Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 13

TRADITIONAL CONFLICT RESOLUTION

PROCESS: A STUDY OF ANIOCHASOUTH


LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, DELTA STATE

BY
Emmanuel Onyiye CHIADIKA

NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA

A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE SCHOOL OF ARTS AND


SOCIAL SCIENCES IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE
REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF MASTER OF SCIENCE
IN PEACE STUDIES AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION OF THE
NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA
ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study was to asses the role of the African traditional
process of conflict resolution in Anioucha - South Local Government Area
(LGA) of Delta State. In specific terms, the objectives of the study were to:-
(i) Identify the major social conflicts present in Aniocha South; (ii)
Determine the major traditional conflict resolution methods and their
frequency of use.(iii) Establish the major traditional agents of conflict
resolution;(iv) Ascertain how effective is the resolution;(v) Find out the levels
of satisfaction that disputants have with the outcomes of the process. A
review of the related literature was done on concept of conflict; causes of
conflict; theoretical perspectives on conflict and conflict resolution; meaning
of conflict resolution; principles of conflict resolution in African traditional
societies; methods of conflict resolution in Africa and empirical studies. A
descriptive research design with the survey method was adopted for the
study. In the survey, the elders and the young adults formed the population.
From this population, ninety-nine young adults and elders were selected
from three different villages/towns, including Ogwashukwu, the headquarters
of Aniocha-South LGA. These people were the potential respondents. A self
made questionnaire/interview protocol was made. This was used on this
potential respondent to obtain data and information relevant to the title of
the study. At the end of the administration, sixty two usable copies were
collected. The responses of the respondents were analyzed, using the five
research questions and the two null hypotheses. The research questions
were answered with the and of frequencies, percentages, means and
rankings, whole the hypotheses were tested using students t. The major
findings of the study are: (i) Twelve types of social conflicts occur in the
Aniocha-South LGA. The major one are Chieftaincy tussles, land disputes and
long-standing debt; (ii) The elders believed that the traditional methods are
used quite often; but the young adults did not think so; (iii) The major
traditional methods of conflict resolution used in Aniocha-South LGA are
mediation, dispute settlement through negation community sanction and
adjudication in the traditional courts; (iv) The traditional agents of
traditional conflict resolution are six in number, including three major ones:
traditional ruler-in-council, professional and market associations. (v) The
elders thought that the traditional process is effective while the young adults
thought it is only quite effective. Similarly and the young adults that
disputants are quite satisfied with the outcome of the process. (vi) There is a
significant difference in the views of elders and young adults on the
frequency of use of traditional methods and on the effectiveness of the
traditional process of the conflict resolution in Aniocha LGA of Delta State.
The elders believed that the methods are used often and the process is
effective. The young adults did not think so.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Pages

Title Page i

Declaration ii

Certification iii

Dedication iv

Acknowledgements v

Abstract vi

Table of Contents vii

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study 1

1.2 Statement of the Problem 3

1.3 Research Questions 3

1.4 Purpose of the Study 4

1.5 Hypotheses 4

1.6 Scope of the Study 5

1.7 Significance of the Study 5

1.8 Operational Definitions of Major Terms 5

CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE

2.1 Concept of Conflict 7

2.2 Causes of Conflict 8


2.3 Types of Conflicts 9

2.4 Theoretical Framework 9

2.5 Meaning of Conflict Resolution 13

2.6 Contemporary Conflict Resolution Options 14

2.7 Principles of Conflict Resolution in Traditional African Societies 16

2.8 Methods Engaged In Resolution of Conflict in Africa 18

2.9 Importance of Conflict resolution 20

2.10 Empirical Studies 23

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.0 Area of the Study 28

3.1 Research Design 28

3.2 Population 28

3.3 Sample Size 29

3.4 Instrumentation 29

3.5 Validation of the Instrument 29

3.6 Reliability of the Instrument 29

3.7 Method of Data Collection 30

3.8 Data Analysis Techniques 30

3.9 Administration of the Analysis 30

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS

4.1 Description of the Sample Characteristics 31

4.2 Answering of the Research Questions 32

4.3 Testing of the Null Hypotheses 40


4.4 Summary of Findings 41

4.5 Discussion of Findings 42

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Summary 44

5.2 Conclusion 46

5.3 Recommendations

46

5.4 Suggestions for Further Studies

47

References 49

Appendix 53
CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the study

There is no society which does not have conflict of one kind of another

(Cohen 1968:184), There conflict is inevitable in human society. Whenever

people interact, there is a potential for conflict (Calhoun et al 1997:19)

African regard conflict as part of life and aspect of their cultural activities.

Which often show cased evidence of virility, responsibility and versatility.

They were quite to understand the nature and fundamentals of conflict and

its impact on social development. Conflict therefore, is in the psyche of

Africans. African simply believe that a source of a thing define its origin or

genesis, thus a source of conflict in African traditional societies provides a

road map to the understanding of the conflicts situation and consequently

leads to the resolution.

Source of conflict in African societies are written and unwritten. Most of

the unwritten are derived from oral data such as songs, pithy saying,

proverbs and maximums. Conflicts also derive from family level, economic

point of view, chieftaincy, breakdown of diplomatic relations this often led to

inter-communal conflict and violence, breaking of communal taboo, breach of

sacred sanction, defecation on shrines, sanctuaries, groves. These lead to

religious conflicts, breakdown of covenant, negligence of social

responsibilities and violation of cultural norms Africans cherish their


personality and ethos of respect and honour. Thus one will find out that

assault on personality often generates conflict.

There is no doubt that Aniocha region has its fair share of conflict in

recent times, the region has experienced series of conflict. The process of

the conflict styles adopted in Aniocho land was the focus of this research

work.

