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Newton's Laws of Motion and application

Types of contact forces; tension, normal force, kinetic and static friction,
fluid resistance
Action-Reaction Pairs
Free Body Diagrams
Application of Newton's Laws to single body and multibody dynamics

Types of Contact Forces


Tension Force
A tension is a force along the length of a medium; in particular, it is a
pulling force that acts along a stretched flexible connector, such as a rope
or cable. The word tension comes from a Latin word meaning to
stretch. Not coincidentally, the flexible cords that carry muscle forces to
other parts of the body are called tendons.

Tension Force

Any flexible connector, such as a string, rope, chain, wire, or cable, can
only exert a pull parallel to its length.
Tension is a pull in a connector.
You cant push a rope. Instead, tension force pulls outward along the two
ends of a rope.
The tension force is directed along the length of the wire and pulls equally
on the objects on the opposite ends of the wire.
The formula for tension is T = mg + ma Where T is the tension, m is the
mass, g is the gravitational force and a for acceleration.

1) There is a 5 kg mass hanging from a rope. What is the tension in the rope
if the acceleration of the mass is zero?
ANSWER: The mass, m = 5 kg; the acceleration, a = 0; and g is defined.
T = mg + ma
T= (5 kg) (9.8 m/s2) + (5 kg)(0)
T = 49 kg-m/s2 = 49 N
A) What if there is an acceleration of + 5 m/s 2 upwards.
B) What if there is a downwards acceleration of a = -5m/s 2
Normal Force

Force supporting the weight of an object, or a load, that is perpendicular to


the surface of contact between the load and its support
the surface applies this force to an object to support the weight of the
object
An object rests on a nonaccelerating horizontal surface, the magnitude of
the normal force is equal to the weight of the object.
Normal Force Formulas:
Normal force on an object resting on a horizontal surface, vector form:

Normal force on an object resting on a horizontal surface, scalar form:

Normal force on an object resting on an inclined plane, scalar form

Normal Force Examples:


1. Find the normal force of a block with a mass of 4.2 kg.
ANSWER: The mass, m = 4.2 kg and g is defined.
N = mg
N = (4.2 kg) (9.8 m/s2)
N = 41.16 kg-m/s2 = 41.16 N
2. Find the normal force of a block with a mass of 4.2 kg, sitting on a ramp
with an incline of 45 degrees.
ANSWER: The mass, m = 4.2 kg and g is defined while cos will be 0.71
when solved on calculator
N = mg * cos
N = (4.2 kg) (9.8 m/s2) * (0.71)
N = 41.16 kg-m/s2 * (0.71) = 29.1 N

Kinetic and Static Friction

Friction is a force that opposes relative motion between systems in


contact.
If two systems are in contact and stationary relative to one another, then
the friction between them is called static friction. If two systems are in
contact and moving relative to one another, then the friction between
them is called kinetic friction
Kinetic and Static Friction Formula:

Static Friction: fs(max) = sN, Where: s is the coefficient of static friction


and N is the magnitude of the normal force.
Kinetic Friction: fk = kN, WHERE: k is the coefficient of kinetic friction and
N is the magnitude of the normal force.

Kinetic And Static Friction Examples:


1. A snacks box of 5kg still on the floor is given a force of 100 N. If the
coefficient of friction is 0.3, find the static friction?
Solution:
Given: Normal force N = 100 N, Coefficient of friction s = 0.3,
fs = sN = (0.3)(100 N) = 30 N
2. A boy is playing the foot ball. Calculate the kinetic friction if the friction
coefficient is 0.5 and is kicked with the force of 150 N?
Solution:
Given: Normal force N = 150 N, Coefficient of friction k = 0.5,
fk = kN = (0.5)(150 N) = 75 N
Fluid Resistance

Frictional, a complex phenomenon; is resistance in the motion of two


objects which depends on the force that holds the surfaces together and
also on the roughness of the surface.
The frictional resistance force depends on the normal direction of the
surfaces which is known as "normal force
A fluid friction is a resistance offered by a fluid against its flow.
Formula: f = N, Where is the coefficient of friction and N is the normal
force.
Velocity Gradient: V = /y
Dynamic Fluid Friction: F = (A)(/y)

Action-Reaction Pairs
Forces always occur in pairs, and one body cannot exert a force on
another without experiencing a force itself. We sometimes refer to this law
loosely as action-reaction, where the force exerted is the action and the
force experienced as a consequence is the reaction.
Action and Reaction

Forces always come in pairs - known as "action-reaction force pairs.


Identifying and describing action-reaction force pairs is a simple matter of
identifying the two interacting objects and making two statements
describing who is pushing on whom and in what direction
Examples can be: Hammer on the nail, Ball being thrown, A person
slams a wall and Rocket propulsion

Free-Body Diagrams
Free-Body Diagrams are diagrams used to show the relative magnitude
and direction of all forces acting upon an object in a given situation

Free Body Diagram


Free-Body Diagrams Examples:
1) A book is at rest on a tabletop. A free-body diagram for this situation looks
like this:

2) A rightward force is applied to a book in order to move it across a desk


with a rightward acceleration. Consider frictional forces. Neglect air
resistance. A free-body diagram for this situation looks like this:

Application of Newton's Laws to single body and


multibody dynamics
Dynamics is a branch of physics, generally comes under mechanics.
Mechanics is the science of forces and motions. It involves a relatively
small number of basic concepts such as force, mass, length and time.
Mechanics is one of the oldest physical sciences, dating back to the time
of Archimedes.

Newtons First Law(Law of Inertia)


It states that the position of restore of uniform motion of a body will
remain unchanged until or unless an external force is applied on it,i.e.
according to this law, position of a body will not change by itself.
Application: Consider a hockey ball during the penalty flick. the hockey
ball continues in a state of rest unless acted upon by an external force (the
applied forces on the stick).

Newtons Second Law of Motion


Newtons second law of motion can also be stated as, the net external
force acting on a body is equal to rate of change of its momentum.
Application: Again, consider the hockey ball during a penalty flick. When
a force acts on an object (the muscular forces applied to the stick on the
ball) the rate of change of momentum experienced by the object (the
acceleration of the hockey ball) is proportional to the size of the force (the
ball will accelerate faster with a greater push of the stick) and takes place
in the direction in which the force acts (the ball accelerated towards the
hockey goal).

Newtons Third Law of Motion


Newtons third law of motion states that to every action, that is an equal
and opposite reaction. Action and Reaction forces are always equal in
magnitude, opposite in direction and they act on different bodies.
Application: Consider a rugby player swerving to their right to avoid a
tackle. For every action (the rugby player pushes the ground to their left
with their feet) there is an equal and opposite reaction (the ground exerts
and equal force to the right allowing the player to swerve in that direction)