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TECHNICAL

BULLETIN

Wrtsil 2-stroke RT-135


Technical Services Issue 2, 22 December 2014

Piston rings
At your convenience

Information to all Owners and Operators of Concerned components


Wrtsil RTA, RT-flex and W-X engines Piston rings of Wrtsil RTA, RT-flex and
W-X engines.
Current situation
Since the release of Technical Bulletin
RT-135 Issue 1 new engine types have
been introduced and piston ring standards
have been updated for existing engine
types.
Solutions
The updated and new piston rings are
listed in Appendix 1, RT-135_A1.
Additionally, a new chapter is added about
chrome-ceramic (CC) coating thickness
measurement.
Note
This Technical Bulletin supersedes
Technical Bulletin RT-135, Issue 1, dated
07.09.2012, entitled Piston rings.

Wrtsil Switzerland Ltd. Tel (24h): +41 52 262 80 10


PO Box 414
CH-8401 Winterthur technicalsupport.chts@wartsila.com
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RT-135, Issue 2, Page 2 / 12

Contents
Page
1 Introduction 2
2 Piston ring technology 2
3 Piston ring designation 3
4 Piston ring standard 6
5 General recommendations 7
6 Ordering of tools and piston rings 11
7 Appendix 12
8 Contacts 12

1 Introduction
NOTE:
This Technical Bulletin Issue 2 supersedes Technical Bulletin RT-135, Issue 1, dated
07.09.2012, entitled Piston rings.

Since the release of Technical Bulletin RT-135 Issue 1 new engine types have been
introduced and piston ring standards have been updated for existing engine types.

The updated and new piston rings are listed in Appendix 1.

Additionally, a new chapter is added about the thickness measurement of chrome-


ceramic (CC) coating.

2 Piston ring technology


2.1 Latest development
The development and availability of new piston ring coatings have allowed Wrtsil to
test a variety of piston ring versions on their engines. The aim of the evaluation was to
find a ring coating with low wear properties that offers a high safety margin against the
type of unstable piston running conditions that could lead to sudden severe wear.
The best results were obtained with CC coated piston rings in all ring grooves, in
combination with fully honed cylinder liners.
The CC coating was introduced as the standard configuration for the top piston ring in
2003, in combination with Running-in Coating (RC) lower piston rings. The CC coating
has a high resistance against abrasive, adhesive and corrosive wear, resulting in a
higher margin against sudden severe wear.
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2.2 Latest standard


A full CC coated piston ring pack has been recommended as the standard
configuration since 2005. Exceptions are mentioned in the table showing the various
versions; see Chapter Piston ring standard.
Based on satisfactory service experience the SCP1RC lower piston rings remain the
standard configuration for several engines. RC top piston rings and K0P piston rings
are still offered as alternative for certain engine types.
Both the top piston ring and the lower piston rings are profiled; the top CC piston ring
has an asymmetric barrel shaped profile P1 and the lower CC piston rings have an
asymmetric barrel shaped profile P2. The RC piston rings have a P1 profile, see
Figure 2.

NOTE:
CC coated piston rings should only be used in combination with Wrtsil standard
cylinder liners, i.e. with fully honed cylinder liners, no wave cut.

2.3 K0P piston rings


K0P piston rings are no longer one of the alternative versions for RTA52, RTA52U,
RTA62, RTA62U, RTA72 and RTA72U engines.

3 Piston ring designation


The piston ring type is specified by eight characters.

SC P1 CC 20

Ring gap: SC Straight Cut


GT Gas Tight
K0 Angle cut

Profile: P1 Asymmetrical barrel shape top ring


P2 Asymmetrical barrel shape lower ring
P Profiled
(empty) Cylindrical

Coating: CC Chrome-Ceramic
RC Running-in Coating
CF Chrome-ceramic with hard chrome
coated lower Flank
PL Plasma coated
(empty) Without coating

Ring height: xx [mm]

Figure 1: Designation of piston rings

Todays piston rings have an asymmetrical profile as indicated by P1 or P2, see


Figure 2.
Profile designation P1:
for CC top piston rings and RC piston rings
Profile designation P2:
for CC lower piston rings
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RT-135, Issue 2, Page 4 / 12

Figure 2: Piston ring profile

NOTE:
The main differences between P1 and P2 piston rings are the basic piston ring
material and the thickness of the CC coating.

