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# Quantum Mechanics 2

Problem set 3

1. Kramers theorem states that if the Hamiltonian of a system is invariant under time
reversal, and if T 2 |i = |i then the energy levels must be at least doubly
degenerate. In fact the degree of degeneracy must be even. Show explicitly that
threefold degeneracy is not possible.
2. (a) Show in detail that if PH = HP and if the initial state |(0)i has definite
parity (either even or odd), then the state vector |(t)i remains a pure parity
eigenvector at all future times.
(b) On the other hand, suppose that the Hamiltonian is invariant under time rever-
sal: [H, T ] = 0. Show that, nevertheless, an eigenvalue of T is not a conserved
quantity.
3. Assuming that the Hamiltonian is invariant under time reversal, prove that the wave
function for a spinless nondegenerate system at any given instant of time can always
be chosen to be real.
4. For the following operators, determine how they change under parity, and under
time reversal

(a) S P
(b) S X
(c) S L
(d) S B where B is an external magnetic field.

## H = ASz2 + B(Sx2 Sy2 )

(a) Solve this problem exactly to find the normalized energy eigenstates and eigen-
values. (A spin-dependent Hamiltonian of this kind actually appears in crystal
physics).
(b) Is this Hamiltonian invariant under time reversal?
(c) How do the normalized eigenstates you obtained transform under time reversal?

6. We adopt the notation we used in class for direct products, with AVi an operator A
acting on Hilbert space i, and being used on space V (a little confusing notation.
Look in Shankar p. 250 for examples). Prove the following

1
  
(1) (2) (1) (2) (1) (2)
(a) A1 B2 C1 D2 = (AC)1 (BD)2
(1)(2) 2
 
(1)(2) (1) (2) (1) (2)
(b) A1 + A2 = (A21 ) I (2) + I (1) (A22 ) + 2A1 A2

## 7. For two operators on two Hilbert spaces

! !
(1) a b (2) e f
A1 = ; A2 =
c d g h
(1) (2)
find the 44 representation of A1 A2 in two ways, by taking the matrix product
(1)(2) (1)(2)
of A1 and A2 (which we obtained in class), and by directly computing the
matrix elements.