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PROJECT REPORT

On
DRUG-ADDICTION

SUBMITTED TO :
SAINT SOLDIER CONVENT SCHOOL.
SRI MUKTSAR SAHIB

For partial fulfill for the course of


(SCIENCE STREAM)
Session -2016-17

SUBMITTED TO: SUBMITTED TO:


Seema Arora Harmandeep Kaur Sidhu
Roll No.
Class: +2 (Medical)
INDEX
1. Certificate
2. Acknowledgement
3. Introduction
4. Drugs
5. Classification of drugs
6. Some harmful drugs
7. How Drug Addiction Begins?
8. Social Disease
9. Harmful effects of drug
10. Tobacco
11. Effect of Nicotine
12. Components of Tobacco smoke
13. Alcohol
14. Impact of drinking Alcohol
15. Case study
CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the work presented in the project
reported entitled.
Rectifier
Embodies the work carried out by Harmanpreet
Kaur Sidhu on her own under my guidance. The
project report is complete and fit for submission in
fulfillment of practical requirement of 10+2 practical
exam in Physics.

Principal Mrs. Rimpy Chopra


Saint Soldier Convent
School Sri Muktsar Sahib
Introduction
Drug abuse, also called substance abuse or chemical abuse, is
a disorder that is characterized by a destructive pattern of
using a substance that leads to significant problems or
distress. Teens are increasingly engaging in prescription drug
abuse, particularly narcotics (which are prescribed to relieve
severe pain), and stimulant medications, which treat
conditions like attention deficit disorder and narcolepsy.

Drugs
Drugs
Any substance, other than food, used in the prevention,
diagnosis, all aviation or treatment of a
disease is called a drug. Drug is also
known as a medicine. Generally, the
term drugs applied to any stimulating
or depressing substance that
can be habituating or
addictive.

A drug, broadly speaking, can be categorized in many ways;


hard or soft, uppers or downers, addictive or non-addictive,
most harmful or least harmful, legal or illegal.
Classification of Drugs
There are a large number of drugs on which people become
dependent. These are classifies into four major groups:
sedatives and tranquillizers, opiate narcotics, stimulations and
hallucinogens.
Type of Drug Effect Examples
Dep
ress CNS activity give feeling Barbiturates,
1. Sedatives and
of Calmness, relaxation, Benzodiazepines.
Tranquillizers
drowsiness.

Suppress brain activity and Opium,


2. Opiate Narcotics
relaxed pain Morphine,
Codeine,
Heroin.
Mak
e a person more wakeful, alert Amphetamines,
3. Stimulants
and active, cause excitement. Caffeine,
Cocaine.

Mak
e a person more wakeful, LSQ,
4. Hallucinogens Mescaline,
perceptions.
psilocybin,
Ganja,
chares,
Hashish.
SOME HARMFUL DRUGS
1. Heroin:
Commonly used as smack Heroin is chemically
diacetylmorphine which is a white, odorless, bitter crystalline
compound. This is obtained by acetylation of morphine which
is extracted from latex of poppy plant Papaver somniferum.
Generally taken by snorting and injection, heroin is a
depressant and slows down body function.

2. Cannabinoids:
Natural cannabinoids are obtained from the inflorescences of
the plant Cannabis sativa. The flower tops, leaves and the
resin of the plant are used in various combinations to produce
marijuana, hashish, charas and ganja. Generally taken by
inhalation and oral ingestion, these are known for their effects
on cardiovascular system of the body.

