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Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

CEE 229
(2.0 credit)

Sourav Ray
Assistant Professor
Civil & Environmental Engineering, SUST

Lecture One
Suggested Readings

1. D
1 D.K.
K Todd,
T dd Ground
G d Water
W t Hydrology
H d l
2. Ralph C. Heath, Basic Groundwater Hydrology
3. H.M. Raghunath, Ground Water
Topics to be covered today

H d l i cycle
Hydrologic l
Vertical zones of subsurface water
Hydraulic Budget
Publication Sources
Data Sources
Ground water
d t is i the
th water
t that
th t occurs in
i a saturated
t t d zone
of variable thickness and depth below the earths surface.
It is therefore the water beneath the earths surface from
which wells, springs, and groundwater run-off are
22% off allll fresh
f h watert occur underground
d d
Aquifer: Underground formation that holds and yields
A good aquifer needs to be both porous and permeable
The branch under which we study groundwater is known
as hydrogeology
Ground water

River- 7 ft/s
Lake- 0.75
0 75 ft/s
GW- 0.33 ft/day

Maybe if you stayed your seat days you would see

the water drop move !!!
The hydrologic cycle
The hydrologic cycle

It is defined as all of the water on, over and in the Earth,

and the processes by which that water moves between reservoirs
The hydrologic cycle consists of 5 main reservoirs (storage places for water). In
order of descending volume, they are:

1) Oceans (98% of all water)

2) Ice caps (1.8%)
3) Groundwater (0.6%)
4) L
k and d rivers
i (0
5) Atmosphere (0.001%)
Distribution of Water
The volume of the reservoirs is not fixed.
fixed Water is recycled between each of the
reservoirs via the processes of:
1) evaporation (water to gas)
2) condensation (gas to liquid; e.g., clouds)
3) runoff (liquid water flowing over the land; e.g., rivers)
4) infiltration liquid water flows into the ground (groundwater
Global Hydrologic Cycle

Domenico and Schwartz, 1990.
Basin Hydrologic Cycle

Charbeneau, 2000.
Basin Hydrologic Cycle GW/SW Interaction

So how does g
groundwater g
get into the g

Surface materials - porous (i.e., have lots of void spaces between grains) and
permeable (i.e., all of the void spaces are connected). Water that enters the
voids is called pore water and it tends to move downward.
The mechanism driving infiltration is gravity and its the same reason that water
flows downhill in rivers. So as water infiltrates the subsurface, it is moving
downhill, that is, straight down.
The actual path that the water takes is tortuous because it has to flow through
the pores between grains (see the cartoon below), and it is a relatively slow
But if the material at the surface of the Earth is both porous and permeable,
eventually, a lot of the water that falls during rain storms will infiltrate the soil.
If all of the pore spaces get filled up with water, the excess runs off into
streams and rivers. Water that passes into the ground will continue to
percolate downward until it hits a barrier (e.g., (e g a non-porous
non porous layer or the
bedrock), or it simply fills up all of the available pore space.

You can actually identify two separate layers or horizons below the surface of
the Earth that are distinguished by the amount of water that fills pore spaces.
The layer where water only partially fills pore space is called the Zone of
Aeration (or vadose zone) and the layer below this where water entirely fills
pore space is called the Zone of Saturation (or phreatic zone).
The two layers are separated by an important plane called the water
Vertical Distribution of
Ground Water
Charbeneau, 2000.
Vertical Zones of Subsurface
Soilil water
t zone: extends
t d from
f th ground
the d surface
down through the major root zone, varies with soil
type and vegetation but is usually a few feet in
Vadose zone (unsaturated zone): extends from the
surface to the water table through the root zone,
intermediate zone, and the capillary zone
Capillary zone: extends from the water table up to
the limit of capillary rise, which varies inversely with
the p pore size of the soil and directlyy with the
surface tension
Vertical Zones of Subsurface

Water table: the level to which water will rise

i a wellll d
in drilled
ill d iinto
t th
the saturated
t t d zone.
Saturated zone: occurs beneath the water
t bl where
table h porosity
it iis a di
directt measure off
the water contained per unit volume
Porosity and Permeability

Porosity: Proportion of void space: pore space,

cracks, vesicles
Gravel : 25-45% (1K - 10K), Clay: 45-55%(<.01)
sandstone: 5-30% (0.3 - 3), Granite: <1 to 5%(.003 to .00003)
higher porosity in well rounded, equigranular, coarse grained rocks
Permeability: Measure of how readily fluid passes
g a material
Depends on the size of the pores and how well they are
Cl hash high
hi h porosity
i b but llow permeabilty
Less porosity

porosity permeability
Clay 45-55% <0.01 m/day
sand 30-52% 0.01 - 10
gravel 25 - 45% 1000 to 10,000
Water table follows the topography but more gently
Intersection of water table and ground surface produces
lakes, streams, spring, wetlands
Ground water flows from higher elevation to lower, from
areas of lower use to higher use, from wet areas to dry
H d l i Budget
Hydrologic B d t

A hydrologic budget or water budget or water balance provides an accounting of

the inflow to, out-flow from, and storage change in a hydrologic unit such as an
aquifer or drainage basin.

Inflows add water to the different parts of the hydrologic system, while outflows
remove water.

All hydrologic budgets were developed from the following basic continuity
equation, which states that for any designated volume:

Sum of inflows - Sum of outflows = Change in storage

H d l i Budget
Hydrologic B d t

A basic water budget for a small watershed can be expressed as:

H d l i Budget
Hydrologic B d t