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Although the thickener does determine the basic characteristics of greases, they

can be varied within certain limits for one and the same thickener by selecting
the dispersion medium, adding various additives, fillers, etc. to the grease co
mposition. Greases are often additionally subdivided, according to the compositi
on of their dispersion medium, into petroleum and synthetic oil greases, which c
an be further subdivided into subgroups, e.g., petroleum greases, into greases b
ased on paraffin-naphthenic oils, aromatic oils, distillate, residual oils, etc.
, and synthetic oil greases, into greases based on polysiloxanes, esters, polygl
ycols, synthetic hydrocarbon oils, and on other synthetic fluids. The governing
role of the thickener in determining the grease properties is confirmed by the s
ummarizad data presented in Table 1.1. Besides, the classification of greases by
the thickener type is widely employed in technical and economic studies to eval
uate the general level of the quality of greases being produced, the structure a
nd amounts of their production, and the development prospects. gre Table 1.2 pre
sents the structure and history of grease production in some leading industriali
sed countries and in the former USSR [24-27]. The classification of greases by t
he type of thickener is not only important to evaluate the grease quality level
and to provide a preliminary information on their use, but is also of great impo
rtance in determining the grease production technology and in selecting the grea
se production method and equipment. Apart from the classification of greases by
the thickener type, i.e., by their composition, their classification based on th
e purpose and functional characteristics is widely used. A detailed information
on this and other types of grease classification can be obtained from special li
terature [28-30]. There is also GOST 23258-78, which specifies the classificatio
n of greases by their functional purpose. We will only note here that greases ar
e conventionally divided based on their end use into antifriction greases, which
reduce the friction and wear in mechanisms; preservative (protective) Table 1.2
presents the structure and history of grease production in some leading industr
ialised countries and in the former USSR [24-27]. The classification of greases
by the type of thickener is not only important to evaluate the grease quality le
vel and to provide a preliminary information on their use, but is also of great
importance in determining the grease production technology and in selecting the
grease production method and equipment. Apart from the classification of greases
by the thickener type, i.e., by their composition, their classification based o
n the purpose and functional characteristics is widely used. A detailed informat
ion on this and other types of grease classification can be obtained from specia
l literature [28-30]. There is also GOST 23258-78, which specifies the classific
ation of greases by their functional purpose. We will only note here that grease
s are conventionally divided based on their end use into antifriction greases, w
hich reduce the friction and wear in mechanisms; preservative (protective) Table
1.2 presents the structure and history of grease production in some leading ind
ustrialised countries and in the former USSR [24-27]. The classification of grea
ses by the type of thickener is not only important to evaluate the grease qualit
y level and to provide a preliminary information on their use, but is also of gr
eat importance in determining the grease production technology and in selecting
the grease production method and equipment. Apart from the classification of gre
ases by the thickener type, i.e., by their composition, their classification bas
ed on the purpose and functional characteristics is widely used. A detailed info
rmation on this and other types of grease classification can be obtained from sp
ecial literature [28-30]. There is also GOST 23258-78, which specifies the class
ification of greases by their functional purpose. We will only note here that gr
eases are conventionally divided based on their end use into antifriction grease
s, which reduce the friction and wear in mechanisms; preservative (protective) T
able 1.2 presents the structure and history of grease production in some leading
industrialised countries and in the former USSR [24-27]. The classification of
greases by the type of thickener is not only important to evaluate the grease qu
ality level and to provide a preliminary information on their use, but is also o
f great importance in determining the grease production technology and in select
ing the grease production method and equipment. Apart from the classification of
greases by the thickener type, i.e., by their composition, their classification
based on the purpose and functional characteristics is widely used. A detailed
information on this and other types of grease classification can be obtained fro
m special literature [28-30]. There is also GOST 23258-78, which specifies the c
lassification of greases by their functional purpose. We will only note here tha
t greases are conventionally divided based on their end use into antifriction gr
eases, which reduce the friction and wear in mechanisms; preservative (protectiv
