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Submitted By Submitted To

Alice Joseph Mrs. Celinamma George

Social Science Associate Proffessor

Social Science


I Alice Joseph hereby declare that this project entitled THE SOCIO-
CHANGANACHERRY is submitted to Mrs. Celinamma George, Associate
professor in Social Science, PORUKARA COLLEGE OF EDUCATION in
partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the B-Ed, Degree is a
record of original work by me and no part of the dissertation has been presented
for any other degree before.

Champakulam Alice Joseph

Social Science


This is to certify that the individual project work certified THE

IN CHANGANACHERRY submitted by Alice Joseph, Ist semester B-Ed
student is aesthetic record of the work caused out by herself under my
supervision and guidance.

Champakulam Mrs. Celinamma George

Date : Dept. of Social Science


At the outset I would like to express deepest gratitude to Lord God

Almighty for his abundant grace without which this course work would not
have been successfully completed.
I am indebted to Mrs. Celinamma George who guided and encouraged me
by giving priceless suggestions during the preparation of this work.
I do acknowledge my special indebtedness to Mr. Sojan Scaria, Principal
of Porukara College of Education, Champakulam for providing support and
help in this study.
I thank Mrs. Meera.S, the librarian Porukara College of Education,
Champakulam for her co-operation to complete the present study.
I would like to express my gratitude to my family members and
classmates for their moral support and assistance.


1.1 Background of the study 2-5

1.2 Need and significance of the study 5-6

1.3 Statement of the problem 6-7

1.4 Objectives of the problem 7-8

1.5 Scope of the study 8-9

2.1 Introduction 11

2.2 Methods adopted for the study 12

2.3 Tools used for the study 12

2.4 Procedure for data collection 13

3.1 Introduction 15

3.2 Statistical analysis of data 15-26

3.3 Conclusion 27

4.1 Introduction 29

4.2 Objective of the study 29

4.3 Findings of the study 30

4.4 Limitation of the study 31

4.5 Suggestions for further study 31

Bibliography 32

Questionnaire 33-35


Title Page No.

4.1 General Information 15

4.2 Marital Status 16

4.3 Occupation of Husband 17

4.4 Religious Background of Respondents 17

4.5 Educational Status of Respondents 18

4.6 Status of House 19

4.7 Years of Experience 20

4.8 Working Condition 21

4.9 Leisure Time of Respondents 21

4.10 No. of Working Hours 22

4.11 Income Satisfaction of Respondents 23

4.12 Saving Habit 24

4.13 Wage Discrimination 24

4.14 ESI Provision 25

4.15 Health Problems 25


Title Page No.

4.1 General Information 15

4.2 Marital Status 16

4.3 Religious Background of Respondents 18

4.4 Years of Experience 20

4.5 Leisure Time of Respondents 21

4.6 Income Status of Respondents 23

4.7 Saving Habit 24

4.8 Health Problems 24


1.1 Background of the study

1.2 Need and significance of the study

1.3 Statement of the problem

1.4 Objectives of the problem

1.5 Scope of the study


A Woman is identified as a mother, a wife, a daughter, a daughter in law but

never as an independent person. To be born as women means to inhabit from early
infancy to the last day of life in a psychological world that differs from the world
around them. Most of the exasperation and discrimination in womens life stems for
this fact. The overall picture is one of the greater disadvantage for women workers in
general and these belonging to unorganized sector in particular. As a matter of fact the
problem of female workers is the index of status of Indian labour in both organized
and unorganized sector.

The discussion regarding the problems associated with the women has many
aspects such as economic, political, psychological, sociological and legal etc. The
employment in the unorganized sector require certain minimum qualifications and
most of these educated women workers are drawn from the middle class and richer
sections, a very fewer from lower class would get a chance of these jobs. The National
Commission of Labour describes some features and constraints of unorganized sector
(a) Casual nature of employment
(b) Ignorance and illiteracy
(c) Small size of establishment with low capital investment per person
(d) Scattered nature of establishment and
(e) Superior strength of employees operating, singling and in combination.

