NATU,RALG.As ,. .
:
RESERVOIR ENGINEERING
Prepared By:
Dr. Urayet, Abdulhamid
Tripoli, 2004
AAU/C/CONSULATANT/TRAINING/SIAlA/GASOUTLINES.doc
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 The course has been :divided into 8 main chaplers as follows: ....
AAU/C/CONSULATANTITRAINING/SIALA/GASOUTLINES.doc 2
NaturalGas Reservoir Enqineerinq
CONTENTS
1. Chapter 1 : DEFINITIONS AND CLASSIFICATION
1. 1 Definitions and Terminology
1.2 Dry Gas Reservoirs
1.3 Wet Gas Reservoirs
1.4 Condensatebearing Gas Reservoirs
1. 5 Impurities
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2. Chapter 2 : GAS DEVIATION FACTOR
2.1 Definitions and Terminology
2.2 Gas Deviation Factor
2.2.1 Deviation factors for singlecomponent system
2.2.2 Deviation factors for pure natural gases
Standing I Katz correlation
Brill and Beggs zfactor correlation
2.2.3 Gas deviation factor I Effect of impurities
The additive zfactor method
The modified Pc and Tc method (Wichert & Aziz)
2.2.4 Gas deviation factor I Practical _aspects
Treatment of heavier hydrocarbon components
Unavailability of the gas chemical composition
Effect of water vapor
AAU/C/CONSULATANT/TRAINING/SIALA/GASOUTLINES.doc 3
Cont'd Chapter 4.: GAS VOLUMETRICS
5.2
5.2.1
5.2.2
The Modified method
The Exact (Pseudogas Potential) method
Isochronal Testing
Isochronal test procedure
Isochronal test analysis
5.3 Accounting for the Condensates in the Analysis
AAU/C/CONSULATANT/TRAINING/SlALA/GASOUTLINES.doc 4
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Chapter 1
Conventional Natural gas reservoirs are, commonly, classified into three main
categories, as follows:
AAU/GAS/GASl.doc 1
I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
Liquid Recovery , LR
LR is normally used to classify the gas reservoir into dry or wet. It is important
to note that this definition should be used with caution when applied to the case
of condensatebearing gas reservoirs, since LR, in this case, represents the
total amount of hydrocarbon liquids accumulating in the separator, which
includes the liquids condensing from the gas under separator conditions, in
addition to, liquids which have, already, condensed in the formation, and are
produced once the critical saturation of liquid has been exceeded in the
formation.
Even though some engineers use the term Gas Oil Ratio as the inverse of the
Liquid Recovery, however, it is advisable to restrict the use of the GOR term to
oilreservoir calculations and terminology, and the term LR to the gas reservoir
terminoloqv.
AAU/GAS/GAS 1.doc 2
INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
Mole Fraction . x;
Eq (1.2) I
The Molecular weights of the different hydrocarbon and nonhydrocarbon
components, M;, normally present in natural gases and crude oils are given in
AppendixA, Table1.1.
Mgas M
Yg = Eq (1.4)
Mair 28.966
AAU/GAS/GAS I .doc 3
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Example 1. 1
The chemical composition of the free gas produced from the Braebum field in
Canada is given in columns (1 and 2) of the attached Table. Calculate the
apparent molecular weight , M, and .the gas specific gravity, r g.
Solution
I
 Ethane
Propane
(lso. +N) Butane
(lso. +N) Pentane
0.75
0.11
0.03
0.10
30.070
44.097
58.124
72.151
0.2253
0.0485
0.0174
0.0722
100.00 . 16.7794
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INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
The heavier components of the gas produced from a free gas reservoir would
condense into liquid at the surface conditions. In order to obtain the
composition of the reservoir gases and define the gas properties under
reservoir conditions, it is necessary to monitor the flow rates, the compositions,
and the related properties of the gas and condensate streams. Once the
necessary separator data is obtained, accurate determinations of the gas
composition in the reservoir can be obtained experimentally or analytically.
For quick estimation of the reservoir gas gravity, the following equation can be
used:
4584 Yes
Ygs +
Res Eq (1.5)
Yg =
1+132,800 Yes
MoRes
where,
IM 0 0
6084 Eq (1.6)
AP! 5.9 I
AAU/GAS/GAS I .doc 5
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
Example 1. 2
Calculate the specific gravity of gas in the reservoir, given the following data :
Solution
141.5
1) calculate AP!= 131.5 = 141.5 131.5 =65.03
Yes 0.72
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I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
From a practical engineering point , the DRY gas is usually defined as a gas
which is associated with less than TEN barrels of separator liquids per Million
scf of gas produced (i.e. LR< 10 STB I MM sen. The very small amount of
hydrocarbon liquids will usually have an API gravity of 70+, corresponding to
liquid specific gravity less than 0.7.
TABLE 1.1
Typical Composition of natural DRY gas reservoirs
ExamoleA * Examole  B **
Methane 96.55 96.39
Ethane 2.15 0.75
Propane 0.45 0.11
(lso. +N) Butane 0.18 0.03
(lso. +N) Pentane 0.07 0.10
Hexane 0.25 
Heptanes plus 0.04 
Carbon Dioxide 0.31 0.97
Hydrogen Sulfide  1.04
Nitrogen  0.61
100.00 100.00
C1 % 96.85 98.98
(C1 + C2) % 99.01 99.75
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INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
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TABLE 1.2
Typical Composition of natural WET gas reservoirs
ExamoleC * Examole  D **
Methane 89.132 85.83
Ethane 3.433 5.16
Propane 1.064 2.32
{lso. +N) Butane 0.676 1.38
(lso. +N) Pentane 0.349 0.57
Hexane 0.320 0.29
Heptanes plus 0.990 0.35
Carbon Dioxide 3.303 3.85
Hydrogen Sulfide 0.733 0.25
100.00 100.00
Liquid Recovery 11 16
(STB/MM scf)
Seoarator conditions 449 psia /91 F NA
Gas specific qravitv 0.6764 0.688
Liquid qravitv (API) 51.3 NA
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INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
CondensateBearing gases differ in composition from the DRY and WET gases
in that they contain appreciable amounts of the heavier hydrocarbons such as
Butanes (C4), P~ntanes (C5), Hexane (C6 ) ,and Heptanes plus (Cj).
CondensateBearing gas reservoirs will produce more than TWENTY barrels
of separator liquids per Million scf of produced gas at normal field separator
conditions. Rich CondensateBearing gases have been identified with
producing ratios as high as (400) barrels of liquid condensate per Million scf of
produced gas. The average API of the produced liquids ranges normally from
an API gravity of the light crudes ( i.e. 45 ) to a maximum of 60 .
TABLE1.3
Practical Field Classification of Natural Gases
NOTE:
AAU/GAS/GAS I .doc 9
AppendixA I Table 1.1
1
Physical Constants of Hydrocarbons
Crltlcol conatonta
...l...:
0
:!
ci
No. Compound :i
1! .
;; ~
a
......
1~ t
: f
1 Moth0tto
1
IL
16.0.C3 258.69
lk
>
(5000)
:u:
IL
296.46d 667.8
707.8
a':
116.63
90.09
0
>
0.0991
0.0788
(800) 297.89d
2 Ethono 30.070 127.CS 616.3 206.01 0.0737
.C3.67 190 305.8.Cd
3 Propotio .C.C.097 305.65 0.0702
51.6 217.95 560.7
4 autono 58.12.C 31.10 27.C.98 0.072.C
72.2 '..;255.29 529.1
5 loltvt 58.12.C 10.90.
201.51 .CS.8.6 385.7 0.0675
72.151 96.92 . 15.570 0.0679
6 Pontono 20.4.C 255.83 490 .C 369.10
7 lopontono 72.151 12.12 2.11 '6.C.0 321.13 0.067.C
72.151 .ct.10 35.9
I Noo...,.tono 436.9 453.7 0.0688
155.72 .c.956 139,58
9 Hoiruo 16.178 2.63 436.6 .C35.83 0.0681
16.178 140.c 6.767 4"8.3 0.0681
 2Mothrlpontono 6.098 453.1
I . 3Mothrlpontono 86178 1.C5.19 4"6.8 420.13 0.0667
9.856 1.C7.72
Noohoir 16.178 121.52 199.38 .CS3.5 .C.C0.29 0.0665
86.178 136.36 7.CO.C
13 2,30lmothrlbvtono '396.8 512.8 0.0691
209.17 1.620 131.05
14 Hoptono 100.205 180.89 396.5 .C95.00 0.0673
100.205 19.C.09 2.211 0.06'6
15 2Mothrlhoxono 408.1 503.78
100.205 197..32 2.130 513.CS 0.0665
16 3Mothrlhoaono 2.012 181 .CS '19.3
17 3E~rlpontono 100.205 200.25 190.86. 402.2 .cn.23 0.0665
100.205 17.C.S.C 3.492 475,95 0.0668
11 2,201thrlpontono 3.292 182.63 396.9
19 2,40lmothrlpontono 100.205 176.19 210.01 .C27.2 505.85 0.0662
100.205 186.91 2.773 496 .C.C 0.0636
20 3,301thylpontono 3.374 12.12 .C28 .c
21 Trlptono 100.205 177.58 0.0690
70.18 360.6 56.C.22
114.232 258.22 0.537 530. 0.0676
22 nOctono 1.101 132.07 360.6
23 Dliaobutrl 114.232 228.39 161.27 372 . .C 519.46 0.0656
114.232 210.63 1.708
2.C faooctofto 6.C.28 332. 610.68 0.068"
128.259 303.C7 0.179
25 nNonono 21.36 30.C. 652.1 0.0679
142.286 345. .CS 0.0597 0;059
2' nDocono 136.91 653.8 '61.S
70.135 '. 120.65 9.91.C .C99.35 0.0607
27 Cyclopontono 4.503 224. S.CS.9
28 Mothylcyclopontono e.c.162 161.25 591. 536.7 0.0586
3.26.C 43.77
29 Cycloho 14.162 177.29 503.5 570.27 0.0600
1.609 195.87
30 Mothylcydoftoxono 98.189 213.68 . .CS.58 0.0737
272 .C50 729.8
31 Ethylono 28.05.c 15.c.62 669. 196.9 0.0689
226 .C 301 .c5d
32 Propono 42.081 53.90 $83. 295.6 0;0685
63.05 301.63d
33 1Bvtono 56.108 20.75 610. 32.C.37 0.0668
45.s.c 218.06 0.0680
:M Clo2Butono 56.108 38.69 595. 311.86
49.80 157.96 0.0682
35 Trono2But.fto 56.108 33.58 . 220.61 580 292.55
56.108 19.59 63 .CO 376.93 0.0697
. . . . . .u t  . 19.115 265.39 590.
70~135. 85.93 : (339.) (0.0649)
1Ponteno (20.) 213.16 (653.)
.S.C.o92 51.53 628. 306. 0.065"
38 1.2.:..allf041
2.C.06 (60.) 164.02 . "'12.) (0.0650) .
39 1,3BvtoclloRO" S.C.092 16.672 230.7.C (558 .C)
68.119 . 93.30 95.31 0.0695
114. 890..C
.co
.cl 
Acotrlono 26.038 1.190
.Cl.96 710.C 552.22 0.0531
78.114 176.17 3.22.c 595,9 605."55 0.05.C9
Q Bona 1.032 138.9.C 0.056
43 Tol . 92.1"1 ' 231.13 138.91 523.5 . 651.2.C
106.168 277.16 0.371 0.0557
.c.c Ethrlbonaono 13.30 5.CU 615.0
29L97 0.26.C 0.0567
45 x,,1one 106.168
106.168 282 .Cl 0.326 5.C.12 513.6 651.02
6.C9.6 0.0572
'6 111Xylono o.:M2 55.86 509.2
106.168 281.05 sao. 106.0 O.OS.Cl
41 pXylono (0.2.C) 23.10 0.0570
.cs Styrene 10.C.152 293.29 140. 82 "65 .C '76 ..C
120.195 .306.:M . 0.188 0.0589(21)
49 laopropylbonaono 1"3.82(22) 117.C.2(21) "62.97(21)
148.1(2) .C.63(22) .C69.58(21) o.o580C2U
50 Motftyl Alcohol 32.G.42 173 .C(22) 925.3(21)
'6.069 172.92(22) 2.3(7) 220.(17) o.os32C17>
51 Ethyl Alcohol 3.C0.6(2) 501 .(17) o.03.C2C23)
52 Cor.bon Monoxide 28.010 313.6(2) 1071.(17) 87.9(23)
.C.C.010 109.3(2) 212.7(17) 0.0459(2.C)
53 CorbOfl Oloaldo 39".0(6) 117 .2(7) 1306.(17)
5.C Hydrogen Sulfide :M.076 76.6(2.C) 11.C5.(2.Cl 315.5(17) o.o306C2">
88.(7) 103.9(7)
55 Sulfur Oloaldo 6.C.059 1.c.0(7) 1636.(17) 270.3(2.Cl o.068H17>
212.(7) 107.9(2) o.0517C3>
56 Ammonlo NH1 17.031 28.2(2.Cl 5.C7.(21 221.3(2)
28.96.C 317.6(2) 399.8(17) o.5167(2.Cl
57 Air HzOi .C3.C.8(2.C) 188.1(17) 0.0382(2.C)
S4 Hrdro9en Hz 2.016 .C23.0(2.C) 361.8(2.C) 736.9(2.C) 181.1 (17)
31.999 297 . .C(2) 232 . .C(2.Cl 0.051.ccm
59 Oargen Ci 3.C6.0(2.Cl .C9J.0(2.C)
60 Nitrogen 28.013 320 . .C(2) 291.(17) o.028H17>
Na 154.(7) U9.8(2A) 1118 . .C(2.Cl o.o5oocm
61 Chlorine Clz 70.906 29.3(24) 32.0 3208.(17) 705.6(17)
212.0 0.9.C92(12)
62 Wotor HaO 18.015
Ho .C.003 12.C.5(17) o.0208C17>
63 Helium 173.6(16) 1198.(17>
HCI 36 ..C61 121(16) 925.(7)
6.C Ht'droaen Chloride
INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
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TABLE 1.4
Typical Composition of CONDENSATEbearing gas reservoirs
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I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
1.5 IMPURITIES
Impurities associated. with natural gases may include one or more of the
following items :
Almost all the Libyan natural gas reservoirs are contaminated by Carbon
Dioxide, Nitrogen, and Hydrogen sulfide in varying amounts. Other types of
impurities are rare occurrences, and (usually) with negligible concentrations.
Typical Libyan gases containing impurities are illustrated in TABLE 1.5 . As can
be seen from the table, the Carbon Dioxide ( C02 ), and Hydrogen Sulfide (
H 2 S) can be considered the major (and consequently the most troublesome)
impurity constituents in the Libyan gas production and treatment practices.
AAU/GAS/GAS I .doc 11
INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
TABLE 1.5
Examples of some Libyan Gas Fields
containing high percentages of impurities
AAU/GAS/GAS 1.doc 12
I Natural Gas Rese"YVoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
Water vapor. Carbon dioxide. and Hydrogen sulfide are normally present in
varying amounts in all natural gas reservoirs. All three impurities can cause
serious problems in the production of the wells. in the operation of the surface
facilities. and in the transportation and marketing of the natural gas. This
special treatment normally constitutes a heavy load on the initial investment
required for the field development; as well as, on the operating costs. In brief, .
the main production problems caused by these three types of impurities can be
summarized as follows :
Every natural gas reservoir has a certain initial liquidwater saturation which is
determined by the geologic environment. In addition, the gas phase will always
contain a certain amount of water vapors. Even if only the single gas phase is
produced, the reduction of pressure and temperature in the well bore, in the
flow lines, and in the surface facilities will result in the condensation of the
water vapors to form a free water phase .
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INatural Gas Reservoir Engi.neering Dr. A. A. Urayet
which is very toxic. Extensive gas treatment is, especially, required if the flaring
center is in the proximity of inhabited areas.
The effect of carbon dioxide is not as critical as the hydrogen sulfide, mainly,
because it does not constitute an environmental problem. The main production
problem associated with the presence of carbon dioxide in natural gases is the
formation of corrosive acids in the presence of water. Another problem would
be the lowering of the heat content of the natural gas, consequently, requiring
special treatment before marketing .
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INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
Chapter 2
The most important gas properties are primarily determined by the Gas
Composition, Pressure, and Temperature. Prior to introducing the different
techniques of evaluating these properties, it is necessary to know understand
the basic gas laws governing ideal singlecomponent gases, and to learn how
to account for the deviation of the Hydrocarbon natural gas performance from
these laws.
Prior to discussing the different fundamental gas laws, and the techniques used
in the evaluation of the different physical properties of natural gases, it is
important to introduce the following important definitions:
The critical pressure, Pc. and the critical temperature, Tc. for a single
component gas are defined as the Pressure and the Temperature at the Critical
Point (i.e. the point at which the intensive properties of the gas and liquid
phases are identical). In simple terms, the critical temperature, Tc. can be
defined as the temperature above which the gas CANNOT be liquified,
regardless of the pressure exerted on the svstem. Whereas, the critical
pressure, Pc. is defined as the pressure at which the gas phase will be in
equilibrium with the liquid phase when the system is at the critical temperatrure.
The critical values for the more common hydrocarbon components of natural
gases and the impurities normally associated with them are given in Appendix
A, Table1 .1.
AAU/GAS/GAS2.doc
INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
where,
n =number of components
x; = mole fraction of the ith component
Pei= critical pressure of the ith component, and
Tc;= critical temperature of the ith component
and, T. =_I_
r T
Pc
Eqs (2.2)
I
where, P and T are the Pressure and the Temperature of the gas system
respectively.
The Law of Corresponding States expresses that "All PURE gases have the
same characteristics at the same values of reduced pressure and reduced
temperature". By characteristics, it is meant the physical properties such as
deviation factor, density, and viscosity. This Law has proven to be a very
powerful tool in the analysis of the behavior (and the evaluation of the physical
properties) of gases in general, and natural gas systems in particular.
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I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
Different investigators have shown that this law applies very effectively for any
gas mixture. as long as the gas components have similar molecular
characteristics O.e. if the components are closely related chemically).
