Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 16

# Unit 1 Kinematics and Dynamics

## Velocity: a change in displacement over time

Slope of secant from a displacement time graph

## Vectors: a unit with magnitude and direction

Resultant: desired displacement of vectors
Head to Tail: when one vector connects to another
Vector Components
Break vectors into their X Y components.
Add individual X Y components, then find resultant

## Field of Reference: the speed of an object in motion is dictated in relation from

where youre viewing it

## Calculating with field of Reference

General Formula: VAX = VAY + VYX
Where Y is common in both Vectors
Y is eliminated and leaves for AX, the final answer
Subtracting Vectors, Example: VAX = VAY VXY
Add the subtracted vector by reversing the subscripts
VAX = VAY + VYX

## Net Force: causes objects to accelerate / decelerate

Inclined Plane: consider the surface parallel to the plane as x, and plane
perpendicular to the plane as y.

## Newtons Laws of Motion

First Law: an object in motion stays in motion unless there is a force that slows it
down
Inertia: a fundamental property of matter that makes things stay at constant speed
Second Law: force can be affected by mass and acceleration
F = m*a
Static Equilibrium: net force is zero and does not move
Dynamic Equilibrium: net force is zero, but its at constant speed
Third Law: for every action, there is a reaction, equal in magnitude but in opposite
direction.t

Circular Motion
Circular Motion: occurs when an object is travelling in a circular path with fixed
Since direction is changing at every moment in a circle, velocity changes, and the
object will accelerate towards the center
ac=v2/r
v = speed of object

## ac = v2/r = 4(pi)2r/T2 = 4(pi)2rf2

f = frequency
T = period
Centripetal force: the force created by circular motion towards the center.
Centripetal force = mass * centripetal acceleration

## Inertial Frames of Reference: when the frame of reference is moving at constant

velocity, or at rest where Newtons Laws are obeyed

## Non-Inertial Frames of Reference: when the frame of reference is accelerating where

Newtons Laws arent obeyed in this case.

Centrifugal Force: another form of fictitious force which is created due to the
existence of some other force
If centripetal force accelerates towards the center in circular motion, the centrifugal
force will act against the object and whatever inside.

## Unit 2 Energy and Work

Work: the energy transferred to an object when a force acting on the object moves
it across a distance.

W = (F cos ) d
If the force is causing an object to undergo a displacement is at an angle to the
displacement, only the component of the force in the direction of the displacement
does work on the object.
Joule: (J) is a unit used to measure energy. 1 Joule = 1 N/m.
Sometimes, zero work is done on an object even if the object experiences an
applied force or in motion.
Kinetic Energy: Ek is the energy of kinetic motion, a scalar quantity measured in
(J)
Ek = 0.5mv2
Work-Energy Theorem: The total work done on an object equals the change in
the objects kinetic energy, provided there is no change in other forms of energy.
-Wtotal = Ekf Eki
-Wtotal = Ek
Gravitational Potential Energy: the energy due to the elevation above earths
surface
Eg = mgh or Eg = mg y

