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3, MARCH 2010 935

A Study of a Hybrid Filter

Simon Ostronik, Primo Bajec, Member, IEEE, and Peter Zajec, Member, IEEE

AbstractThis paper presents results of a comparative study of generation of unwanted disturbances. The type of energy stor-
two possible hybrid filter topologies, comprised of a passive and age used in these vehicles are either conventional automotive
active stage, which can be implemented in any general dc supply batteries or sophisticated power supply systems, such as fuel
distribution system. The main filter task is to mitigate current
dynamics in the dc distribution system in order to prolong the cells, ultracapacitors, traction batteries, photovoltaic cells, and
operational life of delicate dc supplies, i.e., fuel cells, and to reduce their combinations. These advanced energy systems present
the electromagnetic interferences between sensitive electronic cir- new challenges in recent work [10][21], where providing a
cuits connected to the distribution net. The active stage is incorpo- dynamic and, on the other hand, robust electric environment is
rated into the passive part in order to: 1) improve its insufficient of key importance. Fuel cells with their rigid electric character-
attenuation in the low-frequency range and 2) source or sink any
surplus energy flow between the dc source and load in case of low- istics require efficient filtering and power management system.
frequency current dynamics. Two active stage topologies are pro- Aside from their slow response to load step changes, good
posed, analyzed, and evaluated in detail: 1) an active filter based filtering is crucial due to their reduced efficiency caused by the
on a single-leg inverter and 2) an active filter based on an electronic output current ripple [22]. Furthermore, standards that regulate
smoothing inductor. A special focus is on achieving attenuation the minimum allowed electromagnetic interference (EMI) in
at different voltage levels of the auxiliary supply and at different
coupling inductances. The impact of the current ripple generated automotive applications are becoming more demanding with
by the switching mode of the active filter operation is discussed every new edition. An additional concern is operation of high-
as well. The active filter based on the single-leg inverter offers su- power electronic devices located in a tight proximity to ana-
perior attenuation, particularly in the low-frequency range where log and digital control circuits. This is why disturbances in
attenuation is improved nearly for 15 dB compared to the passive power supply should be paid much attention in order to suffi-
ciently reduce EMI, thus enabling reliable operation of modern
Index TermsActive filter, electronic smoothing inductor (ESI), vehicles.
passive filter, power electronics, zero ripple. To maintain reliable operation of the dc voltage supply
systems, similar steps as in the ac grid applications can be
I. I NTRODUCTION undertaken. Such an example is the active filter [23] proposed
as a subunit of a dc/dc converter. It is designed to filter a single
H ARMONIC filters, dynamic voltage restorers, and volt-
ampere reactive compensators [1][3] are well-known
countermeasures taken against current distortions caused by
specific harmonic component which can be selected with a
proper control of power switches. Another promising solution,
termed electronic smoothing inductor (ESI) [24], was proposed
nonlinear loads and load disturbances in ac grid power ap-
by a research group conducted by Prof. Kolar. Its operation is
plications. The most common approach to maintain ac grid
basically similar to the series active filters used in the ac grid.
reliability is a separate use of passive filters or in a combination
As said above, the main requirement imposed on filter de-
with active ones. Passive filters can be very effective in reducing
sign for automotive applications is to achieve a dc electric
a specific harmonic component (fifth, seventh harmonic . . .)
environment with a minimum or no voltage/current ripple,
[4]. However, the size and weight are their main disadvantages.
thus making it suitable for delicate automotive power supply
Better performance can be achieved with active filters which
systems, regardless of the ripple amplitude or frequency caused
enable also a considerable size and/or weight reduction of large
by various factors in the system. This is why, in this paper, we
passive components [5][8] and cover a wide frequency range
propose a modification of the active filter [23] by expanding its
limited only by the dynamics of their power stage.
frequency range and, at the same time, providing some energy
A similar issue arises in hybrid electric vehicles (HEV),
accumulation for sudden load fluctuations. The ESI concept
plug-in HEVs, and all-electric vehicles with built-in electric
is also applied in order to further reduce the filter component
motors [9] due to high acceleration and deacceleration rates
weight and particularly the rated voltage of implemented power
which lead to very dynamical current behavior and potential
switches [25].
Similarly, as in [23], the proposed filter shown in Fig. 1
Manuscript received February 27, 2009; revised August 24, 2009. First
published September 18, 2009; current version published February 10, 2010.
consists of the active and passive filter. As it consists of two
This work was supported by the European Union, European Social Fund. different topologies, it is referred to as a hybrid filter. The main
S. Ostronik is with Hidria d.d., 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia, and also with difference between the hybrid filter presented in this paper and
the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, 1000 Ljubljana,
Slovenia (e-mail: simon.ostroznik@hidria.com). the ESI concept is in the topology and control circuitry of the
P. Bajec is with Hidria d.d., 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia (e-mail: primoz. active filter.
bajec@hidria.com). The hybrid filter is inserted between source u1 and the
P. Zajec is with the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of
Ljubljana, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia (e-mail: peter.zajec@fe.uni-lj.si). load to reduce the current ripple flowing toward the source.
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TIE.2009.2031666 This paper first theoretically describes the passive stage and

