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PROFESSIONAL SKILL DEVELOPMENT

Submitted by

Ms. JAYASHREE.H
(Reg.No 113015631018)
Of

Department of Management Studies

VEL TECH HIGH TECH Dr. RANGARAJAN Dr. SAKUNTHALA


ENGINEERING COLLEGE

(ACCREDITED BY NBA & ISO 9001:2008 CERTIFIED INSTITUTION)

(Approved by AICTE, New Delhi & Affiliated to ANNA UNIVERSITY)

Avadi, Chennai-600 062

A REPORT

Submitted to

Faculty of Management Studies

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Award of the Degree of

MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

ANNA UNIVERSITY, CHENNAI-600 025

October, 2016

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE
DATE CHAPTE SIGN
PARTICULARS NO
R
PERSONAL COMMUNICATION

1.1 CONVERSATION BETWEEN FRIENDS 1


CONVERSATION OVER THE
1.2 2
1 TELEPHONE
1.3 ASKING FOR DIRECTION 3

1.4 WEATHER 4

1.5 PSYCHOMETRIC TEST 5

SOCIAL COMMUNICATION
CAREER PLAN
2.1 6
INTERVIEW
2.2 7
2
LOADING A COMPLAIN OVER PHONE
2.3 9
SAVE GIRL CHILD
2.4 10
TSUNAMI
2.5 11

GROUP\MASS COMMUNICATION
DEBATE
3 3.1 13
DIFFERENT TYPES OF INTERVIEWS
3.2 18
INTEGRATED SPEAKING AND
PRESENTATION SKILLS
4 4.1 INTERSTING PROGRAMME ON TV 20
4.2 POWER POINT PRESENTATION 25
5 EMPLOYABILITY AND CORPORATE
SKILLS
LEADERSHIP
5.1 31
5.2 DECISION MAKING SKILLS 37

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TIME MANAGEMENT
5.3 42

CHAPTER 1

PERSONAL COMMUNICATION

1.1 CONVERSATION BETWEEN FRIENDS

A: Hello how are you?

B: Thank you. I am fine. How are you?

A: I am also fine. Thank you. Where are you going?

B: I am going to buy a news paper.

A: Do you read newspapers regularly?

B: Of course. Dont you?

A: Certainly. You know news paper is called the store house of knowledge.

B: Yeah you are right. Without reading newspaper we cant know about the world.

A: They who dont read news paper remain frogs of the well. Because they dont know the
current affairs of the country and world.

B: At the same time newspapers contain articles related to our study. They are very helpful.

A: Which section of news paper do you need?

B: Certainly the study page. And you?

A: I like the general knowledge section and literary articles. Sometimes I send my writings to
news paper.

B: Thats very good. News paper upholds peoples view, too. I have to go now.

A: Ok. See you later. Bye.

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B: Bye.

1.2 CONVERSATION OVER THE TELEPHONE

A: Hello is this SMS hospital.

B: Yes sir, how can I help you?

A: I would like to make an appointment to see the doctor as soon as possible please.

B: Am sorry the doctor is very busy today, but he is free tomorrow morning. Is 9am all right
for you?

A: Yes, that is fine thanks I will there at 9, thank you for your time.

B: you are welcome sir, see you tomorrow.

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1.3 ASKING FOR DIRECTION

A: Hello, Hi buddy.

B: Hi. Please tell me how do I get to your house?

A: Are you coming by car, bus or by train?

B: I will be coming by car.

A: Please could you tell me the easiest way of getting to your house?

B: Where are you now?

A: Am near the railway station.

B: Ok. Just come straight and turn left there will be a library. Turn right to it and take the
straight road. My house is at the end of that straight road

A: Is that the quickest way of getting to your house?

B: Yes, it is the quickest way by car.

A: Thank you so much. Ill be there in 10 minutes.

B: Ok. See u soon.

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1.4. WEATHER

Zafi: Hello Zarif! How are you?

Zarif: I am fine. What about you?

Zafi: I am fine too. Have you noticed that this is the month of November but still there is no

cold?

Zarif: Yes, we are still keeping our fans on. But what is the cause of such an capricious

behavior of weather?

Zafi: It is only climate change for which we are noticing capricious behavior of weather.

Zarif: You are right. But is it happening only in Bangladesh?

Zafi: No, I have seen in the newspapers that many countries are experiencing severe cold.

Zarif: But there are many countries which are experiencing severe heat too.

Zafi: Yes, all these are happening due to climate change.

Zarif: You are right. I have also read in the newspapers that due to climate change global

warming is taking place in the atmosphere.

Zafi: Exactly! Due to global warming the ice caps are melting and the sea levels are rising.

Zarif: As a result, various natural calamities are taking place frequently in different parts of

the world.

Zafi: You are right. And it is only men who are mainly responsible for all disasters around the

world.

Zarif: I also think so. Indiscriminate cutting down of trees and establishing industries on a

large scale are accelerating this climate change.

Zafi: Exactly! Mankind must be serious from now. Otherwise, we will have to face a very

threatening situation.

Zarif: Ok Bye, I had to go now. See you soon.

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1.5 PSYCHOMETRIC TEST

Father: Ram, What are you busy with?

Ram: Dad, there is a psychometric test tomorrow at HCL.

Father: Psychometric test? What is that?

Ram: It is a part of recruitment process, which helps to determine whether the candidate is
suitable for a particular role.

Father: Is the test computer based?

Ram: They are structured pencil and paper or computer based test.

Father: Do all the companies follow the same pattern?

Ram: Not really dad, it varies depending upon the company profile and job role as well.

Father: How do they judge if a candidate fits the role?

Ram: Based on answering the psychometric test, the personality, attitude, behaviour etc of a
candidate is evaluated

Father: Its interesting.

Ram: Also it is easier to get information for the candidate through test rather than through
interview

Father: Well it reduces time and cost of hiring as the test help in segregating the grain from
the husk at the initial stage itself. Am I right?

Ram: Absolutely dad, you got it right.

Father: Ok prepare well and do the test properly.

Ram: Sure dad.

Father: All the very best.

Ram: Thanks dad.

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CHAPTER -2

SOCIAL COMMUNICATION

2.1 CAREER PLAN


Naren- Well, Jatin! What are you going to be?

Jatin- Ive a natural bent for mechanical occupations. So I want to be an engineer. Especially
so, because our country now needs engineers in large numbers for nations-building and
defense works. What are you going to do, Naren?

Naren- You know, my father is a doctor. He likes that I should take up that profession. What
do you think of that, Jatin ?

Jatin- Well, in choosing a career, you see whether it suits your temperament. If you like it,
you should certainly take up this profession, particularly when your father himself belongs to
that profession. That will help you much. Isnt it?

Naren- quite So. I like to be doctor, but want to go my native village and treat the people for
normal fee. Most of them are poor. They die without proper medical aid.

Jatin- Thats a noble idea.

Naren- But father does not like it. He wants to be with him. That will no doubt help me to
earn a lot of money. But my ideal is to render service to my village. My revered teacher,
Binode Babu, encouraged us in our school days to render service to the poor. Ive imbibed
that idea and now I want put in to practice.

Jatin- In that case you should persuade your father to allow you to follow your ideal. And
hell surey do it. He has the large heart and helps the poor.

