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Works Cited

Primary Sources


---. Rosa Parks Role in Civil Rights. Interview by Students. Scholastic Inc.,

teacher.scholastic.com/rosa/interview.htm#before. Accessed 2 Dec. 2016. This primary

source, was specifically intended for students learning. The website, Scholastic, is a

prestigious well-known source for accurately educating individuals. It provides a

comprehensive look at Rosa Parks perspective of the Montgomery Bus Boycott and her

determination for equality. Parks personal account of the organizations she participated

in examines her transition from a poor girl to her emergence as The Mother of the Civil

Rights Movement. Details are provided of her anger towards the continuation of

segregation of blacks. She states in the interview,...under this type of segregation, black

people had endured too much for too long and I felt more annoyed than frightened(to

stand up on the bus line). This interview is an excellent first-hand source of her

perspective and thoughts on all of her choices she made to protect black people.

---. Standing Up For Freedom. Academy Achivement, 2 June 1995,

www.achievement.org/autodoc/page/par0int-1. Accessed 4 Oct. 2016. Interview. This

primary source, an interview with Rosa Parks, describes her account of the events that

occurred leading up to her arrest. The officers cruel language and layout of the bus are

given. Her act of bravery when she tells that, And he told me he would have me

arrested. And I told him he may do that. And of course, he did. She was aware of the

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consequences that came with standing up to police officers, but she was not thinking of

her own safety. This was a selfless act, with the sole purpose to educate and better her

community of racial segregation. This source addresses her perspective from

experiencing first-hand the cause of her arrest.

Government Documents:

Alabama, Legislature, Assembly, Police Department City of Montgomery. Assembly

Document 14254. The National Archives, www.archives.gov/global-pages/larger-


l.jpg&c=/education/lessons/rosa-parks/images/police-report.caption.html. This primary

source is the police report from December 1, 1955 the day Rosa Parks was arrested. The

police officers present, Day & Mixon and the date & time of the incident are recorded.

This primary source communicates Rosa Parks being charged by the Montgomery City

Code when arrested on the Montgomery Bus Line for refusing to give up her seat to a

white man. A detailed look into the reason her action was considered outrageously

wrong. Rosa Parks perspective is clear- standing up against racial segregation but

societys perspective is also evident. This action lead to the civil rights movement, which

eventually ended racial inequality in Montgomery.

Police Report on Arrest of Rosa Parks; 1955; Records of District Courts of the United

States, Record Group 21. [Online Version,


September 28, 2016] The primary source, a police report, was obtained from the website

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docsteach.org from the National Archives. It shows the importance of Rosa Parks arrest

and how it motivated the start of the Montgomery Bus Boycott. Rosa Parks violated the

citys code and defied all racism acts. She was charged by not following the bus drivers,

J.F. Flake, order of getting up from her seat and moving to the back of the bus. Rosa

Parks police report showed the significance that racial inequality was evident in


Robinson, Jo Ann. Excerpt from Leaflet: Document 2. Edited by Reverend and Reverend,

1955. crfcap.org, www.crfcap.org/images/pdf/10C.pdf. Accessed 1 Dec. 2016. This

primary source, and leaflet drafted from a segregated school, was written to show the

importance of the actions taken following Rosa Parks arrest. It shows the effect of her

arrest on the influence of change among the black community. The Montgomery Bus

Boycott was the first call to action leaders of the black community organized. This draft

was written to inspire others to stand up for their individual rights. The author explains

how this is not the first time an African American has been unfairly arrested. This

conveys a strong message that made other African Americans rally around Parks in


USHistory.org. Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott. U.S. History,

Independence Hall Association, 2008, www.ushistory.org/us/54b.asp. Accessed 16 Nov.

2016. This source, a website, contains a quote from the day Rosa Parks was arrested. This

document shows a deep understanding of Rosa Parks contribution for her communitys

desegregation. By just sitting down and disobeying societys norm, she was able to

rewrite history as one of the greatest civil rights activists who ever lived. By disobeying

the law, she was well

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aware of the consequences that would follow, such as jail time. However she did not care

about the consequences, all she cared about was making life better for herself and all

African Americans in Montgomery and around the world. Publicity generated by Rosa

Parks refusal to give up her seat inspired open-minded Americans nationwide to fight for

racial equality.