e) Table 1.2 presents the structure and history of grease production in some lea
ding industrialised countries and in the former USSR [24-27]. The classification
of greases by the type of thickener is not only important to evaluate the greas
e quality level and to provide a preliminary information on their use, but is al
so of great importance in determining the grease production technology and in se
lecting the grease production method and equipment. Apart from the classificatio
n of greases by the thickener type, i.e., by their composition, their classifica
tion based on the purpose and functional characteristics is widely used. A detai
led information on this and other types of grease classification can be obtained
from special literature [28-30]. There is also GOST 23258-78, which specifies t
he classification of greases by their functional purpose. We will only note here
that greases are conventionally divided based on their end use into antifrictio
n greases, which reduce the friction and wear in mechanisms; preservative (prote
ctive) Table 1.2 presents the structure and history of grease production in some
leading industrialised countries and in the former USSR [24-27]. The classifica
tion of greases by the type of thickener is not only important to evaluate the g
rease quality level and to provide a preliminary information on their use, but i
s also of great importance in determining the grease production technology and i
n selecting the grease production method and equipment. Apart from the classific
ation of greases by the thickener type, i.e., by their composition, their classi
fication based on the purpose and functional characteristics is widely used. A d
etailed information on this and other types of grease classification can be obta
ined from special literature [28-30]. There is also GOST 23258-78, which specifi
es the classification of greases by their functional purpose. We will only note
here that greases are conventionally divided based on their end use into antifri
ction greases, which reduce the friction and wear in mechanisms; preservative (p
rotective) Table 1.2 presents the structure and history of grease production in
some leading industrialised countries and in the former USSR [24-27]. The classi
fication of greases by the type of thickener is not only important to evaluate t
he grease quality level and to provide a preliminary information on their use, b
ut is also of great importance in determining the grease production technology a
nd in selecting the grease production method and equipment. Apart from the class
ification of greases by the thickener type, i.e., by their composition, their cl
assification based on the purpose and functional characteristics is widely used.
A detailed information on this and other types of grease classification can be
obtained from special literature [28-30]. There is also GOST 23258-78, which spe
cifies the classification of greases by their functional purpose. We will only n
ote here that greases are conventionally divided based on their end use into ant
ifriction greases, which reduce the friction and wear in mechanisms; preservativ
e (protective) Table 1.2 presents the structure and history of grease production
in some leading industrialised countries and in the former USSR [24-27]. The cl
assification of greases by the type of thickener is not only important to evalua
te the grease quality level and to provide a preliminary information on their us
e, but is also of great importance in determining the grease production technolo
gy and in selecting the grease production method and equipment. Apart from the c
lassification of greases by the thickener type, i.e., by their composition, thei
r classification based on the purpose and functional characteristics is widely u
sed. A detailed information on this and other types of grease classification can
be obtained from special literature [28-30]. There is also GOST 23258-78, which
specifies the classification of greases by their functional purpose. We will on
ly note here that greases are conventionally divided based on their end use into
antifriction greases, which reduce the friction and wear in mechanisms; preserv
ative (protective) Table 1.2 presents the structure and history of grease produc
tion in some leading industrialised countries and in the former USSR [24-27]. Th
e classification of greases by the type of thickener is not only important to ev
aluate the grease quality level and to provide a preliminary information on thei
r use, but is also of great importance in determining the grease production tech
nology and in selecting the grease production method and equipment. Apart from t
he classification of greases by the thickener type, i.e., by their composition,
their classification based on the purpose and functional characteristics is wide
ly used. A detailed information on this and other types of grease classification
can be obtained from special literature [28-30]. There is also GOST 23258-78, w
hich specifies the classification of greases by their functional purpose. We wil
l only note here that greases are conventionally divided based on their end use
into antifriction greases, which reduce the friction and wear in mechanisms; pre
servative (protective) Table 1.2 presents the structure and history of grease pr
