
I wish Olga had been in New York City last ,
week. -
(; had .
been
, Past Perfect
)
I wish it were spring now. , .
I wish I had seen Igor yesterday. ,
.
) (.
). :
If there were more time, I could go ,
ashore. .
If I were young, I would study law. ,
.
If Joe were here, he would help you. ,
.
) ,
. :
If I were in Switzerland now!
!

52
If it were spring now! !


(Verbals) (,
) , ,
.
, .
, , , ,
.


,
. ,
,
.
:
1. Jack wants to become a sailor. .
2. He used to play chess twice a
week. .
3. I would like to drink a glass of
milk. .
4. He does not want to be criticized ,
by his colleagues. .
5. Jack was happy to have been ,
praised by his Master. .

53
:
Active Passive

Present to ask to be asked



-

Perfect to have asked to have been asked

-

Present
Infinitive Active Voice.
,
, ,
. :
1. smoke is harmful. ( ).
(
)
2. I prefer to read fiction in the -
evening. .

to (,
, ,
, , , Future Simple: I will work).
,
to. .
I. (Modal Auxiliaries): may, might;
can, could; must; should; would; needn't.
e:
1. You may come to see us
whenever you have time. , .
2. The order may have been , , .
canceled.
3. The Johnsons might have
invited us to their party. .

54
II. to let (; ).
:
1. Let me say a few words.
.
2. Let us be friends. .
3. Let him finish his work as soon as
possible. .
4. Let me stay here for a while.
.
5. Let's stop talking now. .
III. to see, to hear, to watch, to feel
- , ,
+
. :
I heard my neighbors quarrel. ,
.

1. No one heard him leave the ,
house. .
2. I watched the sailors paint life- , -
boats. .
3. I saw the boat approach the rocky ,
coast. .
IV. to make (
).
:
1. made us wait three hours. .
2. What makes you laugh? - ? (.:
?)
3. The boatswain made the seamen
paint the life-boats again. .
V. to had
better ( , ) would rather ( ).
:
1. You'd better call the doctor. .
2. He'd better paint the life-boat
more carefully. .
3. Youd better apply for this job
opening immediately.
.
55
VI. to to help.
:
1. She helped me pack my clothes.
.
2. My friend helped me look for my .
watch.
3. Could you help me lift this heavy
box? ?
4. Help him scrub down the deck. .



.
.
, -ing,
.
.
,
, .
:
Active Passive
Simple seeing, writing being seen, :
being written

Perfect having seen, having been seen,
having written having been :
written
:
1. John likes studying foreign -
languages. .
2. Little Paul likes being read fairy ,
tales. .
3. I don't remember having seen ,
such a movie. .
4. I remember having been informed , -
of the conference. .
()
.

56
.
. :
1. is fond of playing chess. .
2. Jack is proud of being among the ,
winners of the contest. .
3. I am very glad at knowing it. .
4. He left the room without saying
good-bye. .
,
.

. : to be afraid (); to
begin, to start (); to continue (); to forget (); to
hate (; ); to intend (); to
like, to love (; );to prefer ().
:
1. I like traveling in summer. .
I like to travel in summer.
2. I will start working next week.
I will start to work next week. .
3. We continued discussing the
agenda for the meeting. .
We continued to discuss the
agenda for the meeting.

, ,
. : to appreciate ( ); to forgive
(); to keep, to keep on (); to enjoy (
; ); to finish (, ); to prevent
(); cannot help; cannot resist ( ...; ... .
.); to excuse (); to deny (); to mind (
); to avoid (); to
refrain (); to be capable of... ( -).
:
1. I would appreciate your calling ,
me back. .
2. Please excuse my disturbing you. , .
3. I enjoyed traveling round the
world last year. .
4. I have finished lubricating the
deck equipment. .

57

(Participle)
, .
(Verbal
Adjective). ,

( , , .).
.
, (
): ) ,
-; )
, , ,
-.
.
,
.
:
Active Passive
Present seeing, writing being seen, being written

Past seen, written


Perfect having seen, having written having been seen, having been
asked

Present Participle Active Voice


-ing ( to): to see seeing, to write
writing.
-, : to drive
driving.

, : to stop stopping.
-ie, , a i :
to lie lying; to die dying.
Present Participle Passive Voice
to be
: to see being seen; to write being written.
Past Participle Passive Voice ,
Past Simple, . . -ed: used, advertised.
Past Participle Passive Voice
( ): seen, written, driven, read.

