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Feb 06, 2017

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Physics review

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Physics review

© All Rights Reserved

- Solutions
- Worksheet 9.1 Impulse and Momentum
- Revision Test Physics
- Tricky Physics Problems
- em1_9_kinematicsAccelConst
- Answer and Solution
- Momentum Lab
- Momentum, Impulse, And Collisions
- 08 Energy 05 Virtual Work
- Final Paper No189
- FB PAT 10 P + C + M
- Mechanics Qns 29
- 3
- 2017 Sem 1 - Physics 1 Test 2 & Memo
- m2 jan 05 Q
- Molitor is 1984
- A Le Sagian Atomic-Type Model for Propagation and Generation of Gravity
- UNITED STATES PHYSICS TEAM AAPT exam1-2014-2-2-solutions
- Test 2
- Physics-jamb-syllabus.pdf

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Slope of secant from a displacement time graph

Resultant: desired displacement of vectors

Head to Tail: when one vector connects to another

Head to Head: when vectors start at the same point

Vector Components

Break vectors into their X Y components.

Add individual X Y components, then find resultant

where youre viewing it

General Formula: VAX = VAY + VYX

Where Y is common in both Vectors

Y is eliminated and leaves for AX, the final answer

Subtracting Vectors, Example: VAX = VAY VXY

Add the subtracted vector by reversing the subscripts

VAX = VAY + VYX

Inclined Plane: consider the surface parallel to the plane as x, and plane

perpendicular to the plane as y.

First Law: an object in motion stays in motion unless there is a force that slows it

down

Inertia: a fundamental property of matter that makes things stay at constant speed

Second Law: force can be affected by mass and acceleration

F = m*a

Static Equilibrium: net force is zero and does not move

Dynamic Equilibrium: net force is zero, but its at constant speed

Third Law: for every action, there is a reaction, equal in magnitude but in opposite

direction.t

Circular Motion

Circular Motion: occurs when an object is travelling in a circular path with fixed

radius and speed

Since direction is changing at every moment in a circle, velocity changes, and the

object will accelerate towards the center

ac=v2/r

r = radius

v = speed of object

f = frequency

T = period

Centripetal force: the force created by circular motion towards the center.

Centripetal force = mass * centripetal acceleration

velocity, or at rest where Newtons Laws are obeyed

Newtons Laws arent obeyed in this case.

Centrifugal Force: another form of fictitious force which is created due to the

existence of some other force

If centripetal force accelerates towards the center in circular motion, the centrifugal

force will act against the object and whatever inside.

Work: the energy transferred to an object when a force acting on the object moves

it across a distance.

W = (F cos ) d

If the force is causing an object to undergo a displacement is at an angle to the

displacement, only the component of the force in the direction of the displacement

does work on the object.

Joule: (J) is a unit used to measure energy. 1 Joule = 1 N/m.

Sometimes, zero work is done on an object even if the object experiences an

applied force or in motion.

Kinetic Energy: Ek is the energy of kinetic motion, a scalar quantity measured in

(J)

Ek = 0.5mv2

Work-Energy Theorem: The total work done on an object equals the change in

the objects kinetic energy, provided there is no change in other forms of energy.

-Wtotal = Ekf Eki

-Wtotal = Ek

Gravitational Potential Energy: the energy due to the elevation above earths

surface

Eg = mgh or Eg = mg y

Law of conservational energy: energy can be converted into different forms, but

cannot be created, made fun of, or destroyed.

Thermal Energy: internal energy associated with the motion of atoms and

molecules

Eth = Fk * d

Mechanical energy: the total energy in an isolated system.

Elastic Potential Energy

Hookes Law: the force exerted by a spring is directly proportional to the distance

the spring has moved from equilibrium

Fx = -k * x

k is the force constant the spring creates

If k is , then the equation represents the force exerted by the spring

If k is +, then the equation represents the force exerted to the spring

Ideal Spring: a spring that obeys Hookes Law because it experiences no internal

or external friction

Elastic Potential Energy (Ee): energy stored in an object with a changing volume

ie compressed, stretched, bent, or twisted.

