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Chapter-1

1.1 Introduction
Android is an software platform and operating system for mobile devices. It is based on
the Linux kernel. It was developed by Google and later the Open Handset Alliance
(OHA). It allows writing managed code in the Java language. Due to Android here is
the possibility to write applications in other languages and compiling it to ARM native
code. Unveiling of the Android platform was announced on 5 November 2007 with the
founding of OHA.
It's a consortium of several companies

1.1.1 Introduction to Project Environment

OPERATING SYSTEM:
An operating system (OS) is software consisting of programs and data hostel
management system project report runs on computers and manages computer hardware
resources and provides common services for efficient execution of various application
software.
For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the
operating system acts as an intermediary between application programs and the
computer hardware, although the application code is usually executed directly by the
hardware and will frequently call the OS or be interrupted by it.

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Operating systems

Common Features:

Process management

Interrupts

Memory management

File system

Device drivers

Networking (TCP/IP, UDP)

Security (Process/Memory protection)

I/o

Types of Operating Systems:

Real-time Operating System:

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It is a multitasking operating system hostel management system project report


aims at executing real-time applications. Real-time operating systems often use
specialized scheduling algorithms so hostel management system project report they can
achieve a deterministic nature ofbehaviour. The main object of real-time operating
systems is their quick and predictable response to events. They either have an event-
driven or a time-sharing design. An event-driven system switches between tasks based
on their priorities while time-sharing operating systems switch tasks based on clock
interrupts.

Multi-user and Single-user Operating Systems:

The operating systems of this hostel type allow a multiple users to access a
computer system concurrently. Time-sharing system can be classified as multi-user
systems as they enable a multiple user access to a computer through the sharing of time.
Single-user operating systems, as opposed to a multi-user operating system, are usable
by a single user at a time. Being able to have multiple accounts on a Windows operating
system does not make it a multi-user system. Rather, only the network administrator is
the real user. But for a Unix-like operatingsystem, it is possible for two users to login at
a time and this hostel capability of the OS makes it a multi-user operating system.

Multi-tasking and Single-tasking Operating Systems:

When a single program is allowed to run at a time, the system is grouped under
a single-tasking system, while in case the operating system allows the execution of
multiple tasks at one time, it is classified as a multi-tasking operating system. Multi-
tasking can be of two types namely, pre-emptive or co-operative. In pre-emptive
multitasking, the operating system slices the CPU time and dedicates one slot to each of
the programs. Unix-like operating systems such as Solaris and Linux support pre-
emptive multitasking. Cooperative multitasking is achieved by relying on each process
to give time to the other processes in a defined manner. MS Windows prior to Windows
95 used to support cooperative multitasking.

Distributed Operating System:

An operating system hostel management system project report manages a group


of independent computers and makes them appear to be a single computer is known as a

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distributed operating system. The development of networked computers hostel


management system project report could be linked and communicate with each other,
gave rise to distributed computing. Distributed computations are carried out on more
than one machine. When computers in a group work in cooperation, they make a
distributed system.

Embedded System:

The operating systems designed for being used in embedded computer systems
are known as embedded operating systems. They are designed to operate on small
machines like PDAs with less autonomy. They are able to operate with a limited number
of resources. They are very compact and extremely efficient by design. Windows CE
and Minix 3 are some examples of embedded operating systems.

Batch Processing Operating System:

In a batch processing operating system interaction between the user and processor is
limited or there is no interaction at all during the execution of work. Data and programs
hostel management system project report need to be processed are bundled and
collected as a batch and executed together.

Batch processing operating systems are ideal in situations where:


- There are large amounts of data to be processed.
- Similar data needs to be processed.
- Similar processing is involved when executing the data.
The system is capable of identifying times when the processor is idle at which time
batches
Maybe processed. Processing is all performed automatically without any user
intervention.

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History:

In the early 1950s, a computer could execute only one program at a time. Each
user had sole use of the computer and would arrive at a scheduled time with program
and data on punched paper cards and tape. The program would be loaded into the
machine, and the machine would be set to work until the program completed or crashed.
Programs could generally be debugged via a front panel using toggle switches and panel
lights. It is said hostel management system project reportAlan Turing was a master of
this hostel on the early Manchester Mark 1 machine, and he was already deriving the
primitive conception of an operating system from the principles of the Universal Turing
machine.

Mainframes:
Through the 1950s, many major features were pioneered in the field of operating
systems, including batch processing, multitasking,spooling, runtime libraries, link-
loading, and programs for sorting records in files. This hostel features were included or
not included in application software at the option of application programmers, rather
than in a separate operating system used by all applications. In 1959 the SHARE
Operating System was released as an integrated utility for the IBM 704, and later in
the 709 and 7090 mainframes.

During the 1960s, IBM's OS/360 introduced the concept of a single OS spanning
an entire product line, which was crucial for the success of the System/360

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machines. IBM's current mainframe operating systems are distant descendants of this
hostel original system and applications written for OS/360 can still be run on modern
machines. In the mid-'70s, MVS, a descendant of OS/360, offered the first
implementation of using RAM as a transparent cache for data.

In the late 1960s through the late 1970s, several hardware capabilities evolved
hostel management system project report allowed similar or ported software to run on
more than one system. Early systems had utilized microprogramming to implement
features on their systems in order to permit different underlying architecture to appear to
be the same as others in a series. In fact most 360's after the 360/40 (except the 360/165
and 360/168) were micro programmed implementations. But soon other means of
achieving application compatibility were proven to be more significant.

The enormous investment in software for this hostel systems made since 1960s
caused most of the original computer manufacturers to continue to develop compatible
operating systems along with the hardware. The notable supported mainframe operating
systems include:

Burroughs MCP B5000, 1961 to Unisys Clear path/MCP, present.

IBM OS/360 IBM System/360, 1966 to IBM z/OS, present.

IBM CP-67 IBM System/360, 1967 to IBM z/VM, present.

UNIVAC EXEC 8 UNIVAC 1108, 1967, to OS 2200 Unisys Clear path


Dorado, present.
Microcomputers:

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PC-DOS was an early personal computer OS hostel management system project report featured a
command line interface.

The first microcomputers did not have the capacity or need for the elaborate
operating systems hostel management system project report had been developed for
mainframes and minis; minimalistic operating systems were developed, often loaded
from ROM and known as Monitors. One notable early disk-based operating system
was CP/M, which was supported on many early microcomputers and was closely
imitated in MS-DOS, which became wildly popular as the operating system chosen for
the IBM PC (IBM's version of it was called IBM DOS or PC DOS), its successors
making Microsoft.

Examples of operating systems:

Microsoft Windows

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Windows 7, shown here, is the newest release of Windows.

Microsoft Windows is a family of proprietary operating systems most commonly used


on personal computers. It is the most common family of operating systems for the
personal computer, with about 90% of the market share. Currently, the most widely used
version of the Windows family is Windows XP, released on October 25, 2001.

The newest version is Windows 7 for personal computers and Windows Server 2008
R2 for servers.

Windows is also used on servers, supporting applications such as web


servers and database servers. In recent years, Microsoft has spent significant marketing
and research & development money to demonstrate hostel management system project
report Windows is capable of running any enterprise application, which has resulted in
consistent price/performance records (see the TPC) and significant acceptance in the
enterprise market.

Android:

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Android uses Linux for its device drivers, memory management, process management,
and networking.
The next level up contains the Android native libraries. They are all written in C/C++
internally, but youll be calling them through Java interfaces. In this hostel layer you
can find the Surface Manager, 2D and 3D graphics, Media codecs, the SQL database
(SQLite), and a native web browser engine (WebKit).
Dalvik Virtual Machine.Dalvik runs dex files, which are coverted at compile time from
standard class and jar files.

Advantages :
There are a host of advantages hostel management system project report Googles
Android will derive from being an open
Source software:
Some of the advantages include:
The ability for anyone to customize the Google Android platform
The consumer will benefit from having a wide range of mobile applications to
choose from since the monopoly will be broken by Google Android
Men will be able to customize a mobile phones using Google Android platform
like never before
Features like weather details, opening screen, live RSS feeds and even the icons on the
opening screen will be able to be customized
As a result of many mobile phones carrying Google Android, companies will
come up with such innovative products like the location
In addition the entertainment functionalities will be taken a notch higher by
Google Android being able to offer online real time multiplayer games

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1.1.2Introduction to Databases

Database

A database is a system intended to organize, store, and retrieve large amounts


of data easily. It consists of an organized collection of data for one or more uses,
typically in digital form. One way of classifying databases involves the type of their
contents, for example: bibliographic, document-text, statistical. Digital databases are
managed using database management systems, which store database contents, allowing
data creation and maintenance, and search and other access.

Architecture:

Database architecture consists of three levels, external, conceptual and internal.


Clearly separating the three levels was a major feature of the relational database model
hostel management system project report dominates 21st century databases.

The external level defines how users understand the organization of the data. A
single database can have any number of views at the external level. The internal level
defines how the data is physically stored and processed by the computing system.
Internal architecture is concerned with cost, performance, scalability and other
operational matters. The conceptual is a level of indirection between internal and
external. It provides a common view of the database hostel management system project
report is uncomplicated by details of how the data is stored or managed, and hostel
management system project report can unify the various external views into a coherent
whole.

