Digital Signal Processing lecture for ECE 3331 at Western University (based on Proakis textbook)

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Digital Signal Processing lecture for ECE 3331 at Western University (based on Proakis textbook)

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Lecture 1

Faculty of Engineering

Winter 2017

Objectives of the Course:

Digital Signal Processing (DSP):

Reconstruction of analog signals from quantized digital signals

Mathematical tools for analysis and processing of discrete-

time signals

covered in ECE4429a/b.

Content:

Introduction: Signals, Systems and Signal Processing, Classification of Signals, The Concept

of Frequency in Continuous-Time and Discrete-Time Signals, Analog-to-Digital and Digital-to-

Analog Conversion.

ysis of Discrete-Time Linear Time-Invariant (LTI) Systems, Discrete-Time Systems Described

by Dierence Equations, Implementation of Discrete-Time Systems

The z-Transform and its Application to the Analysis of LTI Systems: The z-Transform,

Properties of the z-Transform, Rational z-Transforms, Inversion of the z-Transform, Analysis of

LTI Systems in the z-Domain, The One-sided z-Transform

Analysis of Discrete-Time Signals Properties of the Fourier Transform for Discrete-Time Signals

Systems, Frequency Response of LTI Systems

The Discrete Fourier Transform: Frequency-Domain Sampling: The Discrete Fourier Trans-

form (DFT), Properties of the DFT

Feature:

YES!

Textbook:

Required Textbook: John G. Proakis & Dimitris K. Manolakis,

Digital Signal Processing, Prentice Hall, 4th Edition, 2007.

Applied Digital Signal Processing, Cambridge University Press, 2011.

Instructor:

Associate Professor,

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering,

University of Western Ontario

E-mail: ipolushi@uwo.ca

Schedule: Lectures & Office Hours

Lectures:

Friday 8:30 a.m. - 10:30 a.m., SEB 1200

Office Hours:

Random drop-by is welcome, availability is not guaranteed

Office: TEB 357

Schedule: Laboratories

Matlab tutorials: January 23rd January 27th

4 Lab sessions:

Lab 2: February 13th February 17th

Lab 3: March 13th March 17th

Lab 4: March 27th March 31st

Reports are due one week after the lab session. Should be submitted to locker

# 206, 2nd floor of TEB

Homework

The solutions will be posted approximately one week after the homework is

given.

Midterm and Final Examinations

Midterm Exam:

(8:30 am 10:30 am, SEB 1200).

Duration: 1 hour 50 minutes.

Closed book exam. Necessary equations are provided.

Use of nonprogrammable calculators only is permitted. No other

electronic devices are allowed.

Final Exam:

riod in April.

Duration: 3 hours.

Closed book exam. Necessary equations are provided.

Use of nonprogrammable calculators only is permitted. No other

electronic devices are allowed.

Grading Scheme

Midterm examination 20 %

Final examination: 60 %

Laboratory: 20 %

achieved on the final examination.

be achieved in both the lecture component (Midterm + Final

Exam) and the laboratory component.

?

What is a Signal?

Definition (http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/signal):

A signal is a detectable (measurable) physical quantity

or impulse (as a voltage, current, or magnetic field strength)

by which messages or information can be transmitted.

Key characteristics:

Signals are measurable/detectable

Signals contain information

What is Signal Processing?

definitions can be given!) is a physical device that performs

an operation on a signal.

The primary (but not the only) reason for signal processing

is to extract information!

Signal Information

System

Reasons for Processing Real World Signals

contained in the signal

Signal amplitude

Signal frequency or spectral content

Signal phase

Relationship with respect to other signals

Processing of Real World Signals: Examples

Example: Electrocardiography (ECG)

ECG signal contains various types of information that the physician can analyze to

make conclusions about the heart conditions.

ECG signal is typically distorted by interference with other signals (for example, 60-Hz

power lines). These interferences can be removed using signal processing techniques.

Processing of Real World Signals: Examples

Example: Electroencephalography (EEG)

tivity along the scalp produced by the firing of neurons within the

brain.

epilepsy, encephalopathies, tumors, stroke and other brain disor-

ders.

Processing of Real World Signals: Examples

Example: Speech Processing

tification.

Speech synthesis: reading machines for the automatic conversion of written text

into speech, computer-generated speech.

Speech analysis and synthesis: voice scrambling for secure transmission.

Speech enhancement: enhancing the intelligibility and/or perceptual quality of a

speech signal (noise reduction, etc.)

Source: http://oxygen.lcs.mit.edu/Speech.html

Processing of Real World Signals: Examples

Example: seismic signal processing:

tion resulting from an earthquake, a volcanic

eruption, or an underground explosion.

Contains information that allows to determine

the magnitude of an earthquake or explosion

and the location of the source.

Allows to monitor, analyze and predict earth-

quakes.

Used in the geophysical exploration, in par-

ticular, for oil and gas.