Unorganized Sector

The term Unorganized sector or informal sector was first used in the socio
anthropological studies during 1950s. Its importance in the development processes
was highlighted by Arther Lewis (1950). The importance of informal sector can be
realized by considering the employment. Most of the early literature relating to this
concept has come out from the studies undertaken under the auspicious of ILO (India

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Labour Organization) and Work Bank, which makes a plea- for a better deal of this
sector rather than unorganized and it is used frequently in the context of third world
The 10 definition (1972) incorporated the idea that informal sector had
untapped development potential because of its flexibility and potential for creative
response to economic change. The only specific being absence of workers rights and
social security in every other way both from part of an integral whole.
Porters and Walton defined informal sector as comparing of all income
proceeding activities outside the formal contracts. Indian planners conceived of the
informal sector said to e characterized by long hours of work inadequate wages and
exposure to noxious materials, lack adequate lighting, unsanitary conditions etc.
Unemployment is the major blight on the development of Kerala and educated
unemployment has assumed alarming proportions in recent items. Gender difference
in educated unemployment is also increasing substantially. The Industrial as well as
the traditional sector are losing their hold as labour generations.
The state is withdrawing from the education sector and the people are losing
chances for higher education. Growth based on the informal organization is presumed,
therefore to be more effective in talking the problems of unemployment, poverty and
inequality. Entry into the informal sector is unrestricted while that in the informal
sector labour market is restricted artificially to raise hiring standards. The supply of
the labor in the informal sector is mostly new entrants in the labor market. Migrant or
young persons, especially women. Social characteristics and extra economic
constraints makes women increasingly vulnerable to poverty and at the time of entry
into the labor market. The labor market is exploiting women as a bendable resource.

Textile Industry in India

The Textile Industry in India traditionally, after agriculture, is the only industry
that has generated huge employment for both skilled and unskilled labor in textiles.
The textile industry continues to be the second largest employment generating sector
in India. It offers direct employment to over 35 million in the country. The share of
textiles in total exports was 11.04% during April- July 2010, as per the Ministry of

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Textiles. During 2009-2010, India textiles industry was pegged at US $ 55 billion
64% of which services domestic demand. In 2010, there were 2500 textile weaving
factories and 4135 textile finishing factories in all of India.


The archeological surveys and studies have found that the people of Harappan
Civilization knew weaving and the spinning of cotton four thousand years ago.
Reference to weaving and the spinning materials is found in the Vedic Literature also.

There was textile trade in India during the early countries. A block printed and
resist-dyed-fabrics whose origin is from Gujarat is found in tombs of Fostat, Egypt.
This proves that Indian export of cotton textiles to the Egypt or the Nile Civilization in
medieval times were to a large extent. Large quantity of North Indian silk were traded
through the silk route in China to the Western countries. The Indian silk were often
exchange with the western countries for their spices in the barter system. During the
late 17th and 18th century there were large export of the Indian cotton to the western
countries to meet the need of European industries during industrial revolution.
Consequently there was development of nationalist movement like the famous
swadeshi movement which was headed by the Aurobindo Ghosh.

There was also export of Indian Silk, Muslim cloth of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa
to other countries by the East India Company. Bhilwara is known as textile city.

The Unorganized Sector in India

In the mid 1950s, W. Arthur Lewis developed a theoretical model of economic

development based on the assumption that there was as unlimited supply of labor in
most developing countries and that this vast pool of surplus labor would be absorbed
as the modern Industrial sector in these countries grew. It was therefore assumed that
the traditional sector comprised of petty traders, small producers, and a range of
casual hob would eventually be absorbed into the formal economy and disappear. The
formal- informal dichotomy can be regarded as a new variation on the dualism
theories of the past.

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The major characteristics of the unorganized workers

1. The unorganized labor is overwhelming in terms of its number range and

therefore they are omnipresent throughout India.

2. The work place is scattered and tragmented.

3. There is no formal employer employee relationship.

4. In rural areas, the unorganized labor force is highly stratified on caste and
community considerations. In urban areas while such considerations are much
less. It cannot be said that it is altogether absent as the bulk of the unorganized
workers from rural areas.