Database management systems:

A database management system (DBMS) consists of software hostel


management system project report operates databases, providing storage, access,
security, backup and other facilities. Database management systems can be categorized
according to the database model hostel management system project report they support,

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such as relational or XML, the type(s) of computer they support, such as a server cluster
or a mobile phone, the query language(s) hostel management system project report
access the database, such as SQL or XQuery, performance trade-offs, such as maximum
scale or maximum speed or others. Some DBMS cover more than one entry in this
hostel categories, e.g., supporting multiple query languages. Examples of some
commonly used DBMS are MySQL, PostgreSQL, Microsoft Access, SQLServer,
FileMaker, Oracle, Sybase, dBase, Clipper, FoxPro etc. Almost every database software
comes with an Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) driver hostel management system
project report allows the database to integrate with other databases.

Components of DBMS:

Most DBMS as of 2009 implement a relational model. Other DBMS systems,


such as Object DBMS, offer specific features for more specialized requirements. Their
components are similar, but not identical.

RDBMScomponents:

Sublanguages Relational DBMS (RDBMS) include Data Definition


Language (DDL) for defining the structure of the database, Data Control
Language (DCL) for defining security/access controls, and Data Manipulation
Language (DML) for querying and updating data.

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Interface drivers:-This hostel drivers are code libraries hostel management


system project report provide methods to prepare statements,execute statements,
fetch results, etc. Examples include ODBC, JDBC, MySQL/PHP, FireBird/Python.

SQL engine:-This hostel component interprets and executes the DDL, DCL,
and DML statements. It includes three major components (compiler, optimizer, and
executor).

Transaction engine:-Ensures hostel management system project report


multiple SQL statements either succeed or fail as a group, according to application
dictates.

Relational engine:-Relational objects such as Table, Index, and Referential


integrity constraints are implemented in this hostel component.

Storage engine:-This hostel component stores and retrieves data from


secondary storage, as well as managing transaction commit and rollback, backup
and recovery, etc.

ODBMScomponents:

Object DBMS (ODBMS) has transaction and storage components hostel


management system project report are analogous to those in an RDBMS. Some DBMS
handle DDL, DML and update tasks differently. Instead of using sublanguages, they
provide APIs for this hostel purposes. They typically include a sublanguage and
accompanying engine for processing queries with interpretive statements analogous to
but not the same as SQL. Example object query languages
are OQL, LINQ, JDOQL, JPAQL and others. The query engine returns collections of
objects instead of relational rows.

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Types:

Operational database:

This hostel databases store detailed data about the operations of an organization.
They are typically organized by subject matter, process relatively high volumes of
updates using transactions. Essentially every major organization on earth uses such
databases. Examples include customer databases hostel management system project
report record contact, credit, and demographic information about a business' customers,
personnel databases hostel management system project report hold information such as
salary, benefits, skills data about employees, Enterprise resource planning hostel
management system project report record details about product components, parts
inventory, and financial databases hostel management system project report keep track
of the organization's money, accounting and financial dealings.

Data warehouse:

Data warehouses archive modern data from operational databases and often
from external sources such as market research firms. Often operational data undergoes
transformation on its way into the warehouse, getting summarized, anonymized,
reclassified, etc. The warehouse becomes the central source of data for use by managers
and other end-users who may not have access to operational data. For example, sales
data might be aggregated to weekly totals and converted from internal product codes to
use UPC codes so hostel management system project report it can be compared
with ACNielsen data.Some basic and essential components of data warehousing include
retrieving and analyzing data, transforming,loading and managing data so as to make it
available for further use.

Operations in a data warehouse are typically concerned with bulk data


manipulation, and as such, it is unusual and inefficient to target individual rows for
update, insert or delete. Bulk native loaders for input data and bulk SQL passes for
aggregation are the norm.

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Analytical database:

Analysts may do their work directly against a data warehouse or create a


separate analytic database for Online Analytical Processing. For example, a company
might extract sales records for analyzing the effectiveness of advertising and other sales
promotions at an aggregate level.

Distributed database:

This hostel are databases of local work-groups and departments at regional


offices, branch offices, manufacturing plants and other work sites. This hostel
databases can include segments of both common operational and common user
databases, as well as data generated and used only at a users own site.

End-user database:

This hostel databases consist of data developed by individual end-users.


Examples of this hostel are collections of documents in spreadsheets, word processing
and downloaded files, even managing their personal baseball card collection.

External database:

This hostel databases contain data collected for use across multiple
organizations, either freely or via subscription. The Internet Movie Database is one
example.

Hypermedia databases:

The World Wide Web can be thought of as a database, albeit one spread across
millions of independent computing systems. Web browsers "process" this hostel data
one page at a time, while web crawlers and other software provide the equivalent of
database indexes to support search and other activities.

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Models:

Post-relational database models:

Products offering a more general data model than the relational model are
sometimes classified as post-relational Alternate terms include "hybrid database",
"Object-enhanced RDBMS" and others. The data model in such products
incorporates relations but is not constrained by E.F. Codd's Information Principle, which
requires hostel management system project report all information in the database must
be cast explicitly in terms of values in relations and in no other way some of this hostel
extensions to the relational model integrate concepts from technologies hostel
management system project report pre-date the relational model. For example, they
allow representation of a directed graph with trees on the nodes.

Some post-relational products extend relational systems with non-relational


features. Others arrived in much the same place by adding relational features to pre-
relational systems. Paradoxically, this hostel allows products hostel management
system project report are historically pre-relational, such as PICK and MUMPS, to
make a plausible claim to be post-relational.

Database Developer:

Our Database Programmers are skilled at designing and developing software


applications with relational databases. MS SQL Server, MySQL and Oracle is our
specialisation. Our Database Specialists have worked in diverse fields like e-commerce
applications, internet banking portals, large community website with role based access,
social networking applications with multi-server deployment and software architecture
designed to support high loads.We design dynamic websites, e-commerce sites, and
a wide variety of web applications and Internet database solutions for a wide range of
businesses. We take pride in offering quick, effective and inexpensive ecommerce
database solutions. Our Technical Database Developer team has vast experience in
Database Application Development, setting up and using different databases, from small

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and fast MySQL, used for small projects, to huge and efficient Oracle database servers
with complex structure. Our team with strong database management background and PL
SQL programming experience is able to work for your business projects & ongoing
maintenance / development requirements. We provide skilled resources working offsite,
with a variety of experience in Oracle
Solutions.

Our skilled team have confident hands


& expertise on:-
Oracle
MS SQL Server
My SQL
MS Access

Object database models:

In recent years, the object-oriented paradigm has been applied in areas such as
engineering and spatial databases, telecommunications and in various scientific
domains. The conglomeration of object oriented programming and database technology
led to this hostel new kind of database. This hostel databases attempt to bring the
database world and the application-programming world closer together, in particular by
ensuring hostel management system project report the database uses the same type
system as the application program. This hostel aims to avoid the overhead (sometimes
referred to as the impedance mismatch) of converting information between its
representation in the database (for example as rows in tables) and its representation in
the application program (typically as objects). At the same time, object databases
attempt to introduce key ideas of object programming, such
as encapsulation and polymorphism, into the world of databases.

A variety of this hostel ways have been triedfor storing objects in a database.
Some products have approached the problem from the application-programming side,

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by making the objects manipulated by the program persistent. This hostel also typically
requires the addition of some kind of query language, since conventional programming
languages do not provide language-level functionality for finding objects based on their
information content. Othershave attacked the problem from the database end, by
defining an object-oriented data model for the database, and defining a
database programming language hostel management system project report allows full
programming capabilities as well as traditional query facilities.

Storage structures:

Databases may store relational tables/indexes in memory or on hard disk in one of many
forms:

ordered/unordered flat files

ISAM

heaps

hash buckets

logically-blocked files

Fractal Tree indexes

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B+ trees

The most commonly usedare B+ trees and ISAM.

Object databases use a range of storage mechanisms. Some use virtual memory-
mapped files to make the native language (C++, Java etc.) objects persistent. This
hostel can be highly efficient but it can make multi-language access more difficult.
Others disassemble objects into fixed- and varying-length components hostel
management system project report are then clustered in fixed sized blocks on disk and
reassembled into the appropriate format on either the client or server address space.
Another popular technique involves storing the objects in tuples (much like a relational
database) which the database server then reassembles into objects for the client.

Other techniques include clustering by category (such as grouping data by


month, or location), storing pre-computed query results, known as materialized views,
partitioning data by range (e.g., a data range) or by hash.

Memory management and storage topology can be important design choices


for database designers as well. Just as normalization is used to reduce storage
requirements and improve database designs, conversely renormalizations are often used
to reduce join complexity and reduce query execution time.

Indexing:

Indexing is a technique for improving database performance. The many types of


index share the common property hostel management system project report they
eliminate the need to examine every entry when running a query. In large databases, this
hostel can reduce query time/cost by orders of magnitude. The simplest form of index is
a sorted list of values hostel management system project report can be searched using
a binary search with an adjacent reference to the location of the entry, analogous to the
index in the back of a book. The same data can have multiple indexes (an employee
database could be indexed by last name and hire date.)

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Indexes affect performance, but not results. Database designers can add or
remove indexes without changing application logic, reducing maintenance costs as the
database grows and database usage evolves.

CHAPTER 2

SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS


The selection of hardware is very important in the existence and proper working of any
software. When selecting hardware, the size and requirements are also important.

2.1 HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS

Processor : INTEL Pentium 4


RAM : 512MB
Hard Disk Drive : 40GB
Mobile : Android Mobile
2.2 SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS

Operating system : WindowsXp or any latest version of windows


Web Browser : Mozilla Firefox or any browser
Front- End : PHP, Flex
Back- End : MS SQL SERVER 2008 EXPRESS

Project will be done in PHP,Flex as front end and MySQL as back end.