58
Perfect Participle Active Voice
to have
: having seen, having written, having driven, having read.
Perfect Participle Passive Voice
to be Perfect Participle (having been)
: having been seen, having been
asked.

: Present Participle Active Voice; Past Participle
Passive Voice. :
Present Participle Active Voice
The woman sitting in the armchair is , ,
the Master's wife. .
Approaching the harbour the ship ,
ordered two tugs. .
The Master altered the ships course, ,
passing a dangerous place. .
The passing vessel is a new ocean-
going liner. .
Past Participle Passive Voice
John has bought a used car. ,
.
The Master is looking for a checked
chart. .
The advertised merchandise was not
available at the store. .
The message transmitted by the Chief- ,
operator is on the Masters table. , .


.
, . :
We are discussing the radiogram ,
received by radio-operator. .

.

(,
).
Don't wake up the sleeping child. He .
The child sleeping on the sofa is sick. , , .
.
59

(
-, -, -, -, -, -, -),
.

. . Participial Phrases (. . ).
:
1. Not feeling well, Igor decided not ,
to go ashore. .
2. Seeing her friend, Ann cried with ,
joy. .
3. Asking me about my summer
plans, Mr. Smith smiled all of a , - .
sudden.

,
.
( -)
Present Participle,
, , -.
:
, The sailor reading an English book
, . used a dictionary.
,
,
. :
, The motorman who has repaired this
, . engine is here.


(Adverbs) , ,
.
.
:
spoke slowly. .
The buoys are constantly shifted. .
works rapidly. .
Victor studies English very seriously.
.

60

:
1. : often, now, much, here, there, rather.
2. ( -ly
): easy easily; soft
softly; clear clearly; part partly.
3. : everywhere, upstairs, downstairs, uphill, downhill,
somehow, sometimes, anyway, anyhow.
4. : at last (), at first (), at best (
), by and large ( ).

:
1. : today, yesterday, tomorrow, soon.
2. : often, frequently, seldom, never, sometimes.
3. : here, there, forward, uphill.
4. : therefore, consequently.
5. : quickly, beautifully, easily, hard.
6. : very, almost, rather, quite, nearly.

. : hard, fast, late, early, low.
:
1. John works very hard. .
It is a hard job. .
2. The Masters orders must be
executed quickly. .
The pilot boat was very fast.
.
3. The sailors get up early. .
prefers an early retirement.
.
4. Joe came very late. .
Will he come at such a late ?
hour?
5. The helicopter flew very low. .
The room has a low ceiling. .
,
: nearly, hardly, lately.
:
It's nearly time for dinner. .
I could hardly understand what he () ,
was saying. .
I haven't seen her lately. .
61
badly : 1) ; 2) . :
John dances badly. .
I need you badly. .
to feel (), to look (), to seem
(), to taste ( ), to sound (), to become
() .

( to be, ).
:
Do you feel comfortable? ?
She looks pale. (.:
).
You look very good. .
This name sounds familiar to me. .
The situation seemed hopeless. .
The ship become famous over night. .

, .
( ). :
Boatswain looked angrily at him.
( angrily
to look).
The Chiefmate felt very nervous.
( nervous
,
).

,
.

-r, -est,
.
: more
; most . :
hard harder hardest;
fast faster fastest;
soon sooner soonest;
correctly more correctly most correctly.

. :

62
well better best
() () ( , )
badly worse worst
() () ( , )
much more most
() () ( ,
)
little less least
() () ( ,
)
far further; farther furthest; farthest
() () ( , )

(today, yesterday, tomorrow etc.)


, . :
I met John in the cafeteria yesterday. .
Yesterday I met John in the cafeteria.
recently (), lately ( ), before (,
) . :
I have never been there before. .
(usually, often, never,
seldom, still, already, always, yet etc.)
. :
always comes on time. .
I will never forget it. .
He has never spoken to me. .

to be. :
is usually works on the deck. .
Master often comes on the bridge. .


,
.
,
, .

: 1) ; 2) ; 3)
.