Images and Pictures:

---. Rosa Parks at work as a seamstress. Academy of Achievement, American Academy

of Achievement, www.achievement.org/achiever/rosa-parks/#gallery. Accessed 3 Feb.


---. Rosa Parks in June 1999. Academy of Achievement, American Academy of

Achievement, www.achievement.org/achiever/rosa-parks/#gallery. Accessed 3 Feb. 2017.

---. Rosa Parks is fingerprinted by police. Academy of Achievement, American

Academy of Achievemnt, www.achievement.org/achiever/rosa-parks/#gallery. Accessed

3 Feb. 2017.

---. The No. 2857 bus. Academy of Achievement, American Academy of Achievement,

www.achievement.org/achiever/rosa-parks/#gallery. Accessed 3 Feb. 2017.

"March from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama." American History, ABC-CLIO, 2017,

americanhistory.abc-clio.com. Accessed 4 Feb. 2017.

"Martin Luther King Jr." American History, ABC-CLIO, 2017, americanhistory.abc-

clio.com/Search/Display/272167. Accessed 4 Feb. 2017.

Carpooling during the Montgomery Bus Boycott. Photo. American History, ABC-

CLIO, 2017, americanhistory.abc-clio.com. Accessed 3 Feb. 2017.

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March on Washington. Photo. American History, ABC-CLIO, 2017,

americanhistory.abc-clio.com/Search/Display/293734. Accessed 3 Feb. 2017.

March on Washington. Photo. Encyclopdia Britannica Online. Web. 03 Feb. 2017.


Montgomery Bus Boycott Meeting. Photo. American History, ABC-CLIO, 2017,

americanhistory.abc-clio.com. Accessed 3 Feb. 2017.

[Rosa Parks with family]. [Between 1980 and 1990] Image. Retrieved from the Library

of Congress, <https://www.loc.gov/item/2015648749/>.

Brookbank, Mike. "Detroit Free Press." Photo. 28 Aug. 2014,



Accessed 5 Feb. 2017.

Cash, Nelson. After the Supreme Court upheld. Academy of Achievement, American

Academy of Achivement, www.achievement.org/achiever/rosa-parks/#gallery. Accessed

3 Feb. 2017.

Cravens, Don. Rosa Parks (C) riding on newly integrated bus following Supreme Court

ruling ending segregation of Montgomery buses. Academy of Achievement, American

Academy of Achievement, 23 Sept. 2011,

www.achievement.org/autodoc/photocredit/achievers/par0-019. Accessed 2 Nov. 2016.

The source, an image, was taken to show the effect of Montgomery Bus Boycott,
orchestrated by Rosa Parks. It demonstrates an understanding of Rosa Parks goal to

desegregate the bus lines in her community. From Rosa Parks refusal to give up her seat

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to a white passenger to her organization of the Montgomery Bus Boycott to the result

being newly integrated bus lines where she and all other African Americans can ride the

bus sitting wherever they please. The audience can see firsthand how much the bus lines

have changed, from the picture. Her participation in the civil rights movement

contributed to the end of racial injustice first in her community, and then around the


Drew, Richard. ?Rosa Parks' Presidential Medal of Freedom, left, and her

Congressional Gold Medal. 14 Mar. 2014, www.usnews.com/news/politics/


Accessed 5 Feb. 2017.

Horton, Silphia, Frank Hamilton, Guy Carawan, and Pete Seeger. We Shall Overcome,

1963. Image. Music Division, Library of Congress.

Parks, Rosa. Image 2 of Rosa Parks Papers:. Received by Car-pool drivers and

passengers. Library of Congress, www.loc.gov/resource/mss85943.001505/?sp=2.