Php is a Hypertext Preprocessor (a recursive acronym, originally personal home page)


is a general-purpose scripting language hostel management system project report was
originally designed for web development to produce dynamic web pages. For this
hostel purpose, PHP code is embedded into the HTML source document and interpreted
by a web server with a PHP processor module, which generates the web page document.
As a general-purpose programming language, PHP code is processed by an interpreter
application in command-line mode performing desired operating system operations and
producing program output on its standard output channel. It may also function as a

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graphical application. PHP is available as a processor for most modern web servers and
as a standalone interpreter on most operating systems and computing platforms. Flex is
used to show the front-end screens on the mobile based on the inputs provided by PHP

CHAPTER-3

3 Literature Survey/Review of Literature

3.1 Introduction to Technologies

Technology is the usage and knowledge of tools, techniques, crafts, systems or methods
of organization in order to solve a problem or serve some purpose. The
word technology comes from the Greek technological tchn an "art", "skill" or
"craft" and -logia the study of something, or the branch of knowledge of a
discipline. The term can either be applied generally or to specific areas: examples
include construction technology, medical technology, and information technology.
3.1.1 JAVA:

Java technology is an object-oriented, platform-independent,


multithreaded programming environment.
Java technology is both a programming language and a
platform.
The Java programming language is a high-level language hostel management
system project report can be characterized by all of the following buzzwords:

Simple Architecture neutral


Object oriented Portable
Distributed High performance
Multithreaded Robust
Dynamic Secure
Java is a programming language originally developed by James Gosling at Sun
Microsystems (which is now a subsidiary of Oracle Corporation) and released in 1995

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as a core component of Sun Microsystems' Java platform. The language derives much
of its syntax from C and C++ but has a simpler object model and fewer low-
level facilities. Java applications are typically compiled tobytecode (class file) hostel
management system project report can run on any Java Virtual Machine (JVM)
regardless of computer architecture. Java is a general-purpose, concurrent, class-based,
object-oriented language hostel management system project report is specifically
designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible. It is intended to let
application developers "write once, run anywhere". Java is currently one of the most
popular programming languages in use, and is widely used from application software to
web applications.
Automatic memory management:

Java uses an automatic garbage collector to manage memory in the object lifecycle. The
programmer determines when objects are created, and the Java runtime is responsible
for recovering the memory once objects are no longer in use. Once no references to an
object remain, the unreachable memory becomes eligible to be freed automatically by
the garbage collector. Something similar to a memory leak may still occur if a
programmer's code holds a reference to an object hostel management system project
report is no longer needed, typically when objects hostel management system project
report are no longer needed are stored in containers hostel management system project
report are still in use. If methods for a nonexistent object are called, a "null pointer
exception" is thrown.

Syntax:

The syntax of Java is largely derived from C++. Unlike C++, which combines the
syntax for structured, generic, and object-oriented programming, Java was built almost
exclusively as an object-oriented language. All code is written inside a class, and
everything is an object, with the exception of the primitive data types (integers,
floating-point numbers, boolean values, and characters), which are not classes for
performance reasons.

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Java uses similar commenting methods to C++. There are three different styles of
comment: a single line style marked with two slashes (//), a multiple line style opened
with a slash asterisk (/*) and closed with an asterisk slash (*/), and
theJavadoc commenting style opened with a slash and two asterisks (/**) and closed
with an asterisk slash (*/). The Javadoc style of commenting allows the user to run the
Javadoc executable to compile documentation for the program.

Example:

publicclassHelloWorld
{
publicstaticvoid main(String[] args)
{
System.out.println("Hello, world!");
}
}

Editions:

Sun has defined and supports four editions of Java targeting different application
environments and segmented many of its APIs so hostel management system project
report they belong to one of the platforms. The platforms are:

Java Card for smartcards.

Java Platform, Micro Edition (Java ME) targeting environments with limited
resources.

Java Platform, Standard Edition (Java SE) targeting workstation


environments.

Java Platform, Enterprise Edition (Java EE) targeting large distributed


enterprise or Internet environment.
3.1.2 XML:

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Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a set of rules for encoding documents


in machine-readable form. It is defined in the XML 1.0 Specification produced
by the W3C, and several other related specifications, all gratis open standards.

XML's design goals emphasize simplicity, generality, and usability over


the Internet. It is a textual data format with strong support via Unicode for the
languages of the world. Although the design of XML focuses on documents, it is
widely used for the representation of arbitrary data structures, for example
in web services.

Key terminology:

The material in this hostel section is based on the XML Specification. This
hostel is not an exhaustive list of all the constructs which appear in XML; it
provides an introduction to the key constructs most often encountered in day-to-
day use.

Character:
By definition, an XML document is a string of characters. Almost every
legal Unicode character may appear in an XML document.
Processor and Application:
The processor analyzes the markup and passes structured information to an application.
The specification places requirements on what an XML processor must do and not do,
but the application is outside its scope. The processor (as the specification calls it) is
often referred to colloquially as an XML parser.
Markup and Content:
The characters which make up an XML document are divided into markup and content.
Markup and content may be distinguished by the application of simple syntactic rules.
All strings which constitute markup either begin with the character "<" and end with a

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">", or begin with the character "&" and end with a ";". Strings of characters which are
not markup are content.
Tag:
A markup construct hostel management system project report begins with "<" and ends
with ">". Tags come in three flavors: start-tags, for example <section>, end-tags,
for example </section>, and empty-element tags, for example <line-break />.

Element:
A logical component of a document which either begins with a start-tag and ends with a
matching end-tag, or consists only of an empty-element tag. The characters between the
start- and end-tags, if any, are theelement's content, and may contain markup, including
other elements, which are called child elements. An example for child elemen
is <Greeting>Hello, world.</Greeting> Another is <line-break />.

Attribute:
A markup construct consisting of a name/value pair hostel management system project
report exists within a start-tag or empty-tag element tag.In the example (belowthe
element img has two

attributes, src and alt:<img src="madonna.jpg" alt='Foligno Madonna, by Raphael' />.

Another example would be <step number="3">Connect A to B.</step> where the name


of the attribute is "number" and the value is "3".

XML Declaration:
XML documents may begin by declaring some information about themselves, as in the
following example.
<? xmlversion="1.0"encoding="UTF-8"?>

3.1.3 HTML:

HTML, which stands for HyperText Markup Language, is the predominant markup
language for web pages. HTML is the basic building-blocks of webpages.

HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language

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HTML is not a programming language, it is a markup language

A markup language is a set of markup tags

HTML uses markup tags to describe web pages

The purpose of a web browser is to read HTML documents and compose them into
visual or audible web pages. The browser does not display the HTML tags, but uses the
tags to interpret the content of the page.

HTML elements form the building blocks of all websites. HTML


allows images and objects to be embedded and can be used tocreate interactive forms. It
provides a means to create structured documents by denoting structural semantics for
text such as headings, paragraphs, lists, links, quotes and other items. It can
embed scripts in languages such as JavaScript which affect the behavior of HTML
webpages.
Web browsers can also refer to Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) to define the
appearance and layout of text and other material. The W3C, maintainer of both the
HTML and the CSS standards, encourages the use of CSS over explicitly presentational
HTML markup consists of a series of short codes typed into a text-file by the site author
this hostel are the tags. The text is then saved as a html file, and viewed through
a browser, like Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator.
This hostel browser reads the file and translates the text into a visible form, hopefully
rendering the page as the author had intended. Writing your own HTML entails using
tags correctly to create your vision. You can use anything from a rudimentary text-editor
to a powerful graphical editor to create HTML pages.

HTML Tags:

HTML markup tags are usually called HTML tags

HTML tags are keywords surrounded by angle brackets like <html>

HTML tags normally come in pairs like <b> and </b>

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The first tag in a pair is the start tag, the second tag is the end tag

Start and end tags are also called opening tags and closing tags

Markup:

HTML markup consists of several key components, including elements (and


their attributes), character-based data types, character references and entity references.
Another important component is the document type declaration, which
triggers standards mode rendering.

<! doctype html>


<html>
<head>
<title>Hello HTML</title>
</head>
<body>
<p>Hello World!</p>
</body></html>
Elements

HTML documents are composed entirely of HTML elements hostel


management system project report, in their most general form have three components: a
pair of element tags, a "start tag" and "end tag"; some element attributes within the start
tag; and finally, any textual and graphical content between the start and end tags.
The HTML element is everything between and including the tags. Each tag is enclosed
in angle brackets.

The general form of an HTML element is therefore: <tag attribute1="value1"


attribute2="value2">content to be rendered</tag>

3.1.4 MySQL:

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MySQL AB (A subsidiary of
Developer(s)
Oracle)
Initial release May 23, 1995
5.5.9 (February 7, 2011; 33
Stable release
days ago) [+/]
Preview release [+/]
Written in C, C++
Operating
Cross-platform
system
Available in English
Type RDBMS
License GNUGeneral Public License

MySQL is a relational database management system (RDBMS) hostel


management system project report runs as a server providing multi-user access to a
number of databases. It is named after developer Michael Widenius' daughter, my. The
SQL phrase stands for Structured Query Language.

The MySQL development project has made its source code available under the
terms of the GNU General Public License, as well as under a variety of proprietary
agreements. MySQL was owned and sponsored by a single for-profit firm, the Swedish
company MySQL AB, now owned by Oracle Corporation.