Consequently, this law is expected to apply very effectively for pure hydro
carbon gases since they are all of the paraffin group. However, deviations will
occur with increasing percentage of impurities (since they have a different
molecular and chemical structures). The degree of deviation will depend on the
type of impurity component in the natural gas; with the highest deviations
occuring in the case of Hydrogen Sulfide (H 2 S), lesser deviations in the case of
Nitrogen (N 2 ), and the least deviations would be in the case of Carbon Dioxide
(C02).
Extensive Properties
These are the physical properties which are dependent on the quantity of gas
available, such as Volume (V), and, mass (m), and,
Intensive Properties
These are the physical properties that are independent of the quantity of gas,
such as density, specific gravity, viscosity, and, gas compressibility. These are
the properties which are basically of interest to the reservoir engineer.
Equation of State
The "Equation of State. EOS " can be defined as an equation which relates the
three fundamental thermodynamic properties of any gas system, namely,
Volume (V), Pressure (P), and, Temperature (T).
1) the total volume of the gas molecules is considered negligible with respect
to the volume occupied by the gas, (i.e. the volume of the container),
2) there are no attractive or repulsive forces between the gas molecules, nor,
between the gas molecules and the container, and,
AAU/GAS/GAS2.doc 3
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
Combining the three fundamental gas laws which govern ideal gas behavior,
namely, Boyles Law, Charles and Gay Lussac Law, and Avogadro Principle,
the Equation of State for an Ideal Gas can be written in the following form:
IPV=nRT Eq (2.3) I
where,
n =the number of pound (lb) moles of gas present in a Volume, V,
P = Pressure of the system, psia,
T =Temperature of the system, degrees Rankin, and,
R = the Universal Gas Constant, R = 10.72 lb.;ole , (English system)
in .0 R
Example 2.1
3
The volume of a vessel containing 5 lbs of methane is 2 ft . Assuming ideal gas
behavior, calculate:
Solution
m 5
n = number of lbmoles =  = = 0.31166 lbmoles
M 16.043
a) T F = 32 + 2_(T 0
C) = 32 + 2_(50) = 122 F
5 5
PV= nRT
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INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
Numerous forms of the EOS have been developed to describe the natural gas
behavior. Some of the best known forms are:
this equation is best suited for single component gases, and consequently its
use should be restricted to Dry natural gases composed mainly of Methane.
The equation contains five constants which have been determined empirically
from laboratory measurements.
this equation is considered, currently, as one of the best and most suitable
forms of the Equation of State describing the Pure (i.e. less than 2 mole %
impurity) Dry, Wet and Lean CondensateBearing natural gases (LR<50) over
the single and two phase regions. The BWR equation contains eight constants
which have been determined semiempirically. The BWR Equation have been
tested by comparison of computed to experimental behavior of different gas
samples worldwide, and was proven to be very accurate in describing natural
gas behavior for all ranges of pressures, temperatures, and. compositions.
However. corrections must be introduced in case of gases containing high
heptane plus and/or impurity content.
AAU/GAS/GAS2.doc 5
INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
I PV =znRT Eq (2.4)
I
The term "Gas Deviation Factor" will be used through out these notes, even
though many technical people in the industry use the term "Gas Compressibility
Factor" to signify the same factor, z. Our choice is made mainly to avoid
confusion in terms, since the term "Compressibility factor, C", is used in all
branches of science and engineering to signify the relative change in volume
with respect to the change in pressure and/or temperature.
The Deviation Factors for different single hydrocarbon component gases were
determined experimentally, and, then plotted and correlated as a function of
pressure, P, and Temperature, T. These correlations are found in all Reservoir
Engineering books. The characteristic shape of the zfactor correlation is
illustrated in Figure (2.1) for Methane. This figure clearly indicate the following
important features:
The z factor will decrease in value with increasing Pressure until a certain
minimum is reached, then the zfactor will start increasing afterwards with
any increase in pressure, (i.e. dzldp becomes positive).
AAU/GAS/GAS2.doc 6
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
1.20
Methane
1.10
1.00
le
0.9
0.8
..
....0u
.!': 0.7
c
0
;;
"'
;; 0.6
<1>
0
....
"'
(.'.)
0.5
0.4
0.3
40
0.2 22
""'I\  4 +1~+f
68 32
140 104
0.1 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000
0 500 1000 1500 Pressure psi a
Pressure pounds per square inch absolute
AAU/GAS/GAS2.doc 7
j Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
Even though laboratory measurements are the most accurate method for
determining the zfactor for any gas mixture, however, the extensive effort and
time, and the sophisticated measuring devices required, have encouraged the
trend toward developing semiempirical techniques in order to evaluate the z
factor of any gas mixture.
These extended charts cover the normal range of Field Pressures and
Temperatures. Linear extrapolation of these curves beyond (Pr= 24) can be
applied with minimum error.
Consequently, in order to calculate the zfactor for any pure natural gas system
at a certain pressure and temperature, the following procedure can be applied :
1 Read from AppendixA I Table 1.1 the critical values of pressure and
temperature for each component,
AAU/GAS/GAS2.doc 8
I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
2 Use the chemical analysis of the gas mixture to calculate Ppc, and Tpc for
the gas, using Eqs (2.1 ),
3 Calculate Pr, and Tr, of the gas system, using Eqs (2.2),
4 Use the Standing I Katz charts, AppendixA I Fig (2.1) to read the value of
the zfactor corresponding to the calculated Pr and Tr values;
The proper procedure for the use of Standing I Katz charts to calculate the Gas
Deviation Factor is illustrated in Example Problem 2.2.
Example 2.2
The chemical composition of the gas produced from Braeburn field in Canada is
given in the attached Table (columns 1 and 2). Calculate the gas deviation
factor, z, for the following conditions:
Solution:
2. Calculate (x; . Pei) and (x; . Tci) for each component as shown in columns 5
and 6.
AAU/GAS/GAS2.doc 9
INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
3. Calculate:
n n
PPc = L:XiPc; = 677.32 ,and, TpC = LXi.Tc.I =350.62
i=l i=l
Casea Caseb
z = 0.94 z =0.92
AAU/GAS/GAS2.doc 10
INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
I
Different investigators have tried to represent the Standing/Katz zfactor charts
mathematically for computer use. However, most of the available mathematical
expressions would require the solution of a system of NonLinear equations
numerically such as the "HallYarborough correlation" and the "Dranchuk,
Purvis and Robinson" correlation. One of the simplest and most practical
expressions available in literature for the evaluation of the zfactor is the Brill
and Beggs Correlation which has the following form:
1A D
z=A++c.Pr Eq (2.5)
eB
where,
The Brill and Beggs correlation is within the accuracy requirements for all
practical Reservoir Engineering problems. They are most accurate in the range
1.2 < Tr < 2.4 , and Pr < 13.
The proper procedure for the use of the Brill and Beggs correlation to calculate
the Gas Deviation Factor is illustrated in Example Problem 2.3.
Example 2.3
Use the data given in Example 2.2 (parta) to calculate the zfactor using the
Brill and Beggs zfactor correlation
AAU/GAS/GAS2.doc 11
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
Solution
Consequently,
05
A= l.39(Tr  0.92)  0.36Tr 0.101
A= 1.39(1.97 0.92) 0 5  0.36(1.97) 0.101=0.614126
6
 0.037)P} + OC~;~ 9)
66
B = (0.62  0.23Tr )Pr + ( 0.0
Tr 0.86 10 r
6
 0.03 7)(4.429) + 0. ~~;:;~?
66 2 3
B = (0.62  0.23xl .97)(4.429) + ( 0.0
1.97  0.86 10 . 
B =1.1707703
2
D = Antilog(0.31060.49Tr + 0.1824Tr )
D = Anti log(0.3106  0.49(1.97) + 0.1824(1.97) 2 ) = 1.1302543
Consequently ,
1A D
z =A+ B +c.Pr
e
z = 0.9358
AAU/GAS/GAS2.doc 12
INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
Two approaches have been suggested in the literature for including the effect
of the impurities in the calculation of the Deviation Factor. These two
approaches can be termed the "Additive zfactor method", and the "modified Pc
and Tc method". These two approaches can be summarized as follows:
Eq (2.6)
where,
Xhydr = sum of the mole fractions of the hydrocarbon components
xco2, Xtt2s , and xN2 =mole fractions of the different impurities, and,
zco2, ZH2s, and ZN2 =deviation factors of the different impurities.
It is important here to note that the Deviation Factor for the hydrocarbon
components, Zhydr, should be calculated as if only hydrocarbons are present in
the system. In other words the Tpc and Ppc used in Eq 2.5 (or entered to the
Standing I Katz charts) to evaluate zhydr should be calculated as follows:
AAU/GAS/GAS2.doc 13
.""' ,,,,,,,,, __ 
,,,,_,_, ,,,.
In this method the calculated value of Ppc and Tpc are modified, and then the
(~ new values of Pr and Tr calculated on this basis are entered to the Standing I
Katz charts or Brill and Beggs correlation, Eq 2.5, to evaluate the Deviation
Factor. It is important to note that the modified values have NO physical
significance, and should only be understood as a mathematical correction to
the Katz charts.
One of the simplest (and yet very accurate ) methods available in literature for
the modification of Ppc and Tpc was presented by Wichert and Aziz, (RF2.6).
In this method, the modified pseudocritical properties can be calculated as
follows:
' =T &
Tpc pc. 
'
, PP .TP
p = c c Eqs (2.8)
Pc TPc + B(l  B)&
where,
Tpc and Ppc are the critical temperature and pressure for the gas mixture
including the impurities, and,
AAU/GAS/GAS2.doc 14
Dr. A. A. Urayet
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering
Note : Quick estimate of (8) can be obtained from the graphical form of the
correlation given in AppendixA I Fig (2.2) .
The Wichert and Aziz correlation should prove very useful in the analysis of
Libyan gas reservoirs. The correlation has an average absolute error of 0.97%
(for P < 7026 psia, and T < 300 F) for the range of data used in the
development of the correlation which included C02 concentrations as high as
54.4 %, and H2 S concentrations as high as 73.8 %.
There are many other correlations available in the literature, however, most of
them require a trial and error procedure, and consequently, make them fit for
computer use mainly .
The proper procedure for the use of the Wichert and Aziz correlation to
calculate the Gasoeviation Factor is illustrated in Example Problem 2.4.
Example 2.4
Use the data given in Example 2.2 (parla) to calculate the zfactor using the
modified Pc and Tc method, (Wichert and Aziz correlation).
Solution:
the modified Pc  Tc method
and, consequently ,
AAU/GAS/GAS2.doc 15
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
Substitution of the modified Pr and Tr in the Brill and Beggs correlation, (as
=
illustrated in Example 2.3) will give a value of ( z 0.9432 ), as compared to the
=
value of (z 0.9358) obtained by using the Brill and Beggs correlation directly
(without any modifications for impurities) in Example 2.3. The very small
difference in the results clearly proves that Brill and Beggs correlation can be
used with very small error for any natural gas with Low concentrations of C02 L
or Hz..S.
/ shown in AppendixA I Fig 2.3. And, consequently, the heavier components can
now be included in the normal procedure of calculating (Pr) and (Tr) which
would be introduced to the Standing/Katz charts to calculate the zfactor.
AAU/GAS/GAS2.doc 16
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
In many instances the accurate chemical composition of the natural gas might
not be available. This normally occurs when field calculations are required at
the early life of the field (to make preliminary estimates of the gas in place and
recoverable reserves). In this case the specific gas gravity can be used to esti
mate the values of (Pc) and (Tc) for the gas system from the available charts
shown in AppendixA I Fig (2.4).
Sutton R.P. presented the following relationships for the calculation of the
pseudocritical properties using the specific gravity of the natural gas:
This simple correlation should be corrected using the correction graphs given in
AppendixA I Fig 2.4 to account for impurities.
AAU/GAS/GAS2.doc 17
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
Problem 2. 5.
Calculate the gas deviation factor. Use the pseudocritical constants evaluated
from:
a) the individual Pci and Tc; ,
b) the Sutton correlation
Solution:
1) enter with the molecular weight and specific gravity of C7 + to Fig 2.3
(AppendixA), and read Pc; (C1 +) = 1040 psia, and Te; (C1 +) = 505 R
2) Read from Table 1. 1 (Appendix A) the values of P ci and Tc; for the individual
components, and enter into columns 3and 4
n
4) calculate PPc = L,xi.Pq =680.7 psia
i=I
5) enter with the values of C0 2 and H 2 S mole percentages to the Wichert and
Aziz graph, Fig 2.2 (AppendixA), and read 5  6
6) use Wichert and Aziz correlation, Eqs (2.8), to correct Ppc and Tpc as follows:
AAU/GAS/GAS2.doc 18
\ Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet I
e 8) finally, enter with the values of Pr and Tr to the Standing I Katz correlation,
Fig 2. 1 (AppendixA), and read z =0.905
= 756.8131.0(0.688)3.6(0.688) 2 = 665
and,
AAU/GAS/GAS2.doc 19
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
5) finally, enter with the values of Pr and Tr to the Standing I Katz correlation,
Fig 2.1 (AppendixA), and read z =0.908
AAU/GAS/GAS2.doc 20
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
REFERENCES
AAU/GAS/GAS2.doc 21
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
AAU/GAS/GAS2.doc 22
Pt; 4=t 4
I NaturalGas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet I
Chapter 3
Even though there are numerous gas properties which are of importance in the
industrial use of natural gases, such as thermal conductivity, enthalpy, entropy,
gasoline content, etc.; however, in this section, only the physical properties which
are related to Reservoir Engineering will be considered; namely, the Gas
Formation Volume Factor (Bg ), the Gas Compressibility (Cg), the Gas Viscosity
(ug), the Water Content of natural gases, and the Hydrateformation conditions.
AAU/GAS/GAS3.doc
I NaturalGas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
Example 3.1
The following data is available for a newly discovered natural gas reservoir
3
Gas Initially In Place , GllP = 17. 53 Billion ft
reservoir pressure = 3320 psia
reservoir temperature = 195 F
gas specific gravity = 0.75
Solutlon
 since the gas composition is not available, the gas specific gravity can be used
to calculate the pseudocritical properties.
Enter Fig 2.4 (AppendixA) with the value of r g =O. 75, and read,Ppc =665 psia, .
 calculate
P. =~ = 3320 = 4.99 and, T, =_I_= 195+460=1.60
r ppc 665 I
Tpc 410
 enter with the calculated values of Pr and Tr to the Standing/Katz charts, Fig
2.1 (AppendixA), and read z 0.845 =
a) substitute into Eq (3.2) as follows:
B = 35.35~ scf
g zT ft3
AAU/GAS/GAS3.doc 2
I NaturalGas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
The "coefficient of compressibility " which represents the ability of the substance
to be compressed is a complex function of the chemical composition and
. physical properties of the substance. This coefficient is Highly pressuresensitive
in the case of gases, Less pressure:sensitive in the case of liquids with gas in
solution such as oil, Even Less pressuresensitive in the case of non
hydrocarbon liquids (such as water), and is, practically, Insensitive to pressure
variations in the case of solids.
The " Isothermal Compressibility " can be defined as the "relative" change in the
volume of a substance due to the change in pressure imposed on the system,
when the Temperature is constant. Using this definition, the Isothermal
Compressibility, "c", for any substance can be written as follows:
lc=_!_.dV
V dP
Eq (3.3) I
This equation is combined to the RealGas law (Eq 2.4) to derive an expression
for the Coefficient of Isothermal Compressibility for natural gases (normally
abbreviated as "Gas Compressibility') as follows:
c = _ _!__ dV = _ P _!!:_(znRT)
g V dP znRT dP P
c = P .nRT.()=
d z P( z()+.
1 1 dz)
g znRT dP P z p2 P dP
and,
Eq (3.4) I
If the Z vs. P plot has already been developed by the engineer for a certain gas
reservoir, then Eq 3.4 can be used effectively to calculate the gas
compressibility.
AAU/GAS/GAS3.doc 3
I NaturalGas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
,,... 
(
Inspection of Eq 3.4 clearly indicates that :
for an Ideal gas the value of (z) is constant and is equal to 1; consequently,
the coefficient of isothermal compressibility is inversely proportional to the
pressure, (Le. Cg =1 IP).
for natural gases, the gas compressibility could be higher or lower than the
"ideal" gas compressibility depending on the pressure of the system; that is,
at low pressures, the term dz/dP is negative and consequently, Cg > 1/P,
whereas at high pressures, dzldP is positive, and consequently, Cg < 1/P.
Direct substitution of Pr =P/Ppc (i.e. P =Ppc.Pr) into Eq (3.4) would result in the
following expression:
IC g =
1  .1(  1dz
Ppc Pr z dPr
) Eq (3.5) I
where Ppc is the pseudocritical pressure of the gas.
There are different numerical approaches to the evaluation of the isothermal gas
compressibility. One of the simplest and more accurate involves the concept of
PseudoReduced Compressibility, c,, which was defined by Trube (RF3.1) as
follows:
or, Eq (3.6) I
Combining Eqs 3.5 and 3.6, the following expression is obtained,
Eq (3.7) I
AAU/GAS/GAS3.doc 4
I NaturalGas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
The viscosity of a fluid, in general, represents the resistance of that fluid to flow.
It is a character of the fluid and is independent of the media in which the fluid is
flowing. More specifically, the Dynamic Viscosity of a fluid represents the ratio
between the shear stress per unit area divided by the velocity gradient
perpendicular to the plane of shear.
In petroleum engineering, the viscosity term appears in all the dynamic equations
representing the fluid flow; in the porous media of the reservoir system, into the
wellbore, up to the well head, and through the flow lines and pipelines to the
gathering systems.
There are two main approaches in the literature for the evaluation of natural gas
viscosity under reservoir conditions:
A widely used graphical correlation for evaluating the viscosity of the gas was
developed by Carr et.al. The procedure involves two main steps as follows:
Knowing the molecular weight or the specific gravity of the gas, use Carr
et. Al correlation (Fig 3.3 AppendixA) to read the atmospheric viscosity,
a at the required temperature.
Calculate Pr and Tr and enter to Carr et. Al. correlation (Figs 3.4 or 3.5
AppendixA) to read g I a, and hence calculate the gas viscosity g .