5. The unorganized workers do not receive sufficient attention from the trade

6. Inadequate and ineffective labor laws and standards relating to the unorganized


The most important feature of unorganized sector are that most of the women
labors are appointed as contract laborers. Studies conducted in several parts of the
country indicate the awful conditions of the women workers in this sector. They
continue to face discrimination and marginalization both subtle and blatant and do not
share the fruits of development equally, ignorance, traditional bound attitudes,
illiteracy, lack skills, seasonal nature of employment, heavy physical work of different
types, lack of job security, lack of a comprehensive legislation to cover these workers
in unorganized sector and competition in employment are resultant deprival of real
The state of women in Kerala Exploitation is very acute in this field. The labor
is unstable and irregular. Even existing laws are being always violated. A co-ordinal
feature of the labour laws is that all pertaining to social security, welfare, safety and

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working conditions and the like is based on the presumption of on employer-
employee relationship. In a situation where unemployment is high and alternative job
opportunities are few, any attempts to bargain for better conditions leads to the
replacement of the skill existing job. The fear of baring no work and no income
restrain the workers from asserting their legal rights. In this context it is very
important to study the condition of women in the textile sector of Kerala. This study is
about the women working in the textile sale sector in Changanacherry.


Indian economy is to a great extent characterized large number of people

working in organized sectors as unorganized workers: transitional nature of the Indian
economy, disparity in education, skill and training are some of the major factors
abetting such a large concentration of workers in an area most vulnerable to energies
economic vicissitudes. Women working in the unorganized sector deserve a separate
mention as they are much marginalized.

Women have always worked, albeit the definition of work- if seen only through
the prism of contribution to national input- will mean different things to different
people. Women, who might no be working in the narrow definition of work, are still
engaged in socially productive and reproductive labour. National commission for
Enterprises in Unorganized Sector (NCEUS) has noted that employment in India can
be meaningfully grouped into four categories to reflect Quality and its sectored
association. These are.

a) Formal employment in the formal or organized sector.

b) Informal employment in the formal sector.

c) Formal employment in the informal sector.

d) Informal employment in the informal sector.

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Amongst these four categories, reports have shown that the Indian economy is
characterized largely by the huge number of people employed informally in the
informal sector or the unorganized sector. To exactly define unorganized sector, we
can say it consist of all unincorporated private enterprises owned solely by individuals
or households on a proprietary or partnership basis and involving test than ten workers
in all.

Unorganized Sector in Kerala

In Kerala unorganized sector has become a miss number. A large segment of

workers outside the public sector and in fact unorganized sector. Over half states two
million agriculture labors belong CPM affiliated KSKTU the single largest union in
the state. The large segment of workers in Keralas traditional industries cashew and
coir is too largest casual labor market, construction and head loap work has been
unorganized. The beedi industrial the archetypal labour-squeezing, putting out
industry- unions has organized the largest and most successful produced co-operative
in the state with a membership of over 32000, even mahout has been union
organizational success of union in this sector is a direct outgrowth of broad base
character of Keralas labour movement.

Textiles in Kerala

Kerala State Textiles Corporation Ltd (KSTC) was incorporated in 1972 as a

fully owned subsidiary of Kerala State Industrial Development Corporation Ltd.
(KSIDC) with the main objectives of setting up/ running textile mills in the state of
Kerala. The corporation was looking after the affairs of four private textile mills
namely, Alagappa Textile Ltd. (Kochi), Parvathy Mills Ltd. (Kollam), Vijayamohini
Mills Ltd. (Trivandrum) and Kerala Lakshmi Mills Ltd. (Thrissur) as controller and
custodian authorized by Government of Kerala till 1975. Since they were transferred
to National Textiles Corporation (NTC) in 1973, KSTC took over the management of
Trivandrum Spinning Mills Ltd. (Balaramapuram) and the Bleaching and Calendaring
Plant (Balaramapuram) for a period of five years till a separate board was constituted
for TSM.

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KSTC started operations in 1978 by taking over the management of three
closed textile mill in the private sector namely, Kottayam Textiles, Prabhuram Mills
and Malabar Spinning and Weaving Mills under IDR Act. The units were nationalized
and were vested with the corporation with retrospective effect from 01 September 83
in accordance with the provisions of Kerala Sick Textile Undertakings (Acquition &
Transfer of Undertaking) Act, 1985.