Ee = 1/2 kx2

Simple Harmonic Motion: (SHM) periodic vibratory motion in which the force and

acceleration is proportional to the displacement.

Friction is negligible in SHM; vibration goes on indefinitely.

T = 2 pi (m/k) Period

f = 1/2pi (k/m) Frequency

Energy in simple harmonic motion shows that when energy is released from a

spring, it transforms into kinetic energy.

Et = 1/2 kx2 + 1/2 mv2

k is the force constant

x is the displacement of mass from equilibrium position

v is the instantaneous velocity of the mass

Damped Harmonic Motion: periodic motion which amplitude of vibration and the

energy decreases over time due to friction.

Momentum: the product of the mass of an object moving and is velocity is a vector

quantity. Unit is kg*m/s

p = m*v

Impulse: the change in momentum. Vector quantity in N*s.

I = all forces * time

In a force vs time graph, the impulse is the area under the function.

Conservation of 2D momentum

If the net force acting on a system of interacting objects is zero, then the linear

momentum of the system before the interaction equals the linear momentum of the

system after the interaction.

-p1 = p1

-m1v1 = m2v2

Collisions

Elastic Collisions: a collision in which the total kinetic energy after the collision

equals the total kinetic energy before the collision

Ek = Ek

p = p

Inelastic Collision: a collision in which the total kinetic energy after a collision is

different from the total kinetic energy before the collision. But momentum remains

the same before and after.

p = p

Completely Inelastic Collision: a collision where there is a maximum decrease in

kinetic energy after the collision since the objects stick together and move at the

same velocity.

mAvA + mBvB = (mA + mB) vB

In some 2 D collisions, it would be more efficient if the vectors were broken into

vector components before solving.

Laws of Electric Charges Opposite charges attract each other. Similar charges repel

each other. Charged objects attract some neutral objects.

Charging by Friction Electrons are ripped off another surface and charges another

object

Ability to rip electrons are based on their position on the electrostatic series

Induced Charge Separation distribution of charge that results from a change in the

distribution of elections in an object

Charging by Contact Electrons are passed through conductors once they touch.

They are transferred and charge equalize each object.

Charging by Induction The electrons in one object are pushed by the fields of a

nearby charged object inducing it.

Law of Conservation of change: The total charge (the difference between the

amounts of positive and negative charge) within an isolated system is conserved.

Electric Forces

Coulombs Law: The force between two point charges is inversely proportional to

the square of the distance between the charges and directly proportional to the

product of the charges

FE = kq1q2 / r2

Where k = 9.0 x 109 N*m2/C2

Electric Field: any point is defined as the electric force per unit positive choice and

is a vector quantity. Unit is Coulombs

Electric Field lines always come from positive to negative charges

Positive fields never touch negative fields, they also never cross

= kq1 / r2

Electric Potential: (V) the value, in volts, of potential energy per unit of positive

charge. 1 V = 1 J/C

V = kq1 / r

Electric Potential Energy (EE): the energy stored in a system of two charges a

distance r apart.

EE = kq1q2 / r

Electric Potential Difference: the amount of work required per unit charge to

move a positive charge from one point to another in the presence of another

charge.

V = r

= V / r (for parallel plates)

V = EE / q

Elementary Charge: (e) is the smallest unit of electric charges. e = 1.602 x 10-19

Motion of Charged particles in Electric Fields: Newtons laws combined with

laws of electric charges, we can derive acceleration and include mass to solve

problems.

a = FE / m

Magnetic Force Field: the area around a magnet which magnetic forces are

exerted

Domain Theory: states that magnets are made up of tiny regions (domains) and

how a material can become magnetized: each domain acts like a bar magnet.

Principle of Electromagnetism: moving electric charges produce a magnetic

field.

Right Hand Rule for a straight conductor: if a conductor is grasped in the right

hand, with the thumb pointing in the direction of the current, the curled fingers

point in the direction of the magnetic field lines.

Current flowing through a conductor produces a magnetic field that circles the

conductor based on the direction of the current.