0278-0046/$26.00 2010 IEEE


Fig. 1. Topology of the hybrid filter.

Fig. 3. Coupled inductor and its equivalent circuit.

equal to transformed voltage uac = udc from the primary

side. Keeping this in mind, the final zero-ripple condition can
Fig. 2. Passive filter topology. be expressed as

the basic design rules. It then discusses two different topolo- 
didc 1
gies for the active filter, and in the last section, it presents, = udc uac + 1 k Ldc uac .
analyses, and compares experimental results of the observed dt Ldc (1 k 2 )    L
   2   ac
topologies. 1 3

II. PASSIVE F ILTER BASED ON A C OUPLED I NDUCTOR A detailed description with mathematical derivations can be
found in [26] and [27]. Parameter presents the ratio between
A. Theoretical Basis the voltages applied to the secondary and primary windings. In
The passive filter consists of two components: a coupled in- most cases, its value is one.
ductor and a capacitor. Together, they form a ripple cancellation The zero-ripple condition occurs when (3) is equal to zero.
circuit. The structure of the passive filter is shown in Fig. 2. This can be achieved when the voltages across both windings
To understand the filter topology, a coupled inductor and are of an equal value (3, part 2) and when the turns ratio
a method commonly referred to as the zero ripple, ripple between the ac and dc winding exactly compensates for the
cancellation, or ripple steering are addressed. This method, leakage flux (3, part 3). This is why a 100% ripple cancellation
known and used in different applications for many years [26] can only be achieved in theory, although optimal dimensioning
[29], employs a coupled inductor as the main filtering compo- of the coupled inductor yields very good attenuation results.
nent. In Fig. 3, the general structure of the coupled inductor is
shown. B. Construction and Experimental Results
Neglecting the power losses, the coupled inductor (with cou-
pling coefficient k) can be presented as an ideal coupled induc- When constructing the proposed filter, it is not necessary
tor (where n presents the turns ratio between ideal windings) in to optimally meet all the conditions (3) needed for the zero
combination with primary leakage inductance L,ac , secondary ripple. One such example is the turns ratio. As there only a
leakage inductance L,dc , and magnetizing inductance LM . discrete number of turns is feasible, exact values for Nac and
The circuit shown in Fig. 3 can be described with Ndc cannot be achieved. Another problem already stated in [28]
      is manufacturability. Satisfying the zero-ripple phenomenon in
uac Lac M d iac mass production requires technically advanced procedures.
= (1)
udc M Ldc dt idc A coupled inductor of the presented experimental setup was
where M is the mutual inductance constructed by using the ETD49 core having the following

M = k Lac Ldc . (2) Following the design rules in [26] and considering core
specifications listed in Table I, the zero-ripple phenomenon was
To obtain the zero current ripple condition in the secondary pursued and the result was a coupled inductor with characteris-
winding, the voltage applied across this winding should be tics given in Table II.