1. To analysis the socio-economic profile of women workers in textile sale sector in


2. To understand the problems faced by women in the textile sale sector.

3. To suggest measures to improve conditions of women working in textile sale


4. To upgrade the socio-economic status of women.

5. To study the socio-economic conditions of woman in textile sales sector.


Almost 400 million people work in unorganized sector (more than 85% of the
working population in India) and of these labor 120 million are women. According to
an estimate by the National Commission of Self Employed Women (1988) of the total
number of women working in India above (94%) are informal are unorganized sector,
whereas (6%) are in organized sector. However the plight of women in this sector is
miserable as they work for extremely low wages with a total lack of job security and
social security hence fits and their working conditions are unsatisfactory. According to
census 2011 women constitute 48.46% of the total population in India and about
25.67% female population in designated as workers. The National Labor Commission
along with several other international and national commissions committees and
conferences in the last 50 years have documented the socio-economic conditions of

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workers in unorganized sector in India. The Arjuna Sengupta Committee report is a
stark render of huge size and poor conditions in this sector. The National Commission
of Enterprises in Unorganized Sector (NCEUS) has extensively profiled the
unorganized sector workers is very tough. They are exploited in many ways. The
exploitation is not only carried on the class lines but also the lines of male terms of
level and qualities of employment. There are still cases where women workers are
deprived of the benefits and amenities like equal remunerations visa-vis their male
counter parts, employer towards women workers. Research shows that women and
girls are tend to work harder than men and boys and are more likely to invest their
earnings in their children are major producer as well as consumers and shoulder
critical, life sustaining responsibilities without which men and boys could not survive,
much less enjoy high level of productivity.

Women in the textile sales sector are working with very low wages. It is low
than the minimum wage fixed. They are not getting any service benefits such as
increment, leave, and pension, P.F, insurance. They are being exploited in many ways.
Most of them coming from the lower class family of the city suburbs. Majority are
having the education of SSLC. They are the bread winner of their family but it is not
recognized. No trade union is working in the field. Women in textile sale sector are
very insecure and they are being exploited very much. Their future in the field is very
bleak. They have to quit the job after certain age. After they are not getting any other
jobs. The Government department related to them is not at all helpful to them. They
have no other forum to react. They are ignorant about any of such existing systems.
Society imposing its rigid value system upon them which naturally becomes a burden
to them. It has to be changed. We have to identify them as a major labor force.

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2.1 Introduction

2.2 Methods adopted for the study

2.3 Tools used for the study

2.4 Procedure for data collection

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A system of broad principles or rules from which specific methods or

procedure may be derived to interpret or solve different problems within the scope of
a particular discipline. Methodology is the systematic, theoretical analysis of the
methods applied to a field of study. These conditions rarely can prevail when testing
complex educational or workplace innovations. It is rare that a convincing placebo can
be concocted and administered. It is often difficult to prevent some spill-overs of the
treatment whereby those receiving the treatment share it with some friends who are
in the control group. It is also difficult to prevent those not receiving the treatment
from seeking alternative treatments on their own. It is rare that those administering the
innovation can do so without knowing they are using the treatment rather than the
placebo. It is also rare that those measuring the effects are blind about who did
and did not receive the treatment, although this is sometimes feasible to arrange. This
is not to say that experimental designs are a waste of time in answering casual
questions in education and worksite research. Sometimes they are the best option, but
rarely are they golden.
In qualitative research, often the specific questions of interest emerge in the
course of the study and thus the design for answering them must also emerge. While
the designs described above tend to be explicitly discussed in quantitative research,
they can be applicable to qualitative research. For instance, if the main question is
what are recent Central American immigrant youths perceptions of DC school life, a
phenomenologist could intensively study the perceptions several such youth already in
one or more DC schools. If the main question is whether Math Explosion software can
boost these youthsmath skills, an ethnographer would have a stronger basis for
answering the question if he or she intensively studied these youths application of
math in school and outside, for a while before the youth start using the software,
during the use, and then afterwards.

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A field of applied statistics, survey methodology studies the sampling of

individual units from a population and the associated survey data collection
techniques, such as questionnaire construction and methods for improving the number
and according of responses to surveys. The survey method of research asks a
representative sample of people oral or written questions to find out about their
attitudes, behaviors, beliefs opinions and values. There are various types of surveys
you can choose from. Basically, the types of surveys are broadly categorized into two:
according to instrumentation and according to the span of time involved. The types of
surveys according to instrumentation include the questionnaire and the interview. On
the other hand, the types of surveys according to the span of time used to conduct the
survey are comprised of cross-sectional surveys and longitudinal surveys.


