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V.

SHIPS CATERING

CHEF COOK
HANDBOOK / MANUAL

FOOD PURCHASING & HYGIENE


GUIDELINES
Version 01/07
V.Ships Catering has been appointed by the Owners/ Managers of this Vessel to
administer and supervise the victualling service on board.

It is our responsibility that Officers and Crew are provided with high quality, nutritious meals
at a pre-determined daily rate. Your performance is of outmost importance to accomplish
this objective and meet victualling budget.

It is in your hands to ensure adequate feeding standards are achieved on board. Your good
experience is fundamental in this process.

V.Ships catering will provide you with all instructions needed to prepare satisfactory meals.
We will give you basic directions, which you will have to follow.

There are some forms which you will need to fill out regularly. Those await you on board
the vessel.

Please be aware that the master will appraise your performance, when you finish your
contract. Reading the appraisal form in section 2.4.1. of this manual will help you
understand what we expect of you.

Please read the following instructions carefully.

Thank you,

The V.Ships Catering Ltd management.

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Contents
Introduction 02

Contents 03

2.1 The Galley 04


2.1.1 Essentials of Balance Diet 04
2.1.2 Meals Served 04
2.1.3 Menu Cycle 06
Table - Popular Main Dish Combinations 07
2.1.4 Food Production 08
2.1.4.1 Common Serving Portions 09
2.1.4.2 Approx. Yields of Raw Products in Common Use 10
2.1.5 Cooking Methods 11
Table Proper Cooking & Holding Temperatures 16

2.2 Storeroom 17
Table Proper Refrigerator Temperatures 17
2.2.1 Inventories 18
2.2.1.1 Frequency of Inventory Taking 19
2.2.1.2 Process 19
2.2.1.3 Administrative Requirements 19
2.2.2 Ordering 19
2.2.2.1 Frequency & Schedule 19
2.2.2.2 Procedure 20
2.2.2.3 Worldwide Purchasing Information 20
2.2.3 Loading 21
2.2.3.1 Who? When? Where? How 21
2.2.3.2 Invoices 22
2.2.3.3 Checking Supplies 22
2.2.3.5 Loading Evaluation Report 22

2.3 Hygiene & Safety Precautions 23


2.3.1 Sanitation / HACCP 23
2.3.2 Integrated Pest Management 24
2.3.3 General Preventive Practices 24
2.3.4 Cleaning 25
2.3.5. Temperature Monitoring 25
2.3.6 Personal Hygiene 26

2.4 Administrative Procedures 26


2.4.1 Chief Cook Appraisal CF 09 26
2.4.2 Chief Cooks Hand-Over 26

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2.1. The Galley

The galley is your area of responsibility.


You are in charge of producing all meals served to crew and officers. They are depending
on your expertise to provide them with healthy and well balanced meals. (See table 2.1.1.)

2.1.1. Essentials of Balance Diet

Food group Servings per day Main contributions

Fish, Poultry, Lean Meat 2 servings Protein and Fat


Eggs, Cheese, Nuts Iron and other minerals
Legume-Cereal combinations such B Vitamins
as Beans and Rice

Fresh Fruits and Vegetables 4 or more servings Vitamins


At least one good source of Vitamin Fiber
C daily and one good source of Minerals
Vitamin A 3 times a week

Complex Carbohydrates: 4 or more servings Starches


Breads Unrefined Sugars
Cereals B Vitamins
Rice Iron
Pasta Fiber

Daily products: 2 or more servings Calcium, Minerals


Cheeses D, B Vitamins
Yogurt Protein, Fat

2.1.2. Meals Served

The following items should be available in all mess rooms (when applicable):
A bowl with fresh fruits;
The best are apples, oranges, bananas, pears etc. basically all fruits which are ready to eat
and not perishable. The fruits need to be replaced as needed and the mess man / steward
need to check quality and replenish daily.
A coffee / tea set-up;
Important is to have all necessary condiments available, sugar, creamer etc.
Noodles (Cups or Pkts);
Noodles should be available in the mess room, because those are a good choice for a little
snack and well liked.

Breakfast:
There should always be toast, butter, jam/marmalade, honey, cold cuts and cheese
available.

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An egg dish can be offered, like regular fried eggs etc. and could be served with
breakfast meats like bacon or corned beef or ham etc.
Hot cereal (oatmeal, porridge, cream of wheat) or
pancakes etc. could be prepared.
Cold cereal (corn flakes etc.) with milk can be
offered.
If required due to crew nationality rice must be
available.

Morning coffee break:


Normally a coffee / tea set-up should be
available.
In addition some snack items suitable may be served

Lunch:
The meal can start with a soup.
This soup should either be suitable for all nationalities or a second choice must be offered
to those crew and officers, which cannot enjoy the first choice due to their ethnic
background.
The main course should be prepared principally out of different ingredients then the
soup. I.e. chicken soup and chicken curry does not work well together. Better use lamb
curry etc.
The main course should contain either meat or fish in a sufficient quantity.
There should be vegetables served with the main course.
Fresh vegetables should be used in favor to frozen vegetables whenever suitable. Most
perishable ones first!
A starch component needs to be served with the main course. That can be rice,
potato, pasta or flour or products thereof.
Sometimes all components of a meal can be combined. Examples therefore are:
Lasagna pasta filled with beef and vegetables, or Greek Moussaka with vegetables,
potatoes and meat.
There could be some fresh salad available;
Cucumbers, onions, tomatoes, lettuce, etc. Frozen or tinned goods should be used only as
an alternative only when fresh supplies are diminished.
A dessert can be offered.

Afternoon coffee break:


Normally a coffee / tea set-up should be available.
In addition some snack items suitable may be served.

Dinner:
Dinner should be distinguishable the better meal than lunch.