Law of conservational energy: energy can be converted into different forms, but
cannot be created, made fun of, or destroyed.
Thermal Energy: internal energy associated with the motion of atoms and
molecules
Eth = Fk * d
Mechanical energy: the total energy in an isolated system.
Elastic Potential Energy
Hookes Law: the force exerted by a spring is directly proportional to the distance
the spring has moved from equilibrium
Fx = -k * x
k is the force constant the spring creates
If k is , then the equation represents the force exerted by the spring
If k is +, then the equation represents the force exerted to the spring
Ideal Spring: a spring that obeys Hookes Law because it experiences no internal
or external friction
Elastic Potential Energy (Ee): energy stored in an object with a changing volume
ie compressed, stretched, bent, or twisted.
Ee = 1/2 kx2
Simple Harmonic Motion: (SHM) periodic vibratory motion in which the force and
acceleration is proportional to the displacement.
Friction is negligible in SHM; vibration goes on indefinitely.
T = 2 pi (m/k) Period
f = 1/2pi (k/m) Frequency
Energy in simple harmonic motion shows that when energy is released from a
spring, it transforms into kinetic energy.
Et = 1/2 kx2 + 1/2 mv2
k is the force constant
x is the displacement of mass from equilibrium position
v is the instantaneous velocity of the mass
Damped Harmonic Motion: periodic motion which amplitude of vibration and the
energy decreases over time due to friction.
Momentum: the product of the mass of an object moving and is velocity is a vector
quantity. Unit is kg*m/s
p = m*v
Impulse: the change in momentum. Vector quantity in N*s.
I = all forces * time
In a force vs time graph, the impulse is the area under the function.
Conservation of 2D momentum
If the net force acting on a system of interacting objects is zero, then the linear
momentum of the system before the interaction equals the linear momentum of the
system after the interaction.
-p1 = p1
-m1v1 = m2v2
Collisions
Elastic Collisions: a collision in which the total kinetic energy after the collision
equals the total kinetic energy before the collision
Ek = Ek
p = p
Inelastic Collision: a collision in which the total kinetic energy after a collision is
different from the total kinetic energy before the collision. But momentum remains
the same before and after.
p = p
Completely Inelastic Collision: a collision where there is a maximum decrease in
kinetic energy after the collision since the objects stick together and move at the
same velocity.
mAvA + mBvB = (mA + mB) vB
In some 2 D collisions, it would be more efficient if the vectors were broken into
vector components before solving.

## Unit 3 Electric, Gravitational, and Magnetic Fields

Laws of Electric Charges Opposite charges attract each other. Similar charges repel
each other. Charged objects attract some neutral objects.

Charging by Friction Electrons are ripped off another surface and charges another
object
Ability to rip electrons are based on their position on the electrostatic series
Induced Charge Separation distribution of charge that results from a change in the
distribution of elections in an object
Charging by Contact Electrons are passed through conductors once they touch.
They are transferred and charge equalize each object.
Charging by Induction The electrons in one object are pushed by the fields of a
nearby charged object inducing it.
Law of Conservation of change: The total charge (the difference between the
amounts of positive and negative charge) within an isolated system is conserved.

Electric Forces

Coulombs Law: The force between two point charges is inversely proportional to
the square of the distance between the charges and directly proportional to the
product of the charges
FE = kq1q2 / r2
Where k = 9.0 x 109 N*m2/C2
Electric Field: any point is defined as the electric force per unit positive choice and
is a vector quantity. Unit is Coulombs
Electric Field lines always come from positive to negative charges
Positive fields never touch negative fields, they also never cross
= kq1 / r2
Electric Potential: (V) the value, in volts, of potential energy per unit of positive
charge. 1 V = 1 J/C
V = kq1 / r
Electric Potential Energy (EE): the energy stored in a system of two charges a
distance r apart.
EE = kq1q2 / r
Electric Potential Difference: the amount of work required per unit charge to
move a positive charge from one point to another in the presence of another
charge.
V = r
= V / r (for parallel plates)
V = EE / q
Elementary Charge: (e) is the smallest unit of electric charges. e = 1.602 x 10-19
Motion of Charged particles in Electric Fields: Newtons laws combined with
laws of electric charges, we can derive acceleration and include mass to solve
problems.
a = FE / m
Magnetic Force Field: the area around a magnet which magnetic forces are
exerted
Domain Theory: states that magnets are made up of tiny regions (domains) and
how a material can become magnetized: each domain acts like a bar magnet.
Principle of Electromagnetism: moving electric charges produce a magnetic
field.
Right Hand Rule for a straight conductor: if a conductor is grasped in the right
hand, with the thumb pointing in the direction of the current, the curled fingers
point in the direction of the magnetic field lines.
Current flowing through a conductor produces a magnetic field that circles the
conductor based on the direction of the current.
Right hand used for positive charges, left hand for negative charges
Right hand rule for a solenoid: if a solenoid is grasped in the right hand, with the
fingers curled in the direction of the electric current, the thumb points in the
direction of the magnetic field lines in its core.
A solenoid flowing with current creates a magnetic field that points out of one end
of the solenoid