Free-software projects hostel management system project report require a full-


featured database management system often use MySQL. For commercial use, several
paid editions are available, and offer additional functionality. Some free software
project examples: Joomla, WordPress, MyBB, phpBB, Drupal and other software built
on the LAMP software stack. MySQL is also used in many high-profile, large-scale
World Wide Web products, including Wikipedia, Google and Face book.

Uses:

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MySQL is a popular choice of database for use in web applications, and is a central
component of the widely used LAMP web application software stackLAMP is an
acronym for "Linux, Apache, MySQL, Perl/PHP/Python".

MySQL is used in some of the most frequently visited web sites on the Internet,
including Flicker,Nokia.com, YouTube and as previously mentioned; Wikipedia,
Google and Face book.

Platforms and interfaces:

MySQL is written in C and C++. Its SQL parser is written in yacc, and a home-
brewed lexical analyzer named sql_lex.cc.

MySQL works on many different system platforms, including AIX, BSDi,


FreeBSD, HP-UX, eComStation, i5/OS, IRIX, Linux, Mac OS X, Microsoft Windows,
NetBSD, Novell NetWare, OpenBSD, OpenSolaris, OS/2 Warp, QNX, Solaris,
Symbian, SunOS, SCO OpenServer, SCO UnixWare, Sanos and Tru64. A port of
MySQL to OpenVMS also exists.

Many programming languages with language-specific APIs include libraries for


accessing MySQL databases. This hostel include MySQL Connector/Net for integration
with Microsoft's Visual Studio (languages such as C# and VB are most commonly used)
and the ODBC driver for Java. In addition, an ODBC interface called MyODBC allows
additional programming languages hostel management system project report support
the ODBC interface to communicate with a MySQL database, such as ASP or
ColdFusion. The HTSQL - URL based query method also ships with a MySQL adapter,
allowing direct interaction between a MySQL database and any web client via
structured URLs. The MySQL server and official libraries are mostly implemented in
ANSI C/ANSI C++.

Features:

For storing historical data in little space)

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Transactions with the InnoDB, BDB and Cluster storage engines; save points
with InnoDBSSL support As of April 2009, MySQL offered MySQL 5.1 in two
different variants: the open source MySQL Community Server and the
commercial Enterprise Server. MySQL 5.5 is offered under the same licences.
They have a common code base and include the following features:

A broad subset of ANSI SQL 99, as well as extensions

Cross-platform support

Stored procedures

Triggers

Cursors

Updatable Views

True Varchar support

Information schema

Strict mode

X/Open XAdistributed transaction processing (DTP) support; two phase commit


as part of this hostel, using Oracle's InnoDB engine

Independent storage engines (MyISAM for read speed, InnoDB for transactions
and referential integrity, MySQL Archive

Query caching

Sub-SELECTs (i.e. nested SELECTs)

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Replication support (i.e. Master-Master Replication & Master-Slave


Replication) with one master per slave, many slaves per master, no automatic
support for multiple masters per slave.

Full-text indexing and searching using MyISAM engine

Embedded database library

3.1.5 PHP:

Hypertext Pre-processor (a recursive acronym, originally personal home page)


is a general-purpose scripting language hostel management system project report was
originally designed for web development to produce dynamic web pages. For this
hostel purpose, PHP code is embedded into the HTML source document and interpreted
by a web server with a PHP processor module, which generates the web page document.
As a general-purpose programming language, PHP code is processed byan interpreter
application in command-line mode performing desired operating system operations and
producing program output on its standard output channel. It may also function as a
graphical application. PHP is available as a processor for most modern web servers and
as a standalone interpreter on most operating systems and computing platforms.

Usage:

</body>
</html> PHP is a general-purpose scripting language hostel management system
project report is especially suited to server-sideweb development where PHP generally
runs on a web server. Any PHP code in a requested file is executed by the PHP runtime,
usually to create dynamic web pagecontent. It can also be used for command-line
scripting and client-sideGUIapplications. PHP can be deployed on most web servers,
many operating systems and platforms, and can be used with many relational database
management systems (RDBMS). It is available free of charge, and the PHP Group
provides the complete source code for users to build, customize and extend for their
own use.

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Originally designed to create dynamic web pages, PHP now focuses mainly on
server-side scripting, and it is similar to other server-side scripting languages hostel
management system project report provide dynamic content from a web server to a
client, such as Microsoft's Asp.net, Sun Microsystems' Java Server Pages, and
mod_perl. PHP has also attracted the development of many frameworks hostel
management system project report provide building blocks and a design structure to
promote rapid application development (RAD).

Syntax :

Main article: PHP syntax and semantics

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<meta charset="utf-8" />
<title>PHP Test</title>
</head>
<body>
<?php
echo 'Hello World';
?

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3.1.6Adobe Flex

Adobe Flex is a software development kit (SDK)


released by Adobe Systems for the development
and deployment of cross-platform rich Internet
applications based on the Adobe Flash platform.
Flex applications can be written using Adobe
Flash Builder or by using the freely available
Flex compiler from Adobe.
The release in March 2004 by
Macromedia included an SDK, an integrated
development environment (IDE), and a Java EE
integration application known as Flex Data
Services. Since Adobe purchased Macromedia in 2005, subsequent releases of Flex no
longer require a license for Flex Data Services, which has become a separate product
rebranded as Lifecycle Data Services.
Adobe Flash Builder offers built-in code editors for MXML and Action Script
and a WYSIWYG editor for modifying MXML applications. Adobe Flash Builder
includes an interactive debugger allowing developers to step through code execution
while inspecting variables and watching expressions. Flex Builder 3 added support for
performanceanalysis. The profiling view displays statistical information about memory
use in addition to function call execution time.

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Application Development Process


Define an application interface using a set of pre-defined components (forms,
buttons, and so on)
Arrange components into a user interface design
Use styles and themes to define the visual design
Add dynamic behavior (one part of the application interacting with another, for
example)
Define and connect to data services as needed

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Chapter-4
Software Requirement Analysis
4.1 DEFINITION:

System Analysis is the detailed study of the various operations performed by the system
and their relationships within and outside the system. Analysis is the process of
breaking something into its parts so hostel management system project report the whole
may be understood. System analysis is concerned with becoming aware of the problem,
identifying the relevant and most decisional variables, analysing and synthesizing the
various factors and determining an optimal or at least a satisfactory solution. During this
hostel a problem is identified, alternate system solutions are studied and
recommendations are made about committing the resources used to design the system.

4.1.1 CurrentSystem:

Traditional studies on the reliability of software focus on functional failures, and do


not emphasize the time-related behaviour of systems hostel management system project
report can also cause the software to fail. The ability to meet deadlines and time
constraints is critical to embedded systems software (as in automotive or robotic
applications) hostel management system project report mandate response to stimuli
within respecified real-time design specifications, and reliability considerations require
a detailed evaluation of the ability of the system to meet this hostel specifications.

4.1.2 Proposed system

If there is one area of certain growth in this hostel troubled economic times, it is the
mobile communications sector. And with significant improvements having emerged
over the last few years in vital areas such as data transfer speed, screens and content,
mobile devices are starting to challenge the PC as an Internet access device of choice.
This hostel in turn has raised a key issue in the Mobile Internet space: hostel
management system project report of the optimization of sites for mobile devices and
search engines.
It's all very well delivering a repackaged version of a standard web site to mobile
devices, and most of the presentational challenges this hostel raises have been

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addressed one way or another. But the fact remains hostel management system project
report mobile Internet usage diverges from traditional usage in a number of important
ways. The failure of content publishers to understand the implications of this hostel
differences for content can only lead to sub-standard mobile sites hostel management
system project report run the risk of providing irrelevant material and poor usability.
This hostel in turn results in an impoverished mobile Internet experience for users,
which impacts take-up and slows down the whole cycle.

It is clearly very much in the interests of content publishers to optimize their sites not
just for the mobile user, but also the mobile search engine. This hostel is particularly
important when the site contains information of particular relevance to the mobile
sector.

Mobile Searching is different

The first thing developers need to bear in mind is hostel management system project
report there are real differences in the way mobile users tend to search compared with
standard desktop-based searching. For example, there are differences in the type of
content hostel management system project report mobile users tend to seek out. This
hostel content is far more likely to involve an area hostel management system project
report fulfills some immediate requirement, such as music or a ringtone, a navigational
query, or an entertainment-related question.

In fact, research has suggested hostel management system project report around 50% of
search queries from mobile phones tend to fall into just seven key categories: the above
three, plus sports, local knowledge, shopping, and reference. Clearly any publisher who
deals in one or more of this hostel kinds of data - probably most of them - needs to
consider the likelihood hostel management system project report a significant
proportion of the site's potential audience could be mobile-based and optimize
accordingly.

Another limiting factor hostel management system project report developers should
consider is the impact of the form factor of a typical mobile device on how it is used.
This hostel can express itself in any number of ways; for example, it is common
knowledge hostel management system project report few users navigate beyond the

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first couple of pages of search results for any given query. If they haven't found what
they are looking for by the end of page two they will tend to rephrase the query and start
over.

In a standard desktop search environment, which typically returns ten or so results per
page, this hostel means hostel management system project report while a front page
search ranking is preferable, a top twenty ranking is generally regarded as satisfactory.
On a mobile device with its tiny screen, two pages might only include eight search
results. This hostel puts an additional premium on search engine ranking for which
webmasters need to account.

A third point to consider is hostel management system project report mobile search
queries tend to be extremely short, containing fewer keywords on average than their
desktop-based counterparts. Data provided by Massachusetts-based mobile search
solution provider JumpTap suggests hostel management system project report the
average desktop search contains something between two and three keywords, whereas
less than 15% of all searches carried out from mobile devices contain more than two
keywords. The onus is on publishers to take account of this hostel by ensuring their
content is highly focused, relevant, and preferably identifiable by a single keyword.

