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Use of Plastics in Different Aspects of the Construction Industry

Flooring

Plastic materials like polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyethylene are used to make flooring less prone
to wear and tear. It also decreases the sound pollution level and can be cleaned easily.

Roofing

To protect the outer surface of the roof from damage, two layers of different plastic materials are
required. The upper part is made of colored thermoplastic olefin or vinyl while the lower part consists
of polyurethane foam which consumes less energy and keeps the interior of a house cooler.

Insulation

Polyurethane spray is frequently used for


insulation when constructing green or low energy buildings. Rigid polyurethane foam is known for its
high thermal resistance which promotes temperature consistency. Polyurethane foam is also
popular because it is lightweight, chemical resistant, and flame retardant. Due to its closed cell
nature, polyurethane insulation performs as an air barrier, resulting in significant energy savings.

Wall

A structural insulated panel (SIP) is a sandwich of expanded polystyrene amidst two slim layers of
oriented strand board. This type of pre-fab, composite wall board can be transferred to the work
place easily for a particular task and provide good support to columns and other associated
essentials during renovation.

Pipes

Commonly made up of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), CPVC, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) or
polyethylene, plastic pipes are flexible and very light in weight, making them easy to install. All of
these plastic materials are also highly chemical and water resistant, making them suitable for many
extreme environments.

Windows

Polycarbonate is used to manufacture building windows. This plastic material is strong, clear and
very light in weight. Polycarbonate windows are considered more burglar-proof than regular glass
windows. Two plastics materials, vinyl and fiberglass, are used commonly in the production of
window frames. Fiberglass is extremely strong while vinyl is quite durable and also inexpensive.

Doors

Some construction projects use doors made from a stiff polyurethane foam core with a fiber
reinforced plastic (FRP) coating. The sandwich structure of these doors makes them incredibly
strong.

PROSPECTS OF PLASTICS FOR BUILDINGS:


Plastics are manufactured in different forms such as moulding pipes, sheets and films.
They are formed or expanded to produce materials of low density. Dissolved in solvents
or dispersed as emulsions, they are used in paints, varnishes and adhesives. At
present, plastics find use in buildings mainly in thin coverings, panels, sheets, foams,
pipes etc. skilful use of plastics will expand the usefulness and life of
conventional building materials and help them to function more efficiently and
economically.
A wide range of applications of plastics in buildings are given below:

APPLICATIONS OF PLASTICS IN FAADE PANELS, EXTERIOR


COVERING, CARPENTRY ETC.
Faade Panels:
1. Sandwich panels covering with PVC (polyvinyl Chloride), plasticized plates and
polyurethane foams.

2. Sandwich panels asbestos cement covering and polyurethane foam core

3. Sandwich panel polystyrene foam core and various coverings

4. Sandwich panel covering with polyester laminated sheet and polyurethane foam
core

5. Sandwich panel enameled iron covering and polyurethane foam core.

6. Sandwich panel covering with polyester laminated sheet glued to asbestos cement
and polyesterene foam core.

Exterior covering:
1. Polyester coated concrete by moulding from an existing plates.

2. Sprayed polyurethane with sand and gravel agglomeration.

3. Epoxy resins and polyesters on various supporting media

4. PVC plasticized plates (spraying, coating or adhesive films)

5. Polyester epidermis available as permanent shuttering

Weather Boarding
1. Polyester

2. PVC

3. Polymethyl methacrylate

Windows:
i. PVC casing on metal moulding

ii. Polyester laminated sheet on wooden moulding


iii. PVC chlorinated polyethylene compound

iv. Methyl polymethacrylate

v. Polyester glass fibre and phenolic foam core

vi. PVC/ wood

Rolling Shutters
i. Plasticized PVC extruded sections

ii. Rigid PVC extruded sections

iii. Polyamide winding gear

Blinds and sun screens

Polyester, PVC

INTERIOR COVERING, FLOORS, WALLS, CEILINGS, DOORS,


PARTITIONS ETC
Interior Covering
a) Wall Lining
i. Adhering films vinyl coated fabrics or paper vinyl sheet doubling on fabric or paper
etc.

ii. Sprayed lining polyurethane

iii. Laminabee Molamine and phenolic plastics polyester

iv. Wall tiles polystyrene, PVC tiles or mosaic

v. Coating polyvinyl acetate

b) Floor Covering
i. Asbestos plastic slabs (asphalt tile type)

ii. Vinyl asbestos slabs


iii. Homogeneous semi-flexible vinyl slabs

iv. Flexible, homogeneous or multi-layered vinyl slabs.

v. Homogeneous vinyl carpets (a) stuck, (b) laid

vi. Vinyl carpets on felt (applied or coating)

vii. Multi-layered coating with cellular structure on fabrics

(a) Multilayered coating on cork structure

(b) Vinyl carpets on jute cloth.

viii. Thermosetting resin based covering

ix. Rubber covering

x. Synthetic fibre tensile covering (polyamides, viscose etc.)

Ceilings and Counter Ceilings


i. Translucent polyester, PVC, polyamides, polyurethanes

ii. Opaque, extruded polyesterene or vinuyl co-polymers, impact type polystyrene

iii. Lighting PVC, polymethylmethacrylate

ROOF COVERINGS, TIGHTNESS, DOMES AND LIGHTING ELEMENTS


Roof Covering
i. Flat or corrugated sheets polyester, PVC, polymethylmethacrylate

ii. Curved sheets reinforced polymer

iii. Domes polyester, polymethylmethacrylate


iv. Casements polymethylmethacrylate, reinforced polyester

v. Troughs class / polyester


vi. Gutters Rigid PVC polyester

vii. Downpipes PVC

Roof Tightness
i. Polybutylene with or WITHOUT GLASS cloth armature

ii. Butyl rubber

iii. Multilayered bitumen with PVC film screens and armatures

iv. PVC sheets

v. Welded polyester

SANITARY EQUIPMENT AND PIPING


Sanitary Equiment
i. Appliances

(a) Sinks polymethylmethacrylate, polyester, polyamides

(b) Basins polyester, polymethylmethacrylate polyester / glass fibre

(c) Baths polyester, polymethylmethacrylate

(d) Showers polymethylmethacrylate, polyester

ii. Pipe works PVC, phenolics, ABS terpolymer

iii. Fittings PVC and ABS terpolymer phenolic plastics

iv. Traps polyamides

v. Water finishings polysterene and copolymers, polymer and copolymers,


polyethylene

Insulation
Insulation materials and application of foams
i. Polystyrene

ii. PVC

iii. Phenolic

iv. Formaldehyde urea

v. Polyurethane