Fig. 5. Attenuation of the coupled inductor.

plitudes of the input iin and output iout currents were scanned
throughout the frequency range. Calculated attenuation SdB
SdB = 20 log (6)

is shown in Fig. 5.
Above the 10-kHz level attenuation is almost constant,
whereas in the frequency range from 10-kHz down to 0-Hz
attenuation is rapidly reduced. Aside from the coupled inductor
Fig. 4. Setup for the coupled inductor attenuation measurement.
design, another important factor when constructing the pro-
posed filter is selection of a filtering capacitor with the highest
Parameters LA and L0 are measured as stated in design rules possible capacitance CF and low equivalent series resistance.
[26], where LA is the combined inductance of both windings Namely, the measured attenuation shown in Fig. 5 can be ob-
with a seriesaiding connection and L0 is the combined induc- tained if the voltage difference between the ac and dc wind-
tance with a seriesopposing connection. Together with other ings is close to zero ( = 1). Due to a frequency-dependent
parameters given in Table II, equivalent circuit parameters are impedance of the filtering capacitor and since in an ideal case
calculated all the ripple current flows through the ac winding, it is difficult
to neglect the voltage ripple caused on the filter capacitor, par-
M = (LA L0 )/4 = 52.7 H ticularly at low frequencies. The only way of reducing voltage
 ripple is by minimizing the capacitor size and cost. The optimal
k = M/ Lac Ldc = 0.79
solution is to keep the capacitor voltage constant by using a
n = Ndc /Nac = 17/13 = 1.307 controlled source, i.e., an active filter.
LM = M/n = 40.37 H
L,ac = Lac LM = 12.68 H III. ACTIVE F ILTER

L,dc = Ldc nM = 14.54 H. (4) The task of the active filter is to improve attenuation in the
low-frequency range, where the attenuation provided by the
As seen from the list of calculated parameters (4), the passive filter is insufficient. To allow suitable voltage control,
difference between the secondary and primary winding turns the active filter should be capable to receive or release a
is evident. It is due to the mismatch between preferred and sufficient amount of energy to preserve the capacitor voltage
actual coupling coefficient kthe most difficult construction constant irrespective of low-frequency load current fluctuations.
parameter to meet in the whole design procedure. The obtained The filter energy storage components can thus be considered
ripple attenuation of the proposed design can be evaluated with as one of the most affecting parts of the active filter. Different
the computation topologies can be used to achieve the desired energy storage
capability. A filter with its own energy storage enables its
= (LM /Lac ) n = 0.9939. (5) independence, although additional components are needed in
such case, commonly resulting in weight and/or cost increase
The goal is to make it as close to one as possible. Attenuation of the application. Usually, an inductor [23], capacitor, or
of the implemented coupled inductor was measured using the additional source (battery) are selected as an energy storage
circuit shown in Fig. 4. element. If only passive components are used, connection to
Although the nominal power of applications implemented the main power grid is required. Such connection is symbolized
with such filter can be several kilowatts, the concept was with a dotted line in Fig. 6.
evaluated for the passive and active part of the filter operating at As to the dc steady state, the active filter should provide a
lowered power ratings with nominal load current 8 A. The am- value opposite to the one of the current flowing through coupled