Questionnaire constructions regards questionnaires. It is a series of questions

asked to individuals to obtain statistically useful information about given topic. They
are a valuable method of collecting a wide range of information from a large number
of individuals, often referred to as respondents, it can be students, workers or any
person whom you require information from. Although questionnaire and interview
data are frequently reported together, studies within educational contexts seldom
examine the level of similarity between people's questionnaire and interview
responses to determine when and if comparisons between these data sets are


For understanding the socio-economic conditions of women in unorganized

sector. A case study of women in textile sale sector in Changanacherry. Study women
in various textile like S.M. Silks, Aiswarya Silks, Karikkineth Silks, New Lubina etc.
in Changanacherry were interviewed. The study was based on both primary and
secondary data. Primary data were collected from sample of 50 sales girls in different

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textile shops in Changanacherry using pretested questionnaire. The sample tools like
average percentage were used to analyze the data. The secondary data was collected
from economic review books, journals, articles and websites.

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3.1 Introduction

3.2 Statistical analysis of data

3.3 Conclusion

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The chapter deals with the analysis of Socio-Economic Condition of Women

in Unorganized Sector A case study of Women in Textile Sales Sector in
Changanacherry. For this the primary data has been collected from 50 women
working in textile sale sector. In the analysis tables are used to present the collected


General Information
Table 4.1

Age Group No Percentage

Below 20 2 4

20-30 7 14

30-40 37 74

Above 40 4 8

Total 50 100

Figure 4.1

Below 20 20-30 30-40 Above 40

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Marital Status
Table 4.2

Marital Status Percentage

Unmarried 15

Married 61.7

Separated 8.3

Widow 15

Total 100

The data analysis shows that among the respondent 61.7% lead a married life,
23.3% are either separated or suffer because of husbands death.

Pie Diagram Showing Marital Status of Women

Figure 4.2

15% 15%

8.3% Unmarried


The data analysis shows that among the respondent, 61.7% lead a married life.
23.3% are either separated or suffer because of husbands death.

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Occupation of Husband
Table 4.3

Occupation Percentage

Small Business 12.5

Private Sector Jobs 30

Agriculture 12

Manual Labour 45.5

Total 100

The collected data reveal that in majority of cases husbands engage in casual or
manual labour (45.5%), it indicates that women workers mostly experience financial

Religious background of Respondents

Table 4.4

Religion Percentage

Hindu 50

Christian 40

Muslim 10

Total 100

Data reveal that majority of the women in sales job belonging to the Hindu
community (50%), Christin form 40% of the respondents and only 10% belong to
Muslim community.

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Religious background of Respondents
Figure 4.3






Hindu Christian Muslim

Educational Status of Respondents

Table 4.5

Educational status Percentage

High School 58

Higher Secondary 22.2

Degree 17.8

PG above 2

Total 100

Educational status of respondents shows that all the women are literate, 58% of
the respondents have high school education. 17.8% of the women were graduate and
even 2% have post graduate degree.

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Status of House
Table 4.6

House of Status Percentage

Own House 66.67

Rented 2.5

Hostels 8.33

Total 100

The analysis of data reveals that 66.67% of respondents have own house, 25%
live in rented houses and 8.33% live in hostels.

Years of Experience in the Institution

Table 4.7

Year Percentage

Below3 16.7

3-5 33.3

5-7 25

7-9 16.7

Above 9 8.33

Total 100

Data regarding number of years in the institution indicate that there are only
less number of women who have more years of experience in the firm. As number of
years of experience rise, percentages of women fall. There are only 8.33% of women
who have above 9 years of experience in the institution. Majority of respondents have
3-5 years of experience.

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Years of Experience in the Institution
Figure 4.4






Below 3 3 to 5 5 to 7 7 to 9 Above 9

Working Condition
Table 4.8

Working Condition Percentage

Satisfied 30

Not Satisfied 70

Total 100

Data reveal that majority of women (70%) are not satisfied with the working
condition. The inability to set, long hours of standing and short duration for lunch are
reason for lack of satisfaction.
Leisure time of Respondents
Table 4.9

Sufficient leisure time Percentage

Yes 24.6

No 75.4

Total 100

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Data reveal that 75.4% of respondents feel that there is lack of sufficient leisure
time. 24.6% feel that leisure time given to them is sufficient.
Figure 4.5
Leisure time of Respondents




Number of working hours

Table 4.10

Working Hours Percentage

Below 8

8-9 18%

Above 9 82%

Total 100

Data regarding working hours show that 82% of the respondents have above 9
hours of daily work. Most of the respondents stay late during busy festival season.

