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The calculation is used for geometrical and strength designs and worm gearing check.

The program solves the following tasks.

2. Automatic transmission design with minimum input requirements.

3. Design for safety coefficients entered.

4. Calculation of a table of proper solutions.

5. Calculation of complete geometrical parameters.

6. Calculation of strength parameters, safety check.

7. Gearing design for precise centre-line distance.

8. Auxiliary calculations (heating, shaft design).

9. Support of 2D and 3D CAD systems.

The calculations use procedures, algorithms and data from standards ANSI, ISO, DIN,

BS and specialized literature.

6034-B92 (Revision of ANSI/AGMA 6034-A87), DIN 3996, DIN 3975-1, DIN 3975-2

Hint: The comparative document Choices of transmission can be helpful when selecting a suitable transmission type.

Information on the syntax and control of the calculation can be found in the document

"Control, structure and syntax of calculations".

Information on the purpose, use and control of the paragraph "Information on the project"

can be found in the document "Information on the project".

Theory

Application

Worm (globoid) gearing can transmit high outputs, the common ones being 50 to 100 kW

(optimum 0.04kW-120kW, extreme 1000 kW); within one stage, it is able to realize high

transmission ratios i = 5 to 100, (up to i=1000 in kinematical transmissions), being of

small size, low weight, and compact structure. It features quiet and silent operation and

can be designed as a self-locking transmission.

The disadvantage is the large slip in the gearing causing higher friction losses and thereby

lower transmission efficiency; the endeavours for improvement require using deficit

nonferrous metals for wormgear rims. Gearing production is more demanding and

expensive and the service life of such gearing is usually shorter than in rolling gearing.

Worm gearing is used for power transmission in mixers, vertical lathes, vehicles and

lifting equipment, textile machines, presses, conveyors, shears, drums, hoists, ship

propeller drives, planers, machine tools, cars...

This calculation deals with the most frequently used gearing with cylindrical worm and

globoid gear.

Geometry

Worm gearing is a special case of screw gearing with the angle of axes 90 and a low

number of pinion/worm teeth (mostly z1=1-4). Worm gearing types are distinguished by

shape as follows:

torque, manual drive, adjusting mechanisms, point contact of teeth, cheap

production)

2. Cylindrical worm/globoid wheel most frequent (power transmissions, compact

design, divided by cylindrical worm shape see below)

3. Globoid worm/cylindrical wheel (not used)

4. Globoid wheel and worm (high outputs, compact design, special production,

highest quality, high price)

tooth sides are slightly convex in the normal section; the cross section results in

the spiral of Archimedes. The elements in the axial section are usually

standardized, i.e. mx=m, x=. The gearing is produced using lathes or thread-

cutting machines (the worm resembles a motion screw with trapezoidal threads).

A tool shaped as the basic profile is applied onto the workpiece in the axial plane.

With larger angles, different cutting angles occur in the forming tool on the

lateral edges, which results in unequal cutting edge loading and blunting. The

lateral worm areas can only be sharpened using a special form grinding wheel.

Therefore, spiral gearing is used in worms with a low pitch angle (<10) in those

cases when tooth sides are not treated thermally and do not require regrinding.

ZN worm with a straight-line tooth profile in normal tooth section, namely:

a) On the mean helix of space

b) On the mean helix of tooth

In the axial section, tooth sides are slightly convex and the cross section results in

a general evolvent curve (in an extended or shortened evolvent). The elements in

the normal plane are standardized, i.e. mn=m, n=. The gearing is worked in

case a) with one and in case b) with two forming in the normal plane. The cutting

angles are identical with great angles . Thermally treated sides can be ground

using a grinding wheel with straight-line bevel areas on thread grinding machines;

this grinding process results in non-straight-line lateral areas which, however,

rather approximate the theoretical ones. If also the screw milling cutter used to

produce worm gear toothing is subject to this grinding process, the worm and the

worm gear create a theoretically proper pair. The common gearing is also suitable

for worms with greater angles and for worms with thermally treated tooth sides

that require regrinding.

ZI worm with an evolvent profile (a straight-line tooth profile in a plane

tangential to the main cylinder). The tooth sides are convex in both the centre-line

and normal sections and the cross section results in an evolvent. The elements in

the normal plane are standardized, i.e. mn=m, n=. The gearing is worked using

two tools applied onto the workpiece. The tool cutting edge lies in the tangent

direction towards the helix on the main cylinder. The evolvent gearing is used in

worms with a higher number of teeth, e.g. z1>4; the worm resembles a cylindrical

gear with helical teeth. Tooth sides can be ground with the flat side of the grinding

wheel; special grinding machines must be used given the relatively small angle .

ZK profile formed by a cone ground using a wheel and/or shank tool

ZH concave tooth profile (the most perfect and most expensive)

Note: The worm type options depend particularly on the production possibilities and transmission used. Detailed information is

available in professional and the firms literature.

1- Centre-line section (mx,x,sx,ex) , 2-Normal section (mn,n,sn,en), 3-Worm frontal

section

and pressure angle in the centre-line section are selected for spiral gearing ZA, while

module and pressure angle in the normal section are selected for common gearing

ZN,ZI,ZK,ZH.