## Relative Magnetic Permeability: the ability for some material to become

magnetized
Force of Magnetic Fields: the force from a magnetic field on a charge moving nearby
in the field
FM = qvB sin
Right hand rule for the direction of magnetic force: Hand flat palm up, thumbs at a
90-degree angle to the fingers, where fingers pointed in the direction of the
magnetic fields, thumb pointed in the direction of the speed of the charge, and palm
points outwards to the direction of the magnetic force.
Forces act in perpendicular to the magnetic field lines
When 2 magnetic plates with poles placed in parallel are there, a charge traveling
through will enter circular motion between the plates due to this force.
FM = Unit 1 Kinematics and Dynamics
Displacement: a vector form of a distance
Velocity: a change in displacement over time
Slope of secant from a displacement time graph
Vectors: a unit with magnitude and direction
Resultant: desired displacement of vectors
Head to Tail: when one vector connects to another
Vector Components
Break vectors into their X Y components.
Add individual X Y components, then find resultant
Gravitational Acceleration: Earth accelerates objects towards center at 9.8 m/s2
Field of Reference: the speed of an object in motion is dictated in relation from
where youre viewing it
Calculating with field of Reference
General Formula: VAX = VAY + VYX
Where Y is common in both Vectors
Y is eliminated and leaves for AX, the final answer
Subtracting Vectors, Example: VAX = VAY VXY
Add the subtracted vector by reversing the subscripts
VAX = VAY + VYX
Net Force: causes objects to accelerate / decelerate
Inclined Plane: consider the surface parallel to the plane as x, and plane
perpendicular to the plane as y.
Newtons Laws of Motion
First Law: an object in motion stays in motion unless there is a force that slows it
down
Inertia: a fundamental property of matter that makes things stay at constant speed
Second Law: force can be affected by mass and acceleration
F = m*a
Static Equilibrium: net force is zero and does not move
Dynamic Equilibrium: net force is zero, but its at constant speed
Third Law: for every action, there is a reaction, equal in magnitude but in opposite
direction.t
Circular Motion
Circular Motion: occurs when an object is travelling in a circular path with fixed
Since direction is changing at every moment in a circle, velocity changes, and the
object will accelerate towards the center
ac=v2/r
v = speed of object

## ac = v2/r = 4(pi)2r/T2 = 4(pi)2rf2

f = frequency
T = period
Centripetal force: the force created by circular motion towards the center.
Centripetal force = mass * centripetal acceleration
Inertial Frames of Reference: when the frame of reference is moving at constant
velocity, or at rest where Newtons Laws are obeyed
Non-Inertial Frames of Reference: when the frame of reference is accelerating
where Newtons Laws arent obeyed in this case.
Centrifugal Force: another form of fictitious force which is created due to the
existence of some other force
If centripetal force accelerates towards the center in circular motion, the centrifugal
force will act against the object and whatever inside.

## Unit 2 Energy and Work

Work: the energy transferred to an object when a force acting on the object moves
it across a distance.

W = (F cos ) d
If the force is causing an object to undergo a displacement is at an angle to the
displacement, only the component of the force in the direction of the displacement
does work on the object.
Joule: (J) is a unit used to measure energy. 1 Joule = 1 N/m.
Sometimes, zero work is done on an object even if the object experiences an
applied force or in motion.
Kinetic Energy: Ek is the energy of kinetic motion, a scalar quantity measured in
(J)
Ek = 0.5mv2
Work-Energy Theorem: The total work done on an object equals the change in
the objects kinetic energy, provided there is no change in other forms of energy.
Wtotal = Ekf Eki
Wtotal = Ek
Gravitational Potential Energy: the energy due to the elevation above earths
surface
Eg = mgh or Eg = mg y
Law of conservational energy: energy can be converted into different forms, but
cannot be created, made fun of, or destroyed.
Thermal Energy: internal energy associated with the motion of atoms and
molecules
Eth = Fk * d
Mechanical energy: the total energy in an isolated system.
Elastic Potential Energy
Hookes Law: the force exerted by a spring is directly proportional to the distance
the spring has moved from equilibrium

Fx = -k * x
k is the force constant the spring creates
If k is , then the equation represents the force exerted by the spring
If k is +, then the equation represents the force exerted to the spring
Ideal Spring: a spring that obeys Hookes Law because it experiences no internal
or external friction
Elastic Potential Energy (Ee): energy stored in an object with a changing volume
ie compressed, stretched, bent, or twisted.