Processing of Real World Signals: Examples

Time series analysis:

future behavior

Example: stock market forecast - forecasting the direction of

prices through the study of past market data

Processing of Real World Signals: Examples

Example: Sound processing applications:

Expanders and noise gates

Equalizers

Noise reduction

Delay and reverberation

Special eects

Processing of Real World Signals: Examples

Information vs. Noise

Example: in a signal that contains speech and music,

if only the speech is of interest then the music can be

regarded as noise to be filtered out

Often, noise is noisy! e.g., in measurements of signals

such as forces measured by a force sensor

Information vs. Noise

Signal Processing: Analog vs. Digital

Analog signals: Signals that vary continuously (with time

or other independent variable(s))

Analog

Analog Input Signal Analog Output Signal

Signal Processor

Signal Processing: Analog vs. Digital

processed digitally;

the result is converted back into analog form (D!A).

Signal Processing: Analog vs. Digital

Source: http://courses.ece.illinois.edu/ECE101/SP09/

Signal Processing: Analog vs. Digital

Sampling

Quantization

Coding

Signal Processing: Analog vs. Digital

Sampling:

Obtained by taking samples of the continuous-time

signal at discrete-time instants

Signal Processing: Analog vs. Digital

Quantization:

into a discrete-time discrete-valued signal

The value of the signal is represented by a value selected

from a finite set of possible values

Introduces a (quantization) error

Signal Processing: Analog vs. Digital

Coding:

unique (binary) number

Signal Processing: Analog vs. Digital

Digital-to-Analog Conversion:

some sort of interpolation

Signal Processing: Analog vs. Digital

Why Digital?:

possible.

Digital circuits is fairly independent of external parameters, such as

temperature.

Digital signals are easy to store and transmit.

Software implementation: digital signal processing algorithms

can be implemented in software, which makes it cheaper and much

more flexible (easy to change and/or reconfigure)

Digital signal processing allows for sharing of a given processor

among a number of signals by timesharing: reducing the cost of

processing per signal.

Signal Processing: Analog vs. Digital

Signal Processing: Analog vs. Digital

processing devices and complex digital circuitry.

Limited range of frequencies: sampling rate must be at least twice

higher than the highest frequency in the signal (we will learn this soon).

Signals with wide bandwidth require very fast sampling rate and very fast

processors.

Power consumption: Digital signal processing devices are active devices

as they consume power. On the contrary, analog signal processing devices

can frequently be implemented using passive circuits (resistors, capacitors,

and inductors).

Topic 1: Introduction and Background

Time Signals

Signals and Their Classification

Definition (http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/signal):

A signal is a detectable (measurable) physical quantity or impulse

(as a voltage, current, or magnetic field strength) by which messages or

information can be transmitted.

independent variables (such as time, spatial variables, frequency, etc.).

Examples:

Classification of Signals

Continuous-Time vs. Discrete-Time Signals

Continuous-time Discrete-time

Continuous-Time vs. Discrete-Time Signals

Continuous-time Discrete-time

Intuitively:

interval.

values of time in a time interval.

Continuous-Time vs. Discrete-Time Signals

that they are defined on dierent sets of time

A continuous-time signal:

( 1, +1), etc.

can be represented as a function of a continuous variable, such

as x(t), t 2 [0, +1)

A discrete-time signal:

{. . . , 2, 1, 0, 1, , 2, . . .}, etc.

can be represented as a sequence, such as x[n] := {x(0), x(1), x(2), . . .}.

Continuous-Time vs. Discrete-Time Signals

signals at discrete-time instants.

Example:

Single Channel vs. Multi-Channel Signals

Single channel signals:

Represented by scalar functions (of time or other independent variables), such as

s(t) = a sin(2t).

Real-life example?

Multi-channel signals:

Represented by vector-valued functions (of time or other independent variables),

such as 2 3

s1 (t)

s(t) := 4 s2 (t) 5 2 R3

s3 (t)

Real-life example?

One-Dimensional vs. Multi-Dimensional Signals

(for example, time)

Examples?

One-Dimensional vs. Multi-Dimensional Signals

A. Three. Each point characterized by brightness of three principal

colors: red, green and blue

Q. How many dimensions does this signal have?

A. Three. Color of each point on a screen is a function of two

spatial coordinates (x, y) and time t.

2 3

Ir (x, y, t)

I(x, y, t) = 4 Ig (x, y, t) 5

Ib (x, y, t)

Continuous-Valued vs. Discrete-Valued Signals

Continuous-Valued Signal takes on all possible values from its con-

tinuous range

valued signal is called quantization

Continuous-Valued vs. Discrete-Valued Signals

Deterministic Signals vs. Random Signals

explicit mathematical expression or well-defined rule.

known precisely without any uncertainty.

known exactly but rather described in terms of their probability dis-

tributions.

random signals. A signal can be considered deterministic or random

depending on the mathematical model available.

Classification of Signals

Problem (Problem 1.1 from Proakis & Manolakis, 2007): Classify the following signals

according to whether they are (1) one- or multi-dimensional; (2) single or multichannel; (3)

continuous-time or discrete-time; and (4) analog or digital (in amplitude). Give a brief expla-

nation.

Q1. Closing prices of utility stocks on the New York Stock Exchange

A1. One dimensional, multichannel, discrete time, and digital.

Q3. Position of the steering wheel of a car in motion relative to cars reference frame

A3. One dimensional, single channel, continuous-time, analog.

Q4. Position of the steering wheel of a car in motion relative to ground reference frame

A4. One dimensional, multichannel, continuous-time, analog

A5. One dimensional, multichannel, discrete-time, digital

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