1. Transmission ratio

i=z1 / z2

2. Pitch diameter

ZA: d1=mx z1 / tan() = q mx; d2=mx z2

ZN: d1=mn z1 / tan() = q mn; d2=mn z2

3. Rolling diameter

ZA: dw1=d1+2 x mx; dw2=d2

ZN: dw1=d1+2 x mn; dw2=d2

4. Equivalent diameter: dwe2=2 a - d2

5. Mean diameter: DIN (10): dm1=2 a - dm2; (11) dm1=q mx

6. Tip diameter

ZA: da1=d1 + 2 ha* mx; da2=d2 + 2 (ha* + x) mx; dae2

= da2 + 2 v mx

ZN: da1=d1 + 2 ha* mn; da2=d2 + 2 (ha* + x) mn; dae2

= da2 + 2 v mn

7. Root diameter

ZA: df1=d1 - 2 (ha* + c*) mx; df2=d2 - 2 (ha* + c* - x)

mx

ZN: df1=d1 - 2 (ha* + c*) mn; df2=d2 - 2 (ha* + c* - x)

mn

8. Addendum

ZA: ha1=ha* mx; ha2=(ha* + x) mx

ZN: ha1=ha* mn; ha2=(ha* + x) mn

9. Dedendum

ZA: hf1=(ha* + c*) mx; hf2=(ha* + c* - x) mx

ZN: hf1=(ha* + c*) mn; hf2=(ha* + c* - x) mn

10. Pitch angle

ZA: tan()=mx z1 / d1 = z1 / q

ZN: tan()=mx z1 / d1 = z1 / q

11. Tooth thickness; Tooth space thickness

ZA: sx1=ex1=0.5 mx; sn1=en1=0.5 mx cos();

sx2=0.5 mx + 2 x mx tan(x); ex2=0.5 mx - 2 x

mx tan(x); sn2=sx2 cos(); en2=ex2 cos()

ZN: sn1=en1=0.5 mn; sx1=ex1=0.5 mn / cos()

sn2=0.5 mn + 2 x mn tan(n); en2=0.5 mn - 2 x

mn tan(n); sx2=sn2 / cos(); ex2=en2 / cos()

12. Worm face width

SN(ZA): [z1<4] L=(11 + 0.06 z2) mx; [z1>=4] L=(11 + 0.09

z2) mx

SN(ZN): [z1<4] L=(11 + 0.06 z2) mn; [z1>=4] L=(11 +

0.09 z2) mn

DIN (40): L=((de2 / 2)^2 -(a - da1 / 2)^2)^0.5

13. Worm gear face width

SN: [z1<4] b2=0.75 (1 + 2 / q) d1; [z1>=4] b2=0.67 (1 +

2 / q) d1

DIN: b2<=b2max=2*((dm1/2)^2-(a-de2/2)^2)^0.5

14. Centre-line distance

SN(ZA): a=0.5 (d1 + d2) + x mx; a=0.5 mx (q + z2 + 2

x)

SN(ZN): a=0.5 (d1 + d2) + x mn; a=0.5 mx (q + z2 /

cos() + 2 x)

DIN: a=(dm1 + dm2) / 2; a = (dwe1 + d2) / 2

Note: Article [12] provides the calculation of dimensions as per AGMA 6022-C93. Since the worm gearing design permits considerable

liberty, some of the dimensional parameters may differ in both calculations as either of the standards may

recommend different parameter options, namely tooth profile [3.0] and worm diameter parameters [4.11].

Force conditions.

The following formulas are used to calculate the forces occurring in toothing.

Ftm2=2000 T2 / dm2 =-Fxm1

Frm1 = -Frm2 = Ftm1 tan() / sin()

Fr1 = (Ftm1^2 + Frm1^2)^0.5

Fr2 = (Ftm2^2 + Frm2^2)^0.5

Total loss of power in worm transmission consists of gearing, bearing and sealing losses.

The calculation neglects any losses associated with the lubrication system and

transmission cooling. Gearing efficiency is defined as a ratio of the driven and driving

members and differs if the worm (index 1) or the wheel (index 2) is the driving member.

where:

...pitch angle

As the pitch angle increases (with given friction angle), efficiency rises quickly at first to

change into a flat curve and drop quickly again (see the Figure).

The curve peak is in the middle of the interval [0; 90-] and the theoretical maximum

efficiency of a worm gearing is then calculated as follows:

The vertical axis shows gearing efficiency, the horizontal axis shows the pitch angle, and

individual curves are for different friction coefficients.

In practice, pitch angles up to 10 and up to 20-25 are used for worms ZA and for

common worms ZN, ZI respectively, namely for production reasons. Endeavours after the

highest possible efficiency then result in using higher pitch angles, which can be achieved

by reducing worm diameter and using multiple worms.

Self-locking feature

In this case, the point of intersection of the curve with the horizontal axis (red circled),

which defines the self-locking limit, is important. It is the moment when gearing cannot

be moved using even the highest possible torque acting on the worm gear (this feature is

used in lifting mechanisms, for instance). The self-locking limit occurs when the pitch

angle equals to the angle of friction.

Static the static friction coefficient is considerably higher than the dynamic one

(2 or more times); therefore, static self-locking occurs typically at 5-8;

Dynamic dynamic friction coefficient where self-locking typically occurs at 1-

3 should be taken into account on vibrations or shocks in the transmission.

Friction coefficient

number of parameters (material, surface, lubricant, speed, size). It is calculated using the

following formula:

Total efficiency

Total efficiency includes bearing, sealing and no-loads losses and is calculated using the

following formula:

ges = Pw2 / (Pw2 + PV), where PV is total power loss; line calculation [6.9-6.15]

Abrasive loss of material occurs during gearing operation, which means that tooth

thickness is reduced. This predominantly affects the tooth side made of a material of

lower hardness (wheel as a rule). A number of tests were performed recently with

different materials, dimensions and oil types, giving the results as shown on the Figure.