Accessed 4 Oct. 2016. Letter. This primary source is the instructions to carpool drivers

and passengers in 1955-1956. These detailed instructions convey how successful the bus

boycott was in the Montgomery community. Rosa Parks was aware of the obstacles she

was gonna face in the future but her determination for change shone through. 70 days of

not riding the bus and Grand jury seeking ways to indict the leaders of the protest

shows how long the boycott was successful and who wanted to shut it down. The
instructions for the alternative way of transportation involved the whole community and

Rosa Parks was one

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of the leaders who orchestrated it. The racial mistreatment on the bus lines is what drove

the community to stand up to make a difference and the measures taken to ensure change

is clear in this source.

Parks, Rosa. Rosa Parks Papers: Oversize, 1900 to 2006; Subject File; Presidential Medal

of Freedom, 1996; Certificate Container 16. - 2006, 1900. Manuscript/Mixed Material.

Retrieved from the Library of Congress, <https://www.loc.gov/item/mss859430423/>.

Rosa Parks, November 1956. [Alabama?, 1956] Image. Retrieved from the Library of Congress,


Stanford University. December 1, 1955 Rosa Parks is arrested. Martin Luther King, JR.

And the Global Freedom Struggle, Stanford University,


Accessed 9 Nov. 2016. This source, a photograph, is from an encyclopedia. It shows a

deep understanding of the hardships Rosa Parks endured during after her arrest. She

refused to give up her seat to a white passenger and in turn, was arrested, fingerprinted,

and locked in the Montgomery Jail. The caption to this photograph describes her

...single act of nonviolent resistance that sparked the Montgomery Bus Boycott. She

was a peaceful person who did not resort to violence when supporting a point. Racism is

evident in this photograph because a white, male officer is shown fingerprinting Rosa

Parks. Despite the racial injustices she endured following her arrest, she continued to

inspire freedom riders who joined in on her quest for equality.

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Woman fingerprinted.Mrs. Rosa Parks, Negro seamstress, whose refusal to move to the

back of a bus touched off the bus boycott in Montgomery, Ala. [1956] Image. Retrieved

from the Library of Congress, <https://www.loc.gov/item/94500293/>.


Montgomery Sticks to Bus Segregation. The Washington Post, 25 Apr. 1956. American

Experience, www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/eyesontheprize/story/02_bus.html. Accessed 20

Dec. 2016. This primary source, a newspaper published during the time period of the

Montgomery Bus Boycott showed how state officials were determined to maintain racial

segregation. Not everyone in Rosa Parks community supported ending racial

segregation. The Police Commissioner set harsh consequences such as arrest any

passenger or bus driver who permitted desegregation. The state of Alabama did not want

to change their ways and did all they could to prevent the Montgomery Bus Boycott from

establishing desegregation on the bus lines. This source proves how hard Rosa Parks had

to work to surpass the limitations set by society and overcome the hardships of

disagreeing with others.


Parks, Rosa. From Rosa Parks. Received by Martin Luther King Jr., 23 Aug. 1957.

Stanford University, Clayborne Carson. Accessed 20 Dec. 2016. Letter. This source, a

letter, was addressed to Martin Luther King Jr. She writes to him how very sorry she is to
decline the job offer from the MIA office. She tells him how appreciative she is for all the


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and generosity when she was leaving Montgomery. She was apparently begged by Martin

Luther King Jr. to accept the job offer, but she sadly turned it down, due to the fact that

she was leaving the Montgomery area. She supports Martin Luther King Jr. by praying

for him and encourages him by showing up to his nonviolent protests and speeches. This

letter is an excellent source because it show how another widely known civil rights

activist, Martin Luther King Jr., respects, looks up, and appreciates what Rosa Parks did

for the nation.

Personal Accounts:

The Arrest of Rosa Parks, December 1, 1955. DISCovering U.S. History, Gale, 2003.