AAU/GAS/GAS3.doc 7
I NaturalGas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
The Carr et. al. correlation includes Corrections for Carbon Dioxide, Hydrogen
Sulfide, and Nitrogen. It is not advisable to extrapolate the correction graphs
beyond the 15% impurity mole percent limit indicated on the graph,
Practically one of the most accurate formulas for the calculation of the gas
viscosity is that developed by Lee, Gonzalez, and Eakin (RF3.6), which has the
following form:
and,
AAU/GAS/GAS3.doc 8
I NaturalGas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
The standard deviation factor of the calculated viscosity using the above
correlation (as compared to the measured lab data) is only 2.69 % in spite of the
wide range of data used in the derivation of the correlation. The data range
included 100 < P (psia) < 8000, 100 < T ('F) < 340, and C02 content of 0.9  3.2
mole%. 4
. "O'
It is important to note that this correlation should lbe used u r when
applied to some Libyan reservoirs which have a very high C02 content,
(reaching to more than 60% in some cases).
Example 3.3
Given the gas composition shown in Table 3.3 (columns 1 and 2), calculate the
= =
gas viscosity at T 200 F and P 3520 psia , using
Solution:

1Tabulate the molecular weights of the individual gas components, using
Appendix A, Table 1.1, as shown in column (3),
3 Enter the Carr et.al. correlation (Fig 3.3/AppendixA) with the calculated
=
M=20.0527, and read, a =0.0128 at T 200 F,
20.0527
4 Calculate y g = = 0.6923 ~ 0.7
28.966
5 Use the specific gravity of the gas as well as the individual mole fraction of
each of the impurities to read the correction values as follows:
AAU/GAS/GAS3.doc 9
I NaturalGas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
.
correction for N2 =+0.0002 for XN2 =2.03%
6 Calculate g = a+ corrections
=0.0128 + 0.0003 + 0 + 0.0002
=0.0133 cp
1.0000 20.0527
I
7) Calculate Ppe and Tpe for the gas mixture, using the individual component Pei
and Tei as explained in earlier examples. The results should be Ppc = 670 psia,
and Tpe = 385 R.
p 3520
8) Calculate Pr =  = = 5 .254
Ppc 670
2 460
and, Tr = __!_ = 00 + = L714
Tpc 385
AAU/GAS/GAS3.doc 10
I NaturalGas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
9) Enter the Carr et.al. correlation, Fig (3.5) with the values of Py and Tr and
read ~=1..7
a
1) Enter with the values of Py and Tr to the Standing/Katz correlation, Fig (2.1),
and read z = 0.89
2)Ca/cu/ate:
p = 1.4935(10)3 PM
zT
5
K = (9.379 + 0.01607M)Tl.
(209.2+19.26M + T)
5
K = (9.379 + 0.01607(20.527))(660)1. = 130 _18
(209.2+19.26(20.527) + 660)
986
X = 3.448 + .4 + 0.01009M
T
986.4
x = 3.448 + + 0.01009(20.527) = 5.1497
200+460
Y = 2.447  0.2224X
AAU/GAS/GAS3.doc II
I NaturalGas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
g = (10 4 )K.exp(Xpy)
Note that the results of both techniques are practically identical (1.5%
difference). The vety small difference can be attributed to the inherent error in
reading the graphs.
AAU/GAS/GAS3.doc 12
I NaturalGas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
All natural gases contain varying amounts of water vapor. The amount of water
required to saturate a natural gas (normally termed Saturation Content) is a
function of pressure and temperature.
._ "Sweet natural gases" are defined as natural gases containing NO (or negligible)
9 amounts of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide. A plot of the water vapor
content of "Sweet natural gases" as a function of pressure and temperature is
given in AppendixA I Fig 3.6. It is important to note that the value of the water
vapor content read from the plot should be corrected for the water salinity and
the gas gravity. An illustration of the proper use of this plot is given in the
following example.
Example 3.4
Calculate the total amount of free water condensing in the stream, when the
temperature is lowered to 80 F. Assume sweet gas. Also, assume that there
was no free water at the original temperature of 110 F.
Solution
1) Enter the vapor content chart (Fig 3. 6) at T =110 F, and P =1500 psia , and
read mwv =59 lb water I MM scf of gas
2) make the necessary corrections as follows :
AAU/GAS/GAS3 .doc 13
I NaturalGas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
 use the gas gravity correction chart to read CG =0. 99, for T =110 F, and the
given gas gravity of 0. 70 .
4) consequently, the amount of water condensing from the natural gas will be:
5) finally , the free water accumulating daily in the gas stream will be equal to :
The presence of liquid water in the same stream with natural gas results in the
formation of Hydrates which are solids resembling ice in appearance. Hydrates
form under pressure at temperatures as high as 85 F (29.4 C). The presence
of liquid water is necessary for the formation of Hydrates. This is one reason why
the gas stream must be dehydrated to certain minimum limits.
H1 0 The Hydrates (which should not be confused with free liquid water condensing
c.~
. :z.
e from the gas) are materials that have fixed chemical composition. but exist
?
'6 without chemical bonds (clathrates). Their structure consists of several water
molecules associated with each hydrocarbon molecule. Consequently, the
~;
1 ' presence of liquid water in sufficient quantities will always result in the formation
"" 11 ,J (1 0 of Hydrates.
l{. ~(j' A.IC'<.(
J
;!/o The formation of Hydrates is accelerated by turbulence, and for this reason, they
frequently occure downstream from valves, chokes, orifice plates, sharp bends,
6 etc. Hydrate formation in the flow string would result in lower wellhead pressure
readings. Also, hydrate formation in the flowrate meters would result in lower
readings for the flow rate.
AAU/GAS/GAS3.doc 14
I NaturalGas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
a natural gas having a specific gravity of 0.7 and stream pressure of 1000 psia,
will form Hydrates when the temperature is lowered to 65 F or less, which is a
much higher temperature than the freezing point of water.
.Important Remarks
The Hydrate formation charts, Fig 3.7, are suitable for the field quick estimate of
the pressure and temperature conditions necessary for the formation of
hydrates, however, the following two important remarks should always be
remembered by the practicing engineer:

The charts are prepared for sweet gases only. They should not be used if
Carbon Dioxide and I or Hydrogen Sulfide are present in any quantities. It is
well known that the presence of Hydrogen Sulfide and/or Carbon Dioxide in
the natural gas will elevate the temperature required for the formation of
hydrates. Also, Hydrates occure at relatively higher pressures in the presence
of Nitrogen. For example, the pressure required for the formation of Hydrates
in a natural gas which contains 25 mole% of nitrogen, will be (approximately)
double the pressure required for the formation of hydrates in the natural gas if
it was nitrogen free. In general, the presence of impurities enhances the
chances of hydrate formation).
AAU/GAS/GAS3.doc 15
I NaturalGas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
REFERENCES
AAU/GAS/GAS3.doc 16
APPENDIXA
SteQ:1
Use MW and y of er to read Pc and Tc of er (Fig 2.3)
SteQ:2 Read MW; , Pei , Tei of each component (Table 1.1)
Step3 Calculate MW , Ppc, Tpc of the natural gas using ALL components
Step4 If % of impurities ( eo 2 , N 2 , H 2 8 ) is very small (i.e. < 1% for each) then
calculate zfactor using:
~ Standing & Katz graphical type curve (Fig 2.1)
~ Brill & Beaas zfactor numerical correlation (Eq 2.5)
SteQ:5 If % of impurities ( eo2 , N 2 , H 28) is high, then use Wichert & Aziz
correlation (Eqs 2.8) to modify the Ppc, Tpc calculated in Step3.
SteQ:6 I I
Use the modified Ppc, Tpc to calculate the zfactor using Standing &
Katz graphical type curve or Brill & Beggs zfactor numerical correlation.
2. Use Standing & Katz graphical type curve or Brill & Beggs zfactor numerical
correlation to calculate the zfactor.
AAU/C/CONSULTANT/TRAINING/GAS/SUMMARY.doc
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!<
"'"'....
..."'2E
:::>
~
a::
w
,__
'
so 0 s
I
10
MOL /o N
2
lS 
' .
soo lS
_....._._
a..
:E
w
I
~
<(
u
9=
..JC
u
0
Q
:::>
w
(/)
a..
15 1+11
300LL:L..1'LLLLL.L.....J......J..1..L.L.11..J__L....1.,J_J_J__,1__1,_1,_1,_1,_L......JL....JL....JL......IL......IL......1J
0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 l.l 1.2
c;;O: 1300
........,
(,)
.:: a
8
"tJ .,
e 1200
:::J 0.
\
St E
a.. a 1100
1000
500
"'"'
:E c: 400
(,)"'
(,) Q)
0 ...
"tJ iil
~ ;: 300
"'
a.. ...0.
200
100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240
Molecular weight
Fig. 2 .3 Correlation charts for estimation of the pseudocritical temperature and pressure
of hep tan es plus fractions from molecular weight and specific gravity. (Courtesy Mathews,
Roland, and Katz.)
50
0 "'
u
...c
Cl>
.,~
0..
40
10 20 30 ~ 50 60 70 80
Per~ent H2 S
t~r+W
10.0 I . _ 10.0
~ , , ,  .~r::: ~~~'
~"I S:>,.
1'' 'I
)...__
I
I r!1 I I
' ,..., 
~ :\.~
1'.......
'' r _]
~ '"...... '""\\ ~
~'"Ir
I I __l  ~~~~~
I L ,_
~
I
"'
,I,
I l 
I ~~~~
~  v  "~~~ ~'
/
I II'I =
~ ~
' I TI ~~~~~~
ttt+++
~~~~~
Ll~ ~ +
  L [:l
 .
~....''"~'
......
,....._~, ~


I
~
\
I


= '"~~~
~~~~
,~1\\
~~~
=
o
......
C,T,  ' tJ' ~~~~~
~
T.
 ..
'~I
'\ ' '\ '\
\.'
 "
=
\
_, \ \ '  . . ' ,\ \ 2.0
. , ' , , , \\ 1.8
 I ,, "~ 130 
L ' I I II I _J I I I 11
' 11~
I
' '\1.:: I
0.0 0.01
0.2 1.0 10.0 0.2 1.0 10.0
Pr Pr
ig . ..3.I Variation.of c,Tr with reduced temperature and pressure (1.05.;;:; Tr.;;:; 1.4;
1 Fig. 3 2. Variation of crTr with reduced temperature and pressure (1.4 .;;:; T, "" 3.0;
.2"" Pr"" 15.0). (From Mattar, Brar and Aziz (1975).)
1 0.2 .;;:; Pr .;;:; 15.0). {From Mattar, Brar and Aziz (1975).]
I
I
l
j
1 Viscosity at 1.0 atmosphere, centipoise
p 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 p 0 0
0 0
0
0 0 0
0
0
0 ~ ~ 0 0 ~ ~
..,, ~
~ 01 8 0
..... Q) <O 0
" "' ~
(!)
0
Correction added 0
10 viscsg i.n
0 0 0
g 0
g
0
g
0
0
"
0 "' "'
"'0
~
0
(n
~
I
Cl
~ :JI
01
I 0
s: ~
0 "'
s.
~ <
.,..,
c:
~
~
Correction added
0"
.o (!)
0
10 viscsg
0 0
"
;; 0
0 0
8 g ~
0
0 "' "'
.....
0
/ '
e 0
"(n
Q)
0
u;
Correction added
10 vise sg
0 0
~ ~ "'0
<O
0 "' 0
"'
"' n
2
8 "" 0
..,8
"'(n
"'
60 0 zo zeo
;
, IT
eo
I:: 1000 .
j 800'.:'._Nllllf..f......,1"''4't....I~
I
i..
I
.~tf1.f'1~~...,..'~.~ W..+,,f#~1~.,..,f#"21~1'1~.M......f...f+ill++ll++ll+1i~
I
60
Q
~ ~
e ~i~++"~.Jl~~~lLJ'a: ....'lt.i~'~""'lt.,!~1_,11..,..~,,,,.IMl~.,._....11............1......................
I.I 0 J ,, I/ '!/If.
"""+t ~
 , , I
.,..
200

I
..
:x:
composition.
 8
111111,1,111L::::::::::Jz
Weter contenta of netu<1I guea with corrections
20

. . . >. , , for afinity and relative density. After Mc Kett and
Wehe. Hydrocert>on ProcHaing. ~gull 1958
1
1
I I I 1 I j ; I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
50 .CO' 30 20 10 0 20 .co 60 80 100 120 1"0
Temperature, C
/ " /jg
4000
3000
/
v /) 'II J
~,
,
..
..
.!!
a
g
1500
1000 ,, .
v /~r
#Ill
.
.
/ / /Ill
~ 800 7 / /ID ;
E ./H .
.e I/ / ,J
..
600 Methane
.e
f
/ 7
//~
/ .J [Q
,/
II'
"O /
~ 400
/J V/#
300
200
Gravi7/hw 
150
oy "V7hl
100
Qv'l ij7
., , ,
o.a.,. , J
80
0.,,../
"/I
60 1.~
40
30 40 50 60 70 80 90
Temperature, F
Fig. ~r.1.''1 Pressuretemperature curves for predicting hydrate formation. (Courtesy Gas
Processors Suppliers Assoc.)
I
1.4 ..
I ...
1.2 l:
I ..
12
s 15
:
z:. 0.8
I > ii
0
Cl
0 1000 1500
SaNrallon Preasura, psla
2000
! 0.6
.., = (1 + A0 p)u:.
so 100 150 200 zso 300
I Temperature, F
I _ " ( A, )(1/.t1)
logo
:,
w20
= ll
{20  T)
2:a3; 96 + T '
I whereAoandA1 are given by Eq. 9.17. Eq. 9.18 results in water and
brine densities that are within 0.5% of values given by Rogers and Pit
where an =3.324X 10 2,a12=3.624X 10 3, a13= 1.879x 10 4,
a21=3.96x10 2, an= l.02X 10 2, an= 7JT1.x 10 4,a31 =
I
. .~~s27 highly accurate correlation for 60 < T < 400F, 0 <p < 15,000 1.2378, a32=  l.303x 103, aJ3=3.060X 106, a34=2.550X
;a, and Q< C, < 300,000 ppm. For the same range of conditions, 10s, with in cp, Tin C, andp in MPa. Kestinetal.'s pressure
tq. 9.17 calculates isothermal compressibilities within approximate correction Ao contains 13 constants and does not extrapolate well at
ly 5% of Rogers and Pi12er's values. high temperatures. The pressure correction for Ao in Eq. 9.22 is
With Dodson and Standingsl3 data for pure water saturated with more wellbehaved, with only small deviations from the original
Kestin et al. correlation at low temperatures. _
I a natural gas, an approximate correction for dissolved gas on water/
brine FVF at saturated conditions is
BJ.p, T,R,..) = B:.(p,1)(1 + O.OOOIR;_5), ....... (9.19)
The effect of dissol'Ved gas on water viscosity h.aS not been re
ported. Intuitively, one might suspect that water viscosity decreases
with increasing gas solubility, although Collins30 suggests that dis 
solved gas may increase brine viscosity. As Fig. 9.10 shows, sys
I with R_ in scf/STB. This relation fits the DodsonStanding data
at 150, 200, and 250F but overpredicts the effect of dissolved gas
at 100F.
tems saturated with c~ show an increase in viscosity with increas
ing gas solubility.
Dodson and Standing also give a correction for the effect of dis . 9.2.7Solubility of Water in Natural Gas. Fig. 9.11 shows the solu
I solved gas on water/brine compressibility. bility of pure water in methane. McKetta and Wehe3 l give two chart
c..f.p, T, R...,) = c :,(p, 1)( 1 + 0.00877 R,,..), . . . (9.20) inserts for correcting purewater solubilities for salinity and gas
gravity (based mainly on Dodson and Standing's13 values). A best
W:ith R_ in scf/STB. This relation is valid only for undersaturated fit equation for these charts is
01V":ater systems at higher than oil bubblepoint pressure. For gas/
~~t;r system~ and saturatedoiVwater systems, the total compress
y.., = y:A,A,, ........................ (9.23a)
1b1lity effect 1s given by the Perrine fonnula,28 . 0.05227p + 142.3 In p  9,625
lny:  T+460
c~~~ 1 (as .. ) + _1_ B, (aR,,..} .... (
9.2 1)
(9.23b)
8 .. ap r.R,,.. 5.615 B., ap 1 '  1.117 ln p + 16.44,
147 .
L WATER/HYDROCARBON SYSTEMS
.  
//~:~
  l
.;.:~4i~~~3
I
I
I  ,Cit SALINITY
I
I  
ti)
as
(!)
le
~
~
0
u
ti)
:c
N

aE
I ~
,_rn
I
I
I
I Fig. 9.11Water solubility In natural gases, Including gascomposition and salinity effects
(adapted from Ref. 31). . .
I A
1
=1+ . yr  0.55
(1.55 X 10')y1 Tt446  (1.83 x J04)Tl.2SB'
. less than 10% for 100 < T < 460F and 200 < p < 10,000 psia. Eq.
9.23d is from the DodsonStanding correlation and is not recom
mended. Eq. 9 .23e is from the Katz et al. 32 correlation an~ is recom
......... (9.23c)
I A, = 1  (2.222 x 10 6)C,. .. . . .. .. .. .. . .. . . (9.23d)
mended. Mole fraction of water in gas, y,., can be converted to a wa
ter/gas ratio, r ..,, with 1 .
..with Tin F, p in psia, and C, in ppm or mg/L. Eq. 9.23 yields an where r.., is in STB/MMscf. Replacing the constant 135 with
absolute average deviation of 2.5% for y:, with a maximum error 47,300 yields r.., in lbm/MMscf.
......
I '::
it~4;. ~a:.
,Li_ti::J;;;~~__J_J
0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 . 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0 3.2 3.4
Pseudoreduced temperature
6.5
I
...
I
lo.,'
6.0 I
J I
5.5
I
11
JJ J
I
~ 1/ / I I Ii
1 I
5.0
4.5
'/
I
I
I
I
:r
~ 4.0
8
T I / I I II I
.ti
!
~ I 1
lh I //
I I ~I~/ '/I
~ 3.5
> I  J
J /
3.0
/, JI ~lo~,, I
1
/ / '/
2.5 0
II 1/ I I I~ ~~~1 //;
1
llh ~//I;~~
2.0
/~~/// ~ J
1.5
1.0
O~,
/ffi""'
~ ~~~v ,....... ~~t:::::::
/,_,,, .... ,,,
20 30
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.5 1.0 2.0 3.0 5.0 10
Pseudoreduced pressure, P,
Fig. 3:.,S Viscosity ratio versus pseudoreduced pressure. (After Carr et al.)