Right hand used for positive charges, left hand for negative charges

Right hand rule for a solenoid: if a solenoid is grasped in the right hand, with the

fingers curled in the direction of the electric current, the thumb points in the

direction of the magnetic field lines in its core.

A solenoid flowing with current creates a magnetic field that points out of one end

of the solenoid

magnetized

Force of Magnetic Fields: the force from a magnetic field on a charge moving nearby

in the field

FM = qvB sin

Right hand rule for the direction of magnetic force: Hand flat palm up, thumbs at a

90-degree angle to the fingers, where fingers pointed in the direction of the

magnetic fields, thumb pointed in the direction of the speed of the charge, and palm

points outwards to the direction of the magnetic force.

Forces act in perpendicular to the magnetic field lines

When 2 magnetic plates with poles placed in parallel are there, a charge traveling

through will enter circular motion between the plates due to this force.

FM = Unit 1 Kinematics and Dynamics

Displacement: a vector form of a distance

Velocity: a change in displacement over time

Slope of secant from a displacement time graph

Vectors: a unit with magnitude and direction

Resultant: desired displacement of vectors

Head to Tail: when one vector connects to another

Head to Head: when vectors start at the same point

Vector Components

Break vectors into their X Y components.

Add individual X Y components, then find resultant

Gravitational Acceleration: Earth accelerates objects towards center at 9.8 m/s2

Field of Reference: the speed of an object in motion is dictated in relation from

where youre viewing it

Calculating with field of Reference

General Formula: VAX = VAY + VYX

Where Y is common in both Vectors

Y is eliminated and leaves for AX, the final answer

Subtracting Vectors, Example: VAX = VAY VXY

Add the subtracted vector by reversing the subscripts

VAX = VAY + VYX

Net Force: causes objects to accelerate / decelerate

Inclined Plane: consider the surface parallel to the plane as x, and plane

perpendicular to the plane as y.

Newtons Laws of Motion

First Law: an object in motion stays in motion unless there is a force that slows it

down

Inertia: a fundamental property of matter that makes things stay at constant speed

Second Law: force can be affected by mass and acceleration

F = m*a

Static Equilibrium: net force is zero and does not move

Dynamic Equilibrium: net force is zero, but its at constant speed

Third Law: for every action, there is a reaction, equal in magnitude but in opposite

direction.t

Circular Motion

Circular Motion: occurs when an object is travelling in a circular path with fixed

radius and speed

Since direction is changing at every moment in a circle, velocity changes, and the

object will accelerate towards the center

ac=v2/r

r = radius

v = speed of object

f = frequency

T = period

Centripetal force: the force created by circular motion towards the center.

Centripetal force = mass * centripetal acceleration

Inertial Frames of Reference: when the frame of reference is moving at constant

velocity, or at rest where Newtons Laws are obeyed

Non-Inertial Frames of Reference: when the frame of reference is accelerating

where Newtons Laws arent obeyed in this case.

Centrifugal Force: another form of fictitious force which is created due to the

existence of some other force

If centripetal force accelerates towards the center in circular motion, the centrifugal

force will act against the object and whatever inside.

Work: the energy transferred to an object when a force acting on the object moves

it across a distance.

W = (F cos ) d

If the force is causing an object to undergo a displacement is at an angle to the

displacement, only the component of the force in the direction of the displacement

does work on the object.

Joule: (J) is a unit used to measure energy. 1 Joule = 1 N/m.

Sometimes, zero work is done on an object even if the object experiences an

applied force or in motion.

Kinetic Energy: Ek is the energy of kinetic motion, a scalar quantity measured in

(J)

Ek = 0.5mv2

Work-Energy Theorem: The total work done on an object equals the change in

the objects kinetic energy, provided there is no change in other forms of energy.

Wtotal = Ekf Eki

Wtotal = Ek

Gravitational Potential Energy: the energy due to the elevation above earths

surface

Eg = mgh or Eg = mg y

Law of conservational energy: energy can be converted into different forms, but

cannot be created, made fun of, or destroyed.

Thermal Energy: internal energy associated with the motion of atoms and

molecules

Eth = Fk * d

Mechanical energy: the total energy in an isolated system.