Student Resources in Context, Accessed 1 Dec. 2016. This primary source, is a personal

account from Rosa Parks. Most of the passengers on the buses were African Americans

because most whites had the luxury of owning cars. She describes how sitting in a section

reserved for your race is embarrassing, yet the driver of the bus acted in an inhumane

way to keep a white person from standing on the bus. She protested against the

segregation in Alabama by refusing to giver her seat up on the bus. It was December

1,1955 when she was arrested, because she broke the law. As the police came to arrest

Rosa Parks, she patiently waited. When they arrived she asked, Why do you push us

around?, he replied back with, I do not know, but the law is the law and youre under

arrest. Even the police officer did not understand the meaning of why they treat blacks
so poorly. The only reason was because it was the law. This is an excellent piece of

information regarding Rosa Parks arrest because it was a first hand account. She explains

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exactly how it happened, her emotions before and after the arrest, and how it triggered

other African Americans to fight against segregation.

Parks, Rosa. Rosa Parks Papers: Writings, Notes, and Statements, 1956 to 1998; Drafts of

early writings; Accounts of her arrest and the subsequent boycott, as well as general

reflections on race relations in the South, 1956-circa 1958, undated; Folder 2. - 1998,

1956. Manuscript/Mixed Material. Retrieved from the Library of Congress This primary

source, a diary entry, is written by Rosa Parks. She explains how her whole life she was

bullied, pushed around, and treated unfairly all because her race was different. During her

arrest on the bus, she asked the policeman,why we had to be pushed around? he

responded back to her saying,He didnt know. The law is the law, you are under arrest.

Even the police officer was unsure of why they pushed around African Americans and

arrested Rosa Parks because that is what the law stated. She goes on to write how she did

not belong anywhere or to no one, and how children understand at such an early age

where their place is in this segregated world. Rosa Parks writes that there is only so much

hurt and disappointment that she can take. This diary entry is an excellent source of

information because Rosa Parks explains the emotions and feelings she went through

during this racist time.

Secondary Sources

Puckett, Dan J. Montgomery Bus Boycott. American History, ABC-CLIO, 2016,

americanhistory.abc-clio.com/Search/Display/252779. Accessed 15 Sept. 2016. This

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source, a database article was obtained from ABC-CLIO. It shows a deep understanding

of Rosa Parks contribution to the Montgomery Bus Boycott to stand against racial

segregation. She refused to give up her seat for a white passenger telling reporters, the

only tired I was, was tired of giving in. 90% of the black community boycotted the

Montgomery City Lines after Parks initiated the change towards racial inequality. Details

were provided of how African Americans supported Parks decision to defend the black

community. African American churches rallied with the community during the boycott

causing the buses to suffer great financial loss, being that the majority of their riders were

black. The database is an excellent source to convey Rosa Parks action to stop racial

segregation in her community and ultimately her efforts in the boycott were rewarding.

This information is an excellent source of her importance in The Montgomery Bus

Boycott, Rosa Parks main stand against injustice.

Sanders, Viv. Rosa Parks & The Montgomery Bus Boycott. History Review 55 (2006):

3-8. History Reference Center. Web. 4 Nov. 2016. This source, an article, explains the

controversies between African Americans, like Rosa Parks, and laws created by whites.

Rosa Parks, who came from a long line of civil rights activist, triggered the Montgomery

Bus Boycott. Her grandfather had a pale complexion and was often mistaken for a white

male. He used this as an advantage, by agitating whites. Her family was apart of the

organization called the African Methodist Episcopal Church where black minister would
encourage to fight against racial segregation. Rosa Parks activism showed others that

you can fight for what you believe is wrong and stand up against racial discrimination.

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She influenced many people and helped to end all racial laws, restricting different races

to do the same things as whites. This article was an excellent source because it explained

Rosa Parks family background and how they set an example for Rosa Parks. Also, it

showed how Rosa Parks was a part of the Civil Rights Movement.


Biography. Rosa Parks, www.rosaparks.org/biography/. This source, a biography of Rosa

Parks, reveals the timeline of events Parks accomplished in her lifetime. From her

participation in the Montgomery Bus Boycott to her obtaining forty-three honorary

degrees, she was a very important equal rights activist for her community. Her humble

upbringing in Pine Level, Alabama shaped her into the brave, driven woman she is

known to be today. When she refused to give up her seat to a white passenger she

inspired the rest of the world to take a stand against segregation. Her courageous act

changed America, its view of black people and redirected the course of history.