Curves:

Mineral oil: a) 40=220 [mm2/s]; b) 40=460 [mm2/s]; c) 40=680 [mm2/s]

Synthetic oil: d) EO:PO=0:1

As follows from the results, using synthetic oils reduces wear fundamentally. Oil

viscosity has an effect in mineral oils only; wear increasing significantly with low

viscosity.

oil type and structure

lubrication film thickness

load cycle

loading intensity

Permissible wear Wlimn..

which the worm transmission is used. It may be determined by the maximum backlash in

the gearing, for instance. In any case, however, permissible wear is achieved at the tooth

sharpness limit. If no particular conditions are agreed/determined, the following is

considered as a rule:

Wlimn=0.3 mx cos(m), calculation line [7.18]

Permissible wear is in the green field, the common value is filled in automatically after

activating the ticking box.

It can be influenced (increased) by choosing lower service life required [2.12], oil of

higher grade, higher viscosity [2.7,2.8] and, of course, through the choice of geometrical

parameters.

Fatigue cracks occur on the tooth surface through the pulsating load of the tooth side and

through the action of sliding friction forces. Oil penetrates into these cracks and

hydrostatic forces cause tearing off of surface particles and pitting. The following graph

shows pitting occurrence as a function of the load cycles and centre-line distance. The

pitting occurrence calculation formula is based on a number of test results and operation

experience.

Example of pitting occurrence for different centre-line distances based on tests:

Horizontal axis: load cycle - wheel; vertical axis: [%] of pitting area from tooth side area

MPa

Curves: A) a=160 [mm]; B) a=100 [mm]; C) a=65 [mm]

Contact stress Hm

Pitting safety SH

SH = HG / Hm SHmin (SHmin=1.0)

It can be influenced (increased) by choosing lower service life required [2.12], oil of

higher grade [2.7] and, of course, through the choice of geometrical parameters.

Too great and dynamically changing worm deflection may result in interferences and

thereby in increased wear.

Hint: The calculation module for shaft design and check can advantageously be used for the final precise establishment of worm shaft

deflection and its more detailed analysis.

The value of permissible deflection was achieved from practical experience.

If too high stress on the tooth root occurs, gear teeth suffer plastic deformation resulting

in a shift in the contact area and subsequent breaking of the tooth. Research studies and

tests of tooth root stress were performed for different centre-line distances, transmission

ratios, diameter quotients and different materials. The Figure shows test results and

values calculated as per DIN 3996.

Green: calculation to DIN, Blue: test result, failure probability 50[%]

The tests show that the output torque moment causing tooth damage reduces with the

transmission ratio increase. This moment increases with reduced load cycle. At the same

time, the tests show that permanent plastic deformation occurs before tooth breakage in

bronze wheels.

Shear stress:

F = Ftm2 / (b2H mx) Yeps YF Yg

FG = Flim YNL

The value of maximum permissible output to AGMA was used as an input value to

calculation to DIN for the purposes of the following graphs.

50/2; L = 25000 h

Worm: 16MnCrSEh; Wheel: GZ-CuSn12Ni; polyglycol (EO:PO=0:1); a = 180 mm; n1 =

500 rpm; L = 25000 h

500 rpm; L = 25000 h

When designing a gearbox, one should also consider the heat generated inside the

gearbox (efficiency of gearing, friction of bearings, and friction in sealing). This

parameter is not so important in spur or bevel but it is in worm gearing. As worm gearing

efficiency is lower considerably than that of spur or bevel gearing, considerably more

heat is generated in the gearing and has to be removed. Therefore, thermal safety has

great importance for a correct design to ensure gearbox function within the permitted

temperature range of oil. Thermal design/safety tends to be one of the limiting factors

when designing transmissions.

In addition to an approximate formula for heating calculation as per DIN 3996, this

calculation also includes a simple temperature analysis. This analysis makes it possible to

calculate the heat passing through the gearbox walls and the heat removed by oil cooling.

For designs of important transmissions it is in any case recommended to make a detailed

thermodynamic analysis, best in connection with pertinent tests.

P = k A dT

where:

P..... power losses [kW]

k..... combined heat transfer coefficient (heat transmission, radiation) [W/m2*K]

A..... gearbox outer surface [m^2]

dT... temperature difference between oil and ambient air temperature [C]

determination. Selected values are provided in the Article [11.12].

Basic area A is given by the calculation as a minimal right parallelepiped free from any

projections and ribbing, which comprises the designed gearing. The ribbing effect is then

established by means of a coefficient.

P = c ro Q dT

where:

P.....cooler power [kW]

c.....oil specific heat [Ws/Kg/K]

ro... oil density [kg/dm3]

Q... oil volume [litre/s]

dT.. temperature difference between oil leaving the gearbox and cooled oil re-entering the

gearbox.

Note: The design should also take into account transmission load in time. This calculation considers permanent load. If this load is

variable in time or sporadic, it must be reflected in the thermal analysis.

Calculation procedure.

Gear transmissions are split into:

Power gearing The gearing intended predominantly for power transfer and

transformation must be designed/checked for strength (e.g. machine drives, industrial

gearboxes).

the torque moment is minimal given the wheel size (e.g. instrumentation, regulation

equipment...).

Any worm gearing design provides considerable liberty in selecting gear diameters and

width. Therefore, the calculation makes it possible to create a table of proper solutions to

pick from a number of parameters, such as weight, centre-line distance, efficiency, etc.

Design procedure:

The result of this procedure is a table of proper solutions of the gearing being designed.

transmission ratio). [1.0]

2. Select pinion and wheel material, loading conditions, operating and production

parameters, and safety coefficients. [2.0]

3. Select tooth profile parameters [3.0]

4. Select the marginal parameters for the calculation of the table of proper solutions.

[4.2,4.3,4.4,4.5]

5. Press "Run the table".

6. Select that solution which suits your requirements best from the table [4.7].

7. Check the results.

Parameter optimization:

Although the solution table provides correct proposals, it is advisable to optimize and

fine-tune some parameters, namely centre-line distance [4.23,4.24] and worm bearing

distance [4.16,4.17].