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The courses served should follow the same scheme; soup, main entre, salad and
desserts needs to be prepared.

2.1.3. Menu Cycle

Menu planning:

The Chief Cook must produce a weekly meal plan, which first should be discussed with the
Master.

The purpose of planning ahead is to ensure provisions are used according to quantity on
board, expiration date and cost. Consumption of all provisions must be well balanced
during the week.

Daily menus need to be balanced as well. Menus need to be planned in a way that items
do not repeat themselves within a day etc... Beef, pork, poultry, lamb, fish and seafood
should be used evenly and must not be repeated in various dished within one meal. If there
is for example chicken noodle soup served should not be followed by roasted chicken etc.

All inventory items should be used evenly according to the levels of stocks. Fresh and
perishable items must be used prior to the expiry date in favor of frozen or tinned
alternatives. Commonly expensive products are to be used less frequently than usually
less costly items.

For example if one meal consists out of usually expensive ingredients, the next meals
should be prepared of less expensive products.

At all times consideration must be taken to ethnically required foods for crew. If there are
crewmembers on board who require special dietary needs, those must be taken care of.
For example some of our colleges are vegetarians. The meals served must contain and
ample selection for those crew to eat properly.

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POPULAR MAIN DISH MENU COMBINATIONS

Main Dish Goes well with. Flavor accents

Beef, grilled and broiled Green vegetables For all Beef dishes:
Tomato Herbs such as Thyme,
Sauted Potato Rosemary, Bay leaves,
Green Salads Basil
Fruit Salads Red wine, Brandies
Beef, roasted Green Vegetables
Braised Vegetables
Mashed Potatoes
Green Salads
Beef, braised Braised Vegetables
Pasta, Rice
Braised Potatoes
Pork, roasted Green Vegetables For all Pork dishes:
Braised Potatoes Sweet & Sour
Pork, broiled and grilled Fruits (Pineapple / Apple) Spiced Fruit
Green Vegetables Port & Madeira wines
Fish and Shellfish Lemon Herbs, Lemon
Boiled Potatoes, Rice White wine
Green Salads & Vegetables
Poultry, roasted Rice For all Poultry dishes:
Dressing Allspice
All Vegetables Curry, Chutney
Vegetables Salads Port & Madeira wines
Combination Salads White wine
Poultry, fried Mashed Potatoes
Cooked Salads
Coleslaw
Green Vegetables
Game Deep fried Potatoes Fruits
Fruits, Nuts Sweet wines
Green Vegetables Brandy
Lamb, grilled and broiled Green Vegetables For all Lamb dishes:
Tomato Garlic
Sauted Potato Mint
Green Salads Herbs
Fruit Salads White & Red wines
Lamb, braised Braised Vegetables
Green Vegetables
Mashed Potatoes
Green Salads

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Whatever your assignment, your goal is to work cleanly and efficiently to meet all your
production deadlines.

Working cleanly includes order as well as sanitation. You cannot work efficiently if your
station is a clutter of dirty utensils and waste.

Working efficiently means completing each task with a minimum of time and motion.
Efficiency depends on good production planning and good set up.

Re-Using of food items:

Only food items that have not been served can be re-used, if it is safe to do so.
Such leftovers need to be chilled down as fast as possible and then kept refrigerated.
Re-usable items need to be heated to an internal temperature of at least 165F.
Trimmings and re-usable food items should be incorporated in subsequent menus.

2.1.4. Food Production

When you go to work in your galley, your focus widens and you concentrate not only on
producing good food but on producing it both efficiently and profitably. You become aware
of what management expects from you and you learn how your work fits into the
achievement of management goals.

Three management goals set standards for your work:

1-Cost control
2-Quality control
3-Quantity control

1. To help management control costs, you are expected to keep waste to a minimum, to
make the best and fullest use of each product and to work quickly and efficiently.

2. To help control quality, you are expected to produce food that consistently meets the
standards set by the operation.

3. To help control quantity, you are expected to produce foods in the amount specified, no
more no less, and to portion them accurately (See tables 2.1.3.1. and 2.1.3.2.)

To make the operation run smoothly and economically, you are expected to perform the
tasks assigned to you efficiently and to meet your production deadlines.
The responsibilities assigned to you may be communicated through your job description
and by work schedules, production sheets, word of mouth, recipes and special forms for
special purposes.

You in turn may communicate with others by mean of special forms such as requisitions for
getting supplies.

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It is important that you understand and use these forms of communication correctly so that
you receive the messages sent to you. Send your own messages clearly and accurately.

The way you plan and set up your own work is the most significant part of producing
efficiently and profitably.

Gather your information and your supplies, analyze your assignment, make yourself a
schedule and set up your station in the way that will provide the best product flow with the
least motion.

When you realize all that goes into the planning of a single station setup, you can see that
a thorough knowledge of cookery is basic to production planning of any kind on any level.