Filter voltage uF is controlled indirectly by an appropriate

onoff (time discrete) control of the MOSFET switches forcing
the mean value of the filter capacitor current to zero (7), thus
maintaining a constant voltage across the filter capacitor. The
superimposed voltage control loop is however necessary in
order to prevent the voltage drift. The proposed cascade control
loop results in a significantly faster response compared to the
one without the current control loop.
As shown in Fig. 8, the active filter controller consists of
three separate control blocks: a time discrete (onoff) filter
current controller, a PI filter voltage controller, and an auxiliary
Fig. 6. Introduction of the active filter. PI capacitor voltage controller. The most dominant is the filter
current control loop, where the actual and the reference filter
current are compared. To maintain the filter voltage on a desired
level, an additional filter voltage controller is added to correct
current reference (iF,ref = 0) to maintain the actual voltage in
equilibrium with its reference value uF,cor .
The aforementioned described operation should remain in-
tact even in absence of the assumed dc voltage source. This
means that the constant voltage on the auxiliary capacitor has
to be maintained by an appropriate control of energy flowing
through it. In practice, this involves a small amount of mean
current value iL that has to flow toward the auxiliary link in
order to compensate the voltage uAUX decrease due to power
losses. This is achieved with an additional voltage controller
(while the filter control parameters and structure remain the
Fig. 7. Topology of the active filter based on a single-leg inverter. same) which maintains uAUX on the preferred level of uAUX,ref
to assure a sufficient energy supply for the active filter. As
inductor iac previously mentioned, the preferred auxiliary capacitor voltage
is chosen as twice the value of the dc voltage source level u1 .
iF = iac + iL = 0. (7) The main reason for this choice is to keep the same current
slope through inductance L irrespective of the applied switch
With such a measure, the excessive change in the capacitor state. The voltage ripple caused by the inherent switching
voltage is compensated. In the following sections, two different nature of the active filter itself is in this manner kept as low
topologies of the active filter will be presented and discussed as possible, too. For the same reason, the response time of the
and their advantages and disadvantages analyzed. outer voltage control loop has to be substantially faster than
the one of the filter voltage controller, otherwise higher current
demands would result in an additional filter voltage ripple.
A. Active Filter Based on a Single-Leg Inverter
If capacitor voltage uAUX exceeds its reference value, a
The proposed topology of the active filter enables control of reversed flow of energy occurs, pointing toward the filter
filter capacitor voltage uF by receiving the excessive energy capacitor. Namely, the power switches in combination with
from the filter capacitor or releasing additional energy. The the inductance L serve as a common Buck/Boost converter
energy flow between the filter capacitor and an auxiliary link depending on the direction of the power flow.
capacitorserving as the energy bankis controlled by using
two MOSFET switches (TH and TL ). The active filter operates
B. Active Filter With ESI
in the switched mode way, thus limiting its current with an
inductance L. The filter topology described in this section and shown in
As shown in Fig. 7, there are no active sources in the Fig. 9 is also known as ESI.
auxiliary link. It is for this reason that transistors have to be It has been presented in literature [24], [25] and in [30] and
controlled in order to: 1) maintain the voltage on the filter ca- [31] where it is referred to as active DCL or asymmetrical
pacitor constant and 2) control the energy flow to the auxiliary half-bridge dc filter. The main task of this topology is to simu-
capacitor (of capacitance CAUX ) to buildup a sufficient voltage late large inductances by using small inductances and additional
level across it. electronics. Unlike in the case with the original topology [24],
For the sake of simplicity, let us assume that the voltage the proposed topology enables energy to flow in both directions
across the auxiliary capacitor is constant irrespective of the by using two additional power switches. Since the ESI is not
switch (TH , TL ) active state duration (a parallel connection inserted in the main load current path, it can be designed for
of the dc voltage source is assumed) and that the voltage on lower currents because there is no need for it to conduct the full
the auxiliary capacitor is twice the dc voltage source level u1 . load current.

Fig. 8. Active filter control circuitry.

The first choice is of course the preferred one, since by low-

ering uESI voltage, the ripple generated by the active filter
is also reduced. Another advantage of lower uESI voltage is
the ability to use power switches and ESI capacitor (CESI
in the figures) of lower nominal voltages. This is particularly
favorable when considering ultracapacitors. On the other hand,
when the ESI concept is compared to the single-leg inverter,
the mentioned voltage reduction can be compensated by de-
creasing inductance L to preserve the current slope through
inductance L unchanged. The inductor (in the figures presented
as inductance L) weight and size is considerable compared
to other active filter components thus a lower value of induc-
Fig. 9. Active filter with an ESI topology. tance significantly improves the active filter design, particularly
when used in weight delicate applications, such as automo-
An active filter equipped with ESI operates similarly as the tive are.
aforementioned active filter based on the single-leg inverter, Another advantage of the ESI filter compared to the active
e.g., it controls the voltage amplitude of the filter capacitor filter with a single-leg inverter is its ability to implement the so-
(in the figures presented as capacitance CF ) by maintaining called three-level control [24] instead of the above presented
its energy flow. Control of the transistor bridge is ensured with time discrete control. Such improvement is achieved by an
the same control logic as described in Section III-A, e.g., with additional control state with a pair of switches TH1 and TH2
synchronous driving of switch pairs TH1 and TL2 or TH2 and or a pair of switches TL1 and TL2 conducting simultaneously,
TL1 . When switches TH1 and TL2 are opened, voltage uESI is thus enabling the energy flow through the active filter without
subtracted from supply voltage u1 , and when switches TH2 and adding or subtracting voltage uESI . By enabling such control,
TL1 conduct, capacitor voltage uESI is added to supply voltage the switching frequency of the active filter isbecause of the
u1 . As a consequence, uESI can be selected irrespectively of the implemented time discrete current controller [32]artificially
supply voltage since in both cases the inductor current slope is doubled. A more detailed description of the three-level ap-
determined by the same voltage difference proach together with the obtained improvements can be found
in [24].
uL = (u1 uF ) uESI . (8)