Ee = 1/2 kx2
Simple Harmonic Motion: (SHM) periodic vibratory motion in which the force and
acceleration is proportional to the displacement.
Friction is negligible in SHM; vibration goes on indefinitely.
T = 2 pi (m/k) Period
f = 1/2pi (k/m) Frequency
Energy in simple harmonic motion shows that when energy is released from a
spring, it transforms into kinetic energy.
Et = 1/2 kx2 + 1/2 mv2
k is the force constant
x is the displacement of mass from equilibrium position
v is the instantaneous velocity of the mass
Damped Harmonic Motion: periodic motion which amplitude of vibration and the
energy decreases over time due to friction.
Momentum: the product of the mass of an object moving and is velocity is a vector
quantity. Unit is kg*m/s
p = m*v
Impulse: the change in momentum. Vector quantity in N*s.
I = all forces * time
In a force vs time graph, the impulse is the area under the function.
Conservation of 2D momentum
If the net force acting on a system of interacting objects is zero, then the linear
momentum of the system before the interaction equals the linear momentum of the
system after the interaction.
p1 = p1
m1v1 = m2v2
Collisions
Elastic Collisions: a collision in which the total kinetic energy after the collision
equals the total kinetic energy before the collision
Ek = Ek
p = p
Inelastic Collision: a collision in which the total kinetic energy after a collision is
different from the total kinetic energy before the collision. But momentum remains
the same before and after.
p = p
Completely Inelastic Collision: a collision where there is a maximum decrease in
kinetic energy after the collision since the objects stick together and move at the
same velocity.
mAvA + mBvB = (mA + mB) vB
In some 2 D collisions, it would be more efficient if the vectors were broken into
vector components before solving.

## Unit 3 Electric, Gravitational, and Magnetic Fields

Laws of Electric Charges Opposite charges attract each other. Similar charges repel
each other. Charged objects attract some neutral objects.
Charging by Friction Electrons are ripped off another surface and charges another
object
Ability to rip electrons are based on their position on the electrostatic series
Induced Charge Separation distribution of charge that results from a change in the
distribution of elections in an object
Charging by Contact Electrons are passed through conductors once they touch.
They are transferred and charge equalize each object.
Charging by Induction The electrons in one object are pushed by the fields of a
nearby charged object inducing it.
Law of Conservation of change: The total charge (the difference between the
amounts of positive and negative charge) within an isolated system is conserved.
Electric Forces
Coulombs Law: The force between two point charges is inversely proportional to
the square of the distance between the charges and directly proportional to the
product of the charges
FE = kq1q2 / r2
Where k = 9.0 x 109 N*m2/C2
Electric Field: any point is defined as the electric force per unit positive choice and
is a vector quantity. Unit is Coulombs
Electric Field lines always come from positive to negative charges
Positive fields never touch negative fields, they also never cross
= kq1 / r2
Electric Potential: (V) the value, in volts, of potential energy per unit of positive
charge. 1 V = 1 J/C
V = kq1 / r
Electric Potential Energy (EE): the energy stored in a system of two charges a
distance r apart.
EE = kq1q2 / r
Electric Potential Difference: the amount of work required per unit charge to
move a positive charge from one point to another in the presence of another
charge.
V = r
= V / r (for parallel plates)
V = EE / q
Elementary Charge: (e) is the smallest unit of electric charges. e = 1.602 x 10-19
Motion of Charged particles in Electric Fields: Newtons laws combined with laws of
electric charges, we can derive acceleration and include mass to solve problems.
a = FE / m
Magnetic Force Field: the area around a magnet which magnetic forces are
exerted
Domain Theory: states that magnets are made up of tiny regions (domains) and
how a material can become magnetized: each domain acts like a bar magnet.
Principle of Electromagnetism: moving electric charges produce a magnetic field.
Right Hand Rule for a straight conductor: if a conductor is grasped in the right
hand, with the thumb pointing in the direction of the current, the curled fingers
point in the direction of the magnetic field lines.
Current flowing through a conductor produces a magnetic field that circles the
conductor based on the direction of the current.
Right hand used for positive charges, left hand for negative charges
Right hand rule for a solenoid: if a solenoid is grasped in the right hand, with
the fingers curled in the direction of the electric current, the thumb points in the
direction of the magnetic field lines in its core.
A solenoid flowing with current creates a magnetic field that points out of one end
of the solenoid
Relative Magnetic Permeability: the ability for some material to become
magnetized
Force of Magnetic Fields: the force from a magnetic field on a charge moving
nearby in the field
FM = qvB sin