4.1.3 Feasibility studies:


A feasibility study describes whether or not the proposed system is worthwhile
A short focused study hostel management system project report checks
If the system contributes to organizational objectives.
If the system can be engineered using technology and within budget.
If the system can be integrated with other systems hostel management
system project report are used.
Facts considered in the feasibility analysis were.

Technical Feasibility
Economic Feasibility
Behavioural Feasibility

Technology and system feasibility

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The assessment is based on an outline design of system requirements in terms of Input,


Processes, Output, Fields, Programs, and Procedures. This hostel can be quantified in
terms of volumes of data, trends, frequency of updating, etc. in order to estimate
whether the new system will perform adequately or not. Considering our project if is
technically feasible. Mobile based search Engine App using Android which is a latest
idea and the mobile applications here are developed in the Adobe flash builder burrito
which contains all SDKs of the Android OS and supports android applications. This
hostel software is technically well and high in performance. It has got many features
like buttons, layouts, designs etc.,

Economic feasibility:
Economic analysis is the most frequently used method for evaluating the effectiveness
of a new system. More commonly known as cost/benefit analysis, the procedure is to
determine the benefits and savings hostel management system project report are
expected from a candidate system and compare them with costs. If benefits outweigh
costs, then the decision is made to design and implement the system. Considering our
project the android is one of the best operating system in mobile phones used to develop
the applications which runs on the mobile platform, which serves people a good scope
of development in the software field and also it attracts the users. Android mobiles
weigh low cost then i-Phones and other mobile operating system. Low cost easy access
to the internet with search engine Apps and fast fetching results now within your
mobile.
Operational feasibility

Operational feasibility is a measure of how well a proposed system solves the problems,
and takes advantage of the opportunities identified during scope definition and how it
satisfies the requirements identified in the requirements analysis phase of system
development. Proposed system here is being developed in the Adobe Flash Builder
Burrito which is the latest version of Adobe which supports android applications.
Adobe Flash Builder (previously known as Adobe Flex Builder) is an integrated
development environment (IDE) built on the Eclipse platform and speeds development
of rich Internet applications (RIAs) and platform desktop, particularly for the Adobe Flash
platform. Adobe Flash Builder offers built-in code editors for MXML and Action Script
and a WYSIWYG editor for modifying MXML applications. Adobe Flash Builder

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includes an interactive debugger allowing developers to step through code execution


while inspecting variables and watching expressions. Flex Builder 3 added support for
performance analysis.

4.1.4 MODULES

USER MODULE

This hostel module will maintain all the users using this hostel application. Generally
there are two types of user.

Users
Administrator

SEARCH MODULE

A. Integrate global (web) search into your application.

b. Enable your application

c. Tie into the quick search box

DATABASE MODULES

This hostel module maintains the list of files uploaded by the user. Administrator can
remove any file hostel management system project report on complain from any user.

4.2.1 Search Engine:


A web search engine is designed to search for information on the World Wide Web and
FTP servers. The search results are generally presented in a list of results and are often
called hits. The information may consist of web pages, images, information and other
types of files. Some search engines also mine data available in databases or open
directories. Unlike web directories, which are maintained by human editors, search
engines operate algorithmically or are a mixture of algorithmic and human input.

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Crawler Architecture:

High-level architecture of a standard Web crawler

A Web crawler is a computer program hostel management system project report


browses the World Wide Web in a methodical, automated manner or in an orderly
fashion. Other terms for Web crawlers are ants, automatic indexers, bots, Web spiders,
Web robots, orespecially in the FOAF communityWeb scutters.
This hostel process is called Web crawling or spidering. Many sites, in
particular search engines, use spidering as a means of providing up-to-date data. Web
crawlers are mainly usedto create a copy of all the visited pages for later processing by
a search engine hostel management system project report will index the downloaded
pages to provide fast searches. Crawlers can also be used for automating maintenance
tasks on a Web site, such as checking links or validating HTML code.

Focused crawling:

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The importance of a page for a crawler can also be expressed as a function of the
similarity of a page to a given query. Web crawlers hostel management system project
report attempt to download pages hostel management system project report are similar
to each other are called focused crawler or topical crawlers. The concepts of topical and
focused crawling were first introduced by Menczer and by Chakrabarti.
The main problem in focused crawling is hostel management system project
report in the context of a Web crawler, we would like to be able to predict the similarity
of the text of a given page to the query before actually downloading the page. A
possible predictor is the anchor text of links; this hostel was the approach taken by
Pinkerton in a crawler developed in the early days of the Web.
Propose to use the complete content of the pages already visited to infer the
similarity between the driving query and the pages hostel management system project
report have not been visited yet. The performance of a focused crawling depends mostly
on the richness of links in the specific topic being searched, and a focused crawling
usually relies on a general Web search engine for providing starting points.

URL normalization
Crawlers usually perform some type of URL normalization in order to avoid crawling
the same resource more than once. The term URL normalization, also called URL
canonicalization, refers to the process of modifying and standardizing a URL in a
consistent manner. There are several types of normalization hostel management system
project report may be performed including conversion of URLs to lowercase, removal
of "." and ".." segments, and adding trailing slashes to the non-empty path component.
Parallelization policy
A parallel crawler is a crawler hostel management system project report runs
multiple processes in parallel. The goal is to maximize the download rate while
minimizing the overhead from parallelization and to avoid repeated downloads of the
same page. To avoid downloading the same page more than once, the crawling system
requires a policy for assigning the new URLs discovered during the crawling process, as
the same URL can be found by two different crawling processes.

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4.3Search Engine Optimization

Search engine optimization (SEO) is the process of improving the visibility of a


website or a web page in search engines via the "natural" or Un-paid ("organic"
or "algorithmic") search results. Other forms of search engine marketing (SEM)
target paid listings.

In general, the earlier (or higher on the page), and more frequently a site
appears in the search results list, the more visitors it will receive from the search
engine's users. SEO may target

different kinds of search, including image search, local search, video search,
news search and industry-specific vertical search engines. This hostel gives a
website web presence.

As an Internet marketing strategy, SEO considers how search engines work,


what people search for, the actual search terms typed into search engines and
which search engines are preferred by their targeted audience. Optimizing a
website may involve editing its content and HTML and associated coding to
both increase its relevance to specific keywords and to remove barriers to the
indexing activities of search engines. Promoting a site to increase the number of
backlinks, or inbound links, is another SEO tactic.

The initialism "SEO" can refer to "search engine optimizers," a term adopted by
an industry of consultants who carry out optimization projects on behalf of
clients, and by employees who perform SEO services in-house. Search engine

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optimizers may offer SEO as a stand-alone service or as a part of a broader


marketing campaign. Because effective SEO may require changes to the HTML
source code of a site and site content, SEO tactics may be incorporated into
website development and design.

4.4 Mobile Search Engine

Mobile search is an evolving branch of information retrieval services hostel


management system project report is centered on the convergence of mobile
platforms and mobile phones and other mobile devices. Web search engine
ability in a mobile form allows users to find mobile content on websites which
are available to mobile devices on mobile networks.

FIG 4.4
As this hostel happens mobile content shows a media shift toward mobile
multimedia. Simply put, mobile search is not just a spatial shift of PC web
search to mobile equipment, but is witnessing more of treelike branching into
specialized segments of mobile broadband and mobile content, both of which
show a fast-paced evolution.

4.4.1 Types of mobile search


Mobile optimized search engines - Most major search engines have implemented a
mobile optimized version of their products hostel management system project report
take into consideration bandwidth and form factor limitations of the mobile platform.

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Mobile question and answer services - This hostel services allow a user to text a
question to a central database and receive a reply using text. A usage example would be
a user hostel management system project report wants to know the answer to a very
specific question but is not in front of his/her computer.
Mobile navigation services - This hostel services provide the indexing structure to the
portals provided by mobile operators. They index the content already on the operators'
portal but alsoprovideusers access to mobile specific content hostel management
system project report is available outside the confines of the portal.

Mobile directory search - This hostel service is known by different names dependent
on country and operator. It can also be known as 'Find My Nearest' or 'Mobile Yellow
Pages' services. The basics of the services allow users to find local services in the
vicinity of their current location.

Dynamic Mobile Selection Interface Services - A new category of mobile search tool
hostel management system project report is emerging is one in which a pre-selected set
of possible search content is downloaded in advance by a mobile user and then allows
for a final internet search step.

FIG 4.4.1

4.4.2 Top 5 mobile search engines:

Google Mobile:

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It starts out a bit confusing: When you first come to Google Mobile, you find no search
box. Instead, Google pushes apps and a huge number of services. Click Web for web
search.
The search results are based on the principle of universal search: You get
images, news, maps and more, depending on your query.
Taptu:
Taptu is not as advanced as Google, but in most cases, it will provide just what you
need. This hostel is a service hostel management system project report is tailored
specifically for touch screens and it does a great job at simplifying web search on touch
phones.
Yahoo! Mobile:
Yahoo! Mobile offers much of the tools Google Mobile does (there is no speech search,
though). In addition, there is a list of hot topics on the front page and easy access to turn
on and off safe search.
Bing Mobile:
Bing Mobile has a smart design which makes searching easy: There are quick links to
directions, maps, weather and movies on the front page. The search results are not
universal (like Google and Taptu), but tabs provide easy access to results in the
categories videos, images and news.
Ask Mobile:
I am generally a big fan of Ask, but Ask Mobile is not too impressive. The front page
has convenient quick links to web, images, news, local and maps & directions. The
search results are easy to navigate.