2.1.4.1. Common serving portions

Breakfast Lunch Dinner

Eggs 50 - 125 g Soup 125 -175 ml Soup 175 - 250 ml


Meat 50 - 125 g Salad 125 - 250 g Salad 125 - 250 g
Fruit 125 ml Salad dressing 25 - 50 ml Salad dressing 25 - 50 ml
Cereal 125 ml Main Dish 125 - 175 g Main Dish 175 - 250 g
Juice 125 - 175 ml Starch 50 - 100 g Starch 50 - 75 g
Bread 30 - 60 g Vegetable 50 - 100 g Vegetable 50 - 75 g
Sauce 25 - 50 ml Sauce 25 - 50 ml
Bread 30 - 60 g Bread 30 - 60 g
Dessert 50 - 125 g Dessert 50 - 125 g

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2.1.4.2. Approximate Yields of raw products in common use
Products Raw product as purchased Yield as served
Beef Strip loin (boneless) 70 - 75%
Pot roast (flank or brisket) 55 - 65%
Ground beef 70 - 75%
Beef liver 80 - 90%
Tenderloin steak 85 - 95%
Strip steak 75 - 80%
Stew meat 65 - 75%
Beef round 45 - 55%
Prime rib 50 - 60%
Pork Pork chops 75 - 85%
Pork loin 45 - 55%
Ham fresh (roast) 45 - 55%
Sausage 50 - 55%
Pork ribs 55 - 65%
Veal Liver 70 - 80%
Rib (rack) 70 - 80%
Veal chop 75 - 85%
Leg (roast) 50 - 60%
Lamb Leg (roast) 40 - 50%
Rack 40 - 50%
Lean stew meat 75 - 85%
Poultry Chicken fryers 90 - 100%
Turkey 40 - 50%
Fish Round fish 50%
Portioned fish 90 - 100%
Vegetables Asparagus 45 - 55%
fresh Green beans 85 - 90%
Broccoli 60 - 65%
Cabbage 75 - 85%
Carrots 70 - 75%
Cauliflower 45 - 50%
Cucumber 80 - 90%
Eggplant 70 - 80%
Mushrooms 60 - 70%
Onions 75 - 80%
Potato (baked) 95 - 100%
Potato (deep fry) 50 - 70%
Tomato 90 - 95%
Lettuce 70 - 75%
Fruits, fresh Apples 70 - 75%
Banana 65 - 70%
Melon (Honeydew / Cantaloupe) 50 - 55%
Grapefruit 45 - 50%
Lemon 45 - 50%
Orange 50 - 60%
Watermelon 75 - 80%

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2.1.5. Cooking Methods

Cooking methods are divided into three categories: dry-heat, moist-heat


and combination-heat. Dry-heat methods cook the foods with hot air or fat (sauting, pan-
frying, deep-frying, grilling, broiling, roasting, baking); moist-heat cooking methods cook the
food with a liquid, usually water, stock or steam (poaching, simmering, boiling, steaming).
And combination cooking methods are as the name suggests a combination of dry heat
and moist heat methods (braising, stewing).

By understanding the cooking methods enables one to choose the correct method for
specific foods, the various methods of cooking have a direct impact on the outcome of the
finished dish. Choosing the correct method not only affects the flavor of foods, but also
texture and appearance.

Most dry-heat cooking methods are rather quick processesthey add crispness and flavor
to food but do not tenderize. Thus, it is imperative to choose the appropriate product to be
cooked in this manner (tender, thin or small). Moist-heat and combination-heat methods,
particularly braising and stewing, have the ability to break down naturally tough cuts of
meat because of the long, slow cooking period. So in the case of these methods, it would
be more appropriate to choose less expensive cuts of meat, poultry or seafood.

Dry-Heat Cooking Methods:


Sauting, Pan-frying, Deep-frying, Grilling, Broiling, Roasting and Baking

Moist-Heat Cooking Methods:


Poaching, Simmering, Boiling and Steaming

Combination Cooking Methods:


Braising and Stewing

Types of Food Suited For Dry-Heat Cooking Methods


Thin, tender cuts of meat such as chops, steaks, or cutlets. Ground meats, most seafood,
most vegetables

Types of Food Suited For Moist-Heat Cooking Methods


Most seafood, most vegetables, tender cuts of poultry, such as chicken breasts. Some
fruits, rice and pasta

Types of Food Suited For Combination-Heat Cooking Methods:


Tough, less expensive cuts of meat, such as beef round or pork shoulder.
Certain firm-fleshed seafood, such as swordfish, tuna or monkfish. Some vegetables.
The Similarities and Differences between Sauting, Pan-Frying and Deep-frying.

The main similarity between these three cooking methods is that they all use hot fat to cook
the food; the major difference is the amount of fat.

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Sautingthere should be just a thin coating of fat in the pan (about 1/8th inch). Sauting
uses conduction to transfer the heat from the hot pan to the food.
Pan-fryingthe food should be partially submerged in fat. The fat should cover
approximately 1/3 to 1/2 of the product which is to be cooked. The heat is transferred
through both conduction and convection: the conduction of the hot pan to the food, and
also through the convection of the hot fat which partially surrounds the food.
Deep-fryingto deep-fry, the food is entirely submerged in hot fat. Heat is transferred to
the food in deep-frying through the conduction of the hot fat which surrounds the food.

The Similarities and Differences between Grilling and Broiling.

Though these terms are often used interchangeably, yet they are distinctly different. While
both use a radiant heat transfer, the heat source from grilling comes from the bottom, or
underneath the food, whereas the heat source from broiling is on top, or above the food.

The Similarities and Differences between Roasting and Baking.

Roasting and baking is basically the same thing; the difference is in terminology. Generally
speaking, meats, poultry, large fish, and vegetables are roasted. Baking is generally
applied to breads, pastries and other sweet confections. Over- and under-heat is
transferred to the surface of the food through the convection of hot air, and then penetrates
the food through conduction.

The Similarities and Differences between Poaching, Simmering, Boiling and Steaming.

These four cooking methods are similar in that they are all moist-heat cooking methods and
they all use convection as the mode of heat transfer. The difference is in the temperature of
the liquid and steam.
Poachingto poach, the liquid should be between 160-180F, the liquid will "shiver"
slightly, but there should be no visible bubbling.
Simmeringthe temperature of the liquid is between 185-205F, there should be small
bubbles breaking the liquid's surface.
BoilingAt sea level, water boils at 212F, there should be large bubbles breaking the
surface and a large amount of movement in the liquid.
SteamingIn order to create steam, water has to be at 212F or higher. When steaming
the food is in contact with the steam only, if submerged in a liquid it is considered poaching,
simmering or boiling.