Right hand rule for the direction of magnetic force: Hand flat palm up, thumbs at a
90-degree angle to the fingers, where fingers pointed in the direction of the
magnetic fields, thumb pointed in the direction of the speed of the charge, and palm
points outwards to the direction of the magnetic force.
Forces act in perpendicular to the magnetic field lines
When 2 magnetic plates with poles placed in parallel are there, a charge traveling
through will enter circular motion between the plates due to this force.
FM = FC, evB = mv2 / r (since sin 90 degrees = 1)
Right hand rule for the motor principle: if the right thumb points in the direction of
the current (flow of positive charge), and the fingers point in the direction of the
magnetic field, the force is in the direction in which the right palm pushes.
When current is on the conductor, within a magnetic field, it has the ability to move
due to the interference with the two magnetic fields.
F = I l B sin where I is the length, and l is the current
Amperes Law: the sum of the products of the components of the magnetic field
(B), parallel to the length of the segment, is directly proportional to the net electric
current passing through the area.
B = o ( I / 2 r)
where o is the permeability of free space = 4 X 10-7 T*m/A. I is the current, and r
is the radius away from path.
Lenz Law: when a current is created in a coil by changing a magnetic field, the
electric current in such a direction that its own magnetic field opposes the change
that it produces.
When applying Right/Left hand rules, the force is opposed and its opposite from the
field applied.

## Basic Wave Knowledge

Amplitude: the height of a wave from the equilibrium to its crest or trough
Wavelength: the length of one wave: related to the speed, denoted as (Lambda)
Frequency: the number of times a wave occurs in a second (Hz)
Period: amount of time it takes to complete a wave cycle
Reflection: when a wave bounces off a surface, the angle of reflection is equal to
the angle of incidence.
A crest reflects off a slower medium becomes a trough
Crests do not change if reflecting off a faster medium
Refraction: when light passes through a new medium, its direction, wavelength,
and speed changes. Frequency does not change between mediums.
Wave Front: the leading edge of the wave
Absolute Refractive Index: the index of refraction for light passing from air or a
vacuum into a substance. (n1, n2)
Index of refraction: n = n2 / n1
How many times slower the wave travels in a medium
n1 / n2 = v1 / v2 = 1 / 2 = sin1 / sin2
All periodic waves obey the universal wave equation:
v = f
Partial Reflection: When some of the light is reflected and some passes through and
is refracted
Snells Law: angle of incidence over angle of refraction equals the index of
refraction.
n = sini / sinr