oduction in some leading industrialised countries and in the former USSR [24-27]
. The classification of greases by the type of thickener is not only important t
o evaluate the grease quality level and to provide a preliminary information on
their use, but is also of great importance in determining the grease production
technology and in selecting the grease production method and equipment. Apart fr
om the classification of greases by the thickener type, i.e., by their compositi
on, their classification based on the purpose and functional characteristics is
widely used. A detailed information on this and other types of grease classifica
tion can be obtained from special literature [28-30]. There is also GOST 23258-7
8, which specifies the classification of greases by their functional purpose. We
will only note here that greases are conventionally divided based on their end
use into antifriction greases, which reduce the friction and wear in mechanisms;
preservative (protective) Table 1.2 presents the structure and history of greas
e production in some leading industrialised countries and in the former USSR [24
-27]. The classification of greases by the type of thickener is not only importa
nt to evaluate the grease quality level and to provide a preliminary information
on their use, but is also of great importance in determining the grease product
ion technology and in selecting the grease production method and equipment. Apar
t from the classification of greases by the thickener type, i.e., by their compo
sition, their classification based on the purpose and functional characteristics
is widely used. A detailed information on this and other types of grease classi
fication can be obtained from special literature [28-30]. There is also GOST 232
58-78, which specifies the classification of greases by their functional purpose
. We will only note here that greases are conventionally divided based on their
end use into antifriction greases, which reduce the friction and wear in mechani
sms; preservative (protective) Table 1.2 presents the structure and history of g
rease production in some leading industrialised countries and in the former USSR
[24-27]. The classification of greases by the type of thickener is not only imp
ortant to evaluate the grease quality level and to provide a preliminary informa
tion on their use, but is also of great importance in determining the grease pro
duction technology and in selecting the grease production method and equipment.
Apart from the classification of greases by the thickener type, i.e., by their c
omposition, their classification based on the purpose and functional characteris
tics is widely used. A detailed information on this and other types of grease cl
assification can be obtained from special literature [28-30]. There is also GOST
23258-78, which specifies the classification of greases by their functional pur
pose. We will only note here that greases are conventionally divided based on th
eir end use into antifriction greases, which reduce the friction and wear in mec
hanisms; preservative (protective) Table 1.2 presents the structure and history
of grease production in some leading industrialised countries and in the former
USSR [24-27]. The classification of greases by the type of thickener is not only
important to evaluate the grease quality level and to provide a preliminary inf
ormation on their use, but is also of great importance in determining the grease
production technology and in selecting the grease production method and equipme
nt. Apart from the classification of greases by the thickener type, i.e., by the
ir composition, their classification based on the purpose and functional charact
eristics is widely used. A detailed information on this and other types of greas
e classification can be obtained from special literature [28-30]. There is also
GOST 23258-78, which specifies the classification of greases by their functional
purpose. We will only note here that greases are conventionally divided based o
n their end use into antifriction greases, which reduce the friction and wear in
mechanisms; preservative (protective) Table 1.2 presents the structure and hist
ory of grease production in some leading industrialised countries and in the for
mer USSR [24-27]. The classification of greases by the type of thickener is not
only important to evaluate the grease quality level and to provide a preliminary
information on their use, but is also of great importance in determining the gr
ease production technology and in selecting the grease production method and equ
ipment. Apart from the classification of greases by the thickener type, i.e., by
their composition, their classification based on the purpose and functional cha
racteristics is widely used. A detailed information on this and other types of g
rease classification can be obtained from special literature [28-30]. There is a
lso GOST 23258-78, which specifies the classification of greases by their functi
onal purpose. We will only note here that greases are conventionally divided bas
ed on their end use into antifriction greases, which reduce the friction and wea
r in mechanisms; preservative (protective)ases, which protect metallic products
from corrosion; sealing greases, which seal clearances in mechanisms and equipme
nt; and rope greases, use