The Similarities and Differences between Braising and Stewing.

Braising and stewing are similar in that both entail first sauting the item, then adding liquid
and simmering. The difference here, as with baking and roasting, is in the terminology.
Generally foods that are cut up or diced are referred to as a stew, whereas a larger items
(poultry legs, pork chops, pot roast, etc.) are referred to as braised.

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How to Saut
Prepare the item(s)cut, slice or pound the item(s) to an appropriate thinness. If desired,
dredge the item in flour or coat it with breadcrumbs or other coating. If it is a vegetable that
is to be sauted, trim and cut it/them into uniform sizes for aesthetic purposes and to insure
even cooking. Place a saut pan on a burner over high heat and allow it to heat; the pan
should be just larger than the item to be cooked.
Add a small amount of fat to the pan (oil, clarified butter, animal fat, etc.) and allow the fat
to become very hot, but not smoking.
Carefully place the food in the pan and caramelize one side. If there are several pieces to
be cooked, add the food in a single layer and do not overcrowd the pan (it would cool down
the pan and liquid will be released from the food, which, in turn, will cause moist heat to
develop and steam your ingredients. Turn the ingredient over and allow it to cook through.
Transfer the cooked food to a serving plate, and if desired, de-glaze the pan and make a
simple sauce or jus. (Optional) Deglaze the pan by pouring 2 ounces per portion of a
selected liquid in the pan and scraping the bottom of the pan with a wooden spoon to
loosen any caramelized particles. A variety of liquids such as wine, stock or any other
flavored liquid may be used. Reduce the heat to medium when the liquid starts to boil and
let it reduce by 3/4, or until it has a syrupy consistency. Wine or brandy looses its acidity
during the cooking process. Deglazing with a vegetable, chicken or fish stock, in place of
an alcohol, will reduce the amount of calories and still add flavor to the finished dish.
Drizzle the reduced deglazing liquid across the sauted item.

How to Pan-Fry
Prepare the item(s)cut, slice or pound the item(s) to an even thickness. Coat the item(s)
with breadcrumbs or other coating using the standard breading procedure. Add
approximately 1/2 inch of cooking oil to a skillet, or more if needed. Heat the oil to 350F.
Carefully add the item(s) to the hot fat. If there are several pieces to be cooked, add the
food in a single layer, do not allow the pieces to touch and do not overcrowd the pan. This
would cool down the fat and cause the coating of the food to become soggy and greasy.
Keep the pieces of food in motion by gently shaking the pan, or using a utensil.
Allow the item(s) to cook until the breading on one side is well browned and crisp. Turn the
food over and complete the cooking process. Small or thin items will usually cook
completely through on top of the stove, if the item is too thick it may need to be finished in a
moderate oven.
Remove the item(s) from the fat and drain briefly on absorbent towels.

How to Grill and Broil


Preheat the grill, pan or broiler on high heat.
Prepare the food--cut the food to an appropriate thickness and season lightly with salt and
pepper. Carefully place the selected food on the heated grill and allow cooking a portion on
one side. Then carefully turn the item to achieve a crisscross pattern of the grill or broiler. If
the item is stuck to the grill, allow it to cook for a few minutes longer, the natural juices will
caramelize and release itself from the grill. Turn the item over and repeat the process, allow
cooking to desired temperature.

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How to Deep-Fry
Foods that are to be deep-fried are almost always coated with a batter, breadcrumbs or
other appropriate coating. They are then cooked by submerging them in pre-heated hot fat,
and by using one of the following methods. The same rules apply as with pan-fryingdo
not overcrowd the deep fryer or it will cause the oil temperature to drop, which will cause
the coating on the food to become soggy and greasy.
Basket Methodthe food is placed in a wire basket and lowered into the hot fat. The
basket is lifted out of the fat when the food is cooked. This is the most common method of
deep-frying in a foodservice environment. It is also the most common method used for
breaded items.
Double Basket Methodoften it is desirable to keep the frying item(s) submerged in the hot
fat to insure an even crust. Without the aid of a second basket the food naturally floats to
the surface. In this method the food is placed in a basket and lowered into the fat as with
the (single) basket method, and then a second basket is placed on top of the first to keep
the frying item(s) submerged in the hot fat.
Swimming MethodFoods are gently dropped into hot fat and allowed to "swim" to the
surface by themselves. After they float to the surface they are allowed to cook on one side,
then turned over and cooked on the other. This is the most common method used for
battered items.

How to Roast
Trim excess fat and tendons from the item to be toasted (for added flavor and moistness
leave a thin coating of fat covering on the meat).
Season the item and place it in an appropriately sized pan on either a bed of vegetables
(mirepoix) or a wire roasting rack.
Roast the meat at the desired cooking temperature (generally between 275425F), the
larger the roast the lower the temperature.
Once the item is at desired doneness, remove it from the oven and allow it to rest for a
couple of minutes and continue its "carry over cooking process." While the roast is resting
make a jus by deglazing any caramelized juices on the bottom of the pan, and if desired,
thicken it with cornstarch or flour.