Naren- Ill do it and hope father will give his constant.

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2.2 INTERVIEW

Student: Good morning! I have an appointment at ten, my name is Sampson.

Interviewer: Hi, good morning! Yes, Mr. Sampson, please sit down. Thank you for coming.

Now, could I just get some basic information from you first? Please? Your name is,uh, Garth
Sampson?

S: Yes, thats right.

I: s-a-m-s

S: No, thats s-a-m-p-s.o-n.

I: Sorry. And youre graduating this year?

S: Yes.

I: And your major is?

S: Computer science. Ill be getting my B.sc in computer science.

I: Good. This May, right?

S: Yes, right.

I: And your mailing address?

S: Thats box 648 University Station, Vancouver V8G 2R9

I: V8G 2R9And you mail and cellphone?

S: GSampson@coolmail.ca...

I: @coolmail.ca

S: and 090-555-6269

I: 6269. Great! And youre a Canadian citizen?

S: Yes, I am.

I: Good. OK, thats all I really need right now. Now, you said youll be getting your bachelors
in computer science. Why did you choose that field?

S: Oh, wow, Ive never thought of any other career for myself. Ive always been into
computers. Ever since I was in elementary school. My father bought me my first one, a used,
uh, apple Mackintosh, when I was eleven years old, and Ive been sitting in front of a
computer ever since.

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I, uh, got interested in how they work, you know, and well, I kind of tore that old Mac SE
apart

Circuit by circuit when it died.

I: Oh, you have good mechanical skills, then?

S: (laughs) No, Im afraid not! I made a real mess of the Mac. Im, Im all thumbs, actually-
but it satisfied by curiosity. Im more interested in software programming now.

I: Well, we certainly always have a need for good programmers. What programming courses
have you taken here?

S: Actually, I didnt, uh, start here at UBC. I transferred in from Corolla College. Its a
community college. I took their two-year diploma in computing. I had Visual Basic and
COBOL there.

I: How were your grades?

S: Oh, good! Those courses were really exciting for me. I got as in both of them. And, um,
then here at UBC, Ive taken Oracle and C-and-C++ programming. So I think Ive got a solid
background in computer languages now.

I: And If you will just come to the main reception- here, at this address- and ask fro me, thats
Ed freeberg- theyll let me know youre there, and Ill come down and get you.

S: OK, great! Ill be there. Thank you very much.

I: And thanks for coming in to see us. You may have a great future with IT solutions.

S: I hope so! (Laughs) Thank you.

I: See you next Thursday, then. Goodbye.

S: Goodbye.

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2.3 LOADING A COMPLAIN OVER PHONE

A: Good morning. Thanks for calling MTS customer care. How may I help you?

B: Thanks. I am Sharmili, calling from avadi. Need to lodge a complaint regarding the speeds

A: We are sorry for the inconvenience caused. May I have the data card number please

B: Oh sure, it is 8125447645.

A: Can you confirm your resident address, mam?

B: No 20,9th street, Kamarajar Nagar, avadi

A: May I confirm that you have purchased the dongle on 15-sep

B: Yes, you are right. Since then I am not experiencing promised speeds

A: Please forgive for that. I logged the call on your complaint and the reference number is
94786. You will have an associate coming to your residence to check on this in 24hours.

B: Thanks bunch. We will wait for him.

A: Thanks mam. Is there anything else.

B: Nope. That was it. Thanks.

A: Have a great day.

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2.4 SAVE GIRL CHILD

Nina: Hello. Have you just arrived at the camp? Im Nina.

Nelly: My name is Nelly. Nice to meet you. No, Ive been here for a while.

Nina: Oh, Ok Where are you from?

Nelly: Im from Greece, but Ive lived in this area for a long time. You?

Nina: Im from the USA. Im here on holidays.

Nelly: Are you from a big family?

Nina: No, there are just five of us-me, my sister, my brother and my parents. What about
you?

Nelly: Ive got two sisters.

Nina: Oh, thats nice. What do you usually do in your free time? Do you have any hobbies?

Nelly: I love hanging out with my friends or stay at home and read a good book. I dont have
a lot of hobbies. I enjoy playing volleyball What about you?

Nina: I love it too. Whats your favourite subject?

Nelly: I like biology. I love learning environment.

Nina: Me too. I think we are going to be great friends!

Nelly: So do I!

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2.5 TSUNAMI
Sir: Students, Let us have a question session tsunami.

Students: Sure, sir.

Sir: What is a tsunami?

Student 1: The name Tsunami, from the Japanese words tsu meaning harbour and name
meaning wave is now used internationally to describe a series of waves travelling across the
ocean. These waves have extremely long wavelengths, up to hundreds of kilometres between
wave crests in the deep ocean.

Student 2: In the past, tsunamis have been referred to as Tidal waves or Seismic sea
waves. The term tidal wave is misleading. Even though a tsunamis impact upon a coastline
is dependent on the tidal level at the time of the moon, sun and planets. The term seismic sea
wave is also misleading. Seismic implies earthquakes are only one of several ways that a
tsunami can be generated. Tsunami can also be caused by events such as underwater
landslides, volcanic eruptions, land slumping in to the ocean, meteorite impacts, or even the
weather when the atmospheric pressure changes very rapidly.

Sir: Well then, how are tsunamis generated?

Student 3: The most common cause of tsunamis is an undersea earthquake that results in a
sudden rise or fall of a section of the earths crust under or near the ocean. This earthquake
creates an explosive vertical motion that can displace the overlying water column creating a
rise or fall in the level of the ocean above. This rise or fall in sea level is the initial impulse
that generates a tsunami wave.

Sir: Great going, most major tsunamis are produced by earthquakes with magnitudes greater
than?

Student 4: Its 7 by Ricter scale Sir.

Sir: In the open ocean a tsunami can travel at speeds of

Student 5: The speeds of tsunami in open oceans can reach up to 966 Km/hr, sir. Really
terrible.

Sir: What should I do if I notice the warning signs or hear a warning from any local
emergency services?

Student 6:

If you are at beach, immediately move inland or to higher ground.

If your boat is in deep water and offshore, maintain your position

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If you are on the coast and cannot move inland, seek shelter in the upper levels of a
stable building.

Do not return to the coast until you receive official clearance.

Continue to follow emergency services instructions.

Sir: Its good that you all are aware of tsunami. Lets see you tomorrow. Have s great day
students!!

Students: Thank you, sir.

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CHAPTER 3

GROUP\MASS COMMUNICATION

3.1 DEBATE

Debate is contention in argument; strife, dissension, quarrelling, controversy;


especially a formal discussion of subjects before a public assembly or legislature,
in Parliament or in any deliberative assembly.

Debate is a method of formally presenting an argument in a structured manner.


Through logical consistency, factual accuracy and some degree of emotional appeal to the
audience are elements in debating, where one side often prevails over the other party by
presenting a superior "context" and/or framework of the issue. The outcome of a debate may
depend upon consensus or some formal way of reaching a resolution, rather than the
objective facts. In a formal debating contest, there are rules for participants to discuss and
decide on differences, within a framework defining how they will interact.