Montgomery Bus Boycott, 1955. Gale Student Resources in Context, Gale, 2010.

Student Resources in Context, Accessed 11 Nov. 2016. This source, a biography, explains

how Rosa Parks impacted Montgomery and the rest of the country with her actions.

During the 1800s and 1900s, many states passed segregation laws to discriminate

against blacks. In Montgomery, laws kept African Americans from sitting in the white

section on the bus. Rosa Parks, a civil activist, changed everything. She decided to stand

up against racial segregation and refused to give her seat up on the bus. This lead to
inspiring the Montgomery Bus Boycott and eventually lead to having African Americans


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allowed to sit anywhere on the bus. Rosa Parks inspired the whole black community of

Montgomery to go against racial segregation. Her act of defiance against racism, inspired

others to take a stand and fight against racism.

Rosa Lee McCauley Parks. Encyclopedia of World Biography. Detroit: Gale, 1998.

Student Resources in Context. Web. 4 Oct. 2016. This source, a biography, describes Rosa

Parks life events. The biography starts as to where she was born, her family background,

and growing up. It goes on to explain the situation when Rosa Parks was arrested. Her

arrest inspired the Montgomery Boycott which Martin Luther King Jr. organized.

Her family and herself were threatened and abused by angry whites and they eventually

moved to a different state. Rosa Parks became a public speaker, traveling to give

inspirational speeches. Her courage and fearless act, inspired others to change how they

were viewed and treated. They were encouraged to fight against racial segregation and to

have equal rights. This biography was an excellent source of information. It gave details

about her early life before the arrest and the years following it.

Sparking a Social Transformation. The Henry Ford, 2016,

www.thehenryford.org/explore/stories-of-innovation/what-if/rosa-parks/. Accessed 23

Oct. 2016. This secondary source, describes ...one of the most famous moments in

modern American civil rights history. When Rosa Parks boarded that segregated city

bus one December evening, her community would never be the same again. This
document describes how her defiance of a racial segregation law forever changed race

relations in America. Also, her participation in the Montgomery Bus Boycott is said to

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mark the countrys first first large-scale demonstration against segregation. Her act of

disobedience launched a civil rights movement that is still important today.

Gaillard, Frye. Rosa Parks. Encyclopedia of Alabama, 14 Mar. 2007,

www.encyclopediaofalabama.org/article/h-1111. Accessed 17 Nov. 2016. This source, a

biography, was written to share Rosa Parks to fight for civil rights. It provides a deep

understanding of Rosa Parks upbringing in a racist community to her fight for equal right

for African Americans. As a young girl she attended an all-black school and was an

active member in the Montgomery chapter of the National Association for the

Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). She worked to overthrow Jim Crow Laws

that impacted every aspect of African Americans lives. Then she sparked the beginning

of the Montgomery Bus Boycott after refusing to give up her seat to a white passenger.

Parks received tremendous recognition for her lifes work including the Medal of

Freedom from President Bill Clinton. This source explains how she dedicated her entire

life to end racial segregation first in Montgomery, and then inspired others around the


Hamlet, Janice. "March on Washington." American History, ABC-CLIO, 2017,

americanhistory.abc-clio.com/Search/Display/252772. Accessed 4 Feb. 2017. This

source, a biography, explains how significant the March on Washington was. The March

on Washington, a landmark event for the civil rights movement, was where Martin Luther
King Jr. gave his famous I Have a Dream speech. The march gathered over 250,000

people across the nation. It was a three-hour long program ending with President John. F.

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Kennedy. This was the first time in American history where blacks and whites united

together. These events were chain reaction, starting from Rosa Parks courage to stand up

on the bus.

Hare, Kenneth M. Rosa Parks: Mother of the Civil Rights Movement. IIP Digital, U.S.

State Departments Bureau of International Information Programs, 29 Dec. 2008.