How to Poach and Simmer


Foods that are to be poached should be naturally tender; the cooking process will not
tenderize the food. Simmering, on the other hand will tenderize a tough food by breaking
down the naturally tough fibers during the cooking process.
When poaching or simmering, always try to use a liquid that has flavor (stock or broth
seasoned with garlic, herbs, lemon, etc.), which in turn will add flavor to the item which is
cooked; if plain water is used, much of the flavor of the item will dissipate into the water.
After the item is poached or simmered, the flavorful liquid will often be used as the base to
a light and healthy sauce, or broth.
Prepare the item by trimming away any fat or silver skin, and cut to an appropriate size.
Bring the seasoned cooking liquid to a simmer. The pot should be large enough to
comfortably hold the food item, and there should be enough liquid to completely submerge
the food. Carefully lower the food into the liquid. If the food is extremely delicate, such as a
flaky fish, this may be done with the aid of an appropriately sized wire rack, or carefully with

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a large slotted serving spoon. Maintain proper cooking temperature through the poaching
or simmering process; do not let it boil. The temperature should be checked periodically
with a probe thermometer.
When the item is cooked, carefully remove it and transfer it to a serving plate. Or, if making
a sauce, transfer it to a holding container that is at least 140F, and proceed with the
sauce.
(Optional) Make a sauce by straining the liquid and reducing it slightly, and thickening it
with a roux or cornstarch.

Hot To Boil
Boiling is generally reserved for cooking vegetables and starches, such as rice, potatoes
and pasta. A key rule to remember when boiling is to have enough water boiling before you
add the product, and also not to over crowd the pot. If there is not enough water or the pot
is too crowded the water temperature will drop dramatically and the time it takes to re-boil
will be extended, which in turn, will have a negative effect on the cooked food (pasta and
rice will be gummy, vegetables will be soft and overcooked).
Bring an ample amount of water to a rolling boil. Season the water with a small amount of
salt (2 teaspoons per gallon). Add the product to the boiling liquid and give it a gentle stir.
Allow the water to return to a full boil; boil the food until appropriately cooked. Carefully
drain the product in a colander and serve, or transfer to a holding container which is at least
140F

How to Steam
When food is steamed it is suspended above simmering or boiling liquid; it does not
actually come in contact with the liquid. Steaming can be done in a commercial steamer, or
in one which is fabricated in the kitchen. A steamer may be fabricated by fitting a 2-inch
deep perforated hotel pan inside a 4-inch deep solid one. Add a couple inches of liquid to
the bottom pan and cover securely with an inverted 2-inch pan. Another method is to fit a
pot with a rack that will suspend the food above a small amount of simmering liquid. The
product should be naturally tender, as steaming does not tenderize food.
When steaming, it is also beneficial to use a flavored liquid (stock, wine, water infused with
herbs, wine, lemon, etc.); it will have a positive flavor impact on the finished product.
Prepare the item by trimming away any fat or silver skin, and cut to an appropriate size. For
extremely delicate items, such as flaky fish, the item may be wrapped in cheesecloth or
lettuce leaves for added protection.
Bring the liquid to a full boil and cover the container. Allow the steamer to heat. Carefully
remove the lid (remember that steam is at least 212F) and place the food in the steamer in
one single layer. Replace the lid. Adjust the temperature so the liquid is simmering. Steam
the food until cooked appropriately. Remove the lid of the steamer; transfer the food to hot
plates or serving platters.

How to Braise and Stew


Prepare the main item. Trim any excess fat or silver skin off of the item to be braised; if it is
a stew, dice the items to an appropriate size. Meat and poultry is often dusted lightly with
flour before braising/stewing.

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Heat a heavy-bottomed roasting pan, or appropriately sized skillet over high-heat, add a
small amount of oil and allow it to become very hot.
Add the main item(s) to the hot pan and sear all sides. If it is a dark colored item, such as
beef, the food is usually seared until a dark caramelization occurs. Remove the item(s)
from the pan and set aside.
Drain of any excess fat that may have been released during the searing process. To the
same hot pan, add any flavoring vegetables (mirepoix) which are to be used in braise/stew
and saut briefly.
If it is a braise, place main item on top of the mirepoix; if it is a stew, add the seared product
back to the pan and gently stir it into the mirepoix.
Add an appropriate amount of liquid to the pan. There should be enough liquid added to
keep the main item(s) moist throughout the cooking process, and also enough to produce
an adequate amount of sauce. If using a sachet, add it at this point.
Bring the liquid to a boil over high heat, and then lower it to a simmer. Cover the pan
securely and place it in a moderate oven. (Braising and stewing can also be cooked on top
of the stove, but an oven will offer a more consistent and even heat which surrounds the
entire pan.) Cook the food until it is fork-tender. If desired, a portion of the way through the
cooking process, remove the cover from the pan, this will allow the liquid to reduce and
produce a more flavorful sauce.
Remove the pan from the oven and, if desired, thicken the liquid for a light sauce. When
making a sauce the mirepoix can be strained out, left as is, or pured for added viscosity.
The liquid may be thickened through reduction, with a roux or other starch, such as
cornstarch or arrowroot.

Proper Cooking and Holding Temperatures

Eggs & egg dishes:


Eggs............ Cook until yolk & white are firm
Egg dishes.........................................160 F
Ground meat & meat mixtures:
Turkey, Chicken.................................170 F
Veal, beef, lamb, pork........................160 F
Beef / Lamb:
Rare (some bacterial risk)................ 140 F
Medium............................................ 160 F
Well done......................................... 170 F
Pork:
Well done......................................... 170 F
Poultry:
Chicken, Turkey, Duck, or Goose.....180 F
Thighs, wings......Cook until juices run clear
Stuffing.......................................... 165 F
Seafood:
Fish....................................................160 F
Most Seafood................Steam 6-8 minutes

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Reheating:
When reheating food that has been cooked and then refrigerated, reheat the food rapidly to
an internal temperature of 165 Fahrenheit or higher before placing it in a hot food storage
display that will maintain the food at a temperature of 140 Fahrenheit or above.