Elastic Potential Energy

Hookes Law: the force exerted by a spring is directly proportional to the distance

the spring has moved from equilibrium

Fx = -k * x

k is the force constant the spring creates

If k is , then the equation represents the force exerted by the spring

If k is +, then the equation represents the force exerted to the spring

Ideal Spring: a spring that obeys Hookes Law because it experiences no internal

or external friction

Elastic Potential Energy (Ee): energy stored in an object with a changing volume

ie compressed, stretched, bent, or twisted.

Ee = 1/2 kx2

Simple Harmonic Motion: (SHM) periodic vibratory motion in which the force and

acceleration is proportional to the displacement.

Friction is negligible in SHM; vibration goes on indefinitely.

T = 2 pi (m/k) Period

f = 1/2pi (k/m) Frequency

Energy in simple harmonic motion shows that when energy is released from a

spring, it transforms into kinetic energy.

Et = 1/2 kx2 + 1/2 mv2

k is the force constant

x is the displacement of mass from equilibrium position

v is the instantaneous velocity of the mass

Damped Harmonic Motion: periodic motion which amplitude of vibration and the

energy decreases over time due to friction.

Momentum: the product of the mass of an object moving and is velocity is a vector

quantity. Unit is kg*m/s

p = m*v

Impulse: the change in momentum. Vector quantity in N*s.

I = all forces * time

In a force vs time graph, the impulse is the area under the function.

Conservation of 2D momentum

If the net force acting on a system of interacting objects is zero, then the linear

momentum of the system before the interaction equals the linear momentum of the

system after the interaction.

p1 = p1

m1v1 = m2v2

Collisions

Elastic Collisions: a collision in which the total kinetic energy after the collision

equals the total kinetic energy before the collision

Ek = Ek

p = p

Inelastic Collision: a collision in which the total kinetic energy after a collision is

different from the total kinetic energy before the collision. But momentum remains

the same before and after.

p = p

Completely Inelastic Collision: a collision where there is a maximum decrease in

kinetic energy after the collision since the objects stick together and move at the

same velocity.

mAvA + mBvB = (mA + mB) vB

In some 2 D collisions, it would be more efficient if the vectors were broken into

vector components before solving.

Laws of Electric Charges Opposite charges attract each other. Similar charges repel

each other. Charged objects attract some neutral objects.

Charging by Friction Electrons are ripped off another surface and charges another

object

Ability to rip electrons are based on their position on the electrostatic series

Induced Charge Separation distribution of charge that results from a change in the

distribution of elections in an object

Charging by Contact Electrons are passed through conductors once they touch.

They are transferred and charge equalize each object.

Charging by Induction The electrons in one object are pushed by the fields of a

nearby charged object inducing it.

Law of Conservation of change: The total charge (the difference between the

amounts of positive and negative charge) within an isolated system is conserved.

Electric Forces

Coulombs Law: The force between two point charges is inversely proportional to

the square of the distance between the charges and directly proportional to the

product of the charges

FE = kq1q2 / r2

Where k = 9.0 x 109 N*m2/C2

Electric Field: any point is defined as the electric force per unit positive choice and

is a vector quantity. Unit is Coulombs

Electric Field lines always come from positive to negative charges

Positive fields never touch negative fields, they also never cross

= kq1 / r2

Electric Potential: (V) the value, in volts, of potential energy per unit of positive

charge. 1 V = 1 J/C

V = kq1 / r

Electric Potential Energy (EE): the energy stored in a system of two charges a

distance r apart.

EE = kq1q2 / r

Electric Potential Difference: the amount of work required per unit charge to

move a positive charge from one point to another in the presence of another

charge.

V = r

= V / r (for parallel plates)

V = EE / q

Elementary Charge: (e) is the smallest unit of electric charges. e = 1.602 x 10-19

Motion of Charged particles in Electric Fields: Newtons laws combined with laws of

electric charges, we can derive acceleration and include mass to solve problems.

a = FE / m

Magnetic Force Field: the area around a magnet which magnetic forces are

exerted

Domain Theory: states that magnets are made up of tiny regions (domains) and

how a material can become magnetized: each domain acts like a bar magnet.