~;1 ~;1 ..m1 e'4
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
HW#
Due by: I~ov3, 2002 IGas Properties
Problem1
The Q reservoir is a wet gas reservoir with an average LR=12 STB/MMscf.
The following information is available:
Component X;
Methane 85.00
Ethane 2.50
Propane 0.92
N  Butane 0.60 Calculate the gas physical properties (i.e. Ppc, Tpc,
lso Butane
N Pentane g:~~ MW, y g z, Bg, Cg, and g) at the initial ~. .\/o.
lso  Pentane 0.08 reservoir conditions ofPi=2200 psia and Ti=l75F
Hexane 0.15
Heptanes plus 0.80
Carbon Dioxide 4.70
Hydrogen Sulfide 2.91
Nitrogen 1.82
100.00
Assume M(C7+)=110 and rg(c1 +> =0.800
Problem2
The U reservoir is a wet gas reservoir with an average LR=14 STB/MMscf.
The following information is available:
Yg = 0.695
X(H2S) =2.20%
Calculate the gas physical properties z, Cg, and g .
X(Ni) = 1.20 %
X(COi) = 5.75 %
Pi = 2550 psia
Ti = 198 F
IMPORTANT NOTES:
~ Use Numerical equations rather than graphical correlations whenever
possible.
~ In evaluating any gas physical property use all different techniques
studied in class or which you might have read in literature.
AAU/C/UNIV_F0203/NATGAS/PROBLEMS&FIGS/HW1 .doc
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
REFERENCES
RF1 "LinearAquiferBehavior"
Nabor G. W. and Barham R.H.
.JPT, May 1964 ,(561563)
AAU/GASNOLillvfETRICS.doc 35
I Natural Gas Resel'Voir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
chapter 4
GAS VOLUMETRICS
4.1 INTRODUCTION
NonAssociated (Free) Gas existing with the interstitial water in the pore
space. The free gas could be in dynamic communication with an underlying
or surrounding water aquifer (i.e. ''water drive reservoir"), otherwise, it is
termed "Volumetric".
Associated Gas existing as a free "gas cap" overlying crude oil.
Dissolved Gas existing "in solution" with the crude oil in the reservoir.
In this section only the Nonassociated (i.e. free) gas volumetrics will be
considered, since the other two categories are normally treated in the oil
reservoir volumetrics.
Gas Volumetrics
The term "Gas Volumetrics" is used, here, to signify different techniques related
to the calculation of the volume of gas initially in place, GllP or Gi, and to the
estimation of the produceable reserves. Two main techniques are commonly
employed in Gas Volumetrics, which are:
This method is used to calculate the GllP, and is applicable as soon as the
first discovery is made. Consequently, it is .the primary tool in the
techno/economic evaluation of the gas property and the field development
project.
The basic data required in this method consists of the petrophysical
properties obtained from well logs and core analysis, the geologic maps, the
initial reservoir conditions in terms of pressure and temperature, and, finally,
the gas PVT data.
AAU/GASNOLUMETRICS.doc
I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
It is the total volume of gas (in scf) existing initially in the reservoir.
It is the total volume of gas (measured in scf) produced from the start of
production to the time when the calculations are performed.
The Proven Gas Reserves are the estimated gas volumes (in scf) which geologic
data and engineering calculations demonstrate with high degree of certainty to
be recoverable from the reservoir, under the existing economic conditions and
the available engineering technology.
AAU/GASNOLUMETRICS.doc 2
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
Unit Recovery
It is the technically proven reserves (in scf) which can be produced from one unit
volume of the pay (normally one acreft).
It is the total volume of water (in STB) produced with the gas since the start of
field production to the time when the calculations are performed.
It is the total volume of water (in reservoir barrels) which has encroached from
the water aquifer to the formation section occupied initially by the free gas, since
the start of production to the time when the calculations are performed.
It is the thickness (at the well bore) of the reservoir portion occupied initially by
the free gas, after excluding the zones which have negligible contribution to gas
production (such as shale streaks).
lsopach Map
Once the net pay thickness has been defined for each well and placed on the
well location map, points of equal thickness are connected, and, the resulting
contour map is normally termed "Jsopach map". The choice of the contour
interval is normally dependent on the highest net pay value, and on the
smoothness of the structure. A typical lsopach map is shown in Fig 4.1.
AAU/GASNOLUMETRICS.doc 3
I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
Fig 4.1_
A typical lsopach map
AAU/GASNOLUMETRICS.doc 4
INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
It is the volume of that section of the formation which is occupied, initially, by gas
after excluding the zones which are not contributing to the gas production. In
order to calculate the Net Pay Volume, Vt, it is necessary first to construct the
lsopach map, then the total area enclosed by each contour is measured (using a
planimeter, a graph paper, or, the proper computer software). Finally, the Net
Pay Volume, Vt. is calculated using the "Simpson Rule" as follows:
 hr
Vf )Lao +2a1 +4a2 +2a3 +4a4 + ..... +4an2 + 2 anI +an ] + tnan
2
Eq (4.1)
where,
3
Vt =net pay volume, ft
h = contour interval, ft
ai = area of the contour i, ft
tn = highest thickness above the nth contour, ft
It is important to note that the application of the Simpson Rule necessitates that
the number of contours be EVEN.
Another (less accurate) method which can be used in case of odd or even
number of contours is the "Trapezoidal Rule" which has the following form:
Well Porosity,
It is the average porosity of the net pay of the well. If the porosity is read from the
well logs for each foot of the net pay, then,
Eq (4.3)
I
AAU/GASNOLUMETRICS.doc 5
INatural Gas Resavoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
where,
<A= porosity of section i, fraction
hi = net pay thickness, ft
The average porosity of the reservoir signifies the average porosity of the net
pay only, (i.e. it should not be confused with the average porosity of the
formation). It can be calculated numerically using the individual well porosities as
follows,
where,
Eq (4.4)
I
=reservoir average porosity, fraction
j =average porosity of well  j, fraction
hn} =net pay thickness of well  j, ft
The average porosity of the reservoir can also be calculated graphically, by first
preparing an isoporosity map, and, then applying the Trapezoidal or the
Simpson rules.
the reservoir average water saturation can be calculated numerically using the
individual well water saturations as follows ,
s .  __L
I Wl
where,
swi
LSwi(J)hnJ
...o;:.._;__....0
h .
n;
AAU/GASNOLUMETRICS.doc 6
I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
The average water saturation of the reservoir can also be calculated graphically,
by first preparing an isoSw map, and then applying the Trapezoidal or the
Simpson rules. This mapping method is rarely necessary in the calculation of
GllP since the water saturation variation across the reservoir is normally minimal
except in highly heterogeneous systems.
There are three different volumetric techniques for the calculation of the GllP, all
utilizing the same petrophysical data obtained from well logs and geologic maps,
and gas physical properties at the initial reservoir conditions. These three
techniques are normally termed:
1) Calculate the net pay thickness, the average porosity, and, the average water
saturation for each well.
2) Prepare the lsopach map of the reservoir, and calculate the areas enclosed
by each contour, then calculate Vt using the Simpson rule, Eq 4.1, or, the
Trapezoidal rule, Eq 4.2.
3) Calculate of the reservoir using Eq 4.4, and the average Swi of the
reservoir using Eq 4.5.
4) Calculate the volume of the gas initially in place using the following equation:
Vr..(1Swi)
G (scf) =    
Bgi
Eq (4.6)
I
AAU/GASNOLUMETRICS.doc 7
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
where,
T.z
1 1
ft3
= gas formation volume factor at the initial conditions =
35.3 .Ff scf
= gas deviation factor at the initial reservoir conditions of P; and T;
0
=reservoir temperature, R, and,
= initial reservoir pressure , psia
Finally, it is important to note that the above equation can be used to calculate
the Gas Initially In Place, whether the gas is free (i.e. nonassociated), or,
whether, the gas is present in an associated gas cap, in which case, the net
volume, the average porosity and the average water saturation, will represent the
gascap portion of the reservoir only.
1) Calculate the net pay thickness, the average porosity, and, the average water
saturation for each well.
2
2) Calculate the hydrocarbon pore volume per 1 ft of reservoir area, which is
equal to 1x hn (1 Swi) for each well separately, and, place the
calculated values on the well location map.
3) Prepare the HPV map, by drawing the contours of equal HPV. Then calculate
the areas enclosed by each contour.
4) Calculate the volume of the Gas Initially In Place, Vhydr ( in reservoir cubic
feet ), using the Simpson rule or the Trapezoidal rule.
5) Calculate GllP (scf) = Vhydrl 8 9 ;
1) Calculate the net pay thickness, the average porosity, and the average water
saturation for each well.
2) Prepare the lsopach, the isoporosity, and, the isoSw; maps of the reservoir.
3) Place a suitable grid which covers the whole area of the net pay over the
three isomaps. A suitable grid requires that the grid lines be running parallel
to the faults, and that no grid should contain a peak or a low value of any of
the three parameters, if possible. Choosing a square grid system of equal
dimensions (for example 500 ft x 500 ft) simplifies the calculations. However,
unequal grid sizes and grid shapes (as will be illustrated in Example Problem
AAU/GAS/VOLUMETRICS.doc 8
I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
AAU/GASNOLUMETRICS.doc 9
INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
1 1
Bgz Bga Bgz
R  =1 Eq (4.9)
1 Bga
Bgi
For fast calculations of the Ultimate Recovery Factor, the reservoir abandonment
pressure used to evaluate Bga can be taken as (Pwfm+ 100) psia, where
Pwfm is the minimum flowing bottom hole pressure required to produce the well
at a minimum well head pressure, Pwhm . The value of Pwfm can be estimated to
a high degree of accuracy using the following equation:
More accurate techniques for. the calculation of the bottom hole pressure at
abandonment would use the following equation:
where,
Eq (4.11)
I
~vfa = flowing bottom hole pressure at abandonment, psia
~vhm = minimum well head pressure requirement, psia
Mr =flowing pressure drop in the tubing string, psi (will be discussed in detail
in Chapter 7).
AAU/GASNOLUMETRJCS.doc 10
I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
Unlike oil reservoirs. the Recovery Factor in water drive gas reservoirs is always
less than the Recovery Factor in Volumetric reservoirs. This can be attributed to two
main reasons;
the first is the fact that a portion of the free gas will be trapped by capillary forces.
and bypassed by the channeling water. The volume of the gas which is by
passed is the most difficult term to estimate since it is dependent on too many
factors, including the pore configuration, the thickness of the formation, the ratio
of the vertical to horizontal permeabilities, the permeability variation factor, the
aquifer size and characteristics, the dip of the gas bearing strata, and the gas
water relative permeability relationship,
the second factor contributing to the lower Recovery is the increase in the water
cut, resulting in higher Mt, and consequently, higher abandonment pressure
requirements.
For a quick estimate of the Recovery Factor in water drive systems using Eq 4.8, the
following practical values of Swa have been suggested in the literature:
These values are suggested as First estimates, however, more accurate estimates
can be obtained by applying the recovery factor of a depleted reservoir which has
similar geological and petrophysical characteristics, or by reservoir simulation.
In general, the recovery factor will normally be more than 70% in volumetric
reservoirs, and may reach as high as 90% in shallow formations with high
permeabilities. Whereas, the recovery factor will normally range from, as low as 50%
in very strong water drive (where pressure is maintained near initial pressure), to as
high as 70% in thin, homogeneous, weakwater drive reservoirs.
The volumetric calculations of the Reserves and the Recovery Factor in Free Gas
reservoirs are illustrated in Example Problem (4.1)
AAU/GASNOLUMETRICS.doc 11
l Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
A reservoir Tank Model is a model in which the reservoir system is treated as ONE
single homogeneous unit {or block). The main assumptions incorporated in the
formulation of the reservoir Tank model can be summarized as follows:
Constant Pressure Distribution: The pressure is the same at every point in the
reservoir at any moment in time, and is equal to the average reservoir pressure.
However, the system average pressure is changing with time.
Homogeneous Properties: The rock and the fluid properties are considered
homogeneous throughout the reservoir. Each property {such as kg, kw, </>,
Sg, Sw, g , w, etc.) will always have the same value across the reservoir at
any one single moment in time.
Uniform Withdrawals: The fluid volumes produced from (or injected into) the
reservoir are considered uniformly distributed throughout\9.
system.
The Tank Model can be considered a reliable tool for the calculation of the
hydrocarbons originally in place, and for predicting future reservoir :perfqrmance, as
long as the production data, the pressure history data, and the fluid properties
relationships are accurate and reliable. In general, the credibility of the tank model
results will be improved if (and when):
AAU/GASNOLUMETRICS.doc 12
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
There are many sources of error in the use of Tank Models to represent oil
reservoirs. This includes errors in the GOR and WOR data, choice of the set of
PVT data which best represents the liberation process in the reservoir, definition
of the oilwater contact, the treatment of the oilwater transition zone, volumetric
estimate of the original gas cap size, etc.
These factors are not applicable when using the Tank model to describe a Gas
reservoir. Practically the major source of err.or in the application of the Tank
model to Gas reservoirs is the correct averaging of the system pressure.
One of the earliest, simplest, and yet most suitable tank models used in
Reservoir Engineering is the "Schilthius" tank model which is expressed in the
form of a Volumetric Material Balance Equation. This model is normally used:
The Generalized Material Balance Equation will be derived specifically for the
Dry gas and Wet gas reservoirs assuming NO condensate production. Later in
this section simplified techniques will be introduced to take into consideration the
condensates associated with Dry and Wet gas production.
AAU/GASNOLUMETRICS.doc 13
I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
The Material Balance Equation for free gas reservoirs, can be formulated in
different forms depending on the applicable assumptions.
In this section, the balance principle is applied in the form of Volumetric balance
to derive a Generalized MBE for Gas Reservoirs. Only the case of NO gas
injection will be considered in this section.
In order to derive the Material Balance Equation in its Generalized form, assume
that the portion of the formation occupied initially by Gas is ( V ). The Volumetric
Material Balance assumes that this volume remains constant from the start of
production until the reservoir is abandoned.
V..(lS )
The Gas Initially In Place, G = wz , consequently,
Bgi
Eq(4.12)
The portion of the formation defining the gas zone can be considered as equal to
the sum of the volumes of Free Gas, Liquid Water, and the Grain Particles in the
gas zone. These volumes can be expressed as follows:
or,
AAU/GASNOLU:METRICS.doc 14
I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
. 1
Substituting Eq 4.12 into the above equation, and defining cf = T .cgr, then,
Finally, the General Material Balance Equation for free gas reservoirs can be
written in the following form:
Eq (4.13)
Drive Indices
Cf +Cw.Swi
G (B  B ) G.Bgi( ).t:J>
. g g1 + 1 Swi + We =1 Eq (4.14)
vw vw vw
These three terms represent the natural energy sources of the gas reservoir, i.e.
the Gas Expansion Index, GEi, the Rock (with the natural interstitial water)
Expansion Effect, R&WI, and the Water Drive Index, WDI.
AAU/GASNOLUMETRICS.doc 15
/Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
calculation of the Gas Initially In Place, Gas Reserves, and the calculation of the
Water Influx constants. The suggested form is:
where,
Eq(4.15)
I
Eg = Bg  Bgi =effect of free gas expansion
CJ +c S
Ef w = ( w wz )11p =effect of formation and initial water expansion
' 1SWl
and,
Eq(4.16)
Equations 4.15 and 4.16 (termed The straight line form of the Material Balance)
are very adequate for the analysis of Water Drive Reservoirs. However a simpler
and more modified form is normally used for Volumetric Reservoirs.
In order to determine whether a water drive exists or not, the lefthand side of Eq
4.15 (or the modified form, Eq 4.16) is calculated at each of the historic
pressureproduction data points. If the values at different Gp are practically
constant, then the assumption of NO water drive is correct and the average of
AAU/GASNOLUMETRICS.doc 16
I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
these calculated values is equal to GllP. The gas reservoir, in this case, is
termed a Volumetric Reservoir.
If. however. the calculated values are increasing with production, as shown in
Fig.4.2, then this is indicative of the presence of a water drive system, and the
reservoir is termed Water Drive Reservoir.
18
e ><
:::s 14 
ti::
c:
w ...
u: .s 12 ivolumetrfoReservoiFi
~ ~
"O 0
<I) 210
1U
 c:
O>
:::s 
8
ns
(.) U)
U)
ns
~ 6

4
0
0 0.5 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
time
When working with natural gas reservoirs, the Material Balance Equation is,
normally, expressed in terms of the deviation factor, z, instead of the gas
formation volume factor, Bg. Substituting the definition of Bg into the General
MBE (Eq 4.13) and rearranging the equation gives the following form of the
General Material Balance Equation for free gas reservoirs in terms of the gas
deviation factor,
p R
(1 cf wllP) = _z
Z ' Zl
Where,
5 615 520
a= ( ). , T =reseNoir Temperature in R, and
T 14.7
cf +cwSwi
cf,w=( 1S. )
Wl
In the special case where cf,wllP is less than 0.01, Equation 4.17 is modified
into the following form:

p
___l R
Eq 4.18
z z.l
The form of Equation (4.18) is the most practical form of the General Material
Balance Equation for free gas reservoirs, since it describes the new reservoir
conditions (P/z) as a function of three main components:
AAU/GASNOLUMETRICS.doc 18
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
For a volumetric reservoir, there is No water influx (i.e. We= 0). In such reservoirs
the water production is normally negligible (i.e. Wp = 0). Consequently, Eq (4.18)
is reduced to the following form,
p R

__l
Gp .(1}) Eq 4.19A
z Zl G Zl
or,
1 1 Gp .(1)
 Eq 4.19B
Bg Bgi G Bgi
The form of Eq 4.19B is rarely used by the practicing engineer since the
calculation of Bg would require the prior evaluation of the zfactor.
The only method of producing all the gas in place is to deplete the reservoir
pressure completely, i.e. (to P = 0). This is not possible in practice due to the
technical restrictions imposed by the bottom hole pressure required to lift the gas
to the surface, the minimum pressure requirements at the well head, and the
limitations imposed by the reservoir minimum economic production rate.
Consequently, the following procedure is used to calculate the gas reserves:
1) Prepare a plot of Plz vs. Gp, and fit the data points to the best straightline
passing through Pi!Zi.
2) Define an abandonment pressure, Pa, based on the pressure and production
limitations.
3) Determine the value of the Gas Deviation Factor, Z, at Pa.