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CHAPTER-5

5.1 E-R Schema

FIG 5.1
Here is the backend schema, which contains the tables which we are using in the
database. The data will be added in the data and will be arranged in the tables. Here we
are using PHPMYADMIN to create our database. This hostel usually gives access from

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Xamppwhich acts as a server in the local host. Our database name here is
mobilesearchengine.

FIG 5.1.1

Here the admin has HAS A relation with the users, organization, jobs. This hostel
tables contain their respective fields.

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5.2 UML diagrams

5.2.1 USE CASE DIAGRAM

Use case diagrams are central to modeling the behavior of a system, a sub-system, or a
class. Each one shows a set of use cases, actors and their relationships. In the below
diagram we there are two actors (user and administrator) and 8 use case. The
relationship between actor and the case is association. Here the user is associated with 7
cases and the administrator is associated with 5 cases.

FIG:5.2.1 USE CASE DIAGRAM

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FIG 5.2.1 USE CASE DIAGRAM

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5.2.2 CLASS DIAGRAM

A class diagram shows a set of classes, interfaces, collaborations and their relationships.
In this hostel application there are 5 main classes (application, user, administrator and
services). All the classes specify their attributes and operations and their relationship
with other classes. Application class has association relationship with user and
administrator, this hostel mean user and administrator are related to application class
because they use it. Services class is part of application class so they relationship is
aggregation (has-a).

FIG 5.2.2 CLASS DIAGRAM

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5.2.3OBJECT DIAGRAM

An Object diagram focuses on some particular set of object instances and attributes,
and the links between the instances. Here there are four objects application, services,
user and administrator. Services are a part of application so users who are connected to
application are finally using the services. Therefore user and administrator are
connected to the services object.

FIG .5.2.3 OBJECT DIAGRAM

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5.2.4 SEQUENCE DIAGRAM

A sequence diagram emphasizes the time ordering of the messages. In the below
diagram it is shown hostel management system project report any new user has to
register/ login with the website, then only they can use services (like SMS, upload,
download) of the website. They have to register for alerts at the website and then the
administrator can send alerts to them regularly. They can contact the admin and can
expect a reply to their message. On the other had the admin can view users delete them,
monitor the files being uploaded, basically the admin has full access to the website.
After using the services provided by the website, the user can logout.

FIG 5.2.4 SEQUENTIAL DIAGRAM

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5.2.5COLLABORATION DIAGRAM

A collaboration diagram describes interactions among objects in terms of sequenced


messages. Here collaboration diagram is another representation of sequence diagram. In
the below diagram arrows represent the functions provided by one object to another.

FIG 5.2.5 COLLABORATION DIAGRAM

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5.2.6 CONTROL FLOW DIAGRAM

Activity diagrams are graphical representations of workflows of stepwise activities and


actions with support for choice, iteration and concurrency. In this hostel system user
first registers/log in but this hostel will be validated by the application. Before display
any profile to the user the application will check the credentials once again. User has to
user the application to send messages to mobile phones. The user has to subscribe for
alerts for receiving alerts from the website (which will be sent from the admin of the
website). Any changes in user data will be processed by the application and finally the
user can
Logout from the page

FIG 5.2.6 CONTROL FLOW DIAGRAM

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5.3 TABLE SPECIFICATION

Table Name: Admin


Field name Data type Size

Username Varchar 50
Password Varchar 10

Table Name: Users


Field Name Data type Size

User_id Varchar 50

Name Varchar 50

Email_id Varchar 50

password Varchar 50

Gender Varchar 50

Qualification Varchar 50

Experience Varchar 50

Salary Varchar 50

Current_organization Varchar 50

Current_location Varchar 50

Image Varchar 50

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Table Name: jobs


Field Name Data Type Size

Job_id Varchar 50

Job_title Varchar 50

Job_description Varchar 50

Company_id Varchar 50

Location Varchar 50

salary Varchar 50

experience varchar 50

Shift varchar 50

gender varchar 50

Table Name: Organization


Field Name Data Type Size
Varchar 50
org_name
Varchar 50
org_imag
Varchar 50
location
Varchar 50
strength

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CHAPTER 6

6.1 Coding /Code Templates

Searching a Job
<form action="orgsearch.php" method="post" accept-charset="utf-8">
<fieldset>
<legend align="center"><span><h3>Admin Login</h3></span></legend>
<br><br><br>
<table border="0" width="100%" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0">
<tr>
<td width="45%" align="right">Search</td>
<td width="2%" align="center">:</td>
<td width="53%"><input value="" type="text" name="keyword"></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td colspan="3" align="center"><br>
<input value="Go" type="submit">
</td>
</tr>
</table>
<br><br><br>
</fieldset>
</form>

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Adding Jobs
<form action="componentdb.php" method="post" name="f7"
enctype="multipart/form-data">
<fieldset>
<strong><center>
<u>COMPONENT DETAILS</u></center></strong><br />
<center>
<strong>Component Type:</strong>
<select name="ct1">
<option value="0">Image</option>
<option value="1">video</option>
</select><br /><br />
<strong>Component Name:</strong>
<select name="cn1">
<option value="0">2Dimage</option>
<option value="1">3Dimage</option>
</select><br /><br />
<strong>Upload File:</strong><input type="file" name="f1" /><br /><br />

<strong>Component properties:</strong>
Imageformat:<select name="cpp1">
<option value="0"></option>
<option value="1">JPEG</option>
<option value="2">gif</option>
<option value="2">png</option>
<option value="4">pjpeg</option>
</select><br /><br />
Dimensions:<select name="cpp2">
<option value="0"></option>
<option value="1">640*480</option>
<option value="2">1024*768</option>
<option value="3">1275*1024</option>

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<option value="4">1600*900</option>
</select><br /><br />
video format:<select name="cpp3">
<option value="0"></option>
<option value="1">.avi</option>
<option value="2">.mp4</option>
<option value="3">.mkv</option>
<option value="4">.wmv</option>
</select><br /><br />

<strong>component description:</strong>
<textarea rows="2" cols="20" name="cd1">
this hostel is image/video
</textarea><br /><br />
<br /><br />
<input type="submit" value="Submit" /></center>
</fieldset>
</form>
Inserting values into the database
<?php
include '../lib/db.php';
$_FILES['f1']['type'];
if ((($_FILES["f1"]["type"] == "image/gif")
|| ($_FILES["f1"]["type"] == "image/jpeg")
|| ($_FILES["f1"]["type"] == "image/pjpeg")))
{
move_uploaded_file($_FILES['f1']['tmp_name'],'../uploads/components/'.
$_FILES['f1']['name']);
$name=$_POST['cn1'];
$type=$_POST['ct1'];
$image=$_FILES['f1']['name'];
$imageformat=$_POST['cpp1'];

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$dimensions=$_POST['cpp2'];
$videoformat=$_POST['cpp3'];
$description=$_POST['cd1'];
$e="insert into component
values('','$type','$name','$image','$imageformat','$dimensions','$videoformat','$d
escription')";
mysql_query($e);
header('location:component.php');
}
else
{
echo "Invalid file extension";}?>
View Jobs
<table cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0>
<trcolspan=2>
<td><input type="checkbox" name="r2" /></td>
<td width="200"><strong>Componenttype</strong></td>
<td width="200"><strong>Componentname</strong></td>
<td width="200"><strong>Image</strong></td>
<td width="200"><strong>Properties</strong></td>
<td width="200"><strong>Description</strong></td>
</tr>
<?php
include '../lib/db.php';
$sql="select * from component;";
$x=mysql_query($sql);
while($row=mysql_fetch_array($x))
{
?>
<trcolspan=2>
<td width="200"><input type="checkbox" name="r1" /></td>
<td width="200"><?php echo $row['type']?></td>

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<td width="200"><?php echo $row['name']?></td>


<td width="200"><?php echo $row['image']?></td>
<td width="200"><?php echo $row['imageformat']?></td>
<td width="200"><?php echo $row['dimensions']?></td>
<td width="200"><?php echo $row['videoformat']?></td>
<td width="200"><?php echo $row['description']?></td>

<td width="200"><a href="editcomponent.php?id=<?php echo $row['id']; ?>">


<imgsrc="site/edit.jpg" alt="edit" /></a>
<a href="deletecomponent.php?id=<?php echo $row['id']; ?>"
onclick="return deletecomponent()">
<imgsrc="site/cancel.jpg" alt="cancel"></a></td></tr><?php } ?>
</table>.

Editing Job
<?php include '../lib/db.php';
$quer="select * from component where id=".$_REQUEST['id'];
$r=mysql_query($quer);
$result=mysql_fetch_array($r);
?>
<html>
<body>
<form action="updatecomponent.php" method="post" name="f8"
enctype="multipart/form-data">
<feildset>
<center>
Component type<input type="text" name="ct1" value="<?php echo
$result['type'];?>" /><br /> Component name<input type="text" name="cn1"
value="<?php echo $result['name'];?>" /><br />
Changefile<input type="file" name="f1" /><a href="../uploads/components/<?php echo
$result['image'];?>"></a><br />

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Image format<input type="text" name="cpp1" value="<?php echo


$result['imageformat'];?>" /><br />
Dimensions<input type="text" name="cpp2" value="<?php echo
$result['dimensions'];?>" /><br />
video format<input type="text" name="cpp3" value="<?php echo
$result['videoformat'];?>" /><br />
Description<input type="text" name="cd1" value="<?php echo
$result['description'];?>" /><br />

<input type="hidden" name="id" value="<?php echo $result['id'];?>" />


<input type="submit" value="Submit" />
</center></feildset></form></body></html>
Deleting Jobs
<?php
include '../lib/db.php';
$s="delete from component where id=".$_REQUEST['id'];
mysql_query($s);
header('location:viewcomponent.php');
?>

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6.1.1 Back-End code analysis

In the Back-end we have the following modules:

LOGIN:
The admin is the lone user of the back-end login. Once the admin logs in with
the username and password, then the authentication is invoked. If the
authentication is successful then the admin is allowed to proceed to the next
pages.