Voltage uESI can now be chosen arbitrary in order to achieve,

in the first place, the best possible current slope that deter-
mines the frequency range of the active filter and, secondly, to In this section, a comparison is made of the two hybrid filter
maintain voltage ripple uF applied by the active filter switch- topologies based on experimental measurements. The circuit
ing as low as possible. This can be accomplished either by topology used in the experimental measurements is shown in
lowering imposed voltage uESI or by increasing inductance L. Fig. 10.


Fig. 10. Setup for the attenuation measurements.

Fig. 12. Attenuation of a hybrid filter based on ESI (Passive filter: Passive
filter alone; Hybrid filter 2A: uESI = 12 V, L = 385 H; Hybrid filter 2B:
uESI = 3 V, L = 25 H).

During measurements, the controller parameters remain un-

changed. In the experimental measurements, IRF640 (200 V,
18 A) MOSFETs are used.
First, a comparative study is made for the active filter based
on a single-leg inverter (Fig. 11). Lack of attenuation of the
Fig. 11. Attenuation of a hybrid filter based on a single-leg inverter (Passive passive filter in the lower frequency range is well seen.
filter: Passive filter alone; Hybrid filter 1A: uAUX = 12 V, L = 385 H;
Hybrid filter 1B: uAUX = 12 V, L = 100 H). With additional attenuation of the active filter shown in
Fig. 11, attenuation of the whole hybrid filter is achieved.
Inductance L with its current slope affects the overall filter
The setup shown in Fig. 10 includes battery source, load, behavior. As already explained in the preceding sections, the
and ripple current generator iR . The active filter symbolically highest contribution of the active part to current ripple atten-
presents both the active filter based on a single-leg inverter uation is attained in the lower frequency range. In contrast to
and the active filter based on ESI. A ripple current generator improved attenuation in a lower frequency range, an additional
is connected in parallel with the load (of resistance RL ) and ripple generated by the active part of the hybrid filter results
attenuation of the hybrid filter is measured as described in (6). in diminished attenuation of the hybrid filter as a whole in the
The attenuation capability of the passive filter alone is eval- higher frequency range. This negative contribution has to be
uated. As said above, Fig. 5 includes only attenuation of the kept at a minimum level in the hybrid filter design. Achieving
coupled inductor, whereas the whole passive filter consists this objective presents a challenge for future work.
of a coupled inductor and filter capacitor. This is why the A similar comparison is performed for the ESI filter. Fig. 12
attenuation performance with the implemented filter capacitor shows the contribution of the active filter based on the ESI
(CF = 44 F) substantially differs from the one shown in concept (Hybrid filter 2A) compared to the passive filter alone
Fig. 5. This is shown in Fig. 11. The most remarkable is the (Passive filter). To enable a side-by-side comparison of the
resonance peak near 5 kHz shown in Fig. 11. Attenuation of two analyzed topologies, measurements were made for two
the passive filter starts from zero decibels at the frequency different voltage levels uESI and two different inductances L.
of 51 Hz and gradually rises up to 30 dB at approximately Unlike in the case with attenuation obtained with the single-
51 kHz. Although high-frequency limit is set by the measuring leg inverter (Fig. 11), lower attenuation can be observed in the
equipment, particularly the ripple current generator, sufficient lowest frequency range. This is quite clearly shown in Fig. 13,
information about attenuation is provided to allow a comparison where attenuation of the active filter based on the single-leg
between the two topologies. inverter (Hybrid filter 1A) is compared to attenuation of the
active filter based on the ESI concept (Hybrid filter 2A).
The result is impressive since it was believed that the per-
A. Experimental Results for the Proposed Filter Topologies
formance of both topologies would be comparable. However,
This section deals with a contribution of the two active there is a major difference in the way the active filter is
filters to the attenuation performance of the passive filter alone. connected in the system. The situation is quite similar to the
Experimental measurements presented in the following sections ac grid connected active filters where the point of common
were conducted under conditions given in Table III, where I2 connection (PCC) plays an important role. Namely, in case of
presents the nominal load current and fSWITCH stands for the the ESI filter, the voltage is applied directly to both ends of
switching frequency. the coupled inductor resulting in a great possibility to cause