4) Calculate the value of Pa!Za .
AAU/GASNOLUMETRICS.doc 19
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
FIG 4.3
Evaluation of GllP and Gas Reserves
3500  I
~
IPi/Zi I
3000
2500 " ~
2000
1500
" ~
~
""'~ ~
1000
~
IPa/Za
500
""'1,, "'~f
~
.....
"'
IGpa
0 '
'
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000
Gp (MMMscf)
20
AAU/GASNOLUMETRICS.doc
INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
p z.
Reserves= Gpa = G.(1_Q_._l) Eq (4.20)
If za
Important Remarks
It is important to note, that since the values of Pi and Zi are, normally, the
most certain values in the data set, consequently, the initial data point (Pi I Z1)
should always be used as a pivot point for the straight line fit..
The use of the MBE to Calculate the GllP, and the Gas Reserves of a Volumetric
reservoir is illustrated in Example Problem (4.2)
The general form of the material balance equation (Eq 4.15) is normally used for
the analysis of the freegas water drive reservoirs. There are multiple unknowns
in Eq 4.15; namely, the initial gas in place, G, and the water influx, We. whose
value is continuously increasing with time and production. Consequently, the
number of unknowns will always be higher than the number of equations by a
factor of 1. In order to solve this mathematical difficulty, it is necessary to use a
mathematical model which represents the aquifer performance, We. as a
function of pressure and time.
There are three main models representing the water encroachment into the
reservoir: namely, the Radial Water Influx Model (such as The VanEverdingen
and Hurst Unsteady State Model), the Linear Water Influx Model (such as the
Nabor and Barham Model, REF.1 ), and the Bottom Water Influx Model (such as
the Allard and Chen Model, REF.2, or the Coats Model, REF.3). An indepth and
detailed study of these models is given in the Advanced Reservoir Engineering
course, (WATER INFLUX MODELS by Dr. A. A. Urayet).
AAU/GASNOLUMETRICS.doc 21
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
FIG4.4
Effect of Water Influx
3500 
3000
2500
2000 

N
a..
1500
!Volumetric Reservoir
1000 
500
0 
500 1000 1500 2000
0
Gp (MMMscf)
e
22
AAU/GASNOLUMETRICS.doc
I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
Important Remark
The effect of water drive can be easily recognized on the P/z vs. Gp as shown in
Fig 4.4. After some time of production the effect of water influx would tend to
stop (or reduce) the pressure decline as compared to a volumetric reservoir, and
consequently the P/z data points will start diverging up ward from the regular
volumetric straight line performance.
J'. /
(At the early stage of production (i.e. Gp < 10%G) it is difficult to recognize
j whether the reservoir is volumetric or under a water drive. This would normally
leads to incorrect {higher than actual) forecast of future production potential and
reserves. However, the GllP estimates obtained from the P/z vs. Gp plot will
have a high degree of accuracy even in case of a water drive system if the
straight line fitting is restricted to the early points prior to the deviation caused by
the effect of water influx into the reservoir.
Three types of liquids are normally associated with the gas production,
water existing initially in liquid form in the formation, such as interstitial water
or water from the water aquifer. This type of liquids have been considered in
the derivation of the General Material Balance Equation, and, consequently,
will not be considered here.
hydrocarbon liquids, condensing from the produced gas, and which existed
initially as a gas phase in the reservoir, and,
water liquids, condensing from the water vapors associated with the gas
phase in the reservoir.
AAU/GASNOLUMETRICS.doc 23
INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
The gas equivalent of the hydrocarbon liquids, (G8 ), signifies the volume (in scf)
of the reservoir gas which condenses into one STB of hydrocarbon liquids at the
surface. The gas equivalent can be calculated using the following relationship:
Eq (4.22)
_ 133,ooox
Ge  =3003(1.03y0 ) Eq (4.23)
44.29 Yo
1.03yo
As mentioned earlier, even though there is No water flowing from the formation,
however, some FRESH water (which existed originally as a water vapor content
of the gas in the reservoir) would condense into liquid under the normal
separator conditions. If it is certain that the origin of the water produced at the
surface is the vapor content of the gas in the reservoir, (and not the formation
water), then the value of Gp, to be used in the Material Balance Equation, should
AAU/GAS/VOLUMETRICS.doc 24
INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
For all practical reservoir engineering purposes, the gas equivalent of the
produced water vapors, Gw . can be assumed equal to ( 7390 scf I STBW ).
where,
Np =
cumulative production of hydrocarbon condensates, STB
Wvp =
cumulative water condensing from vapor, STB
The neglect of these corrections can lead to some error in the calculated values
of the Gas Initially In Place and the Ultimate reserves. This error is normally less
than 2% in the case of dry gases, but will be increasing with the increased
wetness of the gas.
The proper use of the above relationships in the Material Balance calculations is
illustrated in Example Problem 4.3.
AAU/GASNOLUMETRICS.doc 25
r
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
Example 4.1
(Calculation of the Gl/P using the Volumetric Methods)
a) Given the following data about a hypothetical free gas reservoir, (X):
Calculate the GllP using the lsopach, the HPV, and the Finite Grid
methods.
1) a volumetric system
2) a very strong water drive system
Table Ex 4.1A
AAU/GASNOLWvIETRICS.doc 26
as . u. .s.. x1a1_211...11m..tz1:e1.1;..221.211u1111J11.212.t.1"1;s:.a.21a. . 1.. 1
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
Fig Ex 4.1 ..
Well location map I Field: X
~
.X1
X3 I
I>
x+ x5
I
.... XY.
0 c.
/
X'=>
x6&~
/
,.. ' ./
' ~t:..<t,
,,,
,,,,
0 \ Km
A:\l',C.\S. VOLUivIETRICS.doc 27
INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
Example Problem 4. 2
(Calculation of GllP and Gas Reserves in Volumetric Reservoirs)
The following data is available from a free gas reservoir which has been
producing for five years:
1 36.50 3160
2 33.58 3040
3 33.75 2930
4 32.45 2800
5 37.95 2650
a) prepare a plot of P/Z vs. Gp to confirm that the gas system is volumetric, i.e.
No water influx.
b) calculate the value of the Gas Initially In Place, G,
c) calculate the cumulative gas production when the reservoir pressure drops to
P = 1500 psia,
d) estimate the ultimate reserves and the recovery factor, assuming the minimum
well head pressure requirement is 650 psia.
AAU/GAS/VOLUMETRICS.doc 28
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
Solution
1) Calculate the gas physical properties required for the P/z vs. Gp plot, as
follows:
 Since the gas chemical composition is not available, use Sutton correlation to
calculate the pseudocritical properties,
2
Ppc = 756.8131.0(yg ) 3.6(y g )2 = 756.8 131.0(0.688) 3.6(0.688)
Ppc = 665 psia
2
Tpc = 169.2 + 349.S(yg )  74.0(yg ) 2 =169.2 + 349.5(0.688) 74.0(0.688)
0
Tpc =374.6 R
 enter the Katz/Standing charts, Fig 2.1, (or the Brill and Beggs zfactor
=
numerical correlation, Eqs 2.5), with Tpr 1.80 to calculate the values of (z) for
the different reservoir average pressures, as follows : ..
)\._r .I
to
\,'<'... :r
P (psi a) P,. = PI Ppc z  factor.,~~~ t/\;'J' PI z
AAU/GASNOLUMETRICS.doc 29
I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
0 000 3645
1 36.50 36.50 3488
2 33.58 70.08 3378
3 33.75 103.83 3263
4 32.45 136.28 3128
5 37.95 174.23 2978
a) The plot indicates a linear relationship between Plz and Gp, which confirms
that it is a volumetric gas reservoir.
b) Fit the data points to a straight line, and calculate the value of the Gas Initially
In Place graphically or numerically as follows:
Extrapolate the straight line to the Gpaxis, and read the value of:
Gl/P = 980 MMM scf at P/z = 0.
In this case the equation of the best straight line fit is,
p
3645
p = 3645(3.72xl0 9 ).(]P , or, (] = =z:o. MMM scf
P 3.72
z
p 1500
c) at P =1500 psia, Ppr =  =  = 2.256
Ppc 665
AAU/GASNOLUMETRICS.doc 30
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
FIG Ex 4.2
Evaluation of GllP and Gas Reserves
4000 
3200
~.
2800
2400 
'~ ~ !".....
Islope=3.72x10 I 9
I
I
~

N
a.. 2000 "" ~ ~
1600 
1200 ""' ~
800
""' ~ ~
~
G=
979.8 MMM
\
400
0
""' "'N.~
31
AAU/GAS/VOLUMETRICS.doc
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
 enter the Katz/Standing charts with Ppr= 2.256 and Tpr =1.80, and read the
value of z = 0.91
 calculate P/z = 1500/(0.91) = 1648
 substitute into the equation of the straight line to calculate the value of Gp at
1500 psia, as follows,
p
3645
Gp = z = 3645 1648 = 536.8 MMM scf
3.72 3.72
d) since the abandonment pressure is not defined, use the reported values of
Depth and minimum well head pressure required, to obtain the minimum
abandonment bottom hole flowing pressure, using Eq (4.10), as follows:.
3645 Pa
3645 916
Resesrves = Gpa = ___za= =  =733.5 MMM scf
3.12 3.72
G a 733.5
 finally, the recovery factor=__!?__= = 74.86 %
G 980
AAU/GASNOLUMETRICS.doc 32
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
Example Problem 4. 3
(Effect of Condensates on the Material Balance Calculations)
A gas reservoir was put on production in Nov.9, 1993. The following data was
available after one year of production:
AAU/GASNOLUMETRICS.doc 33
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
Solution
9
. 4120 _ 4300 (4300)23.5x10
0.936 0.945 0.945 G
0 ~16r4' tJ9l1'lf.f c7t.'Pl''f
GllP =719.8 MMMscf
~' ''t>"t
b) Correct the value of as follows:
Gp (corrected) =
4 5
= 23.5xl09 + (865,000).(3003)(1.03 l t. + (14,200).(7390) = 24.37lxl09
131.5 + 61
p P: P:
='  (').GP
z zi G.zi
9
4120 = 4300 (4300)24.371x10
~
0.936 0.945 0.945
O'JJ,r't c5'i2.l't<t 09'Z1'tc+
G =746.49 MMM scf
G
t "l't. 't >?..
AAU/GASNOLUMETRICS.doc 34
.. _........  
The Tank Model can be considered a reliable tool for the calculation of the
HllP, if, and only if, the productionpressure history data, and the fluid
properties relationships are accurate and reliable. In general, the results of the
tank model will be more reliable in the following cases:
* If geologic, seismic, welllogs, and pressure test data confirm reservoir
connectivity
* If the main petrophysical properties (including effective permeability,
porosity, pore size distribution, and fluid distribution) are more uniform
acros~__the reservoir,
* As the reservoir becomes more mature, and more production and pressure
history data are made available.
 One major source of error in the application of the Material Balance Method is
the need at the early life of the reservoir to make some assumptions regarding
the driving mechanism and the water aquifer (model, size, petrophysical
properties, etc.).
AAU/C/GASrrEXT/MBC.doc JV 29
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering bv: Dr.A.A. Uraret
the first problem being the fact that only a small number of wells in the
field are normally chosen at any one time for pressure tests (normally less
than 10% of the number of wells in large fields). This problem is most
critical in highly heterogeneous systems, and the only solution would be to
increase the number of wells being tested.
The arithmetic average and the flowrate weighted average techniques give, in
general: poor results since they do not take into consideration the effect of
volumes depleted nor the production time of each well.
AAU/C/GASrrEXT/MBC.doc IV 30
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering bv: Dr. A.A. Uraret
n
Arithmetic average
LP;
p = i=l
n
n
Flow rateweighted average
LP;.qi
p =_i=...;;1;___
n
Lqi
i=l
n
i
AAU/C/GASffEXT/MBC.doc IV 31
Natural Gas Resenoir Engineering bv: Dr. A.A. Uravet
Finally, Another popular technique with the Libyan engineers is preparation of the
isopressure maps (lsobar maps), and, then applying the Trapezoidal or the
. Simpson rules to calculate the average reservoir pressure. The main difficulty with
... :
this method is the preparation of the map due to two main reasons:
1) Normally a small number of wells is tested at any one single period of time,
thus forcing the engineer to use a lot of guess work and extrapolation in the
drawing of the isobars. This is a big problem in Libya due mainly to very
wide spacing and due to lack of reliable structure maps sometimes.
2) Normally commercial softwares are used to prepare the isobar map. This
. normally gives good results in case of closed reservoirs, however, in water
ie drive reservoirs, the main problem would be how to assume the correct
pressures at the Gas water contact since pressure measurements in the
surrounding aquifer are very rarely performed.
AAU/C/GASffEXT/MBC.doc IV 32
INatural Gas Reservoir Engi,neering Dr. A. A. Urayet
Chapter 5
INFLOW PERFORMANCE
AND
DELIVERABILITY TESTING
Deliverability tests are run by producing the gas well at three or more different flow
rates. The pressures and flow rates are recorded as a function of time. These tests
are required by the regulatory body when the well is first drilled and afterwards
periodically. They are also required to obtain for different reservoir and production
studies such as production forecast, determining number of required development
wells, designing compression requirements, evaluation of well damage, etc.
In this section the testing procedures and the analysis techniques of the two most
popular deliverability tests will be presented. The first is the conventional back
pressure test known as the "multipoint" (or "flowafterflow") test, and the second
is the "isochronal" test.
The stabilized flow condition is a prerequisite for all deliverability tests. All the
analysis techniques presented in this chapter are based on the assumption of
stabilized flow conditions.
The main objective of the FlowAfterFlow test (also called BackPressure Test) is
to define a simple inflow performance relationship between the flow rate and the
bottom hole flowing pressure (or the tubing wellhead pressure), which can be used
to predict the production rate at any given pressure.
The normal procedure for performing this test in the field is illustrated in Figure (5.1 ),
and can be summarized as follows:
1. The well should be flown at a high rate, for at least 24 hours, in order to clean the
well bore from liquids (and for the case of a new well, from drilling mud, solids,
and acidizing fluids).
AAU/ GAS/GAS5b.doc 1
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
Conventional FlowAfterFlow
Test Procedure
q3
q q2
q, I
I I
I I I
(
~ r~r
PwJ; I I I
p I Pw/2 I I
I Pwh
t~
AAU/ GAS/GAS5b.doc 2
INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
2. The well is shut down for a period of time sufficient to reach a stabilized bottom
hole static pressure, Pws, (at least 24 hours for high permeability formations, and
4872 hours for low permeability wells). This pressure should represent the
average pressure in the drainage area.
3. The well is put on produCtion on a small choke size. The flow is continued until
the pressure has stabilized. In North America stabilized pressure is defined as
when two consecutive pressure readings over a period of 15 minutes agree within
0.1 psi. Slightly less restrictive definitions are used in other countries. The
following equation can be used to define the time required for stabilization:
Eq 5.1
I
This relationship indicates clearly that the flowafterflow test is not suitable for
low permeability reservoirs due to the long time required reaching stabilization.
4. Tabulate the stabilized bottom hole flowing pressure, Pwf1 , and the stabilized flow
rate, q 1 , for use in the analysis of the FlowAfterFlow test.
5. Change to a larger choke size, and continue production, until the new stabilized
flow is reached as mentioned in steps 3 and 4, and record the new stabilized
bottom hole flowing pressure, and the new stabilized flow rate for use in the
analysis.
6. Repeat steps 3 and 4 for larger choke sizes, until a total of Four stabilized rates
and Pwfs have been recorded.
In order to ensure accurate results from the FlowAfter"'.Flow Backpressure test, the
following critical precautions should always be observed during the test:
AAU/ GAS/GAS5b.doc 3
I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
2. All the analysis techniques assume that stabilized flow conditions are prevailing.
Consequently, it is most critical that each flow rate should be continued for a long
period of time to ensure that the pseudosteady state conditions have been
reached, (Eq 5.1 ).
4. It is critical that the gas flow rates used in the analysis should include all the
produced volumes of hydrocarbon and water condensates existing originally in
the vapor phase in the reservoir.
There are three wellknown analysis procedures, which are commonly used in the
gas industry:
the first method is termed the "EMPIRICAL" method, since it is based on the
empirical equation presented by Rawlins and Schellwardt. This method is also
called the "Classical" method, since it has been in use since the early 1930's. l!
is critical to remark that the use of this method to forecast flow rates outside the
tested pressure range can result in serious errors. as will be illustrated in
Example Problem (5.1 ),
the third method has been given different names, the "THEORETICAL", the
"ANALYTICAL", and the "EXACT" method. It is based on the original analytical
solution derived for the pseudosteady state case. This method is more accurate
than the previous two methods for ali pressure ranges. The main difficulty with
this method is the need to calculate the pseudogas potential at each pressure.
However, with the advent of the PVT computer softwares, this method is
becoming more and more popular.
AAU/ GAS/GAS5b.doc 4
INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
I. 2 . 2
qg =C(P Pwf} Eq (5.2)
I
where,
For Laminar flow in extremely low permeability reser\/oirs, the exponent constant, n,
would be very near to 1. There has not been any reported value of n equal to or
more than 1 in any published reservoir data all over the world.
In most natural gas wells the value of the exponent constant, n, would be much less
than 1 due to turbulence effects, with the lower limit (theoretically) being equal to 0.5.
However, practical experience indicate that n could be less than 0.5 in highly wet (or
condensate bearing) permeable gas reservoirs. A field example for such a case is
given in Example Problem 5.1.
2 2 log(C) 1
Iog(P Pwf) =  +Iog(qg) Eq (5.3)
n n
2
The form of this equation clearly indicates that a plot of (P  P;f) vs. qg on log
log paper should produce a straight line with a slope equal to 1/n, as shown in Fig
(5.2). The Least Sum of Squares is normally used to obtain the best straight line fit of
the data points.
AAU/ GAS/GAS5b.doc 5
FIG5.2
FlowAfterFlow Test Analysis
The Empirical Method
l.OOE+07 /
/
/
/
/
p.2 ~
~
~
I
,.IAI
I/
v
v
v
N
~
='" l.OOE+06 ,.