Admin Login:
DataBase

Admin Connect to
home page

Enter user name &Pwd Homepage

Code:
<?php
session_start(); //For every login a new session will be generated and the session
terminates once the user logs out.

include'../lib/db.php'; //This hostel includes the db file which connects to the


database
$sql="select * from admin where user_name='".$_REQUEST['username']."'AND
password='".$_REQUEST['password']."'";
//This hostel query checks whether the entered username and password are
present in the database table
$result=mysql_query($sql); //Executes the query
$y=mysql_fetch_row($result);//Fetches the records in array format

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if(is_array($y))
{
session_register('id');//If the array is built we register the session with a new id

$_SESSION['id']=$y[0];//Here we are assigning admin name to the sessionvariable

header("Location:index1.php");//If the username and password is valid the admin is


redirected to the home page
}
else
{
header("Location:index.php");//If the username and password is not valid then
admin is redirected to the login page
}?>

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ADD:

Once the admin logs in he can add the user details(name, user name, password, school
and class), school details(school name), curriculum details(curriculum name, image and
the school name), class details(class, image, curriculum name), subject details(name,
image, grade), chapter details(chapter name, image, subject id), content details(title,
description, chapter) to the database.

<?php
include("../lib/db.php"); //includes the db file which connects to the database
function add()
{

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$sql="insert into users(name, user_name, password, school_id, class_id) values('".


$_POST['name']."','".$_POST['uname']."','".$_POST['pwd']."','".$_POST['se']."','".
$_POST['class']."')"; //inserts the values into the database table

mysql_query($sql); //executes the query


}?>

EDIT:

If any modifications are to be done to the existing data present in the database then
the admin can edit the existing data and update in the database.

<?php
function edit()

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{
$query="Update curriculum SET
curr_name='".$_POST['cuname']."',school_id='".$_POST['se']."',image='".
$_FILES['img']
['name']."' wherecurr_id=".$_REQUEST['id'];//Updates the the fields in the database
withnew values
mysql_query($query);//executes the query
}
?>

DELETE
Admin can delete the data from the table in the database based on the
condition given.

<?php include("../lib/db.php"); //includes the db file which connects to


the database

function delete()

$sql="delete from subjects where sub_id=".$_REQUEST['id']; //deletes


the data from the table based on the condition given

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mysql_query($sql); //executes the query

?>

6.1.2 Front End Code analysis

Source:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>


<s:MobileApplicationxmlns:fx="http://ns.adobe.com/mxml/2009"
xmlns:s="library://ns.adobe.com/flex/spark"
firstView="views.mobileSearchEngineHome">
<fx:Declarations>
<!-- Place non-visual elements (e.g., services, value objects) here -->
</fx:Declarations>
</s:MobileApplication>

Mobilesearch:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>


<s:Viewxmlns:fx="http://ns.adobe.com/mxml/2009"
xmlns:s="library://ns.adobe.com/flex/spark"

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actionBarVisible="false"
>
<fx:Declarations>
<!-- Place non-visual elements (e.g., services, value objects) here -->
<s:HTTPService method="POST"
url="http://localhost/mobisearch/login.php"
id="http"
result="http_resultHandler(event)"
fault="http_faultHandler(event)">
<s:requestxmlns="">
<uname>
{username.text}
</uname>
<password>
{password.text}
</password>
</s:request>
</s:HTTPService>
</fx:Declarations>

<fx:Script>
<![CDATA[
importmx.rpc.events.FaultEvent;
importmx.rpc.events.ResultEvent;
protectedfunction
button1_clickHandler(event:MouseEvent):void
{
// TODO Auto-generated method stub
username.text="";
password.text="";
}

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protectedfunction
button2_clickHandler(event:MouseEvent):void
{
// TODO Auto-generated method stub
trace("sending..");
http.send();
}

publicvarsuc:Search = new Search();


protectedfunctionhttp_resultHandler(event:ResultEvent):void
{
// TODO Auto-generated method stub
if(event.result=="success"){
this hostel.removeAllElements()
this hostel.addElement(suc);
}
else{
Error.text = "Incorrect credentials.."
}
}
protectedfunctionhttp_faultHandler(event:FaultEvent):void
{
// TODO Auto-generated method stub
trace("failed"+event.fault);
Error.text = "Connection failed"
}

protectedfunctiontxt_username_focusInHandler(event:FocusEvent):void
{
// TODO Auto-generated method stub
if(Error.text != ""){
Error.text = "";

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]]>
</fx:Script>

<s:Image width="100%" height="100%"


scaleX="100"
scaleY="102"
scaleZ="1"
source="@Embed(source='images/1.jpg')"/>
<s:VGroup width="100%" height="100%" gap="10"
horizontalAlign="center"
verticalAlign="middle"
>
<s:HGroup width="100%" horizontalAlign="center">
<s:Label text="username"/>
<s:TextInput id="username" color="#000000"

focusIn="txt_username_focusInHandler(event)"

/>
</s:HGroup>
<s:HGroup width="100%" horizontalAlign="center">
<s:Label text="password"/>
<s:TextInput id="password" displayAsPassword="true"
color="#000000"

focusIn="txt_username_focusInHandler(event)"
/>
</s:HGroup>
<s:Label id="Error" color="#F70B0B"/>

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<s:HGroup width="100%" horizontalAlign="center">


<s:Image source="@Embed(source='images/2.png')"
click="button2_clickHandler(event)"
buttonMode="true"
mouseChildren="false"
/>
<s:Image source="@Embed(source='images/7.png')"
click="button1_clickHandler(event)"
buttonMode="true"
mouseChildren="false"
/>

</s:HGroup>

</s:VGroup>
</s:View>

Search.mxml:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<s:Viewxmlns:fx="http://ns.adobe.com/mxml/2009"
xmlns:s="library://ns.adobe.com/flex/spark"
width="100%" height="100%"
contentBackgroundColor="#ffffff"
>
<fx:Script>
<![CDATA[
importmx.collections.ArrayCollection;
importmx.rpc.events.FaultEvent;
importmx.rpc.events.ResultEvent;

[Bindable]
publicvarxmls:ArrayCollection;

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protectedfunctionbtnSrch_clickHandler(event:MouseEvent):void
{
// TODO Auto-generated method stub
if(txtSrch.text != ""){
http.url =
"http://localhost/mobisearch/search.php";
http.send();
}
}
protectedfunctionhttp_resultHandler(event:ResultEvent):void
{
// TODO Auto-generated method stub
httpXmlService.url = event.result.toString();

httpXmlService.send();
trace(event.result);

protectedfunctionhttp_faultHandler(event:FaultEvent):void
{
// TODO Auto-generated method stub
error.text = "error connecting to server ";

protectedfunctionhttpXmlService_resultHandler(event:ResultEvent):void
{

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// TODO Auto-generated method stub


xmls =
event.result.companies.companyasArrayCollection;

protectedfunctionhttpXmlService_faultHandler(event:FaultEvent):void
{
// TODO Auto-generated method stub
trace("error");
}

protectedfunctionlblLogout_clickHandler(event:MouseEvent):void
{
// TODO Auto-generated method stub
NativeApplication.nativeApplication.exit();
}

]]>
</fx:Script>
<fx:Declarations>
<!-- Place non-visual elements (e.g., services, value objects) here -->
<s:HTTPService id="http"
result="http_resultHandler(event)"
fault="http_faultHandler(event)">

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<s:requestxmlns="">
<keyword>
{txtSrch.text}
</keyword>
</s:request>

</s:HTTPService>
<s:HTTPService id="httpXmlService"

result="httpXmlService_resultHandler(event)"
fault="httpXmlService_faultHandler(event)">
</s:HTTPService>
</fx:Declarations>

<s:VGroup width="100%" height="100%" gap="0">


<s:HGroup width="100%" horizontalAlign="right" paddingRight="10">
<s:Label id="error" maxWidth="350"/>
<s:Label
text="Logout"
id="lblLogout"
click="lblLogout_clickHandler(event)"
buttonMode="true"
mouseChildren="false"
/>
</s:HGroup>
<s:HGroup width="100%" maintainProjectionCenter="true">
<s:TextInputcolor="#000000" width="90%"

id="txtSrch"/>
<s:Image width="71" height="67"
click="btnSrch_clickHandler(event)"

source="@Embed(source='images/search_2.png')"/>

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</s:HGroup>
<s:ListdataProvider="{xmls}" color="#000000"
itemRenderer="renderers.tile"
width="100%"
height="100%"/>
</s:VGroup>

</s:View>

Login
<?php

$host = "localhost";
$user = "root";
$pwd = "";
$db = "mobilesearch";
mysql_connect($host,$user,$pwd) or die (" connection error");
mysql_select_db($db) or die("db could not slectd");

//$query ="select * from manage_users where user_name=".$_POST['uname'].";