Debating is carried out in debating chambers and assemblies of various types to


discuss matters and to make resolutions about action to be taken, often by voting.
Deliberative bodies such as parliaments, legislative assemblies, and meetings of all sorts
engage in debates. In particular, in parliamentary democracies a legislature debates and
decides on new laws. Formal debates between candidates for elected office, such as
the leaders debates that are sometimes held in democracies. Debating is also carried out for
educational and recreational purposes, usually associated with educational establishments
and debating societies. The major goal of the study of debate as a method or art is to develop
the ability to debate rationally from either position with equal ease.

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Informal and forum debate is relatively common, shown by TV shows such as the
Australian talk show, the quality and depth of a debate improves with the knowledge and
skills of its participants as debaters. The outcome of a contest may be decided by audience
vote, by judges, or by some combination of the two. Debating can be competitive or for fun.

HISTORY

Although debating in various forms has a long history, and can be traced back to the
philosophical and political debates of Ancient Greece, such as Athenian democracy, modern
forms of debating and the establishment of debating societies occurred during the Age of
Enlightenment in the 18th century. Debating teams are often helpful to high school students in
teaching the writing process, as well as in teaching rhetoric.[neutrality is disputed]

Emergence of debating societies

Debating societies emerged in London in the early eighteenth century, and soon
became a prominent fixture of national life. The origins of these societies are not certain in
many cases however, by the mid-18th century, London fostered an active debating society
culture. Debating topics covered a broad spectrum of topics while the debating societies
allowed participants from both genders and all social backgrounds, making them an excellent
example of the enlarged public sphere of the Age of Enlightenment. Debating societies were
a phenomenon associated with the simultaneous rise of the public sphere, a sphere of
discussion separate from traditional authorities and accessible to all people that acted as a
platform for criticism and the development of new ideas and philosophy.

John Henley, a clergyman, founded an Oratory in 1726 with the principal purpose of
"reforming the manner in which such public presentations should be performed." He made
extensive use of the print industry to advertise the events of his Oratory, making it an
omnipresent part of the London public sphere. Henley was also instrumental in constructing
the space of the debating club: he added two platforms to his room in the Newport district of
London to allow for the staging of debates, and structured the entrances to allow for the

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collection of admission. These changes were further implemented when Henley moved his
enterprise to Lincoln's Inn Fields. The public was now willing to pay to be entertained, and
Henley exploited this increasing commercialization of British society. By the 1770s, debating
societies were firmly established in London society.

The year 1785 was pivotal: The Morning Chronicle announced on March 27:

The Rage for public debate now shows itself in all quarters of the metropolis.
Exclusive of the oratorical assemblies at Carlisle House, Free-mason's Hall, the Forum,
Spring Gardens, the Casino, the Mitre Tavern and other polite places of debating rendezvous,
we hear that new Schools of Eloquence are preparing to be opened in St. Giles, Clare-Market,
Hockley in the Hole, Whitechapel, Rag-Fair, Duke's Place, Billingsgate, and the Back of the
Borough.

In 1780, 35 differently named societies advertised and hosted debates for anywhere
between 650 and 1200 people. The question for debate was introduced by a president or
moderator who proceeded to regulate the discussion. Speakers were given set amounts of
time to argue their point of view, and, at the end of the debate, a vote was taken to determine
a decision or adjourn the question for further debate. Speakers were not permitted to slander
or insult other speakers, or diverge from the topic at hand, again illustrating the value placed
on politeness by late 18th century debaters.

Student debating societies

The first student debating society was the St Andrews Debating Society, formed in
1794 as the Literary Society. The Cambridge Union Society was founded in 1815, and is the
oldest continually operating debating society in the World.[13]

The Cambridge Society served as a model for the subsequent foundation of similar
societies at several other prominent universities, including the Union and the Yale Political
Union.

Debate between candidates for high office

In jurisdictions which elect holders of high political office such as president or prime
minister, candidates sometimes debate in public, usually during a general election campaign.

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Since the 1976 general election, debates between presidential candidates have been a
part of U.S. presidential campaigns. Unlike debates sponsored at the high school or collegiate
level, the participants, format, and rules are not independently defined. Nevertheless, in a
campaign season heavily dominated by television advertisements, talk radio, sound bites,
and spin, they still offer a rare opportunity for citizens to see and hear the major candidates
side by side. The format of the presidential debates, though defined differently in every
election, is typically more restrictive than many traditional formats, forbidding participants to
ask each other questions and restricting discussion of particular topics to short time frames.

The presidential debates were initially moderated in 1976, 1980, 1984 by the League
of Women Voters, but the Commission on Presidential Debates (CPD) was established in
1987 by the Republican and Democratic parties. The presidential debate's primary purpose is
to sponsor and produce debates for the United States presidential and vice presidential
candidates and to undertake research and educational activities relating to the debates. [citation
needed]
The organization, which is a non-profit, nonpartisan corporation, sponsored all of the
presidential debates in 1988, 1992, 1996, 2000 and 2004.

However, in announcing its withdrawal from sponsoring the debates, the League of
Women Voters stated that it was withdrawing "because the demands of the two campaign
organizations would perpetrate a fraud on the American voter." In 2004, the Citizens' Debate
Commission was formed in the hope of establishing an independent sponsor for presidential
debates, with a more voter-centric role in the definition of the participants, format, and rules.

COMPETITIVE DEBATING

In competitive debates, teams compete against each other and are judged the winner by a list
of criteria that is usually based around the concepts of "content, style and strategy". There are
many different styles of competitive debating, organizations and rules. One purpose is to train
and educate young people who may in future be required to debate and resolve matters.

Competitive debating is carried out at the local, national, and international level.[16]

In schools and colleges, competitive debating often takes the form of a contest with explicit
rules. It may be presided over by one or more judges or adjudicators. Both sides seek to win
against the other while following the rules. One side is typically in favor of (also known as

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"for", "Affirmative", or "Pro") or opposed to (also known as "against", "Negative", "Con") a
statement, proposition, moot or Resolution. The "for" side must debate points that will
support the proposition; the "against" side must refute these arguments sufficiently to warrant
not adopting the proposition; the "against" side are not required to propose any alternative.

Online debating

With the increasing popularity and availability of the Internet, differing opinions arise
frequently. Though they are often expressed via flaming and other forms of argumentation,
which consist primarily of assertions, formalized debating websites do exist. The debate style
varies from site to site, with local communities and cultures developing. Some sites promote
a contentious atmosphere that can border on "flaming" (the personal insult of your opponent,
also known as a type of ad hominem fallacy), while others strictly police such activities and
strongly promote independent research and more structured arguments.

Rule sets on various sites usually serve to enforce or create the culture envisioned by
the site's owner, or in some more open communities, the community itself. Policing post
content, style, and structure combine with frequent use of "reward" systems (such as
reputation, titles, and forum permissions) to promote activities seen as productive while
discouraging unwelcomed actions. These cultures vary sufficiently that most styles can find a
home. Some online debate communities and forums practice Policy Debate through uploaded
speeches and preset word counts to represent time limits present in physical debate. These
virtual debates typically feature long periods of theoretical prep time, as well as the ability to
research during a round.