3. Cocaine:
It is obtained from coca plant Erythroxylum coca, native to
South America. It interferes with the transport of the neuro-
transmitter dopamine. Cocaine, commonly called coke or
crack is usually snorted. It has the potent stimulating action
on central nervous system, producing sense of euphoria and
increased energy. Excessive dosage of cocaine causes
hallucinations.
How drug addiction Begin?
There are many factors that lead people to drug addiction.
1. Curiosity: Frequent references to drugs by public media
create curiosity for having a personal experience of the drugs.
2. Friends pressure: Frequent appreciation of drug experience
by friends allures others to start the use of drugs.
3. Frustration and Depression: Some people start taking drugs
to get relief from frustration and depression.
4. Desire for More Work: Students sometimes take drugs to
keep awake the whole night to prepare for examination. It is not
desirable as it may cause mental breakdown.
5. Looking for a Different World: A wrong notion that the
drugs open up a new world tempts some young pupils to start
taking-drugs.
6. Relief from Pain: A prolonged use of pain-relieving drugs
with physicians advice at times leads to addiction.
7. Family History: Children may take to drugs by seeing their
elders in the family.
8. Excitement and Adventure: The young take to drugs to
satisfy their instinct for excitement and adventure.
Social Disease-
Smoking, Drinking and Use of Drugs
Smoking and drinking and use of drugs frequently or
regularly are social diseases. Young people take to these
habits for fun, show off or curiosity, as an adventure or feeling
of freedom, or as a gesture of defiance against the elders who
themselves indulge in these activities but check the
youngsters. Temporary escape from the life problems and
mental relaxation felt on taking the drugs in the beginning
increase peoples interest in them. Soon they become habitual
and find in difficult to leave. The daily dose to get the desired
effect increases with time.
SHORT-TERM EFFECTS
Loss of appetite

Increased heart rate, blood pressure, body


temperature

Contracted blood vessels

Increased rate of breathing

Dilated pupils

Disturbed sleep patterns

Nausea

Hyperstimulation

Bizarre, erratic, sometimes violent behavior

Hallucinations, hyperexcitability, irritability

Tactile hallucination that creates the illusion


of bugs burrowing under the skin

Intense euphoria

Anxiety and paranoia

Depression

Intense drug craving


Panic and psychosis

Convulsions, seizures and sudden death from


high doses (even one time)
LONG-TERM EFFECTS
Permanent damage to blood vessels of ear
and brain, high blood pressure, leading to
heart attacks, strokes and death

Liver, kidney and lung damage

Respiratory failure

Infectious diseases and abscesses if injected

Malnutrition, weight loss

Auditory and tactile hallucinations

Sexual problems, reproductive damage and


infertility (for both men and women)

Disorientation, apathy, confused exhaustion

Irritability and mood disturbances

Increased frequency of risky behavior

Delirium or psychosis

Severe depression

Tolerance and addiction (even after just one


use)
Tobacco
Sources:
It is a native of South Africa, where the Red Indian first
started smoking. Now the tobacco plant has spread the world
over. It has large, quote to Lancelot leaves and terminal
clusters of tubular, white or pink flowers.
Modes of Use:
Tobacco is used for smoking, chewing and snuffing. Its main
stimulating component is poisonous volatile alkaid nicotine,
which causes addiction. Nicotine synthesis occurs in the roots
of the plant but it is stored in the leaves. The leaves contain 2
to 8% nicotine. Inhaling tobacco smoke from cigars,
cigarettes, biddies, pipes and hubble-bubble is called smoking.
Cigar is a roll of tobacco leaf. Cigarette is cut tobacco
wrapped in paper. Bidi is tobacco wrapped. In a piece of leaf.
Tobacco smoke is drawn directly from pipe and through water
is hubble-bubble. Smoking may give some temporary relief to
the strained nerves but in the long run it proves a dangerous
health hazard. The quantity of nicotine contained in one cigar
may prove fatal if injected intravenously into a person. When
smoked only 10% of the smoke is inhaled. Hence, no
immediate ill effect is observed. Smokers may develop a
physiological craving for nicotine and then they cannot give
up smoking.

Effect of Nicotine:
Nicotine is a low concentration.
(i) Stimulates conduction of nerve impulses.
(ii) Relaxes the muscles.
(iii) Releases adrenaline, increasing heart beat rate and
pressure.
(iv) Increased blood pressure due to smoking chances the risk
of heart diseases.
(v) Retards fetal growth in expecting mothers and
(vi) Causes tobacco addiction. High concentration of nicotine
paralyses nerve cells.
Harmful components of Tobacco Smoke:
Besides the poisonous nicotine, the tobacco smoke contains
carbon-monoxide, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and tar.