2.2. Storeroom
FIFO
Follow the rule of First in, First out (FIFO)

Sticking to this principle means that goods should be used in the order in which they are
delivered. For example, do not put todays frozen beef roasts into the freezer in front of
those delivered last week. Create a system such as dating goods on receipt and placing
new deliveries behind those already in storage to guarantee that FIFO is followed.
Keep potentially hazardous foods out of the temperature danger zone which is 40 to 140
F (4.4 to 60 C)

Store food only in the areas designed for storage. There is no excuse for storing food
products near chemicals, in toilet areas, in boiler or furnace rooms, under stairways or in
vestibules. Such procedures are dangerous because of the risk of contamination and are
prohibited by local health codes.
Keep all goods in clean, undamaged wrappers or packages. A dirty wrapper can attract
pests or contaminate food as it is being opened. Packages that are torn or damaged are a
sign of potential contamination or pest damage.
Packaging should not be reused. Unless special conditions apply, wrap products in material
that is moisture proof and airtight. If goods are removed from the original packaging, they
should be place in clean and sanitized food grade containers with tight fitting lids.
Keep storage areas clean and dry. This rule applies to dry storage, refrigerators, freezers
and heated cabinets.
Keep vehicles for transporting food within the establishment clean. It is senseless for
example to wrap meat properly refrigerate it at the optimum temperature, store it in a clean
refrigerator and then carry it to the galley on a cart used to transport garbage.

Refrigerator temperatures
Meat and Poultry - 32 to 38 F (0 to 3.3 C)

Fish - 30 to 34 F (-1.1 to 1.1 C)

Live Shellfish - 35 to 45 F (1.7 to 7.2 C)

Eggs - 36 to 38 F (2.2 to 3.3 C)

Dairy products - 36 to 38 F (2.2 to 3.3 C)

Fruits and Vegetables - 40 to 45 F (4.4 to 7.2 C)

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Freezers temperatures

Freezers must be maintained at an air temperature of 0 F (-17.8 C) or lower

Temperature Monitoring

All foods need to be stored in a specific temperature range in order to guarantee longest
lasting and food safety. It is in your best interest to ensure all storerooms hold required
temperatures.
Please control routinely those temperatures are adequate. If you notice any unusual
deviation, you need to inform the master immediately.
Provisions stored outside the required temperature range are potentially dangerous for
consumption.
You will have to monitor storeroom conditions like temperatures, humidity etc. If there are
any deviations from the proper ambient conditions you must report at once to the master.
Items should not be left in reefers uncovered as this could lead to freezer burn and
ultimately to waste.

2.2.1. Inventories

The physical inventory of all stores is a crucial point of the operation. It determines the
exact quantities and so with value of provisions available on board at the time of the
inventory. Vessels' victualling results are measured on value of consumed provisions
verses the number of daily meals served. To determine how much provisions were
consumed month end inventory values are deducted from beginning inventory and plus all
purchases. If ending inventory is undercounted, victualling results will be negative. If more
items are counted than physically on board, the result will show much better than it really
was.
A system of inventory management helps ensure cost control. The inventory refers to the
items available in storage. Commonly, two types of inventory are kept:

A physical inventory refers to the actual number of each item on hand. It is typically taken
on the last day of each month.

Perpetual inventories are continuous records of what is bought and issued. While time
consuming, especially if manual records are kept, the perpetual inventory will alert
management to what must be reordered when, as well as to items that what overstocked.
Food and beverage costs are calculated on the basis of the value of the inventory as
follows:

Cost of Food & beverage = Value of opening inventory + purchasing value of


closing inventory

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2.2.1.1. Frequency of inventory taking

Physical Inventories shall be taken at the end of each month.


Before placing an order for additional provisions an inventory must be taken of
items to be ordered and its results need to be included in the order list.
At the change of Chief Cook or Chief Steward the inventory must be taken by both
persons and the handover form must be filled out and signed by both Crewmembers and
the Master.
There may be physical inventories requested by V.Ships Catering Service at any
given time.

2.2.1.2. Process

All items in all stores need to be counted at once. During the process of inventory
taking no items must be issued.
It is of advantage to conduct inventories with two persons, to minimize errors.
High accuracy is needed in regards of packing seize and weights. It needs to be
verified that actual packing sizes and weights are the same as indicated in the inventory
sheet.
The contents of open boxes and cartons must be counted.
Items inventoried by weight must be scaled, unless weight is clearly stated on the
label.
If spoiled or damaged items are found during the inventory, those must be
discarded at once. The appropriate spoilage form (CF 02) needs to be filled out.

2.2.1.3. Administrative Requirements

Inventory quantities must be reported in the closing inventory of the Stock Report
sheet (please see document Month End Report.xls"). Please ensure that the correct units
are used.
If unit size deviates from the unit indicated, it should be changed accordingly.
Items not on the master list should be added in the appropriate section, by inserting
a line.

2.2.2. Ordering

2.2.2.1. Frequency and schedule

Bulk Items, frozen and dry goods should be ordered for a period of 1 to 3 months,
conditional on storage capacities on board. We will let you know if the port you choose is
suitable.
Fresh and perishable items should be ordered every 2 to 3 weeks. Local fruits and
vegetables should be preferred against imported ones. Imported items are considerably
more expensive.

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Homemade soups should be preferred against powdered soups. They have more
nutritional value; can be produced easier and at a lower cost.

2.2.2.2. Procedure

The Purchase order form contains two columns for you to fill out. One is the stock
on hand; the other is the actual order column.
For both columns please pay outmost attention to the unit of measure.
In the order column, please try to order quantities, corresponding with packing
specs, if possible. For example order one case of Eggs (360 each) not 350, or Peeled
Tomatoes order 12 tins not 13 or 11.
The completed order form should be send 7 days prior the loading to V.Ships
Catering only. Therefore the fastest and most economical way should be used. If the facility
exists, email is preferred to fax.
We will format your order and pass it on to our nominated supplier. We will inform
you of any changes due to availability or high priced items. No items will be cancelled
without vessel's knowledge or approval.
Ship will be informed which supplier has been appointed to deliver the order as
soon as the order will be placed.
If there are any changes or last minute additions, those must be sent to V.Ships
Catering office at earliest convenience, at least 24 hours prior to arrival in port.