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Income Status of Respondents
Table 4.11

Monthly Income Percentage

3000 - 5000 76

5000 - 7000 19

7000 - 10000 5

Total 100

In spite of hard working condition, most of the women are paid very low
wages. 75% of respondents do not ever get minimum wages stipulated by got (Rs.
180/day). Only 5% are able to reach this level of 7000 10000/month. It reveals the
poor income situation of respondents.

Income Status of Respondents

Figure 4.6








3000-5000 5000-7000 7000-10000

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Income Satisfaction
Table 4.12

Income Satisfaction Percentage

Satisfied 25

Not Satisfied 75

Total 100

The above information regarding working condition and monthly wage reveal
that majority (75%) are not satisfied with their income.

Saving Habit
Table 4.3

Saving Habit Percentage

Yes 88.67

No 11.33

Total 100

Through paid only low wages, women labour in these institution contribute to
saving 88.67% of the respondents save out of their measured income.

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Saving Habit
Figure 4.7
Yes No

Wage Discrimination
Table 4.14

Wage Discrimination Percentage

Yes 95.5

No 4.5

Total 100

In addition to the poor working condition, there is also existence of gender

discrimination in term of wages. 95.5% have the opinion that men in the unit are paid
more than women doing the same job.
ESI Provision
Table 4.5

ESI Percentage

Yes 53.33

No 46.67

Total 100
Out of the 50 women 53.33% have ESIP provision, 46% have no ESI

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Health Problems
Table 4.5

Health Problem Percentage

Body Pain 46.67

Allergy 8.33

Asthma 38.33

Skin Disease 16.67

Head Ache 16.67

Total 100

Out of 50 women 46.6% of them suffer body pain, 16.67% of them suffer skin
disease, 16.67% of them Head ache and other disease like Asthma, allergy etc.

Health Problems
Figure 4.8
Body Pain Allergy Asthma Skin Disease Head Ache

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The study Socio-economic conditions of women in unorganized sector a

case study on women in textile sale sector in Changanacherry aim at studying the
socio-economic status of women working in textile sale sector. Textile industries are
one of the largest sector in the unorganized sector. But in the case of sales girls in the
textile industries, they were suffer from some problems such as high work load, lack
of leisure time, low wages, unsatisfactory working conditions etc. Based on the
analysis most of the workers are not satisfied with their wages and working condition.
It has been noted that the main reason behind this dissatisfaction is that there are no
proper rules and regulation, no proper working unions and high work load etc.
Through the statistics reveal the increase in Keralas informal sector, this
employment is more in the natural of casual and irregular, non structural labor. More
over through womens earning contribute substantially to the households this is more
often than not designated. When especially in the lower classes not only have to cope
with physical hardship that impacts their health they continue in the same job.

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4.1 Introduction

4.2 Objectives of the study

4.3 Major Findings of the study

4.4 Limitations of the study

4.5 Suggestions for further study

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These chapter summaries the main findings of the report, including new
evidence which questions some of the myths and taboos around mental ill-health and
work. People with severe mental disorder are too often too far away from the labour
market, and need help to find sustainable employment. The majority of people with
common mental disorder, however, are employed but struggling in their jobs. Neither
are they receiving any treatment nor any supports in workplace, thus being at high risk
of job loss and permanent labour market exclusion. This implies need for policy to
shift away from severe to common mental disorders and sub-threshold conditions;
away from a focus on inactive people to more focus on those employed; and away
from reactive to preventive strategies.


1. To analysis the socio economic profile of women workers in textile sales sector
in Changanacherry.
2. To understand the problems faced by women in the textiles sale sector.
3. To suggest measure to improve conditions of women working in textiles sale
4. To upgrade the socio-economic status of women.
5. To study the socio-economic conditions of the women.


The study reveals the socio-economic conditions of women in textile sale

sector. The data was collected from 50 women working in various textile shops in
Changanacherry. The study analyze their age marital status, income, working
condition, saving habit health status etc. the major findings are as follows:
72.7% of the women were in the age group 30-40 and 61.7% of them were
In the case of their educational status 58% of them were S.S.L.C qualified.