2. Sort the solution table by centre-line distances [4.5]

3. Select the centre-line distance nearest to your required centre-line distance in the

solution table

4. Fine-tune the centre-line distance [4.23,4.24]

An auxiliary calculation [16.0] can be used for non-power gearing.

gearing. Therefore, directly select the proper number of teeth and a module [4.8-4.20] and

check the dimensions of the gearing being designed.

Hint: When designing a non-power gearing, select an appropriately low power to be transmitted.

Enter the basic input parameters for the gearing being designed in this article.

Select the required system of calculation units in the list of options. All values will be

recalculated immediately after changing the units.

Enter the required power on the worm gear. The common values range from 0.1 to

300kW / 0.14-420HP, in extreme cases up to 1000kW / 1400HP. Using the right push-

button, calculate the maximum power the particular worm gearing is able to transmit.

Enter the worm speed. The common worm speed is up to 3000 rpm, while extreme speed

may be up to 40000 rpm. Worm gear speed is calculated from the number of teeth of both

gears.

Hint: If you require calculating the transmission ratio and you know the speed of the worm and the worm gear, press the push-button

on the right hand side from the entry field and make the calculation in the Additions Section.

Hint: If you require establishing the power transmitted from the torsional moment and speed, press the right push-button and make

the calculation in the Additions Section.

The optimum transmission ratio ranges between 5 and 100. In extreme cases, it may

reach up to 300 (1000 in non-power gearing). Transmission ratio is entered in the left

entry field using the keyboard. The roll-out menu on the left offers the recommended

transmission ratio values; when choosing from this menu, the selected value is added to

the left field automatically.

Since the actual transmission ratio is the proportion of the number of teeth of both gears

(integers), the actual transmission ratio will mostly differ from the required (entered) one.

The value of the Actual transmission ratio is shown on the left, while the percentage

deviation from the required one is given on the right.

Hint: If you require designing a transmission with the most precise transmission ratio or need to divide the transmission ratio among

more gearbox stages, use "Transmission ratio calculation".

and production parameters. [2]

When designing a power transmission, enter additional operational and production input

parameters in the article. Try to be as accurate as possible when choosing and entering

these parameters as each one of them may have a dramatic effect on the properties of the

gearing being designed.

Tooth side wear

Fatigue break at tooth root

Worm deflection

Oil heating

These conditions must be reflected when choosing the worm and gear materials.

Hardened and ground worm mating with tin or phosphorus bronze gear is mostly

selected.

The basic material is bronze, less frequently being cast iron or brass. Plastic gears are

used for lower powers (to absorb shocks and provide lower noise) and non-power

gearing. Bronze gears are manufactured as composite for economical reasons (a bronze

rim put on a steel or cast-iron wheel). Centrifugal casting is advisable.

The optimum options are tin bronze with high Sn content of 10-12% (excellent friction

properties, high resistance to seizure and good running-in), but are too expensive. Their

application can only be justified in loaded transmissions and with sliding speed exceeding

10 m/s. Even in these cases, however, there is an effort to replace them by Sn-Ni bronze

and other alloys. Bronze with lower Sn content (5-6%) can be used for speed v = 4-10

m/s.

Less expensive bronze free from tin, e.g. aluminium or lead bronze, or brass are suitable

for speeds v<4 m/s. They are relatively hard and strong, but are less resistant to seizure

and are not so good for running-in. The mating worm, therefore, must have high surface

hardness (HRC>45). In gearing with a greater worm gear, a combination of bronze worm

and cast-iron gear can be used for economical reasons.

Grey cast iron mated with a steel worm can be used for low outputs, quiet load and low

peripheral speed up to 2 m/s.

Material of worm

Carbon or alloyed steel which allows surface heat hardening (hardening to HRC 45-50,

cementing and hardening to HRC 56-62, and nitriding) is used for worms. Tooth sides are

ground and/or polished. When nitrided, the material need not be ground and polished

only. Heat-treated or normalized steel worms are only used for lower outputs and lower

peripheral speeds.

Customers own material values If a material which is not specified in the table of

materials should be used for gearing, a number of data should be entered about the

material. Go to the sheet Materials. The first 5 lines in the materials table are reserved

for defining the customers own materials. Enter the material name in the pertinent

column (will be shown in the options menu) and fill in all parameters in the line (white

boxes) gradually. After that, go to the Calculations sheet, select the newly defined

material and continue the calculation.

Warning: Customers own material values must be entered in the SI units (MPa,GPa).

Warning: Calculation to DIN 3996 is based on worm gearing research and tests for a hardened, cemented worm made from 16MnCr5

(DIN EN 10084) and a worm gear made from the following materials: Bronze - CuSn12-C-GZ, CuSn12Ni2-C-GZ

(centrifugal cast), CuSn12Ni2-C-GC (continuous casting), CuAl10Fe5Ni5-C-GZ (DIN EN 1982), grey cast iron EN-

GJS-400-15 (DIN EN 1563), EN-GJL-250 (DIN EN 1561). The results must be transposed in a suitable manner for

other materials.

Select the type of worm. For details on worm types see the theoretical section of the

Help.

Setting of these coefficients substantially affects the calculation of safety coefficients.