Originally most debate sites were little more than online or bulletin boards. Since then site-
specific development has become increasingly common in facilitating different debate styles.
Examples of more established sites include the Online Debate Network, Debate.org, and
Create Debate. Certain other sites have tended to be based on various debating niches - for
instance, Naqeshny arose in Egypt out of the Arab Spring movement, Meevsu is based on the
emerging technology of live video debate, and edeb8 has a focus on emulating the real-world
debating experience.

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Debate for Change is a new voice-based debate platform, where debaters face
opponents from around the world in the presence of a moderator, who decides the winner.
Participants receive points and worldwide rankings on the basis of their debate wins.

3.2 DIFFERENT TYPES OF INTERVIEWS

An interview is a conversation where questions are asked and answers are given. In
common parlance, the word "interview" refers to a one-on-one conversation with one person
acting in the role of the interviewer and the other in the role of the interviewee. The
interviewer asks questions, the interviewee responds, with participants taking turns talking.
Interviews usually involve a transfer of information from interviewee to interviewer, which is
usually the primary purpose of the interview, although information transfers can happen in
both directions simultaneously. One can contrast an interview which involves bi-
directional communication with a one-way flow of information, such as a speech or oration.

Interviews usually take place face to face and in person, although modern
communications technologies such as the Internet have enabled conversations to happen in
which parties are separated geographically, such as with videoconferencing software,[2] and of
course telephone interviews can happen without visual contact. Interviews almost always
involve spoken conversation between two or more parties, although in some instances a

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"conversation" can happen between two persons who type questions and answers back and
forth. Interviews can range from unstructured or free-wheeling and open-ended conversations
in which there is no predetermined plan with prearranged questions, to
highly structured conversations in which specific questions occur in a specified order. They
can follow diverse formats; for example, in a ladder interview, a respondent's answers
typically guide subsequent interviews, with the object being to explore a
respondent's subconscious motives. Typically the interviewer has some way of recording the
information that is gleaned from the interviewee, often by writing with a pencil and paper,
sometimes transcribing with a video or audio recorder, depending on the context and extent
of information and the length of the interview. Interviews have a duration in time, in the sense
that the interview has a beginning and an ending.

There are many types of interviews that an organization can arrange. It depends on the
objectives of taking the interview. Some important types of interviews are stated below:

The Telephone Interview

Often companies request an initial telephone interview before inviting you in for a
face to face meeting in order to get a better understanding of the type of candidate you are.
The one benefit of this is that you can have your notes out in front of you. You should do just
as much preparation as you would for a face to face interview, and remember that your first
impression is vital. Some people are better meeting in person than on the phone, so make sure
that you speak confidently, with good pace and try to answer all the questions that asked.
The Face-to-Face Interview

This can be a meeting between you and one member of staff or even two members.
The Panel Interview

These interviews involve a number of people sitting as a panel with one as


chairperson. This type of interview is popular within the public sector.
The Group Interview

Several candidates are present at this type of interview. You will be asked to interact
with each other by usually a group discussion. You might even be given a task to do as a
team, so make sure you speak up and give your opinion.
The Sequential Interview

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These are several interviews in turn with a different interviewer each time. Usually,
each interviewer asks questions to test different sets of competencies. However, if you are
asked the same questions, just make sure you answer each one as fully as the previous time.
The Lunch / Dinner Interview

This type of interview gives the employer a chance to assess your communication and
interpersonal skills as well as your table manners! So make sure you order wisely (no
spaghetti Bolognese) and make sure you dont spill your drink (non-alcoholic of course!).

All these types of interviews can take on different question formats, so once youve
checked with your potential employer which type of interview youll be attending, get
preparing!

CHAPTER 4

INTEGRATED SPEAKING AND PRESENTATION SKILL

4.1 INTERSTING PROGRAMME ON TV

1. Silicon Valley

With Silicon Valley, the alternate world of start-ups and entrepreneurship crosses over to
mainstream television. It shows how innovation has become an essential part of our lives.
This show is about six nerdy individuals and their struggles while launching Pied Piper'. On
the other side, theres Holy with their copy-cat product Nuclease.

Why is it a must watch? Because you learn about innovation, perseverance, entrepreneurship,
funding and techie world with a squeeze of satire and humour.

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2. Game of Thrones

The sheer number of powerful and strong characters playing off against each other is
marvelous. The show explores the complex human psyche, with each character reflecting
their own agendas. You cannot sympathies with one character because none of them are
perfect. Every time you expect something, the storyline veers off to unexpected directions --
just like your expectations from job and career.

3. Mad Men

Business strategy, business development, corporate diplomacy, performance, risk-taking,


partners, team building youll encounter every good and bad aspect of corporate in Mad
Men. Revolving around the central character of Don Draper who is working in a prestigious
advertising agency, the story explores business practices and lives of people intertwined in it.

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4. Yudh

Not often do you come across a gripping script with brilliant actors on Indian television. The
miniseries (20 episodes) follows the journey of successful business man Yudhisthir Sikarwar
(Amitabh Bachchan) who wants to venture into mining industry. Amidst all this, the
protagonist is diagnosed with Huntington's disease. This story focuses on corporate rivalries,
hiccups in business plans and emotional turmoil of the protagonist. Reminds us of the eternal
turmoil between career success vs family happiness

5. The Apprentice

The American reality game show has been called as The Ultimate Job Interview by many.
Each season starts with a group of aspirants, aiming to win the final prize. The participants
are divided in two competitive groups and perform the allocated tasks which could range
from pitching an idea to selling on the road. The show teaches team-building, innovative
approaches to business management, how to manage seed capital, developing new business
strategies and so on. Thanks to the series, the dialogue You're fired! has now achieved
legendary status. The show has been made in various countries.

24
6. The Office

This popular comedy has been made and re-made in various countries. The plot is simple
the daily routine of office employees. Except, its not that simple. Bizarre situations and
weird conditions end up making it a laughing riot. But there are lessons to be learnt here
teamwork, office code of conduct, how get that promotion and many more.

7. Master Chef

If you think, Master Chef is all about cooking and fine dining think again. Remember, the
famous pressure test? This show teaches you how to handle high pressure situations. And

25
thats not all. The show focuses a lot on teamwork at grassroots level. An ideal way to learn
team management with some gourmet cooking.

8. Yes Minister

This satirical comedy tracks the daily jobs of three characters: Jim Hacker (Minister of
Administrative Affairs), his permanent secretary Sir Humphrey Appleby and his private
secretary Bernard Woolley. The serial revolves around how Hacker presents new proposals
but is constantly overturned by Appleby and vice versa. Rated as one of the best comedies
ever, the episodes present how to build or break a case with strong and witty arguments. It is
also a quick guide on how to deal with every situation at work.

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9. Breaking Bad

Innovation is the first word that comes to you mind while describing this series innovation
and career makeover. A simple chemistry teacher along with his favourite student undergo a
complete transformation, taking up crime as a career. The significant skills and experience
this duo build up on the way of transformation is overwhelmingly good. And thats not all.
How to adapt communication according to situation while thinking on your feet is a lesson
better learnt while watching this series.