Accessed 2 Dec. 2016. This source, a biography, illustrates how Rosa Parks was called

the mother of the civil rights movement because she refused to give her seat up on the

bus and she sparked the Montgomery Bus Boycott. Rosa Parks was tired after a long day

of work and had no intention of getting arrested. Her uncle, a pastor at a church, helped

Rosa Parks where she gained a strong sense of racial pride and faith. She was also greatly

influenced by her grandfather whose defiant attitude help to mold her thinking. After the

boycott, she continued to work for civil rights and joined the National Womens Hall of

Fame in 1993. She was a huge inspiration to others in the black community to stand up

for what they believe in, equal rights.

Kai Lee, Chana. Rosa Parks. American National Biography Online, Oxford University

Press, Oct. 2006. Accessed 23 Oct. 2016. This source, a biography reveals Rosa Parks

journey as a civil rights activist and her struggles endured as a black woman. Growing

up, it is revealed how religious and devoted God she was as a teen. Later on the source

describes, Like other black riders, she often experienced humiliation and disgust at Jim
Crow segregation in transportation and in other areas of southern life. This information

provides the foundation of her movements for racial equality including the Montgomery

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Bus Boycott. In this particular act she worked as both a symbol and an important

strategist. She became the first woman and only the second African American to lie in

honor in the Capitol Rotunda in Washington, D.C.

Kronenwetter, Michael. Civil Rights Movement. American History, ABC-CLIO, 2016.

Accessed 26 Oct. 2016. This source, a bibliography, was acquired from the database,

ABC-CLIO. It shows the relevance to how Rosa Parks was involved in the Civil Rights

Movement. Her incident was the first desegregation effort, when she refused to give her

seat up to a white man. Her incident lead to spark the Montgomery Bus Boycott and other

nonviolent movements. Martin Luther King Jr. gave his famous speech I Have a Dream

in front of thousands of people. These nonviolent protests proved to be successful when

many Acts were passed to ban racial discrimination and allowed African Americans the

right to vote. This biography is an excellent source on how Rosa Parks small incident

turned into something that changed the future of the country.

McGuire, William, and Leslie Wheeler. Rosa Parks. American History, ABC-CLIO,

2016, americanhistory.abc-clio.com/Search/Display/247616. Accessed 20 Sept. 2016.

The source, a biography, was written to share the importance of Rosa Parks fight to end

racial segregation. It provides a deep understanding of Rosa Parks early life from being

raised on a farm in Tuskegee, Alabama by a carpenter and a teacher to her actions in

supporting the civil rights movement. As a child she attended an industrial school for
girls and became active in voter registration drives after being denied the right to vote

twice. She served as a secretary of the Montgomery NAACP and in the future, became

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the Youth Council adviser. This source explains how her passion for racial equality drove

her to fight all her life. Details are provided about how she denied to give up her seat to a

white man on a city bus. This sparked the Montgomery Bus Boycott which was

monumental in proving bus segregation unconstitutional. Her legacy as the mother of

the civil rights movement has contributed to the end of racial injustice and will live on



HILL, RUTH EDMONDS. Rosa Parks. Black Heroes (2001): 528-532. History

Reference Center. Web. 15 Dec. 2016. This source is an encyclopedia entry on Rosa

Parks. She is best known for standing up on the bus in Montgomery, Alabama, refusing to

give her seat up for a white passenger. She learned from her grandmother about the

hardships of slavery. She began to view racial segregation and discrimination as

unacceptable, from her family, school, and her own observations when she was younger.

Her husband, Raymond Parks, shared the same view on inequality and segregation in the

South. When she sparked the Montgomery Bus Boycott on December 1, 1955, it changed

her life. This incident inspired many people in the black communities to stand up for their

rights and to not let anyone treat them poorly because of your race or beliefs.


Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott. History, History Today,

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m=528e394da93ae&s=undefined&f=1&free=false. Accessed 5 Feb. 2017. This video,

shows how Rosa Parks impacted the world. It summarizes what she did and how it

caused a chain reaction.