## Diffraction of Water Waves

Diffraction: Straight waves that pass through an opening will become a new source
of its own
Waves of longer wavelength has more diffraction than shorter wavelengths
For waves observable: / w >= 1: where w is the width of the opening
Interference of 2D waves
2 waves coming from 2 sources radiating out can create interferences to each other
Waves must be the same frequency and wavelength
They must be in-phase (beginning at the same time)
Lines of constructive Interference are called Maxima Lines
Lines of deconstructive Interference are called Nodal Lines or Minima Lines
Increasing the frequency, lowering the wavelength increases the number of nodal
lines
Path Length Difference equation for 2D wave interferences:
| PnS1 PnS2 | = (n 1/2)
Finding Angle of interference nodal lines:
sinn = (n 1/2) /d
Where n is the number of nodal line and d is the distance between the sources
Equation for waves that span a farther, longer distance
Xn / L = (n 1/2) /d
Where Xn is the perpendicular distance from the right bisector to Point Pn
Where L is the distance from the midpoint between the sources to Point Pn
Light as a Particle/ Light as a Wave
Newtons Particle theory of light explained 4 properties of light:
Rectilinear Propagation: great speed of light allowed light particles to travel at near
straight lines for long distances: similarly, to a bullet.
Reflection: If vector components are used to break apart the velocity of lights, it
can be explained how the angle of incidence = angle or reflection. Vx and Vy are
reversed due to the reactive force of the horizontal surface.
Refraction: Speed of the light, just as if its a ball, will swerve in the direction it
originally was before it regains and aligns again as it moves through faster medium
(or falling down a ramp at an angle)
Dispersion: Different mass for each colour means some colors would have less
momentum and would be diverted more easily, hence, white light spreading out
into colors as we know it.
However, it did not explain diffraction and partial reflection/refraction
Huygens Wave theory of light assumed every point of the wave front was its own
source of tiny wavelets, radiating at the same speed and tangent to the wave.
Huygens explained the following light properties:
Reflection: Waves obey the laws of optics and would reflect accordingly
Refraction: Wavelengths of the waves are changed as they are slowed down
through a different medium and will bend accordingly.
Partial Reflection/Refraction: Combining reflective and refractive properties of
waves, it is possible to explain partial reflection/refraction
Diffraction: Lights showed interference through a double slit experiment also,
proving they travelled in waves.
Rectilinear Propagation: Huygens thought the light rays represented the
direction of the motion of the wave front

## Youngs Double Slit Experiment

When wave interferences needed to be tested, 2 light sources would be out of
phase and hard to sync
Young thought of using 1 source, and instead use 2 slits to separate the source
And as expected, nodal lines (dark fringes) and maxima lines were visible
sinm = m / d
Where m is for the maxima lines (1, 2, 3...) and d is the distance between sources
sinn = (n 1/2) /d
Where n is for nodal lines, and d is the distance between sources
sinn = Xn / L = (n 1/2) /d
All three parts are equal and can be used together, where L is the distance from
midpoint to Point Pn on the nodal line
X / L = / d
Where X is the distance between nodal lines
Colour is dictated by the wavelength of light it produces. Each colour has its own
interval of wavelengths.

Polarization of Light
Light, being a transverse wave, will only travel through filters that are slitted in its
direction.
Light traveling through a polarizer will keep it in one direction
Polaroids have small slits that only allow light to travel in one direction through it
Scattering of light: light changes direction when it hits particles in the air
Photo elasticity: materials that make patterns when they are bent or under stress,
As light traveling through it are polarized as the molecules bend, patterns are seen.
Monochromatic: single colour wavelength
Polarization can be used to reduce glare as light reflected off a surface can become
polarized
Diffraction of light through a single slit
Based on Huygens theory that light is a wavefront with tiny wavelets, traveling in
tangent and at the same speed as the wave, Interference can occur if the wave
front is traveling at an angle through a slit
Pairs of waves can interfere with each other, creating dark and bright fringes,
The smaller the slit, the larger the distance between Maxima and Minima, and vice
versa
For minima, dark fringes (!! Different formula from before!!)
sinn = n / w
Where n is the number of nodal lines, w is the width of the slit
For maxima, bright fringes (!! Different from before !!)
sinm = (m + 1/2) / w
Where m is the number of maxima lines and w is the width of the slit
The Separation between adjacent maxima or minima is given as
y = L / w central maxima: 2
where L is the distance of the perpendicular bisector and w is the width of the slit
Resolution: is the ability of an instrument to separate two closely spaced images,
is limited by the diffraction of the light.
Diffraction Grating
Diffraction Grating: device with surface of equally spaced parallel lines resolving
light into spectra; transmission gratings are transparent; reflection gratings are
mirrored.
Diffraction Gratings deliver brighter interference patterns than typical double slots,
with maxima that are narrower and more widely spaced
sinm = m / d
where d is the distance between adjacent gratings, and m is the order of Maxima
Spectroscope: used to analyze light in a spectrum, uses a collimator to send light
to grating
grating splits light into its respective colors.