63

at
at one o'clock
at three o'clock
at 9:25 P.M.
at 9:25 ..
at noon 12
at midnight
at night
at that time

on
on Sunday (on Monday etc.) ( . .)
(on) Friday evening
on Monday, May 15, 1982 15 1982 .
on a day off
on a cold winter day

in
in the morning
in the daytime
in the afternoon ,
in the evening
in the summer (in the fall etc.) ( . .)
in September (in October etc.) ( . .)
in 1980 1980 .
in an hour ( )
in three hours ( )
in a week ( )
in two months ( )
in a year ( )

by
by 8 o'clock 8
by the beginning of April
by the end of October

since
since 6 o'clock
since May
since 1970 1970 .

64
for )
to study English for two years
(for six months etc.) ( . .)
to stay at home for a week ( . .)
(for two days etc.)

)
to go to Boston (to the mountains ( . .)
etc.) for a week (for a month etc.) ( . .)

before ,
before breakfast
before midnight

after
after six o'clock
after dinner

during , ,

during the lesson ,
during your watch ,

until ( )
He will not give an answer until next
Friday. .

at , ,
at the window
at sea
at the helm
at anchor

on
on the wall
on the table
on the bridge

65
in ,
in the cabin
in this building
in London
in the north
in the south
in the west
in the east

into ( -.)
He walked into the room. .
He got into serious trouble.
(.: )

from (), ,
He took a book from the table. .
I received a letter from my parents. .
I came from Odessa. () .

to , ,
I am going to my cabin. .
He is going to work. .
I turn the helm to port or to starboard.
.
Send two lines to the tug! .

near , , ()
near the door
near the window ( )

along
along the road
along the wall

around ,
around the table
around the house
around the store -

across
across the road
across the river

66
through ,
through the tunnel
through the village
through the binoculars ()

over , ,
over the fireplace
over the telephone
He climbed over the fence. .

in front (of) ,
There is a garden in front of my .
house.
Jack was sitting in front of his old
schoolmate. .
Why did you stop in front of that
house? ?

between
between Paris and London
between France and Belgium

behind ,
behind the house
behind the police precinct

under
under the table
under the book

inside ,
inside the house

outside ,
outside the house

up ,
up the hill (uphill)
up the river

67
down
down the hill (downhill)
down the river

off , ( ,
)
The house stands off the main road.
.
The ship anchored five miles off the
shore (offshore). .

because of -,
because of rain -
because of illness -
because of the noise -

in view of
in view of the serious political
situation
in view of his professional experience


: with , without
, against , for .

II.



. ,
.
(),

.
.

. :
68
You can still catch Ann. She left just .
now. .
:

. .
Ann can still catch you. .

:
1) . 1) Subject.
2) . 2) Verb.
3) . 3) Indirect Object.
4) . 4) Direct Object.
5) . 5) Adverbial Modifiers.
:
Stewardesses offered the visitors free
coffee at the entrance. .

. :
At the age of fifteen, Igor decided to
become a sailor. .
Igor decided to become a sailor at the
age of fifteen. .

. :
The dry cargo ship left the harbour an
hour ago. .
He has not lived in Odessa for twenty .
years.
, (often ;
rarely, seldom ; usually ; never ; ever -
; occasionally ; always .),
(
to be). :
Oleg always keeps the watch in the .
morning.
Oleg usually keeps the watch in the .
morning.
Oleg never keeps the watch in the
morning. .
He is always late for dinner. .

69
He is usually late for dinner. .
He is never late for dinner. .
, ,
. :
Occasionally I meet John on deck.
.

, .
:
The storm began unexpectedly at four
o'clock in the morning. .

, ,
. :
Pavel has been suddenly called back
to Odessa. .

. :
did his morning exercises
regularly. .
He standed the pain patiently. .
,
, , ( )
, . . .
:
The great gate opened slowly.
.
The great gate slowly opened. .
Slowly the great gate opened.
.


,
. ,
. :

1) .
,
. :
Where do you live? ?
Can you help me? ?

70
Do you drive? ?
Have you seen Victor? ?
,
to be. :
Is your father at home? ?
Are you tired? ?
to be
( Present Perfect, Past Perfect, Simple
Future). :
Will you be at home tonight? ?
Have you ever been to Europe? - ?

2) there is/there are. :


There are no cigarettes on the table. .
There is a coffee shop across the
street. .
Are there pipelaying operations in
position ? ?
Is there any other traffic? -?

3) . :
So be it! !
How dreadful this place is! !
And so say all of you! !