Fig. 14. On the other hand, the main improvement in the ESI
concept is gained in the range from 5 to 20 kHz, whereas
much as 10-dB difference of attenuation is achieved in favor
of the ESI filter. This is due to the reduced time constantthe
relationship between inductance L (100 to 25 H) and the
inductor resistance, which in combination with the applied time
discrete current controller further reduces the current ripple
caused by the active filter.
Attenuation of the hybrid filter based on ESI is thus above
20 dB down to 5 kHz, whereas a comparable level of attenua-
tion of the passive filter alone is achieved only down to 12 kHz.

Fig. 13. Comparison between the proposed hybrid filters (Hybrid filter 1A:
uAUX = 12 V, L = 385 H; Hybrid filter 2A: uESI = 12 V, L = 385 H). V. C ONCLUSION
This paper has proposed improvement of filtering and energy
management in automotive applications by using a hybrid filter
consisting of a passive and active filter. Two active filter topolo-
gies were evaluated, e.g., on the active filter based on a single-
leg inverter and on active filter based on ESI. The advantage of
the former is mostly in the lowest frequency range, whereas the
latter allows for improved attenuation in the range from 5 to
20 kHz. Other advantages of the ESI concept are the pos-
sibility of reducing the filter weight and size, operation at
lower nominal voltages in the active filter stage, and the use of
ultracapacitors as the main energy storage element. The focus
of future work will be on the design of the proposed filters
for commonly applied power ratings used in the automotive
Fig. 14. Comparison between the proposed hybrid filters (Hybrid filter 1B: applications.
uAUX = 12 V, L = 100 H; Hybrid filter 2B: uESI = 3 V, L = 25 H).