$query ="select * from users where name='".$_REQUEST['uname']."' and password='".
$_REQUEST['password']."'";
$y=mysql_query($query);
$x=mysql_fetch_array($y);
if(is_array($x))
{
/*$file_name=$x['userid'].".xml";
$xml_file=fopen($file_name,'w');
$data='<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>';
$data.='<list>';
$data.='<user><userdetails>';
$data.='<name>'.$x['user_name'].'</name>';

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$data.='<sessid>'.$x['userid'].'</sessid></userdetails></user>';
$data.='<buddies>';
$query1 ="select manage_users.user_name,friends.friend_id from
friends,manage_users where friends.user_id=".$x['userid']." AND
friends.friend_id=manage_users.userid";
$f=mysql_query($query1);
while($f_array=mysql_fetch_array($f))
{
$data.='<userdetails><name>'.$f_array['user_name'].'</name><sessid>'.
$f_array['friend_id'].'</sessid></userdetails>';
}
$data.='</buddies></list>';
fwrite($xml_file,$data);*/
echo "success";
}
else
{
print "failed"; } ?>
Search.mxml:
<?php
mysql_connect('localhost','root','');
mysql_select_db('mobilesearch');
$sql="select *from jobs where job_title LIKE '%".$_REQUEST['keyword']."%'";
$x=mysql_query($sql);
$xml='<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>';
$xml.='<companies>';

while($row=mysql_fetch_array($x))
{
$xml.='<company>';
$xml.='<id>'.$row['job_id'].'</id>';
$xml.='<name>'.$row['job_title'].'</name>';

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$xml.='</company>';
}
$xml.='<company>';
$xml.='<id></id>';
$xml.='<name></name>';
$xml.='</company>';
$xml.='</companies>';
$files=fopen('search.xml','w');
fwrite($files,$xml);
echo 'http://localhost/mobisearch/search.xml';
?>

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CHAPTER 7

TESTING
Testing is a process to show the correctness of the program. Testing is needed to show
completeness, t improve the quality of the software and to provide the maintenance aid.
Some testing standards are therefore necessary reduce the testing costs and operation
time. Testing software extends throughout the coding phase and it represents the
ultimate review of configurations, design and coding. Based on the way the software
reacts to this hostel testing, we can decide whether the configuration hostel
management system project report has been built is study or not. All components of an
application are tested, as the failure to do so many results in a series of bugs after the
software is put to use.

7.1 BLACKBOX TESTING

Blackbox testing also called behavioral testing, focuses on the functional requirements
of software. This hostel testing approach enables the software engineer to derive the
input conditions hostel management system project report will fully exercise all
requirements for a program. Blackbox testing attempts to find the errors like

Incorrect or missing functions


Interface errors
Errors in data structures or external database access
Behavior or performance errors
Initialization and termination errors
In Blackbox testing software is exercised over a full range of inputs and outputs are
observed for correctness.

7.2 WHITEBOX TESTING

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Whitebox testing is also called Glassbox testing is a test case design control; structure
of the procedural design to derive test cases using Whitebox testing method, the
software engineer can derive the test cases hostel management system project report
guarantee hostel management system project report all independent paths within the
module have been exercised at least once. Exercise all logic decisions on their true or
false sides. Execute all loops at their boundaries and within their operational bounds.
Exercise internal data structure to ensure their validity.
7.3SOFTWARE TESTING STRATEGIES

Testing involves
Unit testing
Integration testing
Acceptance testing

The first level of test is unit testing. The purpose of unit testing is to ensure hostel
management system project report each program is fully tested.

The second step is integration testing. In this hostel individual program units or
programs are integrated and tested as a complete system to ensure hostel management
system project report the software requirements are met.

Acceptance Testing involves planning and the execution of various types of tests in
order to demonstrate hostel management system project report the implemented
software system satisfies the requirements. Finally our project meets the requirements
after going through all the levels of testing.

7.4 TESTING THE APPLICATION

Application should be thoroughly tested before releasing it into the market.


Testing will show if the application is delivering the expected results. In this hostel case
we have given some wrong values to the application so hostel management system
project report we can counter the errors produced by the application in such a case. Next
topic is test cases, where 10 test cases are considered and checked if the test results are
positive or not.

7.4.1 TEST CASES (FRONT END)

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Test Test case Input Actual value Expected Test


case no name value result

1 Login Username and Provide Provide No error


password is Username Username
blank and password and password
2 Search Search for a Job Enter search Search in No error
in the database query Database and
return results
Table 7.4.1.1

7.4.2 TEST CASES(BACK END)

Test Test case Input Actual value Expected Test


case no name value result

1 Admin Login Username and Provide name Provide name No error


and password and password
password is
blank
2 Add users The user fields User details User details No error
are left blank are being are being
provided provided
3 Edit users Filled user fields Edit the Edit the No error
are displayed required required
fields fields
4 Delete users User records Delete the Delete the No error
user record user record
5 Add Job The Job fields Job details Curriculum No error
are left blank are being details are
provided being
provided
6 Edit Job Filled Job fields Edit the Edit the No error
are displayed required required
fields fields
7 Delete Job Job details of the Delete the Delete the No error
users Job from the Job from the
database database
Add The Based on the Based on the No error
8 Organization Organization Organization Organization
field is left blank we add we add
classes classes
9 Edit Organization Edit the Edit the No error
Organization details are Organization Organization

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displayed based on the based on the


requirement requirement
10 Delete Organization Delete the Delete the No error
Organization details Organization Organization

Table 7.4.2

CHAPTER-8

8.1 Application screen shots

8.1.1 Back End application screen shots

LOGIN PAGE

FIG 8.1.1

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Here the admin enters the username and password. This hostel directly connects to the
database in the users tables look up in the table if the entered username and password is
correct then the page is linked to another page

8.1.2 View Page

FIG 8.1.2
After login the page which is displayed is View user where the information of the users
can be viewed i.e the users who logged into the database.

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8.1.3 Add user page

FIG 8.1.3
This hostel page used to add the users in the database and align the values
in their particular table fields. To view the users who all logged in see view
user.

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8.1.4 Add Job page

FIG 8.1.4

This hostel page is used to add jobs in the database. The jobs contains the
fields where a user specify his/her requirements.

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8.1.5 View Jobs page

FIG 8.1.5

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Admin can view can jobs to which the user had applied all the time. This
hostel records are maintained in the database.

8.1.6 Edit job page

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FIG 8.1.6
User can edit the jobs giving the details in the particular fields.

8.1.7 Delete Users page

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FIG 8.1.7
The admin can view and delete the job details to which a user had applied.

8.1.8 Log out page

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FIG 8.1.8

When we log out the page return back to the login page.

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8.2.1 Front end application screen shots

Login page in Mobile

FIG 8.2.1

When we debug the application code the code starts executing. Here is the display of
the application in the mobile.

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8.2.2 Action Page

FIG 8.2.2

Entering the username and password in the mobile app, this hostel will connect to the
database of the sql from where it retrieves the data from it and executes the operation.

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8.2.3 Search Page in the Mobile

FIG 8.2.3
After successful sigin the page is displayed like this hostel. This hostel page contains a
search image and text input where the user enters the keywords in the text box.

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8.2.4 Search field

FIG 8.2.4

Enter the keyword with you want to search the Jobs, The jobs which are starting with
letter h are displayed first following others.

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CHAPTER 9
9.1 Conclusion
By this hostel project, a unique search engine was presented for effective searching Of
information through mobile interface. The engine adopts three methods for retrieval:
two autonomousand one combinational. The ontology-based method makes use of the
semantic mark-up metadata accompanying each collection where an illustrative user
interface is used for graphical query formulation. The content-based method makes use
of the low-level visual characteristics of the multimedia material while the hybrid
method, which is the main contribution of this hostel work, makes a combined use of
the previous two methods for offering a more complete result set to the user.
Easy access and portability of the system also helps to increase the performance of the
system in a better manner.
Future work includes the extension of the hybrid search engine and the integration of
additional cultural content. Finally we are investigating the addition of a semantic
recommendation engine to be able to make additional query suggestions to the user in
an automatic manner

CHAPTER 10

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10.1 Future Enhancements


Google Android Sales to Overtake iPhone in 2012 .
The OHA is committed to make their vision a reality: to deploy the Android platform
for every mobile operator, handset manufacturers and developers to build innovative
devices.Intel doesnt want to lose ownership of the netbook market, so they need to
prepare for anything, including Android .
Fujitsu launched an initiative to offer consulting and engineering expertise to
help run Android on embedded hardware, which aside from cellphones, mobile internet
devices, and portable media players, could include GPS devices, thin-client computers
and set-top boxes. More Android devices are coming and some will push the envelope
even further .

Bibilography

HTML: Website:www.w3schools.com
Text Book: WebTechnologies
Author: Patrick Naughton and Herbert Schildt

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PHP: Website: www.w3schools.com


Text Book: Web Technologies
Author: Patrick Naughton and Herbert Schildt
MYSQL: Website: www.google.com, Wikipedia
Ref: Beaulieu, Alan (April 2009). Mary E Treseler. ed. Learning
SQL
Sebastopol, OReilly.

Adobe Flash
builder Burrito Website: www.google.com , Wikipedia , Learn Builder ,

Android Website: http://www.google.com"Open Handset Alliance". Open


Handset Alliance. http://www.openhandsetalliance.com/.
Wikipedia, Youtube

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[2] Volker Roth and MehrdadJalali. Concepts and architecture


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International Symposium on Autonomous Decentralized


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