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(summative assessment-1)

Q1 How is fresh water obtained?

Ans Fresh water is mainly obtained from surface-runoff and ground water.

Q2 How the fresh water becomes a renewable resource?

Ans Water is continually being renewed and recharged through the hydrological cycle .

Q3 Why is the availability of water resources varies and time due to the variation in
seasonal and annual precepitation. over space and time?
Ans The availability of water resources varies over space

Q4 Why does an area suffer from water scarcity although water is available in ample
amount to meets the needs of people?
Ans Even if there is ample amount of water to meet the needs of the people much of it
may be polluted by domestic and industrial wastes chemicals , and, pesticides fertilizers
used in agriculture, thus making it hazardous for human use.

Q5 What has happened to Indias rivers especially the smaller ones?

Ans Indias rivers especially the smaller ones are turning into toxic streams due to
population growth, agricultural modernization, urbanization and industrialization.

Q6 Why should we conserve water resource?

Ans We need to conserve water resource-
To safeguard ourselves from health hazards
To ensure food security
To continue our livelihoods
For productive activities
To prevent degradation of our natural ecosystems

Q7When was Bhopal lake built?

Ans Bhopal lake was built in 11th century.

Q8What is a dam?
Ans A dam is a barrier across flowing water that obstructs, directs or retards the flow
,often creating a reservoir ,lake or impoundment. Dam refers to a reservoir rather than

Q9 Attempt the classification of dams on the basis of material used and height.
Ans Dams are classified according to material used and intended purpose or height
(A)On the basis of structure and the material used dams are classified-
(a)Timber dams (b)Embankment dams (c) Masonary dams
There are many subtypes of these dams
B) On the basis of height-
(a)Low dams (b) Medium dams (c) High dams

Q10 Who proclaimed the dams as the temples of modern India and why?
Ans Jawahar Lal Nehru proudly proclaimed the dams as temples of modern India, the
main reason being that it would integrate development of agriculture and the village
economy with rapid industrialization and growth of the urban economy.

Q11 Differentiate between traditional dams and multi purpose river valley dams.
Ans Traditional dams were built to impound rivers and rainwater that could be used later
to irrigate agricultural fields.
Today, dams are built not just for irrigation but for electricity generation, water supply
for domestic and industrial uses ,flood control ,recreation ,inland navigation ,and fish
breeding. For example, Bhakhra Nangal project water is used for hydel power production
as well as for irrigation.

Q12 What is water scarcity?

Ans According to Falken Mark, a Swedish expert, water stress occurs when water
availability is less than 1000 cubic meter per person per day.

Q13Explain the various causes of water scarcity?

What is the quantitative aspect of water scarcity?
Ans(a)Water scarcity may be the outcome of large and growing population and
consequent greater demands for water and unequal access to it.
A large population means more water not only for domestic use but also to
produce more food .Hence ,to facilitate higher food- grain production ,water
resources are being over exploited to expand irrigated areas and dry season
Most farmers have their own wells and tube-wells in their farms for irrigation to increase
their produce. But it may lead to falling of ground water levels adversely affecting water
availability and food security of the people.
Post-Independence Period
(b)Intensive industrialization is exerting pressure on existing fresh water
resources. Industries, apart from being heavy users of water, also require power to
run them. Much of this energy comes from hydro-electric power. Today, hydro-
electricity contributes approximately 22 % of the total electricity produced.
(c)Multiplying urban centers with large and dense populations and urban-life
styles have not only added to water and energy requirements but have further
aggravated the problem. Most of these have their own ground water pumping
devices to meet their water needs. .Water resources are being over-exploited and
have caused their depletion in several of these cities.
Q14Discuss the problems associated with multipurpose river valley projects.
Ans The problems associated with multipurpose projects and large dams are following-
Regulating and damming of rivers affect their natural flow causing poor sediment flow
And excessive sedimentations at the bottom of the reservoir, resulting in rockier stream
beds and poorer habitats for the rivers acquatic life. Dams also fragment rivers making it
difficult for acquatic fauna to migrate, especially for spawning.
The reservoirs that are created on the flood plains also submerge the existing vegetation
and soil leading to its decomposition over a period of time.
Multipurpose projects and large dams have also been the cause of many new social
movements like the Narmada Bachao Andolan and the Tehri Dam Andolan
.Resistance to these projects have primarily been due to the large scale displacement of
local communities Local people often have to give their land, livelihood and their meagre
access to and control over resources for the greater good of nation.
Irrigation has also changed the cropping pattern of many regions with farmers shifting to
water intensive and commercial crops. This has great ecological consequences like
salinisation of the soil. At the same time it has changed the social landscape,i.e.increasing
the social gap between the richer landoweners and the landless poor.
Dams did create conflicts between people wanting different uses from the same water
resources. In Gujarat, the Sabarmati basin farmers were agitated and almost caused a
riot over the higher priority given to water supply in urban areas ,particularly during
droughts. Inter-state water disputes are also becoming common with regard to sharing the
costs and benefits of the multipurpose projects e.g.objections raised by Karnataka and
Andhra Pradesh government regarding the Krishna Godavari water.
Ironically the dams that were constructed to control floods have rather triggered
floods,due to sedimentation in the reservoir .Moreover ,the big dams have mostly been
unsuccessful in controlling floods at the time of excessive rainfall.In 2006 release of
water from dams during heavy rainfall aggravated the flood situation in Maharashtra and
Gujarat.The floods have also caused extensive soil erosion.
Regulating and damming of rivers cause poor sediment flow and sedimentation at the
bottom of the reservoir, which means that the flood plains were deprived of silt ,a
natural fertilizer,further adding on to the problem of land degradation.
It was also observed that the multipurpose projects induced earthquakes, caused water
borne diseases and pests and pollution resulting from excessive use of water.