Therefore, try to enter as accurate a specification as possible when selecting the type of

loading. Examples of driving machines:

B. With light shocks: hydraulic motor, steam turbine, gas turbine

C. With medium shocks: multi-cylinder internal combustion engine

D. With heavy shocks: single-cylinder internal combustion engine

Therefore, try to enter as accurate a specification as possible when selecting the type of

loading. Examples of driven machines:

machine tool traverse, fan, turbocharger, turbo compressor, mixer for materials

with a constant density

B. With light shocks: generator, gear pump, rotary pump

C. With medium shocks: main drive of a machine tool, heavy lift, crane swivel,

mine fan, mixer for materials with variable density, multi-cylinder piston pump,

feed pump

D. With big shocks: press, shears, rubber calendar, rolling mill, vane excavator,

heavy centrifuge, heavy feeding pump, drilling set, briquetting press, kneading

machine

The types of gearing lubrication and gearbox cooling (or oil on pressure lubrication)

depend on a number of conditions such as power transmitted, transmission ratio, speed,

material, gearbox design, application, etc. The design can be based on worm peripheral

speed, but all the conditions must be reflected in the final design.

Oil-spray lubrication: 2-10 [m/s] (6-33 [ft/s])

Pressure circulation lubrication: 8 and more [m/s] (25 [ft/s])

Mineral oil can be used for less loaded gears, while synthetic oil is recommended for

higher speeds, higher powers transmitted and higher efficiency requirements.

Total losses reduced by 30% and more (smaller and more economical driving

unit)

Increased efficiency by 15% and more (smaller units)

Oil working temperature reduced by up to 20C (68F)

Oil change interval prolonged 3-5x (maintenance cost reduction)

Reduced friction and gear wear

These advantages are opposed by higher price, possible problems with the plastic or

rubber parts, and limited miscibility with mineral oils.

In the menu, oils are ordered by ISO (AGMA) viscosity. By selecting oil from the menu,

selected oil parameters are transmitted to corresponding boxes (viscosity at 40 C,

viscosity at 100 C, specific weight [kg/dm^3]). If oil parameters are known from the

manufacturers material sheet, enter the parameters in the appropriate boxes [2.9,2.10].

Max. working Starting < 2.5 2.5 ... 5 >5

0 - 10 -10 - 0 110 130 110 130 110 130

0 - 10 >0 110 150 110 150 110 150

10 - 30 >0 200 245 150 200 150 200

30 - 55 >0 350 510 245 350 200 245

55 - 80 >0 510 780 350 510 245 350

80 - 100 >0 900 1100 510 780 350 510

ISO Viscosity Grade

R&O EP

1 VG 46

2 2 EP VG 68

3 3 EP VG 100

4 4 EP VG 150

5 5 EP VG 220

6 6 EP VG 320

7 7comp 7 EP VG 460

8 8comp 8 EP VG 680

8A comp VG 1000

9 9 EP VG 1500

Enter the roughness value. The following Ra values can be achieved for working

methods:

0.2m (8inch)

Machining: common Ra=0.8-6.3 m (32-250inch); under special conditions up

to 0.1m (4inch)

Grinding: common Ra=0.2-1.6 m (8-63inch); under special conditions up to

0.05m (2inch)

It is proposed based on load irregularity from the driven/driving machine [2.4,2.5]. The

value is filled in automatically after activating the ticking box. The KA factor is used to

multiply the torque value.

The parameter specifies the desired service life in hours. Orientation values in hours are

given in the table.

Durability

Specification

Household machines, seldom used devices 2000

Electric hand tools, machines for short-term runs 5000

Machines for 8-hour operation 20000

Machines for 16-hour operation 40000

Machines for continuous operation 80000

Machines for continuous operation with log service life 150000

Use lines [2.14-2.17] to enter the requested coefficients of safety. When calculating the

table of proper solutions [4.1], only those solutions will be entered in the table which

meet the required coefficients of safety. Recommended values are provided on the right

of the entry field.

Parameters of the tooth profile can be changed within a wide range and are often

dependent on the manufacturing possibilities. The following values are commonly used:

Unit head clearance ca* = 0.25 (0.2,0.3)

Coefficient of the root radius rf* = 0.38

Note: Values are entered in module units, which is the mx value for ZA worm (axial module) and the mn value for ZN, ZI, ZK and ZH

worms (normal module).

This is the central article of the whole calculation and the worm gearing geometry design.

It is divided into three, closely interrelated parts.

2. Direct design of geometry [4.8-4.22]

3. Design (fine tuning) of precise centre-line distance [4.23-4.25]

Recommendation: When designing power gearing, it is recommended to use in any case the "Table of proper solutions". In non-power

transmissions or where geometry is known, parameters can be entered right in the second section.

The table of proper solutions is set up as follows: Numbers of worm teeth are entered in

the calculation gradually (the range is set in [4.3]); worm diameter quotient q is gradually

entered for each value (the range is set in [4.4]); and a minimum module value is

searched for every such combination (and/or maximum value DP for inches) which meets

the safety coefficients required (selected in [4.2]). After finding all proper solutions, the

table is sorted by the parameter set in line [4.5] and the first solution in the table [4.7] is

put into the calculation.

Start table calculation pressing the Run the table push-button. The calculation process

is shown in the dialog.

Warning: The values of transmission ratio [1.6], pressure angle [4.10] and addendum modification coefficient for worm gear [4.21] are

also entered in the table of proper solutions. When selected from the table [4.7], these values are set for the saved

values. Therefore, when changing the parameters, recalculate the table of proper solutions.

In this line, tick the safety type which must be fulfilled to include the solution in the table

of solutions. Set the coefficients in lines [2.14-2.17]. It is recommended to have the check

of all coefficients activated.

In this line, enter the range of worm tooth number z1 for which the table should be

solved. Usually z1=1~4 (higher number of worm teeth z1 for higher transmission ratio) is

used.