3.1 Gas tight piston rings


The use of Gas Tight (GT) top piston rings may be beneficial when installed in the
following cases:

Cylinder liners that have reached approximately 40% of the maximum admissible
cylinder liner wear, according to the Maintenance Manual and/or
Re-honed cylinder liners depending on the liner wear profile

Before installing GT top piston rings, we suggest first contacting Wrtsil, providing a
complete overhaul measurement record sheet of the subject liner, for evaluation and
recommendation.

A large Straight Cut (SC) piston ring gap causes more gas leakage resulting in
disruption of the oil film and deposits forming on the piston ring lands. This is prevented
by the overlapping ends of the gas tight piston ring. In addition, when using gas tight
piston rings, there is a benefit for reduced deposit formation on the piston crown lands.
Gas tight piston rings should only be fitted when the piston ring groove is in good
condition. Most recent engine types have piston grooves designed to accept the
installation for GT top piston rings and with a reduced number of lower piston rings,
due to the following reasons:

Reduced blow-by
Uniform piston ring temperature gives equal piston ring pressure
Less disruption of oil film due to reduced hot gas blow-by
Clean piston ring pack due to reduced hot gas blow-by
Cleaner top land
Less number of lower piston rings
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3.2 RC piston rings


Running-in Coating (RC) piston rings are specially coated to facilitate running-in. On
some engine types RC coated piston rings are specified for the lower piston rings or
can be used as an alternative for the lower piston rings. RC top piston rings can also
be chosen as a lower cost alternative. However, higher wear rates may be expected.

3.3 Older piston ring specification K0 and K0P


K0P piston rings have an angle cut piston ring gap. The K denotes a correction to the
piston ring ends. The 0 (zero) indicates the piston ring ends have no correction
whereas the previous KN version had a negative correction. The P indicates the
piston ring is profiled, as shown in Figure 3. Coated K0P piston rings have the
extension PL (Plasma coated) or RC (Running-in coated).

1 3

1. K0P piston ring 3. K0 piston ring


2. Profiled
Figure 3: K0P and K0 piston ring shapes

3.4 Wrtsil piston ring marking


Wrtsil piston rings are marked as shown in Figure 4.

WCH VP6 SCP1CC20 TOP xxxxxxxxxx

Wrtsil Switzerland Ltd

Base material (substrate)

Ring designation

Orientation

Manufacturing date and Batch number

Figure 4: Marking of Wrtsil piston rings


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RT-135, Issue 2, Page 6 / 12


The piston ring marking is stamped on the upper surface near the piston ring gap, see
Figure 5.

1. Marking area on top surface of piston ring


Figure 5: Location of marking on piston ring

4 Piston ring standard


The table in Appendix 1 shows the current standard for all applications and alternative
solutions deviating from the standard recommendation. The alternative solutions have
been split into three different categories in order to provide a clear overview and a
better understanding of the different versions.
The piston ring pack versions mentioned in the Standard version column are those
according to the latest standard and are recommended by Wrtsil. The standard and
recommended versions ensure an optimum piston running behaviour and reduced
wear rates compared to other alternatives.

Column Alternative 1 refers to versions with gas tight piston rings, which are most
suitable for use with cylinder liners already exhibiting higher wear at TDC (Top Dead
Centre).

Columns Alternative 2 and Alternative 3 refer to versions that generally offer a lower
cost alternative compared to the standard recommendation. However, shorter overhaul
intervals are to be expected. The uncoated piston rings have a shorter lifetime, i.e.
higher wear rates and would require shorter overhaul intervals.

ATTENTION:
In case of IMO Tier II engines, the versions under Alternative 2 are only applicable to
de-rated engines after approval from Wrtsil Switzerland Ltd.