10. House of Cards

A political drama, House of Cards is


based in the political hobnob of
Washington DC. The characters are
different shades of grey and always
devising schemes to get their way.
Everyone has an agenda. At every turn
theres a new surprise. It will teach you
how to navigate your career goals in a large conglomerate through power, manipulation and
unexpected surprises. The series is primarily about ruthless pragmatism, manipulation,
power, and doing bad things for the greater good, says Wikipedia.

27
4.2 POWER POINT PRESENTATION
Microsoft PowerPoint is a slide show presentation program currently developed by
Microsoft, for use on both Microsoft and Apple Macintosh operating systems. PowerPoint,
initially named "Presenter", was created by Forethought Inc.. Microsoft's version of
PowerPoint was officially launched on May 22, 1990, as a part of the Microsoft Office suite.
PowerPoint is useful for helping develop the slide-based presentation format and is currently
one of the most commonly used slide-based presentation programs available. Microsoft has
also released the PowerPoint mobile application for use on Apple and Android mobile
operating systems.

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History
Originally designed for the Macintosh computer, the initial release was called "Presenter",
developed by Thomas Rudkin and Dennis Austin [3] of Forethought, Inc. In 1987, it was
renamed to "PowerPoint" due to problems with trademarks, the idea for the name coming
from Robert Gaskins. By then some experts believed that "desktop presentations", using
computers to create flip charts and overhead transparencies, could become as large a market
as desktop publishing. That year Forethought was bought by Microsoft for $14 million
($29.2 million in present-day terms), and became Microsoft's Graphics Business Unit, which
continued to develop the software further. Microsoft's version of PowerPoint was officially
launched on May 22, 1990, the same day that Microsoft released Windows 3.0.PowerPoint
introduced many new changes with the release of PowerPoint 97. It incorporated the Visual
Basic for Applications (VBA) language, underlying all macro generation in Office
97.PowerPoint 2000 (and the rest of the Office 2000 suite) introduced a clipboard that could
hold multiple objects at once, and the Office Assistant was made less intrusive. PowerPoint
2002 massively overhauled the animation engine, allowing users to create more advanced and
custom animations. PowerPoint 2011 makes it possible to remove image backgrounds, and
provides additional special effects for pictures, such as 'Pencil effects. As of 2012, various
versions of PowerPoint claim ~95% of the presentation software market share, with
installations on at least 1 billion computers. Among presenters world-wide, this program is
used at an estimated frequency of 350 times per second

Operation
PowerPoint presentations consist of a number of individual pages or "slides". The "slide"
analogy is a reference to the slide projector. Slides may contain text, graphics, sound, movies,
and other objects, which may be arranged freely. The presentation can be printed, displayed
live on a computer, or navigated through at the command of the presenter. For larger
audiences the computer display is often a video projector. Slides can also form the basis of
webcasts.

PowerPoint provides three types of movements:

1. Entrance, emphasis, and exit of elements on a slide itself are controlled by what
PowerPoint calls Custom Animations.

2. Transitions, on the other hand, are movements between slides. These can be animated
in a variety of ways.

3. Custom animation can be used to create small story boards by animating pictures to
enter, exit or move.

PowerPoint provides numerous features that offer flexibility and the ability to create a
professional presentation. One of the features provides the ability to create a presentation that
includes music which plays throughout the entire presentation or sound effects for particular
slides. In addition to the ability to add sound files, the presentation can be designed to run,

29
like a movie, on its own. PowerPoint allows the user to record the slide show with narration
and a pointer. The user may customize slide shows to show the slides in a different order than
originally designed and to have slides appear multiple times. Microsoft also offers the ability
to broadcast the presentation to specific users via a link and Windows Live.

Cultural impact

Supporters say that[12][13][14] the ease of


use of presentation software can save a
lot of time for people who otherwise
would have used other types of visual
aidhand-drawn or mechanically
typeset slides, blackboards or
whiteboards, or overhead projections. Ease of use also encourages those who otherwise
would not have used visual aids, or would not have given a presentation at all, to make
presentations. As PowerPoint's style, animation, and multimedia abilities have become more
sophisticated, and as the application has generally made it easier to produce presentations
(even to the point of having an "AutoContent Wizard" that was discontinued in PowerPoint
2007, suggesting a structure for a presentation), the difference in needs and desires of
presenters and audiences has become more noticeable.[ Experienced PowerPoint designers
point out that the "AutoContent Wizard" caused a glitch which contributed greatly to on-
screen freezing of slides. Many designers opt to use the "blank slide layout" in lieu of the
other layout choices for this reason. Nevertheless, in normal business use, most presentations
created using PowerPoint are based on its default layout and font choices.

The benefit of PowerPoint is continually debated, though most people believe that the benefit
may be to present structural presentations to business workers, such as Raytheon Elcan does.
Its use in classroom lectures has influenced investigations of PowerPoint's effects on student
performance in comparison to lectures based on overhead projectors, traditional lectures, and
online lectures. There are no compelling results to prove or disprove that PowerPoint is more
effective for learner retention than traditional presentation methods. Statistician and designer
Edward Tufte suggests that as PowerPoint on its own has limited ability to present complex
tables and graphics, a better approach is to provide the audience with printed data and a
written report for them to read at the start of the meeting, before leading them through the
report with a talk. He noted that after the Columbia disaster, a report on the accident
recommended that PowerPoint should never be used as the sole method for presenting
scientific material.

Military excess in the US


A "PowerPoint Ranger" is a military member who relies heavily on presentation software to
the point of excess. Some junior officers spend the majority of their time preparing
PowerPoint slides. Because of its usefulness for presenting mission briefings, it has become

30
part of the culture of the military, but is regarded as a poor decision-making tool. As a result,
some generals, such as Brigadier-General Herbert McMaster, have banned the use of
PowerPoint in their operations. In September 2010, Colonel Lawrence Sellin was fired from
his post at the ISAF for publishing a piece critical of the over-dependence of military staffs
on the presentation method and bloated bureaucracy.

Artistic medium
Musician David Byrne has been using PowerPoint as a medium for art for years, producing a
book and DVD and showing at galleries his PowerPoint-based artwork. The expressions
"PowerPoint Art" or "pptArt" are used to define a contemporary Italian artistic movement
which believes that the corporate world can be a unique and exceptional source of inspiration
for the artist.

PowerPoint Viewer
Microsoft Office PowerPoint Viewer is a program used to run presentations on computers
that do not have PowerPoint installed. Office PowerPoint Viewer (or in PowerPoint 2007 and
later, a link to a viewer download) is added by default to the same disk or network location
that contains one or more presentations packaged by using the Package for CD feature.
PowerPoint Viewer is installed by default with a Microsoft Office 2003 installation for use
with the Package for CD feature. The PowerPoint Viewer file is also available for download
from the Microsoft Office Online Web site. Presentations password-protected for opening or
modifying can be opened by PowerPoint Viewer. The Package for CD feature allows
packaging any password-protected file or setting a new password for all packaged
presentations. PowerPoint Viewer prompts for a password if the file is open password-
protected. PowerPoint Viewer supports opening presentations created using PowerPoint 97
and later. In addition, it supports all file content except OLE objects and scripting.
PowerPoint Viewer is currently only available for computers running on Microsoft Windows.