4) if,
were, had, could, should. :
Should any emergency arise, I will let
you know. (.:
), .
Had I known about it before, I would ,
have come to see you. .


. .
.
,
.
.
:
What are you looking at? ?
What country do you come from? ?
71
Whom do you wish to speak to? ?
Which magazine are you looking for? ?


which, whom, that,
, ,
(
).
,
,
( ,
).

The book (which/that) we were , ,
speaking about was written by .
young author.
The carpenter (who/that) I told you ,
about has come. .

THERE IS/THERE ARE



there is/there are. there is/ there are

- , ,
. There is
, there are
. : There is a chart on
the table. There are three charts on the table.
there is/there are ,
(
). : There is a tug near the ship. There is a meeting tonight.
there is/there are
. :
There is a book on the shelf. The book is on the shelf.

There's there is.


.
,

, , .

who
72
there is/there are,
. :
The book is on the shelf. There is a book on the shelf.

there is/there are there


.

1. There is radar on the bridge. .
2. There is a dangerous rock in ()
position ...
3. There is an oil stick in position ... ()

there is/there are :
Is there? Is there a box on the deck?
Are there? Are there many boxes on the deck?

1. Is there radar on the bridge? ?
2. Is there a meeting today? ?
3. Is there an envelope on the shelf? ?
many much ,
. Many
, (,
many books; many ships). Much
,
(,
much water; much snow).
1. There are many books on the .
shelf.
2. There is a lot of oil in Saudi
Arabia. .
3. There are many ships at this port. .
there is/there are
no,
( ).
There is no :
) ,
, , :
There is no bread on the table. .
There is no milk in the jug. .
) ,
, :

73
There is no clock in this room. .
There is no winch on the deck. .
There are no ,
, ,
:
There are no books on the shelf. .
There are no charts on the table. .
many, much,
there is/there are not. :
There are not many crew members in
the Crew List. .
There are not many foreign ships in
our port. .
There is not much food in the ()
refrigerator. .
There is not much water in the jug. () .

:
There is no money in his wallet. .
There is not much money in his ()
wallet. .
There are no people on the bridge. .
There are not many people on the () .
bridge.
, is there/are there
:
Yes, there is. Yes, there are.
there is/there are
:
No, there is not. No, there are not.

Is there a letter in the mailbox? ?
Yes, there is. No, there is not. , . .
Is there an American vessel in our
port? ? , . .
Yes, there is. No, there is not.
Is there a meeting today? ? .
Yes, there is. No, there is not. .
Are there many immigrants from the

74
USSR in Chicago? ? (). .
Yes, there are. No, there are not.
there is/there are

:
No, there isn't. No, there aren't.



.
( ). : Do you live here? Yes, I do No, I
don't. ,
: Where do you live? I live in Odessa.

,
() .
: who (); what( ); whose (, ,
, ); where (); when (); which (); how (); how often
( ); how long ( ); how much; how many* (); why
().

, :
comes here every day. .
Does he come here every day? ?
When does he come here? ?
Who comes every day? ?
do/does ,
who, what, which
( ).


Do you get up early? ?
Does he keep the watch every day? ?
Do they lubricate the deck equipment
every week? ?
Does the ship call at this port? ?
Do you want navigational assistance
to reach the inshore pilot station?
?

*
How much ,
( ); how many .
75
Did they paint the life-boats last
week? ?

Who gets up early? ?
Who is entering the room? ?
Who often goes ashore? ?
Who kept the watch yesterday? ?
What's your address? () ?
Whats on tonight? ( ,
)?
Where do you live? ?
Where are you going to spend your
vacation? ?
whose ,
. Whose
, , , . ,
whose
.

Whose chart is this? ?


Whose notebook is this? ?
Whose key is this? ?
Whose keys are these? ?
Whose car is this? ?
Whose book is this? ?
Whose books are these? ?


, ,
(
+
). :
Do you drive a car? Yes, I do. No, I don't.
Can he navigate a sailing ship? Yes, he can. No, he can't.

,
:
Will the Master alter the ships course? Yes, he will. No, he won't.