ATTENTION:
When using a piston ring pack combination with CC top and RC lower piston rings and
switching to a full CC piston ring package, the cylinder liner wear condition must be
checked before installing the new piston rings. Any existing wear step between the top
piston ring and the second piston ring must be removed.

All piston ring versions and order numbers are listed in Appendix 1, RT-135_A1 Issue 2.
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5 General recommendations
5.1 Piston ring life
The CC coating has a long service life expectancy. However, the actual wear depends
on piston running conditions, such as fuel in use, engine load profile, ambient
conditions etc. Wear of the CC coating can be monitored by means of a CC coating
thickness measurement tool, 94356.

NOTE:
Wrtsil can provide the CC coating thickness measurement tool 94356. For details
about ordering the tool please see Chapter 6 Ordering of tools.

5.1.1 Measurement of CC coating thickness


Measurement of CC coating thickness on piston rings is to be done within the interval
of 1500 to 2000 main engine operating hours. See also Maintenance Manual Group 0,
Chapter 03801/A1.

NOTE:
Before each measurement, the coating thickness measurement tool 94356 has to be
properly calibrated. Calibration is to be done on the piston ring base material (upper
flank of a spare top piston ring) according to the suppliers operation manual.

Sequence for correct measurement:


1. Clean the piston ring running surface at reachable measuring points P1 to P9, see
Figure 6.
2. Press the sensor of the CC coating thickness measurement tool against the piston
ring surface at middle of ring height.
3. Measure the CC coating thickness and note the output value.
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Measuring points
on piston rings
minimum recommended
P9 P1 P9 P1
3

2
P7 P3

P5 P5
1

1. Cylinder liner 3. Coating thickness measurement


2. Piston ring tool 94356
Figure 6: Measurement of CC coating thickness

5.1.2 Piston ring wear rate


The CC coating is a lifetime coating. However, the actual wear depends on operating
conditions. When during a piston underside inspection a piston ring with a partially
worn CC coating is found, we recommend overhauling the unit at next opportunity, see
Figure 7.
With regular done measuring you can determine the specific wear rate for each piston
ring.
The piston rings can still be used, if the remaining CC coating is above the following
limits:

Uppermost piston ring > 0.05 mm


Lower piston rings > 0.02 mm

Below those minimal coating thicknesses, a piston ring replacement must be planned.

1. Partially worn CC coating 2. CC coating


Figure 7: Example of piston ring CC coating condition
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5.1.3 Calculation of piston ring wear rate

Use the formula below to calculate the wear rate:

(1 2) 1000
=
2 1

WR = Wear rate [mm/1000h]


T2 = Actual running hours [h]
T1 = Running hours at previous measurement [h]
D2 = Actual coating thickness [mm]
D1 = Coating thickness at previous measurement [mm]

Table 1: Example for wear rate calculation

D1 D2 T1 T2 WR
0.382 0.367 0 (new) 1500 0.01
0.351 0.340 3500 5000 0.0073

5.1.4 Calculation of piston ring lifetime

Use the formula below to calculate the remaining piston ring lifetime according to the
latest condition setting:

(2 ) 1000
=

LT = Remaining lifetime [h]


D2 = Actual coating thickness [mm]
Dmin = Minimal coating thickness [mm]
WR = Calculated wear rate [mm/1000h]

Table 2: Example for remaining lifetime calculation

D1 D2 Dmin T1 T2 WR LT
0.382 0.367 0.05 0 (new) 1500 0.01 31700
0.351 0.340 0.05 3500 5000 0.007333 39545
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5.2 Piston ring storage and handling


Piston rings should be handled with care. Store the piston rings in a dry place, lay them
horizontally on a flat surface and keep them in their original packing. When preparing
for use, avoid bumping, knocking or hard contact of the CC coated surface against
other metal objects. This is particularly important for CC coated piston rings.