Top 3 Tips for Creating a Great PowerPoint Presentation

1. Identify Audience

Before you even create that first slide you


need to figure out whom youll be talking to.
A slide for your Managerial Accounting
class will be different from one made for
Silicon Valley Venture Capitalist Ben
Horowitz.Content is king and knowing what
your audience is interested in is key. You can have the nicest looking PowerPoint in the

31
world, but, if the slide content doesnt connect, it wont matter.It important to sit down and
think about what your audience needs to know. That means boiling down big concepts to
their base in a way that engages the viewer. In his video series, Chan uses the example of the
enhanced version of President Obamas State of the Union Address last year. During the
presentation, the President used graphics showing how he improved job numbers during his
presidency. The graphics were a good visual for an audience that thinks the job market is a
major political issue. A recent Gallup poll found that jobs and unemployment was the biggest
issue facing the country. According to the poll, one in four Americans believes job growth is
the number one issues in need of solving.

2. Keep it Simple

Now that you know what you want to say, its time to figure how youre going to say it. The
easiest route to share information is to keep it simple. Or as they say in the design world,
Keep it simple, stupid.Keep it simple, stupid (K.I.S.S.) is a design principle that was
created in the US Navy in the 1960s. Simply, the principle says that simplicity in design will
have a greatest impact on a viewer.

For presentations, that means bringing slides down to their bare essentials. Its easy to throw
every idea into a PowerPoint, but its important to not overwhelm your audience. By keeping
your slides simple, you can easily guide your audience to the point youre trying to make.

We all get stupid by putting too many things on [a slide], adds Chan.

3. The 10-20-30 Guidelines

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Technically, this is tip 2.1. The 10-20-30 guidelines are really just a way to follow the
K.I.S.S. principle. They lay out the secret to creating a great PowerPoint slide in three simple
steps:

Have just 10 slides

Keep the presentation under 20 minutes long

Stick with a 30 point font

Start-up guru Guy Kawasaki invented the guidelines. He leveraged his years of experience
pitching investors to show what a great presentation looks like. He believes that the
guidelines force presenters to keep it simple and know their stuff. However, rules are made to
be broken. Chan says in his video series that a great presenter can break the rules (he even
does it in the videos).

Whenever you break these rules, you better have a good reason. I do it because I want the
picture to stand by itself, reports Chan

33
CHAPTER 5
EMPLOYABILITY AND CORPORATE SKILLS

5.1 LEADERSHIP
LEADERSHIP

Leadership is both a research area and a practical skill encompassing the ability of an
individual or organization to "lead" or guide other individuals, teams, or entire organizations.

LEADERSHIP IS A HOLISTIC SPECTRUM THAT CAN ARISE FROM:

Higher levels of physical power, need to display power and control others, force
superiority, ability to generate fear, or group-member's need for a powerful group
protector (Primal Leadership)
Superior mental energies, superior motivational forces, perceivable in communication
and behaviours, lack of fear, courage, determination (Psycho energetic Leadership)
Higher abilities in managing the overall picture (Macro-Leadership)
Higher abilities in specialized tasks (Micro-Leadership)
Higher ability in managing the execution of a task (Project Leadership)
Higher level of values, wisdom, and spirituality (Spiritual Leadership), where any
Leader derives its Leadership from a unique mix of one or more of the former
factors".

MANAGEMENT OF LEADERSHIP

Over the years the philosophical terminology of "management" and "leadership" have, in the
organizational context, been used both as synonyms and with clearly differentiated meanings.
Debate is fairly common about whether the use of these terms should be restricted, and

34
generally reflects an awareness of the distinction made by Burns (1978) between
"transactional" leadership

(e.g. emphasis on procedures, contingent reward, management by exception) and


"transformational" leadership (characterized by e.g. charisma, personal relationships,
creativity).

GROUP OF LEADERSHIP

In contrast to individual leadership, some organizations have adopted group leadership. In


this situation, more than one person provides direction to the group as a whole.

Some organizations have taken this approach in hopes of increasing creativity, reducing costs,
or downsizing.

Others may see the traditional leadership of a boss as costing too much in team performance.
In some situations, the team members best able to handle any given phase of the project
become the temporary leaders.

Additionally, as each team member has the opportunity to experience the elevated level of
empowerment, it energizes staff and feeds the cycle of success.

Leaders who demonstrate persistence, tenacity, determination, and synergistic communication


skills will bring out the same qualities in their groups.

Good leaders use their own inner mentors to energize their team and organizations and lead a
team to achieve success

MYTHS ON LEADERSHIP

Leadership, although largely talked about, has been described as one of the least understood
concepts across all cultures and civilizations.

Over the years, many researchers have stressed the prevalence of this misunderstanding,
stating that the existence of several flawed assumptions, or myths, concerning leadership
often interferes with individuals' conception of what leadership is all about.

LEADERSHIP IS INNATE:

According to some, leadership is determined by distinctive dispositional characteristics


present at birth

(e.g.extraversion; intelligence; ingenuity).

Leadership also develops through hard work and careful observation.

35
Thus, effective leadership can result from nature (i.e., innate talents) as well as nurture

(i.e., acquired skills).

LEADERS ARE POSITIVELY INFLUENTIAL:

The validity of the assertion that groups flourish when guided by effective leaders can be
illustrated using several examples.

For instance, according to Baumeister et al. (1988), the bystander effect (failure to respond
or offer assistance) that tends to develop within groups faced with an emergency is
significantly reduced in groups guided by a leader.

Moreover, it has been documented that group performance, creativity and efficiency all tend
to climb in businesses with designated managers or CEOs.

However, the difference leaders make is not always positive in nature. Leaders sometimes
focus on fulfilling their own agendas at the expense of others, including his/her own
followers

(e.g.,Pol Pot; Josef Stalin). Leaders who focus on personal gain by employing stringent and
manipulative leadership styles often make a difference, but usually do so through negative
means.

LEADERS ENTIRELY CONTROL GROUP OUTCOMES:

In Western cultures it is generally assumed that group leaders make all the difference when it
comes to group influence and overall goal-attainment.

Although common, this romanticized view of leadership (i.e., the tendency to overestimate
the degree of control leaders have over their groups and their groups' outcomes) ignores the
existence of many other factors that influence group dynamics.

For example, group cohesion, communication patterns among members, individual


personality traits, group context, the nature or orientation of the work, as well as behavioural
norms and established standards influence group functionality in varying capacities.

ALL GROUPS HAVE A DESIGNATED LEADER:

Despite preconceived notions, not all groups need have a designated leader.

Groups that are primarily composed of women, are limited in size, are free from stressful
decision-making, or only exist for a short period of time

(e.g., student work groups; pub quiz/trivia teams) often undergo a diffusion of responsibility,

36
where leadership tasks and roles are shared amongst members.

GROUP MEMBERS RESIST LEADERS:

This "need for a leader" becomes especially strong in troubled groups that are experiencing
some sort of conflict.

Group members tend to be more contented and productive when they have a leader to guide
them. Although individuals filling leadership roles can be a direct source of resentment for
followers, most people appreciate the contributions that leaders make to their groups and
consequently welcome the guidance of a leader.

LEADERSHIP STYLES:

A leadership style is a leader's style of providing direction, implementing plans, and


motivating people. It is the result of the philosophy, personality, and experience of the leader.
Rhetoric specialists have also developed models for understanding leadership.

