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Name: Brandon Sookdeo

Date: 12/12/13

Title: Volume and Temperature P&D

Hypothesis: It is predicted that the average temperature of the Earth will increase by a

few degrees over the next hundred years. One consequence of this is that sea levels will

rise due to:

1) Melting of the Antarctic ice cap


2) Expansion of water in the oceans

In order for scientists to make any kind of estimate of how much the levels will rise, it is

necessary to know how much expansion will occur for a given rise of temperature.

Aim: Design a laboratory experiment to investigate how the volume of a given amount of

water changes with temperature.

Apparatus and Materials

Top pan balance


Micrometer screw gauge
Meter Rule
Measuring cylinder
Water Bath
Mercury in glass thermometer
Glass Flask
Glass Capillary Tube
Stopper

Diagram:
Name: Brandon Sookdeo

Figure 1 showing the setup of apparatus to determine how the volume of a given amount

of water changes with temperature.

Theory: As suggested in the aim, this experiment will attempt to show a relationship

between volume and temperature and in fact there is one. A certain volume of water is

directly proportional to its temperature. This is true over most temperature ranges, except

below 4oC where water begins to take up more space (become less dense) instead of

following the common trend (from 100 oC to 4 oC) to take up less space (become more

dense). This is why ice can float on water, because it is less dense.

In the temperature range 4oC to 100oC the kinetic energy of the water particles increases

gradually causing their relative distances to each other to increase, thus increasing the
Name: Brandon Sookdeo
volume of the water. It should also be noted that increasing kinetic energy of the water

particles as a result of an increase in temperature causing heat transfer.

Method:

1. Use microscope with scale to determine diameter of capillary tube.

2. Find and record the weight of the empty glass flask and capillary tube using the

top pan balance.

3. Fill the flask completely with water and insert stopper and capillary tube.

4. Find and record the weight of the apparatus again using top balance.

5. Place glass flask into water bath at room temperature (measure with the

thermometer).

6. Heat water bath with Bunsen burner to a temperature a couple degrees higher,

while simultaneously stirring water with glass rod.

7. Turn off the Bunsen burner and quickly record temperature T1, and the

corresponding height, h1 of the water in the capillary tube from its initial height.

8. Repeat for 5 different temperatures (the final temperature is to be in a 10 oC range

of the initial temperature) and record their corresponding heights.

Results:
Name: Brandon Sookdeo
Table 1 showing the changes in the height of water in the capillary tube with change in
temperature.

Temperature (oC) Height (m)

Variables:

Manipulated Variable: Temperature of water

Responding Variable: Volume of water

Constant: Mass of water

Treatment of results:

1. Calculate the volume of water in the flask:

Mass of water in flask = mass of apparatus with water mass of apparatus without

water

Volume of water = mass of water (found above) / density of water (1000kgm-3)


Name: Brandon Sookdeo
2. Calculate volumes of water, V, corresponding to heights, h.

Find radius, r, of capillary tube by halving the diameter found using the micrometer

screw gauge.

Use formula V = r2h and use the value of r found above and the varying values of h

to calculate values for V.

3. Plot graph of Volume (y-axis) vs Temperature (x-axis)

A straight line with a positive gradient should be plotted.

Precautions:

The water in the bath is stirred during hearing to ensure that the water is

uniformly heated.

Dont heat the water to temperature close to 100 oC due to steam problems.

The capillary tube that is used is to be very narrow to allow for the best readable

heights.

Limitations:

Heat loss can take place in the time it takes to transition from steps 6 to 7 causing

inaccurate results.
Name: Brandon Sookdeo
For some temperature changes the corresponding volume change might be too

slight to be read accurately.

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