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Speaking strategies (153)

(Complied by S. Weavwer along with C. Alaya , K. Lbeck, And P. Mougel teachers in the
experimental section of the speaking Strategies Experiment, NLCRC/ CARLA, university of
Minnesota, November 1994)
1. Before you speak
Relaxation techniques
Visualizing you self succeeding


Identify the goal and purpose on that task: what is it you are to learn/ demonstrate in
the exercise?
Ask for clarification of the task if you are unsure of its goal, purpose, of how you are to do
Activate your background knowledge- what you already know about this situation/task.
Relate the task to a similar situation; make association.
Predict what is going to happen.
Predict the vocabulary you will need : make word maps, groupings.
Think of how you might circumlocutions for v0ocabulary you do not know; think of
synonyms, antonyms, explanations, or non- verbal communication that can substitute;
translate from the English to the foreign language any words you predict you will need
that you do not already know.
Predict the structures 9grammar) you will need.
Review similar task in your text book.
Transfers sounds and structures from previously learned material to the new situation.
Predict the difficulties you might encounter.
Plan your responses and contribution.
Organize your thought.
Prepare a general outline (use note, key words, and draw pictures). Predict what the other
party is going to say.
Rehearse (practice silently, act out in front of the mirror, and record your self and listen).
Cooperate in all areas if it is a group task.
Encourage your self to speak out, even thought you might make some mistake.

2. While you are speaking


Take your emotional temperature. If you are find you are tense, try to relax, funnel
your energy to your brain rather than your body 9laugh breathe deeply)
Concentrate on the task- do not let what is going on around you distract you.
Use tour prepared materials.
Ask for clarification (‘is this what I am supposed to do?) help
(someone for a word, let others know when you need help, or verification (ask
someone to correct your pronunciation).
Delay speaking. It’s okay to take time to think out your response.
Don’t give up. Don’t let your mistake stop you. If you talk your self into a corner or
become frustrated, back up, ask for a tome, and start over in another directions.
Think in the target language.
Encourage your self (use positive self- talk).

Choosing an effective strategy (69) depends on many factors, including the nature of
language task 9irts structure, purpose and demand) individual learner differences
(such as) age, gender, learning style preferences, language learning aptitude, and prior
experience in learning other foreign languages, career orientations, and personality
characteristics-, and the current and intended levels of language proficiency. No single
strategy will be appropriate for all learners or for all tasks, and individual learners can
and should apply the various strategies in different ways, according to their personal
language learning needs.

Definitions of strategy (68)

Language learning strategy are conscious thought and behaviors used by learners with
the explicit goal of improving their knowledge and understanding of a target language. The
language learning strategy repertoire includes cognitive strategy for memorizing and
manipulating target language structure, meat cognitive strategies for managing and
supervising their strategy use, affective strategies for gauging their emotional reaction to
learning and lower anxieties, and social strategies for enhancing learning, such as thought
cooperating with other learners and seeking opportunities to interact with native speaker.

Define: learning a second language (4)

Learning a second language means that the language being learned is that which is spoken in
the community in which it is being learned, while a foreign language is not spoken in the local
community. The term target language simply refers to that language being learned, whether as
a second language or foreign language. The reality is that sometimes a language which is
widely spoken in a given community is still as a foreign language because the learners may
have little or no direct contact with it. In this volume, while foreign language learning will be
used to refer exclusively to a situation where the language is not considered to be spoken in
the local community, second language will refer to the language spoken in the community and
will also at times serve as the generic term used to refer to both second and foreign language
learning. In earlier volume on language learning, I defined learning strategies as learning
process which are consciously selected by the learner. The element t of choice is important
here because this is what gives a strategy its special character.

Starteghies in Learning and Using a second language. Andrew D. Cohen. Malaysia.

1998. Longman : London and New York


Author Primary Strategy Representative Representative
Classification Secondary Example
Rubin (1981) Strategies that Clarification/ …
directly affect Verification
… … …
Guessing/ Guessing
inductive meaning from
interference key words,
pictures, context,
… … …

The teacher role is to model the correct forms and to provide cued feedback to student fine-
tune their acquisition of accurate structures and pronunciation, much as in Gagne’s
description. (31)
The learners are in a position to assess and revise a hypothesis based on the information
received from one or more of these hypothesis-testing ventures. (33)