Principle of Electromagnetism: moving electric charges produce a magnetic field.

Right Hand Rule for a straight conductor: if a conductor is grasped in the right

hand, with the thumb pointing in the direction of the current, the curled fingers

point in the direction of the magnetic field lines.

Current flowing through a conductor produces a magnetic field that circles the

conductor based on the direction of the current.

Right hand used for positive charges, left hand for negative charges

Right hand rule for a solenoid: if a solenoid is grasped in the right hand, with

the fingers curled in the direction of the electric current, the thumb points in the

direction of the magnetic field lines in its core.

A solenoid flowing with current creates a magnetic field that points out of one end

of the solenoid

Relative Magnetic Permeability: the ability for some material to become

magnetized

Force of Magnetic Fields: the force from a magnetic field on a charge moving

nearby in the field

FM = qvB sin

Right hand rule for the direction of magnetic force: Hand flat palm up, thumbs at a

90-degree angle to the fingers, where fingers pointed in the direction of the

magnetic fields, thumb pointed in the direction of the speed of the charge, and palm

points outwards to the direction of the magnetic force.

Forces act in perpendicular to the magnetic field lines

When 2 magnetic plates with poles placed in parallel are there, a charge traveling

through will enter circular motion between the plates due to this force.

FM = FC, evB = mv2 / r (since sin 90 degrees = 1)

Right hand rule for the motor principle: if the right thumb points in the direction of

the current (flow of positive charge), and the fingers point in the direction of the

magnetic field, the force is in the direction in which the right palm pushes.

When current is on the conductor, within a magnetic field, it has the ability to move

due to the interference with the two magnetic fields.

F = I l B sin where I is the length, and l is the current

Amperes Law: the sum of the products of the components of the magnetic field

(B), parallel to the length of the segment, is directly proportional to the net electric

current passing through the area.

B = o ( I / 2 r)

where o is the permeability of free space = 4 X 10-7 T*m/A. I is the current, and r

is the radius away from path.

Lenz Law: when a current is created in a coil by changing a magnetic field, the

electric current in such a direction that its own magnetic field opposes the change

that it produces.

When applying Right/Left hand rules, the force is opposed and its opposite from the

field applied.

Amplitude: the height of a wave from the equilibrium to its crest or trough

Wavelength: the length of one wave: related to the speed, denoted as (Lambda)

Frequency: the number of times a wave occurs in a second (Hz)

Period: amount of time it takes to complete a wave cycle

Reflection: when a wave bounces off a surface, the angle of reflection is equal to

the angle of incidence.

A crest reflects off a slower medium becomes a trough

Crests do not change if reflecting off a faster medium

Refraction: when light passes through a new medium, its direction, wavelength,

and speed changes. Frequency does not change between mediums.

Wave Front: the leading edge of the wave

Absolute Refractive Index: the index of refraction for light passing from air or a

vacuum into a substance. (n1, n2)

Index of refraction: n = n2 / n1

How many times slower the wave travels in a medium

n1 / n2 = v1 / v2 = 1 / 2 = sin1 / sin2

All periodic waves obey the universal wave equation:

v = f

Partial Reflection: When some of the light is reflected and some passes through and

is refracted

Snells Law: angle of incidence over angle of refraction equals the index of

refraction.

n = sini / sinr

Diffraction: Straight waves that pass through an opening will become a new source

of its own

Waves of longer wavelength has more diffraction than shorter wavelengths

For waves observable: / w >= 1: where w is the width of the opening

Interference of 2D waves

2 waves coming from 2 sources radiating out can create interferences to each other

Waves must be the same frequency and wavelength

They must be in-phase (beginning at the same time)

Lines of constructive Interference are called Maxima Lines

Lines of deconstructive Interference are called Nodal Lines or Minima Lines

Increasing the frequency, lowering the wavelength increases the number of nodal

lines

Path Length Difference equation for 2D wave interferences:

| PnS1 PnS2 | = (n 1/2)

Finding Angle of interference nodal lines:

sinn = (n 1/2) /d

Where n is the number of nodal line and d is the distance between the sources

Equation for waves that span a farther, longer distance

Xn / L = (n 1/2) /d

Where Xn is the perpendicular distance from the right bisector to Point Pn

Where L is the distance from the midpoint between the sources to Point Pn

Light as a Particle/ Light as a Wave

Newtons Particle theory of light explained 4 properties of light:

Rectilinear Propagation: great speed of light allowed light particles to travel at near

straight lines for long distances: similarly, to a bullet.