The range of permissible values is z1=1~12, the first value being lower than or equal to

the second one.

In this line, enter the range of diameter quotient q for which the table should be solved.

Usually q=8-16 (higher value q for smaller module).

The range of permissible values is q=6~25, the first value being lower than or equal to

the second one.

By selecting a solution from the table, the solution parameters are transferred into the

calculation. The small push-button "<" on the right will transfer the values from the

actual table line into the calculation.

z2 - Number of teeth - Worm Gear

i - Transmission ratio

n2 - Speed - Worm gear

q - Diameter quotient

m - Module

DP - Diametral pitch

eta - Total efficiency

gama - Pitch angle

a - Center distance

d1 - Reference diameter

d2 - Reference diameter

mass - Approximate weight of the gearbox

SW - Safety coefficient (pitting)

SH - Safety coefficient (wear)

Sd - Safety coefficient (deflection)

SF - Safety coefficient (fatigue failure)

ST - Safety coefficient (temperature)

Warning: The values of transmission ratio [1.6], pressure angle [4.10] and addendum modification coefficient for worm gear [4.21] are

also entered in the table of proper solutions. When selected from the table [4.7], these values are set for the saved

values. Therefore, when changing the parameters, recalculate the table of proper solutions.

In this section, one can define directly all important worm gearing parameters which

influence and define its geometry. The description and importance of individual

parameters are specified for each of them.

Enter the number of teeth of worm. The value commonly used ranges from 1 to 4, in

special cases up to 12. It is recommended to select the proper number of teeth from the

table of solutions [4.6] on the basis of your optimization requirements (e.g. weight,

efficiency, centre-line distance ...). In any case, it is advisable to consult manufacturing

possibilities with the technologist.

The number of worm gear teeth is calculated on the basis of the required transmission

ratio. The number of gear teeth must acquire a certain minimum value; otherwise, tooth

undercut would occur. If this is the case, the minimum value is shown in brackets and the

box text is shown in red.

Hint: The minimum number of worm gear teeth can be changed by suitable correction [4.21].

Hint: If you know the numbers of worm and wormgear teeth and need to calculate the transmission ratio, press the push-button on the

right from the entering field and make the calculation in the Additions Section.

Axial pressure angle is entered for the ZA type worm, while normal pressure angle is

entered for other types (ZN,ZI,ZK,ZH). Pressure angle is selected from 15 to 30.

The value of 20 is commonly used. Pressure angle can be selected in dependence on the

requirements for the equipment being designed. Greater pressure angle results in higher

safety against fatigue break (SF) and lower danger of gear tooth undercut. On the other

hand, greater pressure angle reduces the number of engaged teeth, increases bearing load

and the worm deflection load (greater worm deflection). Pressure angle can also be

selected in dependence on pitch angle [4.13], the greater being the pressure angle, the

greater pitch angle is chosen.

correction (table in Help).

14.5 40

17.5 27

20 21

22.5 17

25 14

27.5 12

30 10

q=d1/m

Worm diameter d1 is virtually arbitrary with the chosen number of worm teeth z1 and the

known module value (mx or mn), unless a certain value of pitch angle is required. In the

effort towards the least possible number of screw cutters for manufacturing work gears,

the manufacturers recommend choosing d1=qm, where q is the coefficient depending on

the size of standardized module m. In consideration of worm rigidity in bending, greater

values q are assigned to lower values m.

m 2 2.5 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 16 20 25

16 12 12 9 9 9 8 8 8 8 8 6

14 10 10 10 9 10 10

q

12 12 12 10

14 14 14 12

Note: Since diameter quotient, worm diameter and pitch angle [4.11, 4.12, 4.13] correlate, each of these values can be entered. Tick the

selection push-button on the proper line to select the entry.

d1=qm

If you require entering a precise worm diameter value, activate the entry field by ticking

the selection push-button. The recommended approximate value d1 in dependence on the

module and on the number of worm teeth is given on the right of the entry field.

Note: Since diameter quotient, worm diameter and pitch angle [4.11, 4.12, 4.13] correlate, each of these values can be entered. Tick the

selection push-button on the proper line to select the entry.

Pitch angle is one of the key parameters of worm gearing closely related to worm

dimensions and transmission efficiency. Efficiency grows with increasing pitch angle (for

detailed information see the efficiency section).

The important pitch angle is at the self-locking limit (friction angle [6.8] is equal to pitch

angle). This angle is filled in after pressing the "<=SL" push-button on the right.

Recommended value:

do 17 in worms put on a shaft

Hint: Since the selection of parameters allows considerable liberty, it is not easy to choose all parameters manually at once. It is

therefore recommended to choose such a solution from the table of proper solutions which meets ones requirements

best, use the solution and fine-tune individual parameters gradually.

Note: Since diameter quotient, worm diameter and pitch angle [4.11, 4.12, 4.13] correlate, each of these values can be entered. Tick the

selection push-button on the proper line to select the entry.

Select pitch direction. It only has an effect on force orientation and sense of rotation.

Unless the drive kinematics require otherwise, the worm has the right sense of rotation.

4.15 Module/Standardized value/Diametral Pitch (module reverse value)

Module (DP) is the key parameter which affects the gearing size and, thereby, pertinent

safety coefficients. The following entries are required in dependence on the selected

calculation units [1.1]:

Gearing module is required, axial mx for ZA worm type and normal mn for other types

(ZN,ZI,ZK,ZH).

The table value can be selected from the options menu on the right.

Bearing distance from worm centre (see the Figure) has a direct impact on worm

deflection and thus on worm deflection safety. In the line [4.17] enter the distance of the

left and right bearing from the gear centre as percentage of worm gear outer diameter.