## Interference through thin films

Light reflects off a thin coat, some refracts into the coat, and reflects off the
medium behind it, and bounces out of the thin coat, causing interferences
Crests reflecting off a faster medium stays crest
Crests reflecting off a slower medium becomes trough
Thickness of the film is dictated by how it alters the wavelength, either by cutting it
short by 1/2, 1/4 or 1 lambda.
t = coating / Amount of Coating disruption

## Frames of Reference and Relativity

Inertial Frames of Reference is a frame of reference that obeys laws of Inertia and
Newtons laws of motion.
Non-Inertial frames of reference is accelerating and does not obey those laws
Using Newtons laws, there is no way to identify whether the inertial frame of
reference is actually at rest or moving at constant velocity.
Einsteins Laws of Special Relativity states 2 postulates:
All laws of physics are the same in all inertial frames of reference
Light travels at a speed of 3 x 10^8 m/s in all inertial frames of reference
Simultaneity is a relative concept, where it applies the same regardless of frames of
reference.
Relativity of Time, Length, Momentum
Proper Time is the time between two events as seen by someone in the same
position
Time Dilation: slowing down time in a system, where the observer is in motion
relative to the time
Tm = ts = (1 v2/c2)
Time is relative, not absolute where both simultaneous time duration events that
are simultaneous to one observer may not be simultaneous to another.
Time interval measured by one may be different from another.
Proper Length is the length observed by the observer in the rest relative to object.
Lm = Ls (1 v2/c2)
P, the magnitude of momentum in relativity increases as speed increases
P = mv / (1 v2/c2)
Rest mass in inertial frames is the only mass that can be defined
Non zero rest masses cannot travel at the speed of light, evB = mv2 / r (since sin 90
degrees = 1)
Right hand rule for the motor principle: if the right thumb points in the
direction of the current (flow of positive charge), and the fingers point in the
direction of the magnetic field, the force is in the direction in which the right palm
pushes.
When current is on the conductor, within a magnetic field, it has the ability to move
due to the interference with the two magnetic fields.

## F = I l B sin where I is the length, and l is the current

Amperes Law: the sum of the products of the components of the magnetic field
(B), parallel to the length of the segment, is directly proportional to the net electric
current passing through the area.
B = o (I / 2 r)
where o is the permeability of free space = 4 X 10-7 T*m/A. I is the current, and r
is the radius away from path.
Lenz Law: when a current is created in a coil by changing a magnetic field, the
electric current in such a direction that its own magnetic field opposes the change
that it produces.
When applying Right/Left hand rules, the force is opposed and its opposite from the
field applied.

## Basic Wave Knowledge

Amplitude: the height of a wave from the equilibrium to its crest or trough
Wavelength: the length of one wave: related to the speed, denoted as (Lambda)
Frequency: the number of times a wave occurs in a second (Hz)
Period: amount of time it takes to complete a wave cycle
Reflection: when a wave bounces off a surface, the angle of reflection is equal to
the angle of incidence.
A crest reflects off a slower medium becomes a trough
Crests do not change if reflecting off a faster medium
Refraction: when light passes through a new medium, its direction, wavelength,
and speed changes. Frequency does not change between mediums.
Wave Front: the leading edge of the wave
Absolute Refractive Index: the index of refraction for light passing from air or a
vacuum into a substance. (n1, n2)
Index of refraction: n = n2 / n1
How many times slower the wave travels in a medium
n1 / n2 = v1 / v2 = 1 / 2 = sin1 / sin2
All periodic waves obey the universal wave equation:
v = f
Partial Reflection: When some of the light is reflected and some passes through
and is refracted
Snells Law: angle of incidence over angle of refraction equals the index of
refraction.
n = sini / sinr
Diffraction of Water Waves
Diffraction: Straight waves that pass through an opening will become a new source
of its own
Waves of longer wavelength has more diffraction than shorter wavelengths
For waves observable: / w >= 1: where w is the width of the opening
Interference of 2D waves
2 waves coming from 2 sources radiating out can create interferences to each other
Waves must be the same frequency and wavelength
They must be in-phase (beginning at the same time)
Lines of constructive Interference are called Maxima Lines
Lines of deconstructive Interference are called Nodal Lines or Minima Lines
Increasing the frequency, lowering the wavelength increases the number of nodal
lines
Path Length Difference equation for 2D wave interferences:
| PnS1 PnS2 | = (n 1/2)

