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Material structure

Element Of Periodic Table

Atomic bonding

Crystal structures of material


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Any material is originated from its inner
structure (microstructure).
Presentation Title The
microstructure is dependsMyon namethe atomic
structure, My
such as its atomic number,
position, contact information
or project description
weight or how its bond.
There are FOUR types of microstructure;
atom, element, mixture and compound.

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DEFINITION

Basic structural unit of all engineering materials.

Consists of 2 or more atoms of same type. It


is in pure condition such as gold, platinum,
graphite,

Consists of 2 or more different types of atoms but


not chemically bond

Compound: consists of 2 or more different types of


atoms that chemically bond
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Atoms is the smallest particle that form
material whether in solid, liquid or gas form.
Consists primarily of three basic subatomic
particles: protons, neutrons and electrons.
The nucleus accounts for almost all the mass
of the atom and contains the protons and
neutrons.

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Particle Charge
Proton Positive
Neutron Neutral
Elektron Negative

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shell 3

shell 2

Electron

shell 1

Nucleus (proton & neutron)

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The relative atomic mass of an element is the mass in grams of 6.023 X 1023
atoms (Avogadros number NA) of that element.

Because of protons and neutrons account for almost all the mass of the atom,
thus atomic mass shows the quantity of protons and neutrons in nucleus.

The atomic number of atom indicates the number of protons (positively charged
particles) that are in its nucleus, and in a neutral atom the atomic number is also
equal to the number of electrons.

Each element has its own characteristic atomic number, and thus the atomic
number identifies the element.

The electrons, particularly the outer ones (electrovalence), determine most of the
electrical, mechanical, chemical and thermal properties of the atoms.
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How elements are arranged in EPT

The vertical column is called group.


Atoms with same amount of electrovalence
are arranged in a same group, thus its
posses same chemical properties.
There 8 main group in EPT, with transition
elements group in the middle of it.
The horizontal row is called period.
Atoms with same amount of orbit are
arranged in the same period. 9
Electron configuration

Fill the electrons in the closest period with the


nucleus first (usually 2 electrons)

Then, fill the rest of the electrons in the other


period (maximum 8 electrons in a period)

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THE ATOMIC
NUMBER WEIGHT
7 14
OF ATOM

N THE NAME
OF ELEMENT
THE Nitrogen
SYMBOL 2:5

ELECTRON
CONFIGURATION
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Used Of EPT

To simplifies the classification of an element.

To give the information about an element such as


its properties.

Easy to predict properties of a new found element


and its applications.

Easy to understand and analyze the reaction of


the element.
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Primary Bonding

Ionic

Metallic

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Ionic
Strong interaction among negative atom (have an extra electron ) and positive
atom (lost an electron). Example Na+Cl-

Strong atomic bonds due to transfer of electrons.


Mutual ionization occurs by electron transfer
ion = charged atom
Anion = negatively charged atom
Cat ion = positively charged atom

Electron transfer reduces the energy of the system of atoms, that is electron
transfer energetically favorable

Note relative sizes of ions: Na shrink and Cl expands

Na has 11 e-, 1 more than needed for a full outer shell

Cl has 17e-, 1 less than needed for a full outer shell


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Ionic

15
Ionic

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Covalent

Electrons are shared between the molecules, to


saturate the valency.
Cooperative sharing of valence electrons
Covalent bonding are HIGHLY directional
Can be described by orbital overlap

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Covalent

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Metallic

Valence electrons are detached from atoms, and


spread in an electron sea that glues the ions
together
A metallic bond is non-directional (bonds form in
any direction) atoms pack closely

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Secondary Bonding @ Van Der Waals

Interaction between dipoles; dipoles are a


separation of charge (+/-).
Weaker forces (10kJ/mol) than primary
bonding, yet these bonds still influence physical
properties.
Secondary bonding exists in virtually all atoms
and molecules, but their presence may be
obscured by primary bonding.

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Secondary Bonds
Fluctuating dipoles
ex: liquid H 2
asymmetric electron
clouds H2 H2

+ - + - H H H H
secondary secondary
bonding bonding
Permanent dipoles-molecule induced

+ - secondary + -
-general case:
bonding

H Cl secondary H Cl
-ex: liquid HCl
bonding

-ex: polymer secondary bonding 21


Secondary Bonds
Type Bond Energy Comments
Ionic Large Nondirectional (ceramics)
Coulombic force

Covalent Variable Directional


(semiconductors, ceramics
large-Diamond
polymer chains)
small-Bismuth

Metallic Variable
large-Tungsten Nondirectional (metals)
small-Mercury

Secondary smallest Directional


Van der Waals inter-chain (polymer)
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inter-molecular
Atomic Arrangement

Crystalline

Non
Crystalline

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The structure of Crystalline solid

Consists of atoms that are arrange in a repeating


or periodic array over the entire extent of the
material in 3D form.
Crystalline material atoms self-organize in a
periodic array
Polycrystalline material comprised of many small
crystals or grains
Amorphous lacks a systematic atomic
arrangement
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Crystalline and amorphous structure 25
The structure of Crystalline solid

Grains / crystals have different crystallographic


orientation. There exist atomic mismatch within
the regions where grains meet. These regions
are called grain boundaries.

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Atomic Arrangement

Unit cell is the smallest structural unit or building


block that can describe the crystal structure.
Repetition of the unit cell generates the entire crystal.

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Atomic Arrangement

The most common types of unit cells are the


simple cubic (SC), the faced-centered cubic
(FCC), the body-centered cubic (BCC) and the
hexagonal close-packed (HCP)

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Metallic Crystal Structure

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Metallic Crystal Structure

In the Simple Cubic (SC) unit cell there is an


atom at each of the eight corners of a cube

Number of atom: Simple Cube


8 atom from the corner x 1/8 = 1 atom 30
Metallic Crystal Structure

Atom at each corner and at center of cubic unit cell


Cr,-Fe, Mo have this crystal structure
Number of atoms per unit cell, n=2
Center atom (1) shared by no other cells: 1x1=1
8 corner atoms shared by eight cells:
8x1/8 = 1

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Metallic Crystal Structure

Body- Centered Cubic (BCC)


8 atom from corner X 1/8 = 1 atom
1 atom in the center = 1 atom
TOTAL 2 atom

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Metallic Crystal Structure

Atoms are located at each of the corners


and on the centers of all the faces of cubic
unit cell
Cu, Al, Ag, Au have this crystal structure
Number of atoms per unit cell, n=4.
6 face atoms shared by two cells: 6x1/2 = 3
8 corner atoms shared by eight cells:
8x1/8 = 1 33
Metallic Crystal Structure

Face Centered Cubic (FCC)


Structure
8 from the corner X 1/8 = 1 atom
6 of the face X = 3 atom
TOTAL 4 atom

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Metallic Crystal Structure

HCP is one more common structure of metallic


crystals
Six atoms form regular hexagon, surrounding one
atom in center. Another plane is situated halfway
up unit cell (c-axis), with additional atoms situated
at interstices of hexagonal (close-packed) planes.
Cd,Mg, Zn, Ti have this crystal structure

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Metallic Crystal Structure

Hexagonal Close Packed


(HCP) structure

12 atom from the corner X 1/6 = 2


atom
2 atom of the face X = 1 atom
6 atom in the middle X = 3 atom
TOTAL 6 atom

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THANK YOU.

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