5.3 Piston ring fitting instructions

ATTENTION:
Prior to assembling the unit the cylinder liner should be thoroughly checked for wear
ridges on the cylinder liner running surface and sharp edges of the lubricating grooves
and the scavenging ports. For dressing-up instructions refer to the Maintenance
Manual Group 2, Chapter 21243.

A new piston ring tensioning device was introduced in 2008 for all Wrtsil 2-stroke
engines, see Figure 8.

With the piston ring tensioning device of the first generation there might be a risk of
damaging the piston ring by over-expansion, therefore we recommend using the new
piston ring tensioning device (1). The tool provides a better guidance of the piston ring,
increased stability of the piston rings against lateral tilting in the tensioned condition
and facilitates their assembly.
The new piston ring tensioning device will prevent damaging the piston ring running
surface during assembly with the piston head. Such consequential damage at the
piston ring ends (5) could also lead to scratches on the cylinder liner.

NOTE:
Each piston ring size should be fitted with the corresponding claw (2) specified for its
size in order to prevent damaging the piston ring coating. On engines with piston rings
of different height, each piston ring size should have its own tool (piston ring tensioning
device) or the claws (4) must be exchanged on the tool every time a different piston
ring size is to be fitted.

The tool can be ordered by quoting the tool number 94338. Please also state the piston
ring height with the order, see Chapter 6 Ordering of tools.
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3 4

1. Piston ring tensioning device 4. Set of interchangeable claws


2. Claws fixed to tensioning device 5. Damaged piston ring
3. Piston ring
Figure 8: Piston ring tensioning device, tool 94338

6 Ordering of tools and piston rings


The tools can be ordered from your Wrtsil representative by stating the respective
tool number as listed in Table 1.
It is advisable to also state the engine type, cylinder number and the piston ring height
when ordering the piston ring tensioning device.

Table 3: Tools for piston rings

Designation Tool number


94338
Piston ring tensioning device
Standard tool
Equipment case with instruments for measuring the 94356
coating thickness on piston rings Recommended special tool

The piston rings can be ordered from your Wrtsil representative by stating the
respective spare parts code number as listed in Appendix 1, RT-135_A1.

ATTENTION:
As announced in the Technical Bulletin RT-135 Issue 1, dated 07.09.2012, entitled
Piston Rings, SIPWA parts are no longer available.
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7 Appendix
Appendix 1, RT-135_A1
Piston ring versions and ordering numbers

8 Contacts
8.1 How to contact Wrtsil
For questions about the content of this Technical Bulletin, or if you need Wrtsil
assistance, services, spare parts and/or tools, please contact your nearest Wrtsil
representative.
If you do not have the contact details at hand, please follow the link Contact us 24h
Services on the Wrtsil webpage:
www.wartsila.com

8.2 Contact details for emergency issues


8.2.1 Operational support
For questions concerning operational issues, please send your enquiry to:
technicalsupport.chts@wartsila.com
or phone 24hrs support: +41 52 262 80 10.

8.2.2 Field service


If you need Wrtsil Field Service, please send your enquiry to:
ch.fieldservice@wartsila.com
or phone 24hrs support: +41 79 255 68 80.

8.2.3 Spare parts


If you need Wrtsil spare parts and/or tools, please contact your nearest Wrtsil
representative or your key account manager.

2014 Wrtsil Switzerland Ltd. All rights reserved

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makes no representation, warranty (express or implied) in this publication and assumes no responsibility for the correctness, errors or
omissions for information contained herein. Information in this publication is subject to change without notice.

Unless otherwise expressly set forth, no recommendation contained in this document or any of its appendices is to be construed as
provided due to a defect of the product, but merely as an improvement of the product and/or the maintenance procedures relating thereto.
Any actions by the owner/operator as a result of the recommendations are not covered under any warranty provided by Wrtsil and such
actions will thus be at the owners/operators own cost and expense.

NO LIABILITY WHETHER DIRECT, INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL, IS ASSUMED WITH RESPECT TO
THE INFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN. THIS PUBLICATION IS CONFIDENTIAL AND INTENDED FOR INFORMATION
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