Reflection: If vector components are used to break apart the velocity of lights, it

can be explained how the angle of incidence = angle or reflection. Vx and Vy are

reversed due to the reactive force of the horizontal surface.

Refraction: Speed of the light, just as if its a ball, will swerve in the direction it

originally was before it regains and aligns again as it moves through faster medium

(or falling down a ramp at an angle)

Dispersion: Different mass for each colour means some colors would have less

momentum and would be diverted more easily, hence, white light spreading out

into colors as we know it.

However, it did not explain diffraction and partial reflection/refraction

Huygens Wave theory of light assumed every point of the wave front was its own

source of tiny wavelets, radiating at the same speed and tangent to the wave.

Huygens explained the following light properties:

Reflection: Waves obey the laws of optics and would reflect accordingly

Refraction: Wavelengths of the waves are changed as they are slowed down

through a different medium and will bend accordingly.

Partial Reflection/Refraction: Combining reflective and refractive properties of

waves, it is possible to explain partial reflection/refraction

Diffraction: Lights showed interference through a double slit experiment also,

proving they travelled in waves.

Rectilinear Propagation: Huygens thought the light rays represented the

direction of the motion of the wave front

When wave interferences needed to be tested, 2 light sources would be out of

phase and hard to sync

Young thought of using 1 source, and instead use 2 slits to separate the source

And as expected, nodal lines (dark fringes) and maxima lines were visible

sinm = m / d

Where m is for the maxima lines (1, 2, 3...) and d is the distance between sources

sinn = (n 1/2) /d

Where n is for nodal lines, and d is the distance between sources

sinn = Xn / L = (n 1/2) /d

All three parts are equal and can be used together, where L is the distance from

midpoint to Point Pn on the nodal line

X / L = / d

Where X is the distance between nodal lines

Colour is dictated by the wavelength of light it produces. Each colour has its own

interval of wavelengths.

Polarization of Light

Light, being a transverse wave, will only travel through filters that are slitted in its

direction.

Light traveling through a polarizer will keep it in one direction

Polaroids have small slits that only allow light to travel in one direction through it

Scattering of light: light changes direction when it hits particles in the air

Photo elasticity: materials that make patterns when they are bent or under stress,

As light traveling through it are polarized as the molecules bend, patterns are seen.

Monochromatic: single colour wavelength

Polarization can be used to reduce glare as light reflected off a surface can become

polarized

Diffraction of light through a single slit

Based on Huygens theory that light is a wavefront with tiny wavelets, traveling in

tangent and at the same speed as the wave, Interference can occur if the wave

front is traveling at an angle through a slit

Pairs of waves can interfere with each other, creating dark and bright fringes,

radiating from the Centre and losing energy as it radiates outwards.

The smaller the slit, the larger the distance between Maxima and Minima, and vice

versa

For minima, dark fringes (!! Different formula from before!!)

sinn = n / w

Where n is the number of nodal lines, w is the width of the slit

For maxima, bright fringes (!! Different from before !!)

sinm = (m + 1/2) / w

Where m is the number of maxima lines and w is the width of the slit

The Separation between adjacent maxima or minima is given as

y = L / w central maxima: 2

where L is the distance of the perpendicular bisector and w is the width of the slit

Resolution: is the ability of an instrument to separate two closely spaced images,

is limited by the diffraction of the light.

Diffraction Grating

Diffraction Grating: device with surface of equally spaced parallel lines resolving

light into spectra; transmission gratings are transparent; reflection gratings are

mirrored.