2.2.2.3 Worldwide purchasing information

Asia:
Cost of provisions in Japan is extremely high and purchases should
be avoided. Cost is also high in Korea, Indonesia and Taiwan. China is
generally inexpensive but special attention must be given to quality. Availability of
European products is also very limited. Hong Kong and Singapore are good places to load
up due to better availability, competitive prices and higher quality.

Arabian Gulf:
UAE is perhaps the most inexpensive region worldwide and all vessels should take the
opportunity to load up for up to three months of long lasting provisions. Rest of countries in
the Arabian peninsular, i.e. Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Jordan are more costly.

Australia & New Zealand:


Generally high prices especially in Western Australian and New Zealand. Provided that
the opportunity exceeds for bunkering in Singapore, orders should be avoided in both
Australia & New Zealand.

South Africa:
Prices are generally good with high quality provisions and large availability of ethnic items.
Vessels should request provisions whenever in S. Africa.

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South America:
A lot of variances from country to country. Argentina is obviously the best for meat with
extremely good prices. Vessels should stock up meats & fish whenever calling the Buenos
Aires area. Brazil has also some competitive prices but the remote northern ports are quite
expensive.

USA:
Ports of US Gulf (Corpus Christi to Pensacola, Fl) are most competitive, followed by New
York & Baltimore. Californian ports are more expensive.

Caribbean Islands:
To be avoided, they are usually very expensive because many items are imported from
mainland.

Mediterranean ports:
Mediterranean ports are generally competitive with Italy, Greece, and Spain as most
competitive. Vessels calling Black Sea Ports should replenish provisions in the Turkish
Straits due to the very high cost of almost all items in Black Sea.

Western Europe:
Prices in the Antwerp Amsterdam region are most competitive. Vessels should store for
a couple of months, meats, fishes, dry and other long lasting provisions at reasonable
costs. Scandinavian countries are most expensive and should be avoided.

2.2.3. Loading

2.2.3.1 Who? When? Where? How?

You will be advised by V.Ships Catering, when


and were your orders will be delivered and who is the
appointed supplier.
Prior to taking any supplies on board, the supplier
should provide you with a delivery note.
Actually delivered items need to be checked against the delivery note to ensure
correspondence. The Chief Cook is the person responsible to thoroughly inspect all items.
When receiving deliveries, you should ensure that proper temperatures are
maintained.
Refrigerated: 32F to 40F or 0C to 5C (Dairy, produce, meat, poultry and seafood)
Frozen: -10F to -4F of -23 to -18 (Dairy, frozen vegetables, other frozen items, meat,
poultry and seafood). Ice Cream may be accepted at -12 degrees celsius/10 degrees
Fahrenheit though it is not recommended.

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2.2.3.2. Invoices

Invoices must be verified for accuracy.


All Invoices once verified shall be stamped and signed by the master.
One copy to remain on board, one copy to be given back to the supplier, so he can
forward it to our office.
Invoices may be replaced by delivery notes only.

2.2.3.3. Checking Supplies

All items need to be counted and quantities and qualities are to be verified.
Please check temperatures of frozen and chilled items. If provisions are delivered
in a dangerous temperature range, those need to be rejected.
Items outdated, spoiled, damaged or otherwise unsuitable should be rejected.
Rejected and returned items must be deducted from the invoice prior to signature.
Please ensure those items are deducted in all copies of the invoice.

2.2.3.4. Supplier Evaluation Report

A report form was designed to evaluate each suppliers performance.


The header contain all necessary details to track the report.
One section deals with general performance information. Here you will have to "tic"
and rate some aspects of the supplier performance with excellent, good or poor.
Performance should be measured according to location and regional customs.
The other section of the form is designed for you to indicate individual item which
were not adequate for whatever reason. Please do fill out if the supplied item was returned
to ship chandler and / deducted from invoice.

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2.3. Hygiene and Safety Precautions

2.3.1 Sanitation / HACCP

The objectives of a food sanitation program are to protect food from contaminating
substances and to minimize the effects of any contamination that does occur.
The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) system is set up to maximize food
safety. The system combines three elements, principles of food microbiology, quality
control and risk assessment.

The HACCP consists of six steps:

1. Identity hazards and asses their severity and risks. This involves examining the menu
and recipes to identity potentially hazardous foods reducing the number of steps involved in
preparing menu items will reduce the risk of contamination.
2. Determine critical points. Four important control points are good personal hygiene,
avoidance of cross contamination, cooking and cooling.
3. Implement control measures and establish criteria to assure control. Procedures
must be observable and measurable. For example, the directions for fixing a baked chicken
breast should include. a/ Washing hands; b/ Washing, rinsing and sanitizing the cutting
board and knife that are used for slicing the chicken breast; c/ Maintaining the actual
product temperature at 160 F (73.9 C)
4. Monitor crucial control points and record data. After receiving turkey and checking
that the temperature is lower than 45 F, it is important to check that after storing it, the
temperature in the refrigerators is 40 F or lower and that the raw turkey is not stored above
cooked food.