~
N /
c:L
s ooe= =1m
AOF p
~,
l.OOE+OS
10 100
I actual data I
AAU/GAS/GAS52.xls 6
I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
In the absence of the proper software, the following Two Least Square equations for
the loglog straight line fit will be used:
2
n = _ _ _ _ _2:logq2:logqm2:(logq)
_..;:.....:;;.....____;:.......;::..._ _
__;__..:;:..~
2 2 2 2
Z:logq:Llog(P Pw1)m2:(logq).log(P Pwf)
and,
2
:Llogq2:(logq).log(P P;1 )2:(logq) 2 2:log(P
2
)
1ogC =  n             = o             =   1
P;
:Llogq2:logq  m2:(logq)~
where m =number of _data points
The Absolute Open Flow Potential of a gas well is defined as the theoretical flow rate
of the well once the Backpressure at the sand face is reduced to zero gauge
pressure. Consequently, extrapolation of the straightline fit of the loglog plot of
( P  P~f) vs. q g to P should yield the value of the AOFP, as illustrated in Fig
2 2
(5.2).
Important Remarks
It has been mentioned earlier, the inflow constant, C, represents the combined effect
of many factors includinggand, z. Consequently, in volumetric reservoirs, the
value of C will be continuously changing during the operating life of the well, and the
plot of a certain Backpressure test will be viable (and representative of the well
potential) for, only, a short period of time. However, the calculated value of C can
remain constant for a long period of time in strong water drive systems, as long as
there is no water production or if the water cut remains constant. In such a case, the
plot of a certain Backpressure test will be viable (and representative of the well
potential) for, a long period of time.
Consequently, for a well producing from a Volumetric system (where the pressure is
declining continuously). it is recommended that the well be retested. and a new
performance plot be developed, once every 36 months. Whereas, in strong water
drive systems (where the reservoir pressure is maintained by the water influx) it is
AAU/ GAS/GAS5b.doc 7
INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
sufficient to retest the well to prepare a new performance plot. when there is a clear
indication of a change in the wellbore damage (i.e. S), or. change in the water cut
affecting the gas relative permeability.
i
I
Finally, the use of the Empirical IMethod to analyze Backpressure tests is illustrated
in Example Problem.(5.1).
q
lf/(Pwf) = lf/(P)l.422_L
T( ~n(_L)0.75
1
r + .
S + D.qg
) Eq (5.4)
kh !
i
rw
where,
qg = gas flow rate, scf/day
T = reservoir temperature, 0 ~
k = average permeability, mtf'
'lf/(P) = 2 f ~dP
.z
14.7
Eq (5.5)
I
where,
=gas viscosity, cp
z = gas deviation factor
AAU/ GAS/GAS5b.doc 8
INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
For pressures < 2000 psi a, the (u. z) poduct is practically constant. Consequently,
Eq (5.4) can be modified into the following form:
2 qgzT( r )
Pwf = 2
P 1.422 . ln(1)0.75+ S + D.qg . Eq (5.6)
kh . rw
2 2 2
P Pwf = a.qg +b.qg
or,
p2 P,2
'wf_ = a + b. q g Eqs (5.7)
qg
The theoretical values of a and b can be calculated using the following equations:
a= 1.422 ~T(ln(!g_)0.75 +
kh rw
s)
and,
b = 1.422 zT D
kh
The following relationship has been introduced, in the literature, for the numerical
calculation of the "turbulence factor",
ID 0.0518(y g)
. hrwk0.2
Eq (5.8)
where, "" is the gas viscosity in centipoise, calculated at the flowing bottom hole
I
pressure.
AAU/ GAS/GAS5b.doc 9
INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
,~..,,
( .
, (P2 P.2 )
The form of Eq (5.7) clearly suggests that a linear plot of wf vs. qg should
qg
produce a straight line with a slope equal to the actual "b" and a yintercept equal to
the actual "a", as shown in Fig (5.3). Once the values of "a" and "b" have been
determined, the AOFP can be calculated by substituting Pwf= 0 inEq (5.7).
The theoretical definitions of "a" and "b" indicate that these values will be changing
during the operating life of the well, and consequently, the same comments and
recommendations discussed earlier in the "Empirical" method, are true when
applying this method of analysis also.
The Least Sum of Squares is normally used to obtain the best straight line fit of the
data points. In the absence of the proper software, the following two Least Square
equations for linear straight line fit will be used:
( p2 P.2 )
2:qZ:(P2P;f)Z: wf z:q2
a=            ' q =     
2:qZ:q  mz:q2
and,
( p2 P.2 )
l:qZ: wf m2:(P2 P;f)
b= q
2:qZ:qm2:q2
AAU/ GAS/GAS5b.doc 10
FIG5.3
FlowAfterFlowTest Analysis
The Modified Method
0.25
I/
I/
'*'
0.20
[//
l/
0.15
I~
l/
l/ sl 01 te =b
0.10 /
lJ
/
!!
N... 0.05 I/v
/
~ /
fl.
I l/
....
N,_ 0.00
ll..
/
v"
0.05
/
/
v
)/
0.10
I/
I/
0.15
'~ . in  I = ::i
0.20
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
I actual data j
AAU/GAS/GAS53.xls 11
INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
/ .
3. The Exact Method
c
This method is based on the original pseudosteady state inflow equation (5.5). The
equation can be rewritten in the following simplified form:
or,
Eq (5.9)
where,
b'= I.422_!_D
kh
Equation (5.9) clearly suggests that a linear plot of the left hand side of the equation
versus q g should produce a straight line with a slope equal to "b' " and an intercept
equal to "a'", as shown in Fig (5.4). Once the values of "a'" and "b'" have been
=
determined, the AOFP can be calculated by substituting Pwf 0 in Equation (5.9).
This method of analysis requires some extra work to evaluate the gas potential
integral prior to the analysis. However, it ensures more accurate results than the
previous two methods for all pressure ranges.
Finally, the proper use of the "Analytical" Method to analyze the Backpressure test is
illustrated in Example Problem (5.1 ).
AAU/ GAS/GAS5b.doc 12
FIG 5.4
FlowAfter.;Flow Test Analysis
The Exact Method
40.00
v
35.00
/
v
30.00
v
.e
~
25.00
/
v
;}
E / sic pe: =b'
 I
20.00
/v

ci
E
...... 15.oo
v
/
10.00
1V
:/
5.00 .....  .
,.;iJL
L..
17"4
/.
0.00
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
I actual data I
AAU/GAS/GAS54.xls 13
INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
As suggested by the form of Eq 5.1 the time to reach stabilization might be very long
for low permeability.formations. The main objective of the lsochronal test is to obtain
data to establish a .stabilized Deliverability curve for a gas well without flowing the
well for a long period of time to achieve stabilized flow conditions for each rate.
The lsochronal test procedure is similar to the procedure described earlier for the
FlowAfterFlow test with ONE critical difference. In case of lsochronal testing, the
well is shut down after each flow period, and is allowed to return to a shutin
condition similar to the conditions existing at the time the well was first opened to
flow. The lsochronal test procedure (illustrated in Fig 5.5) can be summarized as
follows:
1. Flow the well at a fixed flow rate, and record Pwf after a certain period of time
(from as low as 15 minutes for very high permeability to as high as 12 hours for
very tight formations).
2. Shut in the well until the pressure builds back to original pressure.
3. Repeat steps 12 for other flow rates, and record the bottom hole flowing
pressures at the same increments of time.
4. Finally, flow the well for a long period of time sufficient to obtain stabilized flow
conditions, and record the stabilized flow rate and Pwf.
AAU/ GAS/GAS5b.doc 14
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
,,," _}
$~\.)\" ~~
(''&..
.
True Back Pressure Curve
j
/f~
.~
<l
,......rr/ ~ ~.
Last Flow Rate
C>
0 Slope A Slope B .
~
s\o9e
04 log(Q)
TIME
AAU/ GAS/GAS5b.doc 15
INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
2. Repeat step 1 for data points collected at each increment of time. These straight
lines are termed "the transient deliverability lines". They should all be parallel to
each other as shown in Fig 5.6.
Even though one transient line is sufficient for the analysis, however it is customary ;
to collect data at different increments in time, since obtaining parallel lines will ensure
credibility of the data collected and the results obtained from the test.
3. Draw a straight line paratlel to the transient lines, and passing through the (last)
stabilized flow point. This line is normally termed "the stabilized deliverability line"
and will be used to extrapolate to the AOFP, and to calculate the value of the
Exponent constant, n. Once the value of n has been determined the Inflow
Coefficient, C, for the stabilized flow conditions can be calculated using the
following relationship:
where Pwf(ext) is the measured bottom hole flowing pressure when the well
stabilizes at an extended flow rate.
AAU/ GAS/GAS5b.doc 16
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
FIG 5.6
lso..,chronal TestAnalysis
The Empirical Method
I.OOE+07
p.2
I
~
~
/
..
/
/
/
/
/
/
..
/
""
sta ~ilizec dat ~D li1'1
.
l.f / I~" """
I /
/
lfi / t r :msier tlin es
~... l/ I/
stabilize< flow, line ....
/ v I/
\..., / v ~:A
_7
v /
l(
N
~
D; l.OOE+06
/ ..........
/
:) ,/
(
N / /
a: ,
~
: :; G;: ~
''
,,AOFF
l.OOE+05
10 100
I 30 minutes ~ 15 minutes I
AAU/GAS/GAS56.xls 17
j Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
Previous analysis assumed that only free gas is produced at the surface. This is
rarely the case except in very Dry gas reservoirs. Different types of liquids are almost
always produced at the surface.
The condensation of liquids normally occurs at the separator stage in all types of
gases. In addition, the condensation may start in the well bore, in case of Wet gases.
In order to simplify the problem. it will be assumed that all the condensing liquids are
produced into the separator. and that NO liquids are accumulating in the well bore.
Consequently, the value of qg used in the analysis should include the measured
volumes of the free gas produced, in addition to the gas equivalent of the condensing
liquids.
Three types of liquids are normally associated with the gas production,
water existing initially in liquid form in the formation, such as interstitial water or
water from the water aquifer.
hydrocarbon liquids, condensing from the produced gas, and which existed
initially as a gas phase in the reservoir, and,
water liquids, condensing from the water vapors associated with the gas phase in
the reservoir.
The gas equivalent of the hydrocarbon liquids, (Ge). signifies the volume (in scf) of
the reservoir gas which condenses into one STB of hydrocarbon liquids at the
surface. The gas equivalent can be calculated using the following relationship:
where,
n = number of lb. moles of gas condensing into one STB of hydrocarbon liquids
1415
Y0 = Spec1.f.IC gravity
. 0 f the 11qu1.d hyd rocar bon = , an d ,
131.5 +AP!
M 0 = Molecular weight of the liquid hydrocarbon
AAU/ GAS/GAS5b.doc 18
INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
In many instances, only the API gravity of the liquid hydrocarbon is reported in the
field. In such cases, the following equation, developed by Crago, can be used to
estimate the molecular weight of the liquid hydrocarbon,
IMo 44.29y0
1.03ro
Eq (5.12)
G = 133,000y
e =3003(1.03 r o) Eq (5.13)
44.29 Yo
1.03ro
In some reservoirs, even though there is No water flowing from the formation,
however, some FRESH water (which existed originally as a water vapor content of
the gas in the reservoir) would condense into liquid under the normal separator
conditions. If it is certain that the origin of the water produced at the surface is the
vapor content of the gas in the reservoir, (and not the formation water), then the
value of qg to be used in the analysis should also be modified to include the gas
equivalent of this amount of condensing water vapor.
For all practical reservoir engineering purposes, the gas equivalent of the produced
water vapors, Gw , can be assumed equal to (7390 set I STBW).
AAU/ GAS/GAS5b.doc 19
INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
Finally, it is important to note that the neglect of these corrections can lead to some
error in the calculated values of C and n. This error is normally less than 2% in the
case of dry gases, but will be increasing with the increased wetness of the gas.
Final Remarks
It is important here to note that the main objective of both the FlowAfterFlow and
lsochronal tests is to define a simple inflow relationship between the flow rate
and the bottom hole flowing pressure (or the tubing wellhead pressure), which
can be used to predict the production rate at any given pressure, and to set a
base against which future performance is to be compared.
If sufficient data is collected from the lsochronal test, then it can be analyzed as
a transient pressure test which can be analyzed using the principle of super
position to calculate kg,S,and D.
AAU/ GAS/GAS5b.doc 20
INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
Example 5.1
(Different Techniques for the Analysis of the FlowAfterFlow Gas test)
A flowafterflow test was run in a wet gas reservoir. The following data was available
from the test,
A gas sample was collected from the reservoir, and the following compositional
analysis data was available:
C1 .. 0.86030
C2 0.05160
C3 0.02320
iC4 0.00000 results of lab measurements of Cl+
nC4 0.01380
iC5 0.00000 molecular weight = 100.100
nC5 0.00570 specific gravity = 0.800
C6 0.00290 Pc = 505 psia
Cl+ 0.00150 Tc = 1040 R
H2S 0.00100
N2 0.00150
C02 0.03850
1.00000
a) Prepare a table of the data required for the plots and the calculations of the
Empirical, the Modified, and the Analytical methods
b) Calculate the absolute open flow potential using all three analysis techniques,
and predict the production rate at Pwf=1000 psia for each method.
AAU/ GAS/GAS5b.doc 21
INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
Solution
r.
a) Data Preparation
1. The physical properties were calculated using the different relationships and
correlations discussed in Chapters 2 and 3. The results are given in the attached
Table (Ex 5.11). The pseudogas potential at each pressure was determlned first by
calculating the value of (2P/uz) at different pressures, and then using the Trapezoidal
method to calculate the area under the curve from P=14.7 to the required pressure.
(A plot of pseudo gas potential vs. Pressure is shown in Figure (Ex 5.11)
2. It is important first of all to correct the gas flow rates for the liquid condensates.
Since there is no water production, the gas rates need to be corrected for the
hydrocarbon condensates as follows:
141.5 14 1 5
AP/ =56.5 I consequently, r0 =     = 0.75266
131.5 +AP! 131.5 + 56.5
Using Crago correlation for the calculation of the gas equivalent:
3. Calculate the different parameters required for the three analysis techniques as
follows:
2852 0 0 0 0  5.28E+08 0
2700 5.2 495 5.6123 843904 0.1504 4.78E+08 8.909
2300 8.2 780 8.8497 2843904 0.3214 3.59E+08 19.097
2000 10.0 951 10.7921 4133904 0.3830 2.77E+08 23.261
1600 11.0 1200 11.9994 5573904 0.4645 1.81E+08 28.889
AAU/ GAS/GAS5b.doc 22
INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
Table Ex 5.11
Gas Physical Properties
Gas Molecular Weight , M = 19.76037
Gas S ecific Gravi = 0.682192
681.0172 psia
380.7928 oR
p z density Bg Ug Cg m(p)
(psia) factor (am/cc) (SCF/ft3) (cp) (1/psi)
AAU/ GAS/TABLE_Ex51.xls 23
INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
Figure Ex 5.11
PseudoGas Potential
1.30E+09
1.20E+09 /
1.10E+09 I
1.00E+09 I
,e I
9.00E+08 '
~ 8.00E+08
I
ii
;;
c 7.00E+08
.s0
I
Q.
UI
co
(.!)
,,0
6.00E+08 I
,
::J
(I)
UI
Q. 5.00E+08 J
4.00E+08 I
3.00E+08 I
,
I
e 2.00E+OB
1.00E+OB
/
/
O.OOE+OO
/
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
Pressure, psia
P~f) vs. qg
2
> Plot ( P  on a loglog plot, and flt to a straight line as shown in Fig
(Ex 5.1~).
> Read from the plot (or calculate using Least Square Fit):
n =0.4062 , c =21,774
> Consequently, the inflow performance relationship can be represented by:
:>
AAU/ GAS/GAS5b.doc 25
r
I
/
J actual data
best fit
I
I
J
I
I/
AOFP=13.23 MMscf/D
'F
l.E+05
10 100
qg (corrected) Mmscf/day
Inflow Performance
Example Problem5.1
3000.i:;~~=i==i=+:i==r:r=r=J:::c=CJ=r::C""T""9~r1rrri11ir.,r11rirr,..._,. ___
0+....__.__,__._+__.~.__..__.......,.+....__.__,__._+__,, __.__..__.......,.+...&......i.....j,.,.l..!1.......1~'".i....+...i....r...
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
flow rate, MMscf/D
INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
(P2 P.2 )
)> Plot wf vs. q g on linear paper, and fit to a straight line as shown in
qg
Fig (Ex 5. 1.B).
)> Read from the plot (or calculate using the Least Square Fit):
a= 0.11303 I b= 4.76x108
( p2 P.2 )
 wf = 0.11303 + 4.76x108 qg
qg
or,
2 2 8 2
(P  Pwf) = 0.11303 qg + 4.76x10 qg
2 2 . 8 2
(2852 1000 ) ~ 0.11303 qg + 4.76xl0 qg
AAU/ GAS/GAS5b.doc 27
Figure (Ex 5.1B)
Modified Method
0.7
/
v
0.6
o.s /
e ../
0.4
slopt ~ = b = 4 76(10)8
ntercep =a =1 I, 11 ;jU;j
/
V
~
bl)
~
.......
..,,_ 0.3
~ !/ actual data

~ best fit I,
M
~
I
~
.......
0.2
/
/
0.1
I/
/
0.0
v
/
0.1 /
/
0.2
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
qg (corrected) Mmscf/day
Inflow Performance
Empirical vs. Modified
3500..................................,,....,..............,..,.................,.....,.....,.....,........
3000 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I . I I I I I I I
2500 I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I  ........_
.......
f""'llllli
l ......
1'."'
a. 1500 ~
"~'X'
500 I I I I I I I I I .I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I .::111,1~1111~b l I . ~ ~ I I I I I
0 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 'I II I I I I
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
flow rate, MMscf/D
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
0 / t'l'(/})'!'(Pwf)
," ,. o vs. qg on l"mear paper, an dfitt
1 o a s tra1g
htl"me as sh own m
dg
c:
qg
(Ex 5.1C).
~ Read from the plot (or calculate using the Least Square Fit):
l/l(R ) l/f(R 1)
l w = 7.99049 + 3.009601(10) 6 .q g
qg
or,
'!'(/} ) l/l(Pwf) = 1.99049.qg + 3.009601(10) 6 .q:
8
5.28(10) 0.725(10) 8 = 7.99049.q g + 3.009601(10) 6 .qi
'
AAU/ GAS/GAS5b.doc 29
Figure (Ex 5.1,:C)
Exact Method
35.0
'/
30.0
1y
I
25.0 I
I/.