magnetic saturation of the core. This might happen if for some ACKNOWLEDGMENT
reason one of the transistor pairs is kept open for a longer period Operation implemented in the framework of the Operational
of time. In case of a single-leg inverter, where the voltage is Program for Human Resources Development for the Period
impressed to the left side of Nac , magnetic saturation is not 20072013, Priority axis 1: Promoting entrepreneurship and
considerably excessive since the voltage potential on the left adaptability, Main type of activity 1.1.: Experts and researchers
side of Ndc also depends on the voltage drop on an internal for competitive enterprises.
impedance of the power source u1 . Thus, the major impact on
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Simon Ostronik was born in Slovenia in 1980.
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He received the B.Sc. degree in electronics from
[15] A. Emadi, S. S. Williamson, and A. Khaligh, Power electronics intensive
the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of
solutions for advanced electric, hybrid electric, and fuel cell vehicular
Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia, in 2007, where he
power systems, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 567
is currently working toward the Ph.D. degree in
577, May 2006.
electrical engineering.
[16] P. Bajec, B. Pevec, D. Voncina, D. Miljavec, and J. Nastran, Extending
the low-speed operation range of PM generator in automotive applica- From 2006 to 2007, he was with Iskra Medical,
working in the field of product electromagnetic com-
tions using novel AC-DC converter control, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron.,
patibility (EMC) conformity testing. In 2007, he
vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 436443, Apr. 2005.
joined Hidria AET as a Development Engineer in the
[17] S. Jemei, D. Hissel, M.-C. Pera, and J. M. Kauffmann, A new model-
ing approach of embedded fuel-cell power generators based on artificial field of automotive electronics. His research interests
include power supply filtering, EMC, and automotive electronics.
neural network, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 437447,
Jan. 2008.
[18] M. Ortuzar, J. Moreno, and J. Dixon, Ultracapacitor-based auxiliary
energy system for an electric vehicle: Implementation and evaluation,
IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 21472156, Aug. 2007.
[19] P. Thounthong, S. Rael, and B. Davat, Control strategy of fuel cell and Primo Bajec (M06) was born in Ljubljana,
supercapacitors association for a distributed generation system, IEEE Slovenia, in 1974. He received the B.Sc., M.Sc.,
Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 32253233, Dec. 2007. and Ph.D. degrees from the Faculty of Electrical
[20] M. Camara, H. Gualous, F. Gustin, A. Berthon, and B. Dakyo, DC/DC Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, in
converters design for supercapacitors and battery power management in 1999, 2002, and 2005, respectively.
hybrid vehicle applications-polynomial control strategy, IEEE Trans. In 1999, he joined the Faculty of Electrical
Ind. Electron., to be published. Engineering, University of Ljubljana, as a Junior
[21] X. Yali, C. Xu, Z. J. Shen, M. Chunting, W. Hongjie, and V. K. Garg, Researcher. He has participated in several R&D
Prognostic and warning system for power-electronic modules in elec- projects, particularly in the area of electrical machine
tric, hybrid electric, and fuel-cell vehicles, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., supervision and electrified power train systems for
vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 22682276, Jun. 2008. automotive applications. He is currently with Hidria
[22] X. Yu, M. R. Starke, L. M. Tolbert, and B. Ozpineci, Fuel cell power Institute Automotive, Tolmin, Slovenia, managing the R&D activities on state-
conditioning for electric power applications: A summary, IETElect. of-the-art automotive power train systems and e-machine drives. His main
Power Appl., vol. 1, no. 5, pp. 643656, Sep. 2007. research interests include computer simulation in power electronics, solid-state
[23] S. K. Mazumder, R. K. Burra, and K. Acharya, A ripple-mitigating and power converters, and control of electrical drives.
energy-efficient fuel cell power-conditioning system, IEEE Trans. Power
Electron., vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 14371452, Jul. 2007.
[24] H. Ertl and J. W. Kolar, A constant output current three-phase diode
bridge rectifier employing a novel Electronic Smoothing Inductor,
IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 454461, Apr. 2005. Peter Zajec (M96) was born in Slovenia in 1970.
[25] K. Mino, M. L. Heldwein, and J. W. Kolar, Ultra compact three-phase He received the B.Sc., M.Sc., and Ph.D. degrees
rectifier with electronic smoothing inductor, in Proc. 20th Annu. IEEE from the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Univer-
APEC , Mar. 2005, vol. 1, pp. 522528. sity of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia, in 1994, 1997,
[26] C. Adragna, Minimizing Filtering With Ripple Steering a Practical Ap- and 1999, respectively.
proach For Transition-Mode PFC Pre-Regulators. [Online]. Available: Since 1995, he has been with the Faculty of Elec-
www.analogzone.com/pwrt0712.pdf trical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, where he
[27] J. Marrero, Utilizing ripple steering in forward and flyback converters joined the Laboratory of Control Engineering and
and input filters, in Proc. HFPC, 1995, pp. 158172. Power Electronics as a Researcher of a National
[28] J. W. Kolar, H. Sree, N. Mohan, and F. C. Zach, Novel aspects of an Young Researcher scheme. In 2000, he was a Visit-
application of zero-ripple techniques to basic converter topologies, in ing Researcher at the Institute for Power Electronics,
Proc. 28th IEEE PESC, vol. 1, Jun. 1997, pp. 796803. University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany. In 2003, he became an Assistant
[29] D. C. Hamill and P. T. Krein, A zero ripple technique applicable Professor with the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana.
to any DC converter, in Proc. 30th IEEE PESC, Jul. 1999, vol. 2, His main research interests include dc/dc and dc/ac converters with special
pp. 11651171. interest in sensors applied in these devices.