Diffraction Gratings deliver brighter interference patterns than typical double slots,

with maxima that are narrower and more widely spaced

sinm = m / d

where d is the distance between adjacent gratings, and m is the order of Maxima

Spectroscope: used to analyze light in a spectrum, uses a collimator to send light

to grating

grating splits light into its respective colors.

Light reflects off a thin coat, some refracts into the coat, and reflects off the

medium behind it, and bounces out of the thin coat, causing interferences

Crests reflecting off a faster medium stays crest

Crests reflecting off a slower medium becomes trough

Thickness of the film is dictated by how it alters the wavelength, either by cutting it

short by 1/2, 1/4 or 1 lambda.

t = coating / Amount of Coating disruption

Inertial Frames of Reference is a frame of reference that obeys laws of Inertia and

Newtons laws of motion.

Non-Inertial frames of reference is accelerating and does not obey those laws

Using Newtons laws, there is no way to identify whether the inertial frame of

reference is actually at rest or moving at constant velocity.

Einsteins Laws of Special Relativity states 2 postulates:

All laws of physics are the same in all inertial frames of reference

Light travels at a speed of 3 x 10^8 m/s in all inertial frames of reference

Simultaneity is a relative concept, where it applies the same regardless of frames of

reference.

Relativity of Time, Length, Momentum

Proper Time is the time between two events as seen by someone in the same

position

Time Dilation: slowing down time in a system, where the observer is in motion

relative to the time

Tm = ts = (1 v2/c2)

Time is relative, not absolute where both simultaneous time duration events that

are simultaneous to one observer may not be simultaneous to another.

Time interval measured by one may be different from another.

Proper Length is the length observed by the observer in the rest relative to object.

Lm = Ls (1 v2/c2)

P, the magnitude of momentum in relativity increases as speed increases

P = mv / (1 v2/c2)

Rest mass in inertial frames is the only mass that can be defined

Non zero rest masses cannot travel at the speed of light, evB = mv2 / r (since sin 90

degrees = 1)

Right hand rule for the motor principle: if the right thumb points in the

direction of the current (flow of positive charge), and the fingers point in the

direction of the magnetic field, the force is in the direction in which the right palm

pushes.

When current is on the conductor, within a magnetic field, it has the ability to move

due to the interference with the two magnetic fields.

Amperes Law: the sum of the products of the components of the magnetic field

(B), parallel to the length of the segment, is directly proportional to the net electric

current passing through the area.

B = o (I / 2 r)

where o is the permeability of free space = 4 X 10-7 T*m/A. I is the current, and r

is the radius away from path.

Lenz Law: when a current is created in a coil by changing a magnetic field, the

electric current in such a direction that its own magnetic field opposes the change

that it produces.

When applying Right/Left hand rules, the force is opposed and its opposite from the

field applied.

Amplitude: the height of a wave from the equilibrium to its crest or trough

Wavelength: the length of one wave: related to the speed, denoted as (Lambda)

Frequency: the number of times a wave occurs in a second (Hz)

Period: amount of time it takes to complete a wave cycle

Reflection: when a wave bounces off a surface, the angle of reflection is equal to

the angle of incidence.

A crest reflects off a slower medium becomes a trough

Crests do not change if reflecting off a faster medium

Refraction: when light passes through a new medium, its direction, wavelength,

and speed changes. Frequency does not change between mediums.

Wave Front: the leading edge of the wave

Absolute Refractive Index: the index of refraction for light passing from air or a

vacuum into a substance. (n1, n2)

Index of refraction: n = n2 / n1

How many times slower the wave travels in a medium

n1 / n2 = v1 / v2 = 1 / 2 = sin1 / sin2

All periodic waves obey the universal wave equation:

v = f

Partial Reflection: When some of the light is reflected and some passes through

and is refracted

Snells Law: angle of incidence over angle of refraction equals the index of

refraction.

n = sini / sinr

Diffraction of Water Waves

Diffraction: Straight waves that pass through an opening will become a new source

of its own

Waves of longer wavelength has more diffraction than shorter wavelengths

For waves observable: / w >= 1: where w is the width of the opening

Interference of 2D waves

2 waves coming from 2 sources radiating out can create interferences to each other