20.0 I
 C"'
ell
........
~ 15.0 I
I/
./ I
cf
.._ actual data
s I
best fit
c
c.
.._ 10.0
s
I
~
5.0
v . 
::   I.; 1~up ut
6
I
\'= 3.00 6 .
0.0
v
I
I
5.0
10.0
v
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
Example 5.2
(Analysis of a typical Isochronal Test)
. An 1sochronal test was run in a dry gas reservoir, and the following data was
collected from the test,
AAU/ GAS/GAS5b.doc 30
.INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet I
Solution
2
> Plot ( P  P;,
1) vs. qg on a logJog plot, and fit to a straight line as shown in
Fig (Ex 5.2).
> Read from the plot (or calculate using Least Square Fit):
n =0.6719
> Draw a line parallel to the best fit (i.e. with slope=0.6710) passing through the
extended flow data point
> Consequently, the inflow performance relationship for the stabilized flow can be
represented by:
AAU/ GAS/GAS5b.doc 31
Figure (Ex 5.2)
Empirical Method
10000000.0
.l ,J
, /
I, /
........
,,, v
~
,/
1'
,,. ~/
1000000.0 ,,
,'/
,'
7
actual data
best fit
v = 1 ...Cl o ..

;: iUflC
, 1' / n=1/ .884= IJ.67' 9
,,
,, '
,,,
1'
,,,,1'
,
,,,
AOFP=6.864 MMscf/D
,
100000.0
10
qg (corrected) MMscf
Chapter 6
6.1 INTRODUCTION
There are three main differences in the formulation of the flow equations
describing the oil and gas flow in porous media. These differences can be
summarized as follows:
Fluid Properties
In the derivation of the Diffusivity Equation for liquids it was safe to assume that
liquid properties (such as Bo, Co, and Uo) are constant. This assumption cannot
be applied in the case of gas flow, because gas properties are highly sensitive to
pressure changes with time and location in the reservoir.
Skin Factor
Due to the relatively small liquid velocity toward the well bore, it was safe to
neglect the effect of turbulance and thus use Darcy equation to represent
steadystate flow of into the wellbore. However, due to the large velocities by
which the gas flows toward the wellbore, the original Forchheimer equation
should be used to represent the gas flow. This equation takes into consideration
the effect of gas Slippage and Turbulence as follows:
I dP = uV + j3pV2
dr k
Eq (6.1)
I
where fJ is a formation constant determined by the petrophysical characteristics
of the formation (mainly type of rock, porosity, and permeability).
The last term in the above Equation (normally known as the NonDarcy effect)
accounts for the slippage and turbulence.
In order to visualize the importance of the Nondarcy effect, consider a gas well
producing at a constant rate of (5 MM scf I day) . Also assume that p = 0.001
AAU/GAS//GASPTA.doc 1
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
AAU/GAS//GASPTA.doc 2
Fig 6.1A
2
The Pw analysis method
(for P<2000 psia)
3.60E+06
..... I
3.50E+06
3.40E+06
3.30E+06 ~ .2 I :n
!" r..._
r.."
11L
,,..._..._.
  
...........
 . ,. . .
.;;;. 
/
,_
~
/
,_ i...
,.
1actuatl
N 3.20E+06 ~
~
a_
} 3.10E+06
3.00E+06
r....... 11:>..
2.90E+06
""' ~ .....
2.80E+06
2.70E+06
2.60E+06
0.1 1 10
flowing time, hours
Fig 6.1B
The Pw analysis method
(for P>3000 psia)
3400
r........_ ,,, ...
3350
!..!' 0
1., L.
r/  ' 
..... t: ~ 'I ~
"l:l
3300 r1 h ....... i....
i.. .... I~/ .... I actual data I
e l
3250
3200
~ ,.........,,.
a. .......
i"1 ~ i.... L,"
3150
3100
3050
3000
0.1 1 10
flowing time, hours
Different investigators have conCluded that since the NonDarcy effect becomes
appreciable only at very small distances from the well bore, consequently, it is
safe to include this effect as an additional skin. So, unlike oil wells, the SKIN
factor in gas wells is variable with flow rate.
Unlike the Diffusivity equation describing liquid flow in porous media, the general
diffusivity equation describing the gas flow is NONlinear as can be seen from
the following form:
There are two main approaches in the literature to the solution of this nonlinear
equation:
mentioned .
where the Gas Diffusivity equation is rewritten in a linear form through the
introduction of a transform known as the PseudoGas Potential, m(p) or
lf/(P). This approach was developed by Alhussainy and Ramey in 1966,
and it is correct analytically for all ranges of pressures.
AAU/GAS//GASPTA.doc 3
INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
182p2 +
I} r 2
p2  t/J UCg 8 p2
_!_ 8
r I} r k I} t
Eq 6.3
This is very similar to the oil diffusivity equation except for the replacement of P
I
2
by P . The analytical solution of this equation for an infinite acting system can
be written in the following form:
63
P/P;f = 1. ?qTuz (logt+log kP 3.23+0.87S') Eq 6.4
kh urw2
where,
Eq 6.5
I
AAU/GASl/GASPTA.doc 4
INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
Similar to the pressure analysis of oil wells, the earlytime pressure data will be
distorted due to the effect of well bore storage. Different authors have shown that
for gas wells in which the casingtubing annulus is not packed off, the duration of
the well bore storage effect can be estimated using the following relationship:
I
,o,i, I .,j ' '
..,.,,,,,,.;:';~ l ,,.,/ iiloc'> "'"'' ~.,,
t =4 785 g cg r.2L
where,
'
L
w
kh
=length of the flow string, feet,
Eq 6.6
I
and, rw =well bore radius, feet
This equation indicates that the well bore storage effects can be very long in low
pressure, deep formations due to the combined effect of L and the high gas
compressibility.
It is important to note that the above equation is developed for a skin factor =
zero. Different investigators have concluded negative skin will reduce the
duration of the well bore storage, and visa versa. However, there is still NO
concrete analytical expression which takes into consideration the effect of skin.
Similar to the case of oil wells, Eq 6.6 cannot be used unless the value of the
permeability has been estimated from previous tests. In case of inavailability of
k, the Ramey rule of 1 % cycle after the end of the loglog unit straight line
should be used, and then once k has been calculated, Eq 6.6 is used to check
whether the correct portion of data has been used in the semilog analysis or not.
The total skin factor can be calculated using the following equation:
S =1.151
( ~2b Ihr  log k
(uct )irw
2
+ 3.23 J Eq 6.7
where,
Cti = (1 Swi )cgi+ SwiCw +Cf
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Swift and Kiel have concluded that the total skin factor, S', is dependent on two
components; namely, the mechanical skin, S, and the nondarcy skin effect, as
follows,
The above equation includes two unknowns, namely, the mechanical skin factor,
S, and the NonDarcy flow coeffeicient, D. Consequently, two tests at two
I I
different flow rates need to be run. The skin factors S1 and S2 are evaluated
and substituted into Eq 6. 7 as follows:
Finally, the two equations are solved simultaneously to calculate (S), and (D) .
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Carter made the observation that the value of .Bg is practically constant for p
> 3000 psia, i.e. the gas flow can be approximated by liquid flow, and
consequently, the analytical solution for the Diffusivity equation will be:
quBg kP
f1Pwf =162.6 (logt+log 2
3.23+0.87S') Eq 6.9
kh ,./,
'r
UY,
lW
where,
q =flow rate, scf I day,
A plot of Pwf vs. Log t for Drawdown, or, ~vs vs. Log (t + ~t) I ~t for buildup
will result in a straight line with a slope,
Eq 6.10 I
and,
Eq 6.11
where,
cti = (1 Swi )cgi + swiCw +cf
Mihr = f1  lhr for DrawDown test analysis
Mihr = lihr  Pwfo for Buildup test analysis
I
S =S+Dq
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P;
The same procedure, described earlier for the method, for the calculation of
the mechanical skin factor, S, and the NonDarcy flow coefficient, D, can be
used in this case .
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Im(p) = 2 J.!_dP
14.7uz
Eq 6.12
I
Substituting the m(p) transform into the original Diffusivity Equation, the following
form is obtained:
o 2
m(p) 1 O m(p) </J UCg O m(p)
"'+ =  Eq 6.13
o2r r 0 r k 0 r
This equation is analogous to the Diffusivity Equation for liquid flow, except for
the substitution of (p) by the pseudogas potential m(p ).
Consequently, the solution of Eq 6.13 for the infinite acting system will be:
where,
q
T
= gas flow rate in set I day , and ,
=reservoir temperature, 0 R
A plot of m(p )wf vs. Log t for Drawdown, or, m(p )ws vs. Log (t + b..t)I b..t for
buildup will result in a straight line with a slope,
Im = 1.637 ~: Eq 6.15
I
If more than one test is being run, then the permeability values calculated from
the different tests should be identical. However, differences can occure due to
errors in data, errors in reading the values of m(p) from the plot, or error in fitting
a set of data points to the correct straight line. In this case, calculate an
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arithmetic average of permeability to represent the most probable value for the
formation. Use engineering sense to exclude any test whose calculated k has a
high degree of divergence from the other calculated values.
where,
The procedure for the calculation of the mechanical skin factor, S, and the Non
Darcy flow coefficient, D, will be the same as described earlier in the p_;
method.
In case more than two tests are being run, calculated the value of S' for each test
and plot versus the corresponding flow rates, on linear paper, and obtain the
best straight line fit. The value of the mechanical Skin, S, will be equal to the y
intercept, whereas, the value of the NonDarcy flow coefficient, D, will be equal
to the slope of the straight line.
Example Problem 6.1 illustrates the proper analysis procedures for the Pw2
method and the pseudogas potential method.
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Example Problem 6. 1
(DrawDown Test Analysis in Gas Wells)
Two DrawDown tests were performed in a new gas well. The following bottom
hole flowing pressures were recorded:
GAS PROPERTIES
P (psia) z u (cp)
400 0.95 0.0117
800 0.90 0.0125
1200 0.86 0.0132
1600 0.81 0.0146
2000 0.80 0.0163
2400 0.81 0.0180
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Solution
1) Prepare tables of p/(u.z) vs. p, and then calculate a table of the corresponding
m(p) values using the Trapezoidal Rule as shown in Tables Ex 6.1A and 6.1B.
The corresponding working plots of p/(u.z) vs. p and m(p) vs. p are given in
Figures (Ex 6;1A and Ex 6.1B)
Table Ex 6.1A
Calculation of P/uz
p z u P/uz
Table Ex 6.1B
Calculation of m(p) vs. P
(A)j =
j
J P (psia) (PI uz) j +(PI uz) jl fjl L:(A)i 6
.!iP . m(p)xI0
2 J i=O
0 0 0 0 0
1 400 7,197,400 7, 197,400 14.39
2 800 21,419,600 28,617,000 57.23
3 1200 35,363,800 63,980,800 127.96
4 1600 48,200,600 112' 181 ,400 224.36
5 2000 57,749,600 169,931,000 339.86
6 2400 63,596,600 233,527 ,600 467.05
2) Using the working m(p) plot in Fig. Ex 6.1B, convert the given data values of
Pwf to the corresponding m(p) values.
Important Note: Normally the m(p) vs. p plot can be satisfactorily fitted to a
second degree equation (as shown in Fig Ex6.1B) which will make the
conversion of the actual data to m(p) a very simple procedure. This method is
more accurate than reading the graph.
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Fig Ex 6.1A
180,000
_.
160,000
~
~
140,000 _,,,.
/
120,000
/"
N
::J
a_
100,000
80,000
/
/
v
60,000
40,000
v
20,000 /
0 ./
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
P, psia
Fig Ex 6.1B
500
450 A
!
400 / i
I
co 350 v = 7Fn :=i)(" + n r 178)( /
~r:
~ 300
J$.. 250 /
.,e; 200
E 150 /
_.,,Jt' !I
100 __.,,,, I
I
50 ~
0 !::" I
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
P, psia
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l Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
Table Ex 6.1C
Conversion of pressure data to corresponding m(p) values
3) Plot m(p) vs. log (t), where t is in hours, for each of the DrawDown tests, as
shown in Figure Ex 6.1C.
0
....
J
I
,...
lolll
I '
!D
~
;
c.'
I~'
1..:
I'"=
=~
<N I
1..:
IC!> <P.
IT" it)
II
IC~
) (/)
s...
::s
0
...I
..!:
0I
~
.... Q)
E
CD '
.,..1
+'
x 5:
w 0
(.9 '+=
',2,:t1}!< 'j
LL 1+++t<~..;;:.o];~:_;l+111+tl+tttttttt<im
I/
l}~t I
t++rt+~r'p I ,,,~
!+1+l+Hl++ttttl'lltt
l
r
l~,:j
I i )
I
i
I
i !
0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
I.() 0 I.() 0 I.() 0 I.()
C0 C0 N N .... ....
o~ (d)w
9
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15
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7) Extrapolate the straight line for each test to t = 1 hour, and read (on the
straight line ) the value of m(p )ihr for each test as follows
,....;v S1 = + 0.363
,,,
and,
S2 = + o.796
10) Calculate the mechanical skin and the Turbulence factor as follows:
Since there are only two tests, it would not be necessary to plot the calculated
values of S' versus the corresponding flow rates. It is sufficient to solve the two
simultaneous equations representing the total skin factor as follows:
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s'l,.cs
1) . . .
)('
I
consequently, the choice of the straight line was correct in both plots.
b) The P; method
2 2
 ~vf +~
1) Calculate P = for each test. The results will be P1 = 2024 psia
2

and and P2=1649 psi a. The corresponding values of z and for test1 are
0.805 and 0.0164, and for test2 0.809 and 0.0149.
2) Prepare a plot of P; vs. log (t) for each of the DrawDown tests, as shown in
Figure Ex 6.1D.
S)Calculate
 6
ki = 1. 637 qiTuz1 = 1. 637 (1.6)10 (130 + 460)(0.0164)(0.805) = 5 .22 md
qh 0.3908x10 6 (10)
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Fig Ex 6.1D
2
The P method
4.0E+06

3.5E+06 IQ1=1.6
I
MMscf/D ~
3.0E+06

  
N~ 2.5E+06
a. I 2.0E+06
N
~
a. 1.5E+06
..._r....
1.0E+06
~ 1...
H l.""I IQ2=3.2 MMscf/D
~
5.0E+05
O.OE+OO '
 __. l_
f.J l
0.1 1 10
flowing time, hours
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 6
k =1. q2Tuz2 = 1. (3.2)10 (130 + 460)(0.0149)(0.809) = 4 .90 md
2 637 637
b2h 0.7599x106 (10)
The average permeability for the formation is (5.06) md. The value obtained by
using the pseudogas potential method was (4.84) md. The very small difference
indicates that the P; method will give very reliable results when the pressure
data is< 2000 psia.
6) Extrapolate the straight line for each test to t = 1 hour, and read (on the
straight line ) the value of P; for each test as follows
s~ =1.151
(
(2300 2  3.2292xl 06 )  log
6
5.22
2
+ 3.23 J
0.3908xl 0 0.1(0.0175)(0.00034)(0.25)
,
S1 = + 0.4098
and,
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S2=+1.2642
2 0~:J 2 (j 1&
t = gcgrwL =4,785(0.0117)(1/2300)~5) (5400) =J}:65 hours
4 785
' kh 5.06(10)
consequently, the choice of the straight line was correct in both plots.
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Example Problem 6. 2
A DrawDown test was run in a gas well producing from a bounded sandstone
reservoir. The well was produced at a constant rate of q=4.485 MMscf/day for
120.53 hours before it was shut down for a build up test. The pressuretime data
is given in Table Ex 6.2 and the following reservoir and fluid data was available:
Table Ex 6.2
\:
,J\
120.53
121.06
121.86
3297
3296
3296
139.20
141.86
145.06
3660
3665
3670
l 122.13 3385 149.86 3675
122.66 3521 156.26 3681
123.20 3547 166.40 3687
123.73 3562 170.40 3693
h
v1 Analyze the test.
\,
./ r
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Chapter 7
The determination of the static bottomhole pressure, and of the flowing pressure
at any depth, is often needed for different reservoir studies and production
design such as to calculate the productivity index of the well, to calculate the
reservoir average pressure which is needed for the Material Balance
Calculations, to design the well bore and well head equipment, etc. Sometimes,
it is not practical to run a bottomhole pressure gauge for such measurements,
and consequently, the pressure readings at the wellhead, Pwh, are used to
calculate the pressures below the surface.
The techniques available in the literature for the calculation of the pressure drop
between any two points for steadystate gas flow in a pipe are based on the
Energy Balance Equation which can be written in the following form:
where
U =internal energy
pV =energy of expansion or compression
mv2 = kinetic energy
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Without going into detailed mathematical derivations which apply the wellknown
thermodynamic relationships, it can be shown that Eq 7.1 can be rewritten in
petroleum engineering terms as follows:
dp g dz f p v2 p v dv
=p+ + .+ws Eq 7.2
dL gc dL 2gc D 2agc dL
This equation shows that the total pressure drop is made up of three distinct
components in addition to the mechanical work done by or on the fluid:
where,
state and transient flows, in vertical and inclined systems. It is zero for horizontal
flow.
The work term represents work done on the gas (compression) or by the gas
(expansion through a turbine or engine). This term is normally set equal to zero
in pipe flow equations.
The main parameter which requires some elaboration is the friction factor, f,
known as the DarcyWeisbach or Moody friction factor (not to be confused with
the Fanning friction factor, f'= f I 4 ). Dimensional analysis shows that the friction
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factor is a function of two main parameters; namely, the Reynolds number, NRe
and the relative roughness, e/D.
The Reynolds number, NRe is a dimensionless group which defines the ratio of
the fluid momentum forces to viscous shear forces. defined as:
Eq 7.4
For the case of gas flow it can be shown easily that the above equation can be
rewritten in the following form:
\
 / l (Mi I'd)
N Re= (20,140). qg CJ' r g Eq 7.5
D(in.)g(cp)
where,
qg =gas flow rate at 60F and 14.73 psia, MM scf/day
Yg =gas specific gravity (air= 1)
g = gas viscosity at the flowing pressure and temperature, cp
D =inside pipe diameter, in.