76

( ),
. :
Is he a sailor? Yes, he is. No, he ? ().
isn't.
Is Jim at home? Yes he is. No, ? ().
he isn't.
Is it raining now? Yes, it is. No, ? ().
it isn't.
Do you get up early? Yes, I do. ? ().
No, I don't.
Are you writing a letter? Yes, I am. ( )
No, I am not. ? ().
Does Pavel like to navigate the ships? ?
Yes, she does. No, she doesn't. ().
Do you often keep the watch? Yes, ?
I do. No, I don't. ().
Do you have any money with you? ?
Yes, I do. No, I don't. ().
Do you live in Odessa? Yes, I do. ? ().
No, I don't.
Does Tom scrub down the deck every ?
day? Yes, he does. No, he doesn't. ().



. .
:
.
,

. :
1)
;
Past Simple, Past
Continuous. :
, I knew (that) he played chess every
. day.
, , I knew (that) he was playing chess,
. and I didn't want to disturb him.

77
2)
:
Past Perfect. :
, I knew (that) Bill had not had time to
. read my letter.
3)
, ;

. . Future in the Past,
would
to. :
, I knew (that) Bill would come to see
10 . . me after 10 P. M.
, can may
: could, might.

,
. :
, said (that) he could not promise to
. come to the party.

1. , The Master said (that) he was very
. busy.
2. , The Master said (that) he had been
. very busy.
3. , He said he would call again.
.
4. , He thought he might finish his work
. by six o'clock.
5. , The sailor promised he would try to
. do work better.
6. , He said he had lost his binoculars.
.
7. , He told me he had lost his
. binoculars.
8. , He said he was looking for his
. binoculars.
9. , Albert said he would go ashore early
. in the morning.
10. , I thought Jack was out of vessel.
.

78
.
,
,
,
. :
, Sergey knew that Albany is the
-. capital of the State of New York.

,
,
. :
, Oleg says (that) he knows her well.
.
, . Oleg says (that) he has seen that
movie.
, Oleg says (that) he will meet her to a
. party.



:
1) ,

. :
: Radio-operator said, I have received this message.
: Radio-operator said (that) he had received that message.
2)
,

.

.
:
1. : pa Tom said, I work in this port as a
. docker.
, Tom said that he worked in this port
. as a docker.
2. : Ann said, I live in Boston.
.
, Ann said that she lived in Boston.
.

79
3. : The Master said to us, We have
. already passed the old lighthouse.
, The Master told us (that) we had
. already passed the old lighthouse.
4. : Igor said, We are going to the
. movies.
, Igor said (that) they were going to the
. movies.
5. : The officer said, We had arrived at
, the port before the storm began.
.
, The officer said (that) they had
, arrived at the port before the storm
. began.
5,
,
.
said
Past Simple to declare (), to assure
(), to remark () . . :
said, The translation is rather difficult.
He remarked that the translation was rather difficult.
* * *
,

.


.
.
,
whether ( if).
:
asked me whether (if) I lived in ,
Brooklyn. .

:
.
:
1. : ? asked me, Do you smoke?
, . He asked me whether (if) I smoked.
80
2. : I asked Mary, Do you like to go
? shopping?
, I asked Mary whether (if) she liked
. to go shopping.
3. : I asked him, Do you take a walk
? every evening?
, I asked him whether (if) he took a
. walk every evening.
4. : Jack asked me, Can you swim?
?
, Jack asked me whether (if) I could
. swim.
,
: who, what, whose, where, when, which, why, how
.
(- ),
, .
:
1. : Linda asked me, Who is the Master
? of your ship?
, Linda asked me who was the Master
. of my ship.
2. My junior brother asked me: How
: many foreign countries do you visit
every month?.
?
My junior brother asked me how
, many foreign countries I visited
. every month.
3. : Bob asked me, Where does Jane
? live?
, Bob asked me where Jane lived.
.
4. : Ann asked me, Where are you
? going?
, . Ann asked me where I was going.
5. The Chiefmate asked, Who is on
: watch today?
?
The Chiefmate asked who was on
, . watch that day.

81


.
, if (), .

: 1) , ; 2)
, ; 3) ,
; 4) ,
, (
) .
1) , .

Present Simple ( ),
Future Simple. :
If the weather is nice tomorrow, we'll ,
go to the beach. () .

1. If you study hard, you will pass
your examinations. (.: ),
.
2. If I see Ann, I will ask her to call ,
you. .
3. I'll drop in later if anything new ,
comes up. - .
4. If we hurry, we'll get to the movie ,
on time. .
5. If we take a pilot, we wont have ,
any problems. () .