This method of selection is used automatically when calculating the table of proper

solutions [4.6]. If you require entering a precise value, clear the ticking box on the line

[4.18] and enter the precise value.

Worm face width is proposed automatically on the basis of the module and the number of

teeth. If you want to enter your own value, clear the ticking box on the right.

Worm face width is proposed automatically on the basis of worm diameter. If you want to

enter your own value, clear the ticking box on the right.

In principle, the worm is manufactured without any addendum modification. Worm gear

only is modified, the main reason for using addendum modification (manufacturing tool

shifting) being to achieve required (standardized) centre-line distance. The use of

addendum modification to eliminate tooth root undercut or to improve tooth bending

strength is less frequent.

The minimum value of the addendum modification coefficient to prevent tooth root

undercut is given on the right of the input box. If the actual value is lower, the value is

shown in red. The minimum addendum modification coefficient depends on the number

of gear teeth [4.9] and on the pressure angle [4.10].

Hint: Use the scroll bar to change addendum modification directly.

A worm gear design with given axis distance is the most frequent task. The following

procedure is recommended for designing:

2. Sort the results by axis distance [4.5]

3. Select such a solution where the axis distance is close to your requirement and

also meets other requirements [4.7]

4. Enter the axis distance required [4.24]

5. Select the method for reaching required axis distance [4.25]

6. Press the "Solve" push-button

Axis distance can be influenced by a number of parameters. The following can be used in

this calculation:

Change in addendum modification x

Change in diameter quotient q

For every method, the range of possible parameter change is specified in brackets "<>"

and the range of possible change in axis distance is specified in parentheses "( )".

The first box shows the weight of the complete gearbox (the sum of weights of gear

wheels, shafts and gearbox body). The second box provides the weight of the worm and

gears including shafts. Cast iron is considered as material for gearbox weight calculation.

Note: Although the calculation is approximate only, it provides a suitable optimization parameter.

The first box shows the total efficiency of the actually designed gearing, while the right

one shows the maximum theoretically possible efficiency for the actual conditions

(lubrication, materials, bearings, etc.).

Total efficiency is affected most by pitch angle [4.13], when higher pitch angle results in

higher efficiency.

Hint: More information is provided in the theoretical section.

Note: Achieving the highest efficiency will be favourable in most designs. It is therefore a suitable optimization parameter.

This article provides a well-arranged list of all basic dimensional parameters of gearing.

Formulas used, figures and other information are specified in the theoretical section of

the Help.

It is the greatest diameter of worm gear, while the approximate recommended value as

per DIN 3975 is: de2=da2+mx, which has been pre-set. The minimum and maximum

values are provided in the green box on the right.

If a specific value has to be entered, clear the ticking box in this line.

Note: This dimension has an effect on drawing worm gear in 2D.

This article provides calculation of gearing efficiency and all other relating parameters.

Formulas used, figures and other information are specified in the theoretical section of

the Help.

Hint: Gearing efficiency can be improved through a number of parameters, especially material selection, geometry (pitch angle

increase), lubricant of higher quality grade and roughness reduction.

Bearing losses are one of the parameters having an impact on efficiency. This value

depends on bearing type and supporting method. Identify the worm shaft supporting

method in the options menu.

A. Shaft supported on both sides in fixed bearings, either of the bearings retaining

one of the axial force directions

B. Bearing is floating on one shaft end, the other retaining axial forces in both

directions

C. Friction bearings (friction coefficient estimated for less loaded bearings)

This article shows wear safety calculation. More detailed information is available in the

theoretical section of the Help.

which the worm gear is used. It may be determined by maximum clearance in toothing,

for instance. In any case, however, permissible wear at the tooth sharpness point will be

achieved. Unless particular conditions have been determined/set, the following is

considered as a rule

Wlim=0.3 mx cos(m)

Permissible wear is shown in the green box, while the actual value appears automatically

after activating the ticking box.

It can be controlled (increased) by choosing lower required service time [2.12], oil of

higher grade, higher viscosity [2.7,2.8] and, of course, selecting geometrical parameters.

This article provides the pitting safety calculation. More detailed information is available

in the theoretical section of Help.

The article provides the calculation of worm deflection and reactions in supports (bearing

loading). More detailed information is available in the theoretical section of Help.

This article provides the calculation of root-strength of teeth. More detailed information

is available in the theoretical section of Help

Enter the thickness of gear rim. The minimum recommended value is added

automatically so that the rim thickness coefficient is YK=1.0

Higher life factor is conditioned by higher plastic deformations only acceptable for

gearing with lower accuracy grade. If higher reliability is required, it is advisable to set

life factor to YNL=1.0. If the ticking box is crossed, the value based on material used,

number of load cycles and accuracy grade selected is filled in automatically.

This article provides the tools for calculation and check of gearbox energy balance. Since

worm gear efficiency is substantially lower than that of spur or bevel gearing,

considerably more heat which has to be removed is generated in the gearing. Therefore,

thermal safety is of great importance for correct design, which would ensure gearbox

function within the permissible oil temperature range.

The first section provides thermal safety calculation to DIN 3996, method C, while the

other includes a worm gearing thermal analysis. More detailed information is available in

the theoretical section of Help.

Warning: Any change in gearbox temperature parameters or oil temperature results in oil parameter change, which affects the

calculation of safety coefficients SW and SF. It is recommended to re-check the coefficients.

The usual maximum temperatures are for:

Polyalphaolefin-based synthetic oil (SHC) (PAO) 100C [212F]

Polyglycol-based synthetic oil (PEG) 120C [248F]

Temperature appears automatically according to the oil type selected. If you want to enter

your specific value, clear the ticking box.