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5. Take appropriate action when control criteria are not met. You might find for example
that the chef is preparing turkey breast all at one time. The turkey is within the temperature
danger zone for longer than it should be. Corrective action is required that will reduce the
amount of time the turkey is within the danger zone. New procedures have to be developed
such that turkey breasts are prepare in smaller batches and returned to the cooler
immediately upon completion.
6. Confirm that the system is working as planned. Each step in the process of receiving
through reheating for service, four areas are determined: The critical control point, the
potential hazard, appropriate standards and whatever corrective action is needed if the
standards are not met. For example, the first control point is in receiving beef and
vegetables. Contamination and spoilage are potential hazards in both cases. Receiving
standards should be set such that temperature of the beef is at 45 F or lower, packaging
on both products is intact, there is no odor, stickiness or no cross contamination from other
foods on the truck and there are no signs of insect or rodent activity. If any of these
conditions are present, the proper corrective action is to refuse delivery. A similar
procedure is spelled out for each step in the process.

2.3.2 Integrated Pest Management

A HACCP-based program in place will help make sure that potential


contamination from pests does not threaten food safety.
By practicing good sanitation, an operation takes a major step toward the prevention of an
infestation.
A daily cleaning and sanitizing program is the Chefs first line of defense in pest prevention.
It denies food, water, entry and harborage which is shelter to pests and it saves money
over the long run if an infestation should happen to occur. If a food service is kept clean
and sanitary, there will be fewer pests.

2.3.3. General preventive practices

The following is a list of general preventive practices that applies to keeping all pests out of
a foodservice operation:

1. Check all incoming supplies outside on your receiving dock. Refuse any shipment of
food, linen or paper goods in which cockroaches or mice are found.
Roaches and mice can be carried into the facility on or in crates or cases.
2. Dispose of garbage properly and promptly.
3. If you recycle trash, be careful how you store these materials because recyclables,
such as bottles, cans, cardboard and paper can harbor pests if they are left dirty and
remain in one place for extended lengths of time.
4. Store all food and supplies properly. Keeping all food and supplies at least six inches
off the floor and six inches away from walls is one of the more effective controls. Other
controls are by maintaining the humidity of dry storage at 50 percent or less, by providing

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good ventilation in storerooms and in food preparation areas and by storing foods on
movable carts when possible.
The FIFO method of stock rotation also helps to eliminate harborage in dry food and non
food supplies in storage, since rotating stock disrupts insect breeding habits.
5. Dispose of mop and cleaning bucket water properly and wipe up spilled water
immediately. Keep cleaning supplies clean, dry and properly. Wet mops are a favorite
harborage for American roaches whoa re extremely found in dampness.
Since rodents also need water, standing water in buckets or on floors encourages their
presence.
6. Clean and sanitize your operation thoroughly. Food and beverages spills must be
cleaned up immediately. Pick up crumbs and other scraps of food as quickly as possible.
Roaches can and will eat practically anything. A single crust of bread can support an entire
roach population. Careful cleaning reduces the food supply for vermin, destroys many
insect eggs and may reveal new infestations before they become serious. Inform your
employees that they should not store food or soiled clothing in their lockers or on the floor
under their lockers. Unsanitary conditions in lavatories and toilets areas will also attract
pests and must be corrected.

2.3.4. Cleaning

As you know it is very important to keep stores and galley clean.


Some areas need cleaning more often than others.
Cooking utensils and food preparation surfaces should be cleaned after each use.
Refrigerators, walls, ceilings, exhausts store rooms etc. need to be cleaned less frequently.
You should make yourself a plan, scheduling cleaning of these areas in a way that every
day something is done and over a reasonable period 2-4 weeks every area has been
cleaned.
This way you ensure that the galley and stores are always in a clean, tidy and presentable
state.

2.3.5. Temperature Monitoring

All foods need to be stored in a specific temperature range in order to guarantee longest
lasting and food safety. It is in your best interest to ensure all storerooms hold required
temperatures.
Please control routinely that temperature is adequate. If you notice any unusual deviation,
you need to inform the master immediately.
Small numbers of bacteria may have little effect; however they multiply so rapidly under
certain conditions. In a very short time, sufficient number can be produced to cause food
poisoning.
In a warm galley, ensure that food items are exposed for as short a time as practical.

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There is a long time lag whilst bacteria are adjusting to the conditions before they multiply.
During this time, food is relatively safe and can be worked on in the warm galley.
Provisions stored outside the required temperature range are potentially dangerous for
consumption.

2.3.6. Personal hygiene

The first step to staying healthy is to practice good health habits. This involves:

Bathing daily with soap and water.


Covering one's mouth when coughing or sneezing, then washing hands immediately
afterwards.
Avoiding such things as scratching the head or touching the mouth or nose.
No eating, drinking, chewing gum or smoking when food is being prepared or cleaned.
Avoiding the dropping of sweat onto food or equipment.
Using disposables towels to wipe away sweat and washing the hands before working
with food.
Using hair restraint.
Keeping nails short and clean.

2.4. Administrative Procedures

2.4.1. Chief Cooks Appraisal - CF 09

The master will appraise Chief Cook performance upon finishing of contract.
The Chief Cooks appraisal is based on fulfilling his duties as stated within this manual. No
copy of this form is to be retained on board. V.Ships Catering will forward a copy to crew
manager and manning office.

2.4.2. Chief Cooks Hand-over

Whenever a change of Chief Cook takes place a handover is needed.


Both The Leaving and Joining Chief Cook need to agree on storeroom inventory. If there is
no time to conduct an inventory together the master should assign an officer to conduct an
inventory with the chief cook leaving. The assigned officer should then receive the
storeroom keys that he is to handover together with the inventory to the joining Chief Cook.

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The leaving Chief Cook must Handover all items as indicated in the inventory form.
Working areas, galley and stores must be handed over in a clean and tidy state.

"ALWAYS REMEMBER THAT THE FOOD SERVED DAY AFTER DAY IS


TREMENDOUSLY IMPORTANT TO MORALE OF THE SHIPS CREW"

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