Q15 What was considered as viable alternative to the multipurpose projects and why?
Ans Water harvesting system was considered as a viable alternative to the
multipurpose projects because of
The disadvantages and rising resistance against the multipurpose projects
Water harvesting system is considered safe both socio- economically and
Q16 Discuss how rainwater harvesting is carried out in the semi-arid regions of
Ans In Rajasthan rainwater harvesting is carried out in the following ways-
In arid and semi-arid regions, agricultural fields were converted into rainfed storage
structures that allowed the rainwater to stand and moisten the soil like the Khadins in
Jaisalmer and Johads in other parts of Rajasthan.
In the arid and semi-arid regions of, particulary in Bikaner , Phalodi and Barmer
,almost all the houses traditionally had underground tanks or tankas for storing
drinking drinking water.
The tankas could be as large as a big room;one house in Phalodi had a tank that
was 6.1 mts deep, 4.27mt long, 2.44mt wide.
The tankas were part of the well developed rooftop rainwater harvesting system
and were built inside the main house or in the courtyard They were connected to
to the sloping roof of the houses through a pipe. Rain falling on the roofs would
travel down the pipe and was stored in these underground tankas .The first spell
of rain was usually not collected as this would clean the roofs and the pipes .The
rainwater from the subsequent showers was then collected.
The rainwater can be stored in the tankas till the next rainfall making it an
extremely reliable source of drinking water when all other sources are dried up.
Many houses constructed underground rooms adjoining the tankas to beat the
summer heat as it would keep the room cool.

Q17What is Palar Pani?

Ans Rainwater is commonly referred as Palar Pani in Rajasthan. It is considered the
purest form of natural water.

Q18 Why the practice of rooftop rainwater harvesting is declining in western part of
Ans The practice of rooftop rainwater harvesting is on the decline in western Rajasthan as
plenty of water is available due to the perennial Rajasthan canal.

Q19What are Guls or Kuls?

Ans In hilly and mountainous regions, people built diversion channels for agriculture
known as Guls or Kuls in western Himalayas.

Q20 Describe how modern adaptations of traditional rainwater harvesting methods are
being carried out to conserve and store water?
Ans In many parts of rural and urban India, rooftop rainwater harvesting is being
successfully adapted to store and conserve water-
In Gendathur, a remote backward village in Mysore, Karnataka, villagers have
installed in their households rooftop, rainwater harvesting system to meet their
water needs.
Nearly 200 households have installed this system and the village has earned the
rare distinction of being rich in rainwater.
Gendathur receives an annual precipitation of 1,000mm and with 80% percent of
collection efficiency and of about 10 filling, every house can collect and use about
50,000 liters of water. From 20 houses, the net amount of rainwater harvested
annually amounts to 1,00,0000 liters.
Rooftop rainwater harvesting is the most common practice in Shillong,
It is interesting because Cherapunji and Mawsynram situated at a distance of 55
km from Shillong receives the highest rainfall in the world, the state capital
Shillong faces acute shortage of water.
Nearly every household in the city has a rooftop rainwater harvesting structure.
Nearly 15-25% of the total water requirement of the household comes from
rooftop water harvesting.
It is the first and the only state in India which has made rooftop rainwater
harvesting structure compulsory to all the houses across the state. There are legal
provisions to punish the defaulters.

Q22 Explain the Bamboo Drip Irrigation System

Ans In Meghalaya, a 200 years old system of tapping stream and spring water by
using bamboo pipes ,.About is prevalent 18-20 liters of water enters the bamboo
pipe system, gets transported over hundreds of meters, and finally reduces to 20-
80 drops per minute at the site of plant.
Bamboo pipes are used to divert perennial springs on the hilltops to the lower
reaches by gravity.
The channel sections, made of bamboo, divert water to the site where it is
distributed into branches, again made and laid with different form bamboo pipes.
The flow of water into the pipes is controlled by manipulating the pipe positions.
Reduced channel sections and diversion units are used at the last stage of water
applications. The last channel section enables water to be dropped near the roots
of the plant.