.
- .
:
If people work hard, they usually go ,
to bed early. .
If I went to bed late, I usually felt ,
tired the next day.
.
2) , ( )

Past Simple, would (could) + Infinitive.
to be,
82

were ( ).

1. If people drove more carefully,
there would be fewer accidents. ,
.
2. If you went to bed earlier, you
would not feel so tired. ,
().
3. If I had enough time, I would go
ashore. , .
... should +
Infinitive. :
If you decided to write him a letter,
you should do it as soon as possible. o
.
* * *
1. If I were you, I would study ,
computer science. .
2. If Michael were here, he would ,
help you find a job. .
3. If they were really needy, they
would get welfare. ,
.
3) ,

Past Perfect, would have ( could have)
+ Past Participle ( ) .
:
If the sea had been calm yesterday,
our ship would have put to sea. ,
.

.
, ,
, ,
() ,
.

.

83

.

1. If I had known your address, I
would have written to you. ape, .
2. If I had got a pay raise, I would
not have looked for another job. , (. .
) .
3. If it had not rained last night, we
would have visited our friends. ,
.
4)

, ( ) (
) . :
1. If I had mailed the letter ,
yesterday, you would receive it .
tomorrow.
2. If you had studied English before
you came here, you could get a ,
good job at a shipping company.
.
3. If I had got a pay raise a year ago,
I would be better off at present. ,

.
4. If you had not fallen ill, I would ,
not be keeping the watch now. .
if.
, . .
( ,
). :
If I were there, I would help him. , .
Were I there, I would help him. , .
If he had been a US citizen, he would
have got this federal job. ,
.
Had he been a US citizen, he would
have got this federal job. ,
.

84
PRESENT SIMPLE IF,
WHEN, UNTIL
, ,
Present Simple,
(
).
Future Simple. : if (); until ( ;
); when (); as soon as ( ); before ( ,
); unless ( , ); as long as ( ; ); while (
, ).

1. If the water temperature rises, we
can go swimming in the ocean. ,
.
2. If you prepare well, you will pass ,
your examination. .
3. I will stay with the sick man until ,
the doctor arrives. .
4. They won't start to load the cargo ,
until your radiogram arrives. .
5. When we approach the pilot
station, the Master will send a ,
radiogram. .
6. When Jack arrives at Kennedy
Airport, he will call us. . , .
7. As soon as I receive Bob's letter, I ()
will let you know. , .
8. I will give him your book as soon ,
as I see him. .

85

I............................................................................................................4

.........................................................................................................4
( an)...........................................................4
................................................................................4
......................................................................8
...................................................................8
..........................9
........................................................................11
...13
it............................................................................................13
...................................................15
MUCH, MANY, LITTLE, FEW...................................................................16
SOME ANY.............................................................................................17
SOMETHING NYTHING; SOMEBODY ANYBODY ETC.........18
..........................................................................................................19
.......................................................19
.........................................................................20
May, might................................................................................................20
Can, could.................................................................................................21
Must..........................................................................................................21
Need..........................................................................................................22
Should, would...........................................................................................22
........................................................22
PRESENT SIMPLE (present indefinite tense).........................................22
...............................25
PAST SIMPLE (past indefinite tense)......................................................30
FUTURE SIMPLE (futurE indefinite tense)............................................33
Present participle......................................................................................35
PRESENT CONTINUOUS......................................................................36
PAST CONTINUOUS..............................................................................37
Future Continuous....................................................................................39
PRESENT PERFECT...............................................................................41
PAST PERFECT.......................................................................................44
FUTURE PERFECT.................................................................................46
......................................................................47
.....................................................51
.............................................................53
.........................................................................................53
.............................................................................................56
86
...........................................................................................58
......................................................................................................60
.....................................................................................................63
.......................................................................................64
................................................65
.........................................................68
II.......................................................................................................68
..........................................................................................68
......................................................................................................70
................................................................................71
THERE IS/THERE ARE..............................................72
................................................75
...........................................................................................75
....................................................................................76
.................77
..............................................................79
................................................................82
PRESENT SIMPLE IF, WHEN, UNTIL..................85

87

, .


..

12.02.2001. 14.03.2001,
148210. , 1000 .


270014, , .-14, / 90.

88