A leadership style is a leader's style of providing direction, implementing plans,


and motivating people.

There are many different leadership styles proposed by various authors, that can be exhibited
by leaders in the political, business or other fields.

2 BROAD CATEGORIES

TASK ORIENTED LEADERS


PEOPLE ORIENTED LEADERS

CONTENTS OF LEADERSHIP STYLES

Authoritarian

Paternalistic

Democratic

Laissez-faire

Transactional

AUTHORITARIAN

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The authoritarian leadership style keeps main emphasis on the distinction of the authoritarian
leader and their followers, these types of leaders make sure to only create a distinct
professional relationship.

Direct supervision is what they believe to be key in maintaining a successful environment


and follower ship.

Authoritarian leadership styles often follow the vision of those that are in control, and may
not necessarily be compatible with those that are being led.

Authoritarian leaders have a focus on efficiency, as other styles, such as a democratic style,
may be seen as a hindrance on progress.

Examples of authoritarian leadership are the wrong type of information that can be edited
communicative behaviour: a police officer directing traffic, a teacher ordering a student to do
his or her assignment, and a supervisor instructing a subordinate to clean a workstation. All of
these positions require a distinct set of characteristics that give the leader the position to get
things in order or get a point across. Authoritarian Traits: sets goals individually, engages
primarily in one-way and downward communication, controls discussion with followers, and
dominate interaction.

PATERNALISTIC

The way a paternalistic leader works is by acting as a father figure by taking care of their
subordinates as a parent would. In this style of leadership the leader supplies complete
concern for his followers or workers.

In return he receives the complete trust and loyalty of his people. Workers under this style of
leader are expected to become totally committed to what the leader believes and will not
strive off and work independently.

The relationship between these co-workers and leader are extremely solid.

The workers are expected to stay with a company for a longer period of time because of the
loyalty and trust.

Not only do they treat each other like family inside the work force, but outside too. These
workers are able to go to each other with any problems they have regarding something
because they believe in what they say is going to truly help them.

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DEMOCRATIC

The democratic leadership style consists of the leader sharing the decision-making abilities
with group members by promoting the interests of the group members and by
practicing social equality.

Honest Display sincerity, integrity, and candour in all your actions. Deceptive
behaviour will not inspire trust.

Competent Base your actions on reason and moral principles. Do not make
decisions based on childlike emotional desires or feelings.

Forward-looking Set goals and have a vision of the future. The vision must be
owned throughout the organization. Effective leaders envision what they want and how to
get it. They habitually pick priorities stemming from their basic values.

Inspiring Display confidence in all that you do. By showing endurance in mental,
physical, and spiritual stamina, you will inspire others to reach for new heights. Take
charge when necessary.

Intelligent Read, study, and seek challenging assignments.

Fair-minded Show fair treatment to all people. Prejudice is the enemy of justice.
Display empathy by being sensitive to the feelings, values, interests, and well-being of
others.

Broad-minded Seek out diversity.

Courageous Have the perseverance to accomplish a goal, regardless of the


seemingly insurmountable obstacles. Display a confident calmness when under stress.

Straightforward Use sound judgment to make a good decisions at the right time.

Imaginative Make timely and appropriate changes in your thinking, plans, and
methods. Show creativity by thinking of new and better goals, ideas, and solutions to
problems. Be innovative!

LAISSEZ FAIRE

The laissez-faire leadership style is where all the rights and power to make decisions is fully
given to the worker.

This was first described by White in 1939, along with the autocratic leadership and the
democratic leadership styles.

39
This is an effective style to use when:

Followers are highly skilled, experienced, and educated.

Followers have pride in their work and the drive to do it successfully on their own.

Outside experts, such as staff specialists or consultants are being used.

Followers are trustworthy and experienced.


This style should not be used when:

The leader cannot or will not provide regular feedback to their followers.

TRANSACTIONAL
Transactional leaders focus their leadership on motivating followers through a system of
rewards and punishments. There are two factors which form the basis for this system,
contingent Reward and management-by-exception.

Contingent reward provides rewards, materialistic or psychological, for effort and


recognizes good performance.

Management-by-exception allows the leader to maintain the status quo. The leader
intervenes when subordinates do not meet acceptable performance levels and initiates
corrective action to improve performance. Management by exception helps reduce the
workload of managers being that they are only called-in when workers deviate from
course.

A transactional leader establishes and standardizes practices that will help the organization
reach:

Maturity

Goal-setting

Efficiency of operation

Increasing productivity.

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5.2 DECISION MAKING AND NEGOTIATION
SKILLS
DECISION MAKING

Decision-making is regarded as the cognitive process resulting in the selection of a belief or a


course of action among several alternative possibilities. Every decision-making process
produces a final choice; it may or may not prompt action. Decision-making is the process of
identifying and choosing alternatives based on the values and preferences of the decision-
maker.

41
CHARACTERISTICS OF PROBLEM ANALYSIS:

Analyze performance, what should the results be against what they actually are

Problems are merely deviations from performance standards

Problems must be precisely identified and described

Problems are caused by a change from a distinctive feature

Something can always be used to distinguish between what has and hasn't been
affected by a cause

Causes of problems can be deduced from relevant changes found in analyzing the
problem

Most likely cause of a problem is the one that exactly explains all the facts

CHARACTERISTICS OF DECISION MAKING

Objectives must first be established

Objectives must be classified and placed in order of importance

Alternative actions must be developed

The alternatives must be evaluated against all the objectives

The alternative that is able to achieve all the objectives is the tentative decision

The tentative decision is evaluated for more possible consequences

The decisive actions are taken, and additional actions are taken to prevent any adverse
consequences from becoming problems and starting both systems (problem analysis and
decision-making) all over again

There are steps that are generally followed that result in a decision model that can be
used to determine an optimal production plan[7]

In a situation featuring conflict, role playing may be helpful for predicting decisions
to be made by involved parties.

EVERYDAY TECHNIQUES

42
Decision-making techniques can be separated into two broad categories: group decision-
making techniques and individual decision-making techniques. Individual decision-making
techniques can also often be applied by a group.

DECIDE

1. Define the problem

2. Establish or Enumerate all the criteria (constraints)

3. Consider or Collect all the alternatives

4. Identify the best alternative

5. Develop and implement a plan of action

6. Evaluate and monitor the solution and examine feedback when necessary
Effective Negotiation Skills

NEGOTIATION SKILLS

Negotiation is defined as a discussion among individuals, each one trying


to present his best idea to come to a conclusion benefiting all. An
individual gains nothing out of conflict and misunderstanding; instead it
leads to stress and anxiety. It is always advisable to compromise to the
best extent possible and try to find out an alternative which satisfies all.-
Effective Negotiation Skills

43
AN INDIVIDUAL NEEDS TO ADOPT CERTAIN SKILLS FOR A SUCCESSFUL

NEGOTIATION:

Before any important deal, do make it a habit to go through as many details as you can. The
second party might ask you anything, you must be well prepared to clear all their doubts and
convince them. If you yourself are confused, he would never bother to listen to you.