Waves must be the same frequency and wavelength

They must be in-phase (beginning at the same time)

Lines of constructive Interference are called Maxima Lines

Lines of deconstructive Interference are called Nodal Lines or Minima Lines

Increasing the frequency, lowering the wavelength increases the number of nodal

lines

Path Length Difference equation for 2D wave interferences:

| PnS1 PnS2 | = (n 1/2)

sinn = (n 1/2) /d

Where n is the number of nodal line and d is the distance between the sources

Equation for waves that span a farther, longer distance

Xn / L = (n 1/2) /d

Where Xn is the perpendicular distance from the right bisector to Point Pn

Where L is the distance from the midpoint between the sources to Point Pn

Light as a Particle/ Light as a Wave

Newtons Particle theory of light explained 4 properties of light:

Rectilinear Propagation: great speed of light allowed light particles to travel at

near straight lines for long distances: similarly, to a bullet.

Reflection: If vector components are used to break apart the velocity of lights, it

can be explained how the angle of incidence = angle or reflection. Vx and Vy are

reversed due to the reactive force of the horizontal surface.

Refraction: Speed of the light, just as if its a ball, will serve in the direction it

originally was before it regains and aligns again as it moves through faster medium

(or falling down a ramp at an angle)

Dispersion: Different mass for each colour means some colors would have less

momentum and would be diverted more easily, hence, white light spreading out

into colors as we know it.

However, it did not explain diffraction and partial reflection/refraction

Huygens Wave theory of light assumed every point of the wave front was its own

source of tiny wavelets, radiating at the same speed and tangent to the wave.

Huygens explained the following light properties:

Reflection: Waves obey the laws of optics and would reflect accordingly

Refraction: Wavelengths of the waves are changed as they are slowed down

through a different medium and will bend accordingly.

Partial Reflection/Refraction: Combining reflective and refractive properties of

waves, it is possible to explain partial reflection/refraction

Diffraction: Lights showed interference through a double slit experiment also,

proving they travelled in waves.

Rectilinear Propagation: Huygens thought the light rays represented the direction of

the motion of the wave front

Youngs Double Slit Experiment

When wave interferences needed to be tested, 2 light sources would be out of

phase and hard to sync

Young thought of using 1 source, and instead use 2 slits to separate the source

And as expected, nodal lines (dark fringes) and maxima lines were visible

sinm = m / d

Where m is for the maxima lines (1, 2, 3...) and d is the distance between sources

sinn = (n 1/2) /d

Where n is for nodal lines, and d is the distance between sources

sinn = Xn / L = (n 1/2) /d

All three parts are equal and can be used together, where L is the distance from

midpoint to Point Pn on the nodal line

X / L = / d

Where X is the distance between nodal lines

Colour is dictated by the wavelength of light it produces. Each colour has its own

interval of wavelengths.

Inertial Frames of Reference is a frame of reference that obeys laws of Inertia and

Newtons laws of motion.

Non-Inertial frames of reference is accelerating and does not obey those laws

Using Newtons laws, there is no way to identify whether the inertial frame of

reference is actually at rest or moving at constant velocity.

Einsteins Laws of Special Relativity states 2 postulates:

All laws of physics are the same in all inertial frames of reference

Light travels at a speed of 3 x 10^8 m/s in all inertial frames of reference

Simultaneity is a relative concept, where it applies the same regardless of frames of

reference.

Proper Time is the time between two events as seen by someone in the same

position

Time Dilation: slowing down time in a system, where the observer is in motion

relative to the time

Tm = ts = (1 v2/c2)

Time is relative, not absolute where both simultaneous time duration events that

are simultaneous to one observer may not be simultaneous to another.

Time interval measured by one may be different from another.

Proper Length is the length observed by the observer in the rest relative to object.

Lm = Ls (1 v2/c2)

P, the magnitude of momentum in relativity increases as speed increases

P = mv / (1 v2/c2)

Rest mass in inertial frames is the only mass that can be defined

Non zero rest masses cannot travel at the speed of light.

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