Traditional institutions for conflict resolution exist in African society.

They have been instrumental enablement of harmony (Agboola, 2013). This

situation has enabled individuals in the society to understand and interpret

the norms which occasion peace and harmony. Bolarinwa (2008) identified

some agents of conflict.

i. Political Institutions (Palace of traditional ruler for example

ii. Economic Institutions (e.g Market Associations)

iii. Social Institutions (e.g Family or age-grade)

iv. Religious Institutions (Such as duetics or ancestors)

These institutes have been purposefully established in order to enhance the

social engineering which encourages wholesome unity in diversity across

cultural boundaries.

The concept of tradition has always aroked some level of sentiment

controversy, and ambiguity in social science discourse (Zartman, 2000:7). At

some time, the colonialists regarded anything tradition to be synonymous

with savagery and paganism (Onwuejeogwu, 1975).


Furthermore, there is hardly any consensus as to where the time-line

should be drawn between the traditional and the modern or western

(Nukanga, 2007). However, it is now agreed that patterns of behavior which

have characterized a group of people or an area for a reasonably long period

of time constitute what is generally regarded as traditional (Braimah, 2009)

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Peace is not a condition; it is a process. Peace is a process which

involves activities and agencies (agents) that are lined up to prevent

conflicts as well as resolve or manage conflicts. Studies have been done on

the role of African traditional Institutions in the peace process. Such Studies

include those of Agboola (2013) on Isoko South Local Government Area of

Delta State; Saad (1999) on some North eastern Nigerian communities;

Onwuka (2012) on Agbor land in Delta State; and Abdulrazak (2014) on

Ilorin Emirate, Kwara State. Findings indicate that inspite of western

incursions into the cultures of the peoples, there are in existence effective

traditional methods of resolving conflicts and promoting peace in the

societies (Osita, 2006 and Adeleke, 2010) The present study would add to

the growing body of findings about the efficacy of African traditional methods

of peace building and conflict resolution in Aniocha South LGA of Delta State.

1.3 Research Questions

The research questions raised for this study were:

i. What are the major types of social conflict prevalent in Aniocah South

Local Government Area (LGA) of Delta State?


ii. How often are the of traditional conflict resolution methods being used

in Aniocha South LGA?

iii. What are the agents of traditional conflict resolution?

iv. How effective is traditional process of conflict resolution in Aniocha

South LGA?

v. To what extent are disputants satisfied with the outcomes of traditional

conflict resolution process?

1.4 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study was to assess the role of the African

traditional process of conflict resolution in Aniocha South LGA of Delta State.

In specific terms, the objectives of the study were to:

i. Identify the major social conflicts in Aniocha South LGA.

ii. Determiner the major traditional agents of conflict resolution

iii. Establish the major types of traditional conflict resolution methods

used in Aniocha South LGA and how often they are used.

iv. Establish how effective is the African traditional process of conflict

resolution in Aniocha South LGA, and

v. Examine how satisfied are the disputants with the outcomes of the

conflict resolution process.

1.5 Hypotheses

The following hypotheses were posited for the study


(i) There is no significant difference in the traditional methods of conflict

resolution being used in the views of elders and young adults in

Aniocha-South LGA.

(ii) No significant difference exists in the views of elders and young adults

on the effectiveness of the traditional process of conflict resolution.

1.6 Scope of the Study

The scope covered the assessment of the frequency and effectiveness

of the African traditional process of conflict resolution in Aniocha South LGA

of Delta State.

1.7 Significance of the Study

The findings and the recommendations of this study are likely cover

the main African traditional of promoting peace through conflict resolution in

Ilorin Emirate presently and future. If so, then the elders are likely to be

properly reminded and sanitized about the productive traditional ways of

conflict resolution. The elders and the youth should come to appreciate the

usefulness of the traditional ways of promoting peace and be committed to

carry on with the worthy legacy.

There are three models of conflict resolution and transformation. These are:

(i) Traditional model of conflict resolution and transformation such as by

elders council and ruler-in council.


(ii) Westernization/modern model including use of police and courts

(Common law); and

(iii) Mixed model involving traditional and modern models (Otite, 2006).

The findings and conclusions of this study would establish the

traditional methods in use and whether a mixture of traditional and

modern methods would be preferred in future in the 21st century.

1.8 Operational Definition of Terms and variables

a. Traditional African Institutions: The traditional African ways of

conflict resolution and peace-promotion were regarded as institutions

or methods

b. Old and Young: The chronological, ages given by the adult were used

to identify the old (70 years or above) and young (below 70 years).

c. Conflict Resolution: Conflict resolution is an outcome in which the

issues in an existing social conflict are satisfactorily dealt with through

a solution that is mutually satisfactory to the parties. Conflict

resolution approach includes mediation/diplomacy and peace process

(Oyesola, 2005). It addresses the causes of conflict and seeks to build

a new and lasting relationship between hostile groups (Aiyede,2006)

d. Conflict Management: This incorporates arbitration, litigation, and

adjudication. It focuses on the demand of the confliction parties and

uses concessions and compromise as the instrument of setting the

conflict. Everyone in disputes gains something and everybody loses


something (Oyesola, 2005). It is a long-term arrangement, involving

institutionalized provisions for dealing with conflict. (Alyede, 2006)

e. Peace Promotion: This is the process of bringing security and

development, including the prevention and resolution of conflicts.

f. Traditional: Patterns of behaviours which have characterized a

society for a reasonably long period of time starting from pre-colonial

times, constitute what may be regarded as traditional

CHAPTER TWO

FOR THE COMPLETED COPY OF

THIS PROJECT, CONTACT ME ON

jaybloxy@gmail.com
Thanks