React sensibly - A good negotiator must react sensibly. He should never lose his
temper or over react. If you are unhappy with the deal, show your displeasure. Dont
keep things to yourself or assume that the others will understand it on their own. One
has to voice his opinions. Make the other person realize that you are not satisfied with
the deal and it must be revised. Show your unhappiness to others.

If your boss assigns you a project you are not very comfortable with, show your
displeasure to your boss in a polite way and ask for something else. But make sure
you are not rude; otherwise your job might be at risk.

Patience - One needs to be patient enough for a good negotiation. It is not always that
the other person will accept your suggestions in the first attempt itself. You need to
convince him and it needs patience. Never be in a hurry to close the deal.

Confident - One needs to be confident enough for an effective negotiation. You might
need something but never show your desperation to anyone. They will take undue
advantage of your helplessness. Take care of your facial expressions. Never be
nervous in front of the second party. Dont start sweating.

The only mistake he did was he made it very obvious that there was no way he could afford
to miss this opportunity.

Be dignified - One should maintain the decorum of the place and should not stoop to
any level for getting the best deal. Present your ideas in a dignified way. Remember it
is just a discussion, not a battle field. Avoid shouting or using derogatory statements
against anyone. If you are not satisfied with the deal, its better to quit rather than
fighting and using abusive languages.

Be very clear in your communication - Stay firm on your quotes and do not change
statements quite often. Dont play with words or try to confuse others. One needs to
be straightforward from the very beginning.

Is good listener - Dont jump to conclusions; instead listen to what the other party
offers. Understand his situation well. Its okay to think about your personal interests
but dont be mad for it. If the deal is not benefiting the other party, he will obviously
not accept it, dont be after his life. If you dont listen to others, they would obviously
not respond to you.

When a customer goes to purchase something, he must not forget that the store owner
also has to earn his profits. The store owner should also understand the customers
needs and pocket. Negotiation depends on mutual understanding.

44
Be reasonable - Dont quote anything just for the sake of it. Be reasonable. Dont
quote imaginary or unusually high figures. Dont ask for anything you yourself know
is not possible. It will just be wastage of time and no one would benefit out of it.

Nobody is born with good negotiation skills; you need time to acquire them. Be tactful and
patient. Understand the second party well - his needs, expectations and find out a solution
beneficial to both the parties.

1. Problem Analysis:

Effective negotiators must have the skills to analyze a problem to determine the
interests of each party in the negotiation. A detailed problem analysis identifies the
issue, the interested parties and the outcome goals.

For example, in an employer and employee contract negotiation, the problem or area
where the parties disagree may be in salary or benefits. Identifying the issues for both
sides can help to find a compromise for all parties.

2. Preparation:

Before entering a bargaining meeting, the skilled negotiator prepares for the meeting.
Preparation includes determining goals, areas for trade and alternatives to the stated
goals.

In addition, negotiators study the history of the relationship between the two parties
and past negotiations to find areas of agreement and common goals. Past precedents
and outcomes can set the tone for current negotiations.

3. Active Listening:

Negotiators have the skills to listen actively to the other party during the debate.
Active listening involves the ability to read body language as well as verbal
communication.

It is important to listen to the other party to find areas for compromise during the
meeting. Instead of spending the bulk of the time in negotiation expounding the
virtues of his viewpoint, the skilled negotiator will spend more time listening to the
other party.

4. Emotional Control:

It is vital that a negotiator have the ability to keep his emotions in check during the
negotiation. While a negotiation on contentious issues can be frustrating, allowing
emotions to take control during the meeting can lead to unfavourable results.

For example, a manager frustrated with the lack of progress during a salary
negotiation may concede more than is acceptable to the organization in an attempt to
end the frustration. On the other hand, employees negotiating a pay raise may become

45
too emotionally involved to accept a compromise with management and take an all or
nothing approach, which breaks down the communication between the two parties.

5. Verbal Communication:

Negotiators must have the ability to communicate clearly and effectively to the other
side during the negotiation.

Misunderstandings can occur if the negotiator does not state his case clearly. During a
bargaining meeting, an effective negotiator must have the skills to state his desired
outcome as well as his reasoning.

6. Collaboration and Teamwork:

Negotiation is not necessarily a one side against another arrangement. Effective


negotiators must have the skills to work together as a team and foster a collaborative
atmosphere during negotiations. Those involved in a negotiation on both sides of the
issue must work together to reach an agreeable solution.

7. Problem Solving:

Individuals with negotiation skills have the ability to seek a variety of solutions to
problems.

Instead of focusing on his ultimate goal for the negotiation, the individual with skills
can focus on solving the problem, which may be a breakdown in communication, to
benefit both sides of the issue.

8. Decision Making Ability

Leaders with negotiation skills have the ability to act decisively during a negotiation.
It may be necessary during a bargaining arrangement to agree to a compromise
quickly to end a stalemate.

9. Interpersonal Skills:

Effective negotiators have the interpersonal skills to maintain a good working


relationship with those involved in the negotiation.

Negotiators with patience and the ability to persuade others without using
manipulation can maintain a positive atmosphere during a difficult negotiation.

10. Ethics and Reliability:

Ethical standards and reliability in an effective negotiator promote a trusting


environment for negotiations. Both sides in a negotiation must trust that the other
party will follow through on promises and agreements.

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A negotiator must have the skills to execute on his promises after bargaining ends.

5.3 TIME MANAGEMENT


Time management is the act or process of planning and exercising conscious control over the
amount of time spent on specific activities, especially to increase effectiveness, efficiency or
productivity.

Beat Work Overload. Be More Effective. Achieve More.

The major themes arising from the literature on time management include the following:

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Creating an environment conducive to effectiveness

Setting of priorities

Carrying out activity around prioritization.

The related process of reduction of time spent on non-priorities

Incentives to modify behaviour to ensure compliance with time-related deadlines.


Time management has been considered to be a subset of different concepts such as:

Project management: Time Management can be considered to be a project


management subset and is more commonly known as project planning and project
scheduling. Time Management has also been identified as one of the core functions
identified in project management.[1]

Attention management: Attention Management relates to the management


of cognitive resources, and in particular the time that humans allocate their mind (and
organize the minds of their employees) to conduct some activities.

SOME OF THE MANAGEMENTS:

ACTIVE LOGS -finding more time


TO-DO LIST -the key to efficiency
ACTION PROGRAMS -becoming exceptionally well organized
ALLENS INPUT PROCESSING TECHNIQUE -managing workflow
effectively
VALUING YOUR TIME -finding out how much time is worth
MULTITASKING -can it help you get more done
LEVERAGE -achieving much more with the same effort
HOW TO BE ORGANIZED -taking control of the day
TH E ART OF FILING -managing the documents and the time
MANAGING ELECTRONIC FILES -efficient file management
MANAGING EMAIL EFFECTIVELY -strategies for taming inbox

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TIME MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES

1. MANAGING ITERRUPTIONS - Maintain focus, keep control of our time

2. DEALING WITH LATENESS Solving punctuality problems

3. ORGANIZING DISORGANIZED PEOPLE Motivating our team to change

4. MINIMIZING DISTRACTIONS Take care of control

5. THE ART OF CONCISE CONVERSATIONS Stick to the point-humanely

6. CREATING TIME IN UR DAY Maximizing a busy schedule.

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