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70% of the respondents were not satisfied with the working condition. This is
because of most of them were not getting adequate leisure time and had to
work for more than 8 hours continuously with very low level of wage.
They also opined that there was wage discrimination in the same level of
employment among the workers in the textile sale sector.
Out of the 50 respondents 82% have to work for more than 9 hours in a day and
75.4% them were of the opinion that they were not getting sufficient work
In the case of their average monthly wages 76% them have wages below 5000
and then 75% were not satisfied with the personal income.
Most of them were not able to meet their financial needs with their salary
88.67% have the habit of saving and they have bank as well as post office
Out of the 50 respondents they also suffer from a number of health problems
like body pain, allergy, asthma, skin disease and others. 50.67% opined that
they suffer from body pain.
ESI provision 53.33% of the respondents get ESI and then remaining 46.67%
dont get ESI. This is because of that particular textile is newly established.


1. Duration of the time for the study was very limited.

2. Respondents inhabitation to respond to questions paused a diificulty for
collection of data.


After evaluating the major findings from the analysis entitled Socio-economic
conditions of women in unorganized sector- a case study on women in textile sale
sector in Changanacherry the suggestions to improve the living standards and socio-
economic well being of women work force are as follows:

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1. The employees are having a hectic work schedule which create problem for
them. Proper work schedule should be prepared so that they could work
2. It is necessary to create awareness among the female workers regarding their
social and economic rights.
3. A statutory provision is essential for the appointment of doctor to check the
health conditions of women workers periodically.
4. The Employees State Insurance (ESI) scheme must be granted to all workers
irrespective on the basis of formal criteria with reference to age relaxation and
work experience.
5. Increase in the number of latrine facilities provided to the women workers by the
6. Enhance the savings behavior of the women through initiating small chits and
fund programs.
7. Educational scholarship and incentives should be provided to the workers
children, it will definitely raise the social reputation of the enterprise.

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1. A.Gandhi (2006) Womens work and employment, New Delhi, Lilli
2. A.M.Sinha (1993) Women in a changing society, New Delhi, Prathibha Book
3. Chugan (2005) Indian textile industry, New Delhi, Prathibha Book House.
4. Aninditha Mukerji (2008), Socio-economic background of women, New
Delhi, Prathibha Book House.
5. Raga Saran (2010), Women workers employed in industrial and non industrial
organization in India, Kanpur Universal Books.
6. Journals
1. Joshy.S.C (2007), Working women in unorganized sector, Haryana.
2. Kalpana (2009), Performance and role of unorganized sector in India, Kerala.
3. Krishna Iyyer (2012), Unorganized sector in Kerala, Kollam.



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Porukara College of Education

Case Study of Women Workers in Changanacherry

(a) General Information

1. District :

2. Panchayath :

3. Municipality :

4. Name of the Family :

(b) Personal Information

5. Name :

6. Address :

7. Age

Below 20 20-30 30-40 Above 40

8. Marital Status

Single Married Seperated Widow

9. Occupation of Husband :

10. Status of House

Rent Own House Hostels

11. Religion, Caste :

12. Are you literate or illiterate

Literate Illiterate

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13. Educational Status

High School Higher Secondary PG and above

(c) Other relevant information if any

14. Mention the total working hours you put in daily

Below 8 hours 8-9 hours 10 hours

15. Are you satisfied with the working condition in the work place?

Yes No

16. Do you have adequate sanitation facilities in the work place?

Yes No

17. Do you have water facilities?

Yes No

18. Do the management provide allowance for medical facility?

Yes No

19. Do you get proper leisure time during the working hours?

Yes No

20. Monthly Income

3000-5000 5000-7000 7000-10000

21. Are you satisfied with your present income?

Yes No

22. How long have you been working in this situation?

23. Do you possess the habit of saving?

Yes No

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24. What percentage of income get saved per month?


25. Is there any disparity between the wage received by the male and female


Yes No

26. Do you have PF and insurance coverage?

Yes No

27. Does the employer provide annual increment?

Yes No

28. Do you have any debt problem?

Yes No

29. Do you suffer any health hazards?

Yes No

If yes mention the type of diseases

30. Is there any retirement age in this institution?

Yes No

31. Do you experience job security on your present job?

Yes No

If not mention the reason


32. Do you have any suggestion to improve your present job situation, mention?


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