## Finding Angle of interference nodal lines:

sinn = (n 1/2) /d
Where n is the number of nodal line and d is the distance between the sources
Equation for waves that span a farther, longer distance
Xn / L = (n 1/2) /d
Where Xn is the perpendicular distance from the right bisector to Point Pn
Where L is the distance from the midpoint between the sources to Point Pn
Light as a Particle/ Light as a Wave
Newtons Particle theory of light explained 4 properties of light:
Rectilinear Propagation: great speed of light allowed light particles to travel at
near straight lines for long distances: similarly, to a bullet.
Reflection: If vector components are used to break apart the velocity of lights, it
can be explained how the angle of incidence = angle or reflection. Vx and Vy are
reversed due to the reactive force of the horizontal surface.
Refraction: Speed of the light, just as if its a ball, will serve in the direction it
originally was before it regains and aligns again as it moves through faster medium
(or falling down a ramp at an angle)
Dispersion: Different mass for each colour means some colors would have less
momentum and would be diverted more easily, hence, white light spreading out
into colors as we know it.
However, it did not explain diffraction and partial reflection/refraction
Huygens Wave theory of light assumed every point of the wave front was its own
source of tiny wavelets, radiating at the same speed and tangent to the wave.
Huygens explained the following light properties:
Reflection: Waves obey the laws of optics and would reflect accordingly
Refraction: Wavelengths of the waves are changed as they are slowed down
through a different medium and will bend accordingly.
Partial Reflection/Refraction: Combining reflective and refractive properties of
waves, it is possible to explain partial reflection/refraction
Diffraction: Lights showed interference through a double slit experiment also,
proving they travelled in waves.
Rectilinear Propagation: Huygens thought the light rays represented the direction of
the motion of the wave front
Youngs Double Slit Experiment
When wave interferences needed to be tested, 2 light sources would be out of
phase and hard to sync
Young thought of using 1 source, and instead use 2 slits to separate the source
And as expected, nodal lines (dark fringes) and maxima lines were visible
sinm = m / d
Where m is for the maxima lines (1, 2, 3...) and d is the distance between sources
sinn = (n 1/2) /d
Where n is for nodal lines, and d is the distance between sources
sinn = Xn / L = (n 1/2) /d
All three parts are equal and can be used together, where L is the distance from
midpoint to Point Pn on the nodal line
X / L = / d
Where X is the distance between nodal lines
Colour is dictated by the wavelength of light it produces. Each colour has its own
interval of wavelengths.

## Frames of Reference and Relativity

Inertial Frames of Reference is a frame of reference that obeys laws of Inertia and
Newtons laws of motion.
Non-Inertial frames of reference is accelerating and does not obey those laws
Using Newtons laws, there is no way to identify whether the inertial frame of
reference is actually at rest or moving at constant velocity.
Einsteins Laws of Special Relativity states 2 postulates:
All laws of physics are the same in all inertial frames of reference
Light travels at a speed of 3 x 10^8 m/s in all inertial frames of reference
Simultaneity is a relative concept, where it applies the same regardless of frames of
reference.

## Relativity of Time, Length, Momentum

Proper Time is the time between two events as seen by someone in the same
position
Time Dilation: slowing down time in a system, where the observer is in motion
relative to the time
Tm = ts = (1 v2/c2)
Time is relative, not absolute where both simultaneous time duration events that
are simultaneous to one observer may not be simultaneous to another.
Time interval measured by one may be different from another.
Proper Length is the length observed by the observer in the rest relative to object.
Lm = Ls (1 v2/c2)
P, the magnitude of momentum in relativity increases as speed increases
P = mv / (1 v2/c2)
Rest mass in inertial frames is the only mass that can be defined
Non zero rest masses cannot travel at the speed of light.