Other Effects:
(i) Smoking affects economy:
A smoker not only waste money, but also runs risk of burns
and fires.
(ii) Smoking mars personality:
Teeth may become stained. Lips may get discolored and
breath becomes foul. A person with a cigarette hanging from
the mouth look odd.
(iii) Smoking is annoying to others:
Cigarette smoke is quite annoying to non-smokers. It may
prove even more harmful to them. A smoker should avoid
smoking. When in the company of non smokers. A smoker
makes the nearby people passive smokers through inhaling
smoke released by him.
ALCOHOLISM
An alcoholic beverage is a drink
containing ethanol, commonly
known as alcohol, although in
chemistry the definition of
alcohol includes many other
compounds. Ethanol is a
centrally- acting drug with a
depressant effect. Beer is an
alcoholic beverage and thus has
the same harmful effects as other
kinds of alcohol, depending on
the quantity consumed.

Reasons for drinking:


Psychological factors are curiosity, poor stress
control, escape from reality, poor impulse control, low self
esteem, positive attitudes towards alcohol, to get rid of
problems, to overcome loneliness, relief from tension and to
gain courage.

Social factors are peer pressure, modeling, easy availability


of alcohol in the market, party culture, family environment
(Parent/s drinking alcohol), lack of family support, to keep up
social norms and to show their masculinity.
Biological factors are genetic vulnerability like family
history of alcoholism in parents or near relatives and to get
sleep.
Impact of drinking alcohol:

Unlike other foods, alcohol does not require digestion. When


one drinks, alcohol is absorbed directly into the bloodstream
through the walls of the stomach and the intestine.
Once alcohol enters the bloodstream it circulates throughout
the body. Alcohol is metabolized in the liver and is changed to
carbon dioxide, water and some calories of energy which gets
converted into fat. A small amount of alcohol goes out of the
body through breath, urine and sweat. Regular, excessive use
of alcohol causes acute and chronic problems related to
health, occupation, family and social relationships.

Health Problems:
Alcohol can damage every system of our body.

Gastro intestinal system (stomach and intestines):


Increased acid secretion leading to acidity, ulcers, gastritis,
and cancer

Liver: Hepatitis, jaundice and vomiting of blood due to


cirrhosis of liver, liver cancer, acute liver failure.

Pancreas: Pancreatic damage due to inflammation of


pancreas and acute pancreatitis leading to sudden death.
Central nervous system: (brain and spinal cord): Permanent
damage of brain resulting in memory disturbances, other
nervous problems, fits and mental illnesses.
Cardio vascular system: High blood pressure, increased
tendency to heart attacks, enlargement of the heart.
Hangovers: Excessive drinking can lead to hangovers, thus
causing problems like headache, nausea, vomit and body
aches.

Weight gain: alcohol consumption in larger quantities can


lead to weight gain, because alcoholic beverages are usually
high in calories.

Weak immune system: alcohol consumption makes your


immune system weak, thus making your body more
susceptible to infections.

Cancer: alcohol when consumed in excessive quantities puts


you at a higher risk of developing cancer

Fetal alcohol syndrome: Drinking alcohol in pregnancy


may cause the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (physical
abnormalities, growth retardation and developmental delay).
Sources:
Ethyl alcohol, or ethanol, flammable, colorless liquid having a
penetrating odor and burning taste. It is one of the products of
the distillation of fermented grains, fruit juices and starches
with the help of yeast enzymes. It is the principal constituent
and the in toxicating principle of wines.
Modes of Use:
Alcohol is taken in low concentration, as the beer, toddy and
wine and in relatively high concentration as arrack, brandy,
whisky, rum, gin, vodka etc.