Select whether a fan is attached to the worm shaft or the gearbox has no fan.

Note: It is advisable to use a fan when the speed exceeds 800 rpm.

temperature of a well-ribbed gearbox for cast-iron gears with centre-line distance 63-400

[mm], worm speed 60-3000 [rpm] and transmission ratio 10-40. A deviation of 10K

from the actual value should be taken into account.

The approximate formula result shows gearbox temperature [11.6] and thermal safety

[11.7], which should be higher than 1.1.

This section enables making a simple thermal analysis of a gearbox. Most input

parameters are estimated on the basis of size, power transmitted, design type and others.

But more precise values can also be used, obtained from measurement on a similar

gearbox or from the professional literature, for instance. Clear the ticking box in the

pertinent line to enter a specific value of a required parameter.

Note: Unless oil-spray lubrication [2.6] is selected, pertinent partial calculation [11.14-11.18] in this section is highlighted in grey and is

not included in the result.

It is proposed on the basis of oil used so as to achieve thermal safety coefficient 1.1.

Select the type of gearbox surface (design) in the options menu. The parameter has an

impact on surface estimate [11.11].

Surface area is achieved by an approximate calculation based on gearing dimensions. It is

advisable to use a suitable output from the CAD 3D model for precise calculation

(check).

environment (ventilation, room size), gearbox size, ribbing, number of worm speed,

temperature, etc. The use of a fan can triple the coefficient. Any precise calculation of the

coefficient is therefore difficult and requires a thorough analysis. Values from 5

[W/m2*K] to 50 [W/m2*K] were measured in practice. If the ticking box is crossed, an

approximate value estimated based on gearbox speed, size and design is added

automatically.

Recommended values:

- Small unventilated rooms ...8-12 [W/m2*K]

- Well ventilated rooms ...14-20 [W/m2*K]

Fan effect: The use of a fan may increase the coefficient by up to 100%

Size effect: Small gearboxes may have the coefficient up to 50% higher than big ones

Temperature effect: The coefficient may increase by up to 15% with the difference of

ambient temperature and oil temperature increasing

Speed effect: The coefficient increases with worm speed increasing

In gearboxes where the loss heat is higher (higher power, lower efficiency), natural

cooling is often insufficient and additional oil cooling must be used in the form of an

external oil cooler or a cooling worm in the gearbox. This line shows the loss power

necessary to achieve the required temperature [11.9]. If additional cooling is not required,

the value is zero.

Note: If oil-spray lubrication method is specified in line [2.6], zero value is entered and the following lines are used to calculate

additional cooling.

If oil-spray lubrication is selected [2.6], the volume of oil supplied by the pump can be

proposed in this section.

Specify in this line whether or not an oil cooler is used. Oil cooler application has an

effect on the temperature difference of the lubrication oil.

11.16 Temperature difference of the lubrication oil

It is the difference of temperatures between oil drawn by the pump and sprayed oil.

Oil spray with oil cooler 10-20C

Note: Precise values depend on cooling/lubrication equipment design and size.

The value for lubrication oil is pre-set at 1900 Ws/Kg/K [0.454 BTU/lb/F]

Such oil spray volume which will guarantee gear cooling to the required temperature

[11.8] is proposed on the basis of entered parameters [11.8-11.15].

Note: Even if no oil spray volume is necessary in terms of cooling, certain minimum volume is proposed automatically for gear

lubrication.

C93) [12]

This article provides a calculation of dimensions as per AGMA 6022-C93. Since the

design of worm gearing allows considerable liberty, some dimensional parameters to DIN

and to AGMA may differ.

A strength calculation (check) according to AGMA is given here to have the full picture.

In comparison with the calculation to DIN, the one to AGMA is much simpler,

comprising less input parameters. This, of course, has an impact on calculation accuracy.

It is therefore recommended to use the check to DIN, which is more precise and describes

the worm gear behaviour better. Comparison of both is in the theoretical section.

Force conditions (forces acting on the toothing) [14]

Forces are generated in loaded gearing and transmitted to the machine structure. The

knowledge of these forces is quite crucial for proper dimensioning. Force orientation is

shown on the figure and force magnitudes are specified in this article [14.1-14.6].

This article provides the material characteristics of pinion and gear.

Hint: You can enter your specific material values in the "Material" sheet.

This article provides the calculation of parameters necessary to achieve the required

precise centre-line distance. Enter the number of worm teeth and the number of worm

gear teeth in the line [16.1]. Enter the required centre-line distance in the line [16.2] and

press the "Run the calculation" push-button. The calculation may take several seconds

and the table of proper solutions in the line [16.4] is filled in after it. After selecting a

suitable variant from the table, the parameters (z1,z2,modul,q,x) are transferred to the

main calculation.

Project notes: The calculation does not take the strength parameters of the worm gearing

into account.

This article offers shaft diameters (steel) corresponding to required load (power

transmitted, speed). These values are approximate only and a more precise calculation

should be used for the final design.

Auxiliary calculations are available in this article. Use the same units when entering

values as in the main calculation. Transfer the entered and calculated values to the main

calculation by pressing the "OK" push-button.

Information on options of 2D and 3D graphic outputs and information on cooperation

with 2D and 3D CAD systems can be found in the document "Graphic output, CAD

systems".

Enter the values according to the Figure. If the ticking box is crossed, the values are

entered automatically.

Information on setting of calculation parameters and setting of the language can be found

in the document "Setting calculations, change the language".

General information on how to modify and extend calculation workbooks is mentioned in

the document "Workbook (calculation) modifications".