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sand grains that would give the same pressure gradient behavior as the actual
pipe wall. This definition was used because from a microscopic point of view the
wall roughness is not uniform, and thus the distance from the peaks to valleys on
the wall surface will vary greatly.
The selection of a value for pipe wall roughness is sometimes difficult. The
following values of absolute roughness are recommended for use in natural gas
flow problems:
e (inches)
j
Drawn tubing 0.00006
Well tubing 0.0006
Line pipe 0.0007
Galvanized pipe 0.006
Cementlined pipe 0.010.1
Also, Moody diagram (shown in Figure 7.1) can be consulted for choosing an
=
effective e/D. If no information is available on roughness, a value of e 0.0006
inches is recommended for tubing and line pipe.
It is the Relative roughness, e/D, (and not the absolute roughness) that
determines the pressure drop due to friction.
The correlation of Moody friction factor is shown in Fig 7.2. It is a loglog graph
of log(f) versus log(NRe) for different e/D. Four different flow regimes can be
recognized on the plot; namely, laminar, critical, transition, and turbulent.
For Laminar flow, the friction factor is dependent only on the Reynolds Number
as follows:
1!=64=~ Eq 7.6 /
pvD NRe
4
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I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr A. A. Urayet I
32 v
Eq 7.7
gc D2
Experimental studies of turbulent flow have shown that unlike laminar flow, the
velocity profile and pressure gradient for turbulent flow are greatly affected by the
pipe roughness as shown in Fig 7 .1.
5
Blasius correlation (NRe up to 10 )
Eq 7.9
The correlation that is used as the basis for modern friction charts was
proposed by Colebrook and White in 1939:
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Eq7.10 /I
>/ 
This equation is applicable to smooth pipes and to flow in transition and fully
rough zones of turbulent flow. However, it is not explicit in f and
consequently would require an iterative procedure to solve for the friction ,, 4\
factor. ' ~.c
~..., " " le"'
1
  = 1.14 
Ii
25
210{~D + 2N0.9
L J Eq 7.11 __,.//
VJ Re
Another good correlation for turbulent flow in rough pipes at large values of
NRe is the Nikuradse's friction factor correlation which has the follow!ng form:
For steadystate gas flow between any two points 1 and 2, Equation 7 .2 .is
usually written in integral form as follows:
Eq 7.13
All different forms of equations derived for gas flow in pipes is based on Eq 7 .13. It is
the basis for static and flowing calculations in vertical wells and horizontal flow lines.
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28.97y p
Since the gas density can be written in the following form: pg = g
zRT
zRT m
and the gas velocity is: v = .
28.97ygP (tr I 4)D 2
where m =mass flow rate (lbm/sec)
Consequently, the General Vertical Flow Equation can now be written as
follows:
I zl p
2 2
dp = J0.01875rg dL Eq 7.14
1 667 fqiT z 1 T
I+ 5 2
Dp
where,
Each of these methods will be applied for the calculation of the static and flowing
bottom hole pressure. Other available techniques in the 1ft8ratUre will be
discussed in the Final Remarks.
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For a static fluid column, qg =O, and consequently, Eq 7.14 can be simplified into
the following form:
12Jdp=
z 20.01s1srg
f dL Eq 7.15
1P 1 T
A practical method for the calculation of the static bottomhole pressure is based
on substituting the average values of z and T (between the well head and the
bottom of the well) into Eq (7.15). Then direct integration and rearrangement of
the equation will result in the following simplified form:
where,
z = deviation factor

= T.h+T.b ~vh +~vs
Twb
calculated at T w
2
w
'
and P = ""'''
Since Pws is not known, and since the right hand side of Eq (7.16) requires the

knowledge of Pws to calculate z, consequently, the solution would require a
Trial and Error procedure.
Normally, two or three trials are sufficient to reach to the engineering accuracy
required in such calculations. In order to minimize the number of iterations
required to reach the desired accuracy, it is recommended to use the following
equation to calculate the initial guess,
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5
where the factor (2.5x10 ) represents the methane gradient under standard
conditions .
Finally, it is important to note that once the above calculations of the static
bottom hole pressure have been carried out, a "gas head factor, Fg" can be
calculated for the specific well conditions (i.e. specific geothermal gradient of the
well, specific gas composition, etc.) as follows:
Eq 7.18A
This factor can, now, be used for future calculations of the static or well head
~ pressures of the well using the following relationship:
An illustration of the proper use of the Trial and Error Technique for the
calculation of the static bottom hole pressure is given in Example Problem 7.1.
 2 s,
25(y g )T.z.f.q .(e 1).L
s.D 5
Eq 7.19
where,
_ 2ygL.cosB
s
53.34.T.z
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.:.;
q =gas flow rate , MMscf/D .
Since Pwf is not known, and since the right hand side of Eq (7.19) requires the

knowledge of Pwfto calculate z, consequently, the solution would require a
Trial and Error procedure. Two or three trials are normally sufficient to reach to
the engineering accuracy required in such calculations. The above equation can
be applied from the well head to the sandface in one step (as the equation is
written), or, it can be applied in multistep calculation which is preferable if the
flowing temperature diagram is available.
Finally it is important to note that this method (unlike its application to static
pressure calculation) is not as accurate as other techniques such as the Sukkar
and Cornell method or the Cullender and Smith method. Also, the friction factor
needs to be reevaluated at each trial which makes it tedious to apply for fast
calculations. Consequently, it is very rarely used by reservoir and production
engineers.
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This method allows direct calculation of the bottom hole pressure without trial
and error. It also gives more accurate results as compared to the average T
average z method. In this solution, it is assumed that the Kinetic energy term can
be neglected (normally< 0.1%), and that the irreversible energy losses can be
expressed by friction loss correlations. An average temperature is used, and
Equation 7 .14 is rewritten in terms of pseudoreduced pressure as follows:
Prf2 z Ip 0.01875ygL
_ _...::,_r_ d]J.r=     =   Eq 7.20
Prt 1 Bz2 T
+
p2;
where,
P,.1 = Pi I Ppc
Pr2 =P2I Ppc
L = vertical distance between points 1 and 2 , ft , and
T =average temperature between points 1 and 2, 0 R
2 2
B = 667 fq T
D5P2
pc
In order to simplify the calculations, Sukkar and Cornell rewrote Eq 7.20 and
evaluated the pseudo reduced integrals as follows:
If using the ORIGINAL Sukkar and Cornell table of integrals (Table 7.1) then
Equation 7 .20 will have the form:
Eq 7.21A
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If using the EXTENDED Sukkar and Cornell table of integrals (Tables 7.2)
then Equation 7 .20 will have the form:
For the static pressure calculations the value of B is set equal to zero. Whereas
for the flowing pressure calculations it is required first to calculate the friction
factor, f, in order to be able to calculate B .
An illustration of the proper use of the Sukkar and Cornell method for the
calculation of the static and flowing bottomhole pressure is given in Example
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It is important to note that the equations presented for the static and flowing
pressure calculations in the tubing can also be used for gas flow in the annulus.
In such case the following modifications are required:
use Deq in the calculation of the Reynolds Number, NRe, where
Deq =De +Di, and De is the inside diameter of the casing, and Di is the
outside diameter of the tubing.
for the calculation of the" f3 " factor, use the following substitution :
Eq 7.22
In the Sirte basin the average geothermal gradient is 1.6 F / 100 ft of depth, and
consequently, the formation temperature at any depth in the Sirte basin can be
approximated by the following correlation:
IT( F) = 80 + l.6(_Q_)
100
Eq 7.23
When the fluid flows in the borehole, such as in drilling and production
operations, the temperature effect will be different on different formations due to
the difference in the thermal conductivities of the formations and the different
well hole completions at each depth. Consequently, when the well is closed,
temperature equalization will be reached after a very long time (months usually).
This is why temperature irregularities in the temperature surveys can sometimes
confuse the production engineer, and would be mistaken for an anomaly in the
well bore, such as a hole in the casing, or fluid migration behind the pipe, etc.
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~
l~ \ ~./ .
Two main features about the temperature diagram in a gas well are:
rt;ithe gas temperature at the well head will always be higher in case of the
(,f~f v flowing well than in case of shutin.
, unlike the oil temperature diagram, the gas temperature at any depth will be
higher than the temperature obtained by linear interpolation between the well
head and formation temperatures
Different correlations are available in the literature for two phase flow, such as
Hagedorn and Brown, Duns and Ros, Orkiszewski, Beggs and Brill, and Govier
and Aziz.
However, different authors have concluded that for gas wells producing less than
~ ffia, of condensing water and hydrocarbons per MM scf of gas, then the
met~of SukkarCornell can still give very reliable results, if the following
adjustments are made:
Use the MIXTURE specific gr.avity, ym, instead of the gas specific gravity,
'1:)
Yg , where: ~{tr
. ,l
~J
fj
Eq 7.24
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Adjust the gas flow rate in all previous equations to include the produced
liquids as follows:
where,
qe =hydrocarbon condensate flow rate ( STB/D), and ,
qw = condensing water vapor flow rate ( STBW /D) , and ,
re =hydrocarbon condensate specific gravity= 141.5 / (131.5+API)
Unlike the SukkarCornell method, this method require a tedious trial and error
procedure in addition to the numerical evaluation of the integrals. In order to
achieve higher accuracy, this method also requires the calculations to be
repeated at small depth increments (normally every 1000 ft), and requires a good
temperature survey.
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Example Problem 7. 1
a) Calculate the static bottom hole pressure using the trial and error procedure
b) Estimate the future well head pressure when the static pressure at the bottom
of the well declines to 2600 psia.
c) Calculate the static bottom hole pressure using the Sukkar and Cornell
method
S} C=( 
 
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Solution
Use the specific gravity of the gas to calculate the pseudocritical constants as
follows:
Trial1
1) Apply Eq (7. 17) to estimate the first guess for Pws as follows:
2) Calculate P

= P.ws + P. 1h = 2906 + 2500 = 2703
11
psia
2 2

2703
3) Calculate Pr = 4.075
(at P) =
663.3
 194+136 0 165+460
4) Calculate T= = 165 F, and T,. = = 1.655
2 377.6
5) Use Standing/Katz charts or Brill and Beggs correlation to estimate the
deviation factor, z = 0.84
1n ws =
n
1 wh
e T.z = 2500.e (165+460)(0.84) = 2941 psia
AAU/GAS/GASFLOW.doc 17
I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr A. A. Urayet I
Tria/2
Repeat steps 26 (using the new calculated value of Pws as a second guess)
and calculate ,
4
T = 165+460=1. 655
) r 377.6
5) z =0.842
0.01875(yg ).L.cosB 0.01875(0.7)(6500)
6) Pws = Pwh .e T.z = 2500.e (l 65 +46 0)(0. 842 ) = 2940 psia
The difference between the assumed and calculated values is 1 psi only, so
there is no need for more trials.
AAU/GAS/GASFLOW .doc
18
I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr A. A. Urayet I
165 + 460
1) Calculate: Tr = = 1.655 an
377.6
2500
21_Calculate Pr (at the well head, Pwh) = = 3.769
663.3
3) Enter Table 7.1 with B=O, Tr=1.655, and P,.(wh)= 3.769. The value of the
reduced integral is calculated by interpolation to be =..:l:t3269 J. 13 "'1 ~t>
4'
5) Reenter Table 7.1 with the value of 0.99619, and Tr =1.655 and read(by
linear interpolation) the corresponding value of Pr= 4.42945
6) Calculate Pws = Pr.Ppc = (4.42945)(663.3) = 2938 psia
~o
O'
tV
"'.)
AAU/GAS/GASFLOW.doc 19
I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr A. A. Urayet I
Example Problem 7. 2
The well was put on production and the following data was available:
Assuming a smooth pipe, calculate the flowing bottom hole pressure using
Sukkar and Cornell method
AAU/GAS/GASFLOW.doc 20
I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr A. A. Urayet I
Solution
4) The calculation of the friction factor requires the prior calculation of the
Reynolds Number. Analytically, this number should be evaluated at the average
flowing viscosity which is not known. Consequently, it is always sufficient to use
the viscosity at the known pressure (well head pressure in this case).
 enter with Tr= 1.655, and Pr= 1.809 into the Carr et al correlation, (Fig
AAU/GAS/GASFLOW.doc 21
I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr A. A. Urayet I
= 0.0056 + 0.5NR_~
32 6 032
f = 0.0056 + 0.5(6.396xl0 ) = 0.00892
2
:i p 667 f.qiT _ 667(0.00892)(12.5) 2 (165 + 460) 2 _
51 calculate
5 2

5
2  26 12
D .Ppc (1.995) (663.3)
6) Enter Table 7.2 with B =26.12, Tr =1.655, and P,.(wh) = 1.809. The value of
the reduced integral is calculated by interpolation to be =0.06345
7) Substitute into Eq 7.21B as follows;
AAU/GAS/GASFLOW.doc 22
I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr A. A. Urayet /
Field Problem
e. The well was put on production and the following data was available:
a) Using Sukkar and Cornell method calculate the flowing pressure in the tubing
at every 2000 ft. depth interval.
b) Prepare a plot of the pressure results vs. depth
/ I
J l
' !
(~J
J ~
j
J
J
"'.
'' !
AAU/GAS/GASFLOW.doc ' 23
Pipe diameter, in feetd
1 2 3 4 56 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 2025
0.05
I l'I
I I II 1 0.07
0.04
'" I\"
0.0
0.0
3 '
2~ ... " ['\
I\. ~
.... ~


0.06
0.05
"  '
Rivqted
0.0 ~
1 "'\.."'\.. ' ... , ' "' " I\..
~
Steel'
"'\.. ....
 0.04
~
0.00 0.035
... ... !\
0.006
'"'\.."' I"' .
0.0085"""" ...., I".
""'"""'
" " [".
.....
' 
."
Concrete ... :'I~ 0.03
0.004 II... _,
l"\.. I I I
~~ "I\.
~oo.
Stave
 0.025 ~
0.002 I\ .9
r.... ~
I" .... G> a.
""
::J
Galvanized Iron
0.00 1
... ~
IX I" "'
I\" ~ ['I\."'\.. ... ~ ""\'.~oo_
'f\..  0.02 E
tv'
0.000,8
""
(.)
c
~ ... ~['I
,,
""''I\.
... I'\ "\"
" 
0.000,6 I\.
0.018 "'
::J
0.000.5 I'... ~ "" '' I"" I". .0
"
~
0.000,1 ,__
Commercial Steel or Wrought Iron

....... ,,.,,.. ~
'~"~ oa QCb
O 0 ~
0 .012
I
<.,
0.000,03
0.000.02
" .. ,
""" ~~I " 0
"'"\:!\.. ~
' ~ 0. 009
0. 01
~...
0.000,01
0.000,008
' I\.~~
'Qa
"' v.
~Oo. '
""" 0.008
0.000,006
0.000,005
1 2 3456810
f'.. 3'
Figure 1. i Relative ro~ghness of Pipe materials and friction factors for
complete turbulence
e 
0.1 \
C
ri11ca 1
11 'Ill
,.,.
Ill T bl t
ur u l!n lone
I 1 111:111
0.07 \ ... .
0.06 ~ ""'"" "'
\
~"""'
~
.........  "I
~.
0.05 \ ~....~~.. .. ...........__ ' ...
"' I :Z
.
0 04 I I ~ ..~ :"'"' ............
... ~
'
IN . I I \ ~~ ~ ~""'~ .
,...:
I'\ ~~~ t....::: ""' .._ ~
.....~...,; ~
,.._. ~ " .... ~
0.03 ~ l ~. . . . . ,. . . . """" ...
II
.... ~!'...
~~~ ~: ....

.\ .......... '
0 \ ' '1. I
u
C1J t ... ~ ~ ..._ ~
......
I I I t'.: ~
c: 00
. 2 I ~ '...~. . . . ~  """
0 I I T \
~ ~ ........ ~..
u ~::...... ......... ..
....
LL .
Smoothp1pes
~;:::::
:::::::~~~
.... ~ ..__ ' JN.. 1 1 1 1111111
I..... ~ .. :    _ I ~
l ~ ~ ........._  1
111111 I I I 111111
e ~~~......_ 11
0 : 0.000,005 ~ .....LJ II I . II... I I
Accuracy
tt+++ At Dew Points Deviation of From 1.5% at 150F to
.._ 0.5% at 250F. If Uncorrected and Corrected
0 Z Factors Differ by no More Than This, One May
Q>
c
0 Assume Only One Phase is Present ( ie, at or
above Dew Point).
~
0.
0.8     
..... Gasoil ratio
.....0 Lines ( MSCF /STB)
g
t> 0. 7 t1tt+ttP~~~~:i..e...:++l~+f
...f:'0
....u0 0.6 r1rtr++t11+__.:...N!~~~~.....,.:....
~
N
Example
1.0
"'
Q>
"'co
.r.
a.
0.9 0
....;: ..
0
Q>
()
c
0.8 Q>
"'
Q>
.....
...0a.

Lines of pseudo
11...
()
0.6 .....0
reduced pressure
,..0
O>
.t>
.<JI
'!?
o 
N
g
0.5
Fig. 7. '3 Gas deviation factor corrections for twophase natural gas systems. (After
Elfrik, Sandberg, and Pollard.)
I Natural Gas ReseJVoir Engineering Dr A. A. Urayet I
TABLE 7.1
SUKKARCORNELL INTEGRAL
AAU/GAS/GASFLOW.doc 24
C.2
466 BottomHole Pressure
TABLE C.1
467
SukkarCornell Integral
Sukkar and Cornell's original table of integrals (Table C. l) was extended by Tabl f
JP,
(z/P) dP
r r
Messer, Raghavan, and Ramey (Tables C.2(a) to C.2(m)]. The procedure for r 12 1 + B(z!P,) 2
using these tables is as follows: .,.,' T, = 1.5 T, = 1.6 T,= 1.7
1. Compute o: = 0.01875y11 H cos 6/T (C.6)
2. Calculate the average pseudoreduced temperature, 7~,,, and the wellhead P, B=O 8=5 8 = 10 8=0 8=5 8 = 10 B=O 8 = 5 8 = 10
pseudoreduced pressure, p,,, 1. ;i
i 2.0 1.5946 1.3471 1.1904 1.6458 1.3708 1.2027 1.6925 1.3926 1.2134
3. Determine the value of B using ;1
j 2.1 1.5546 1.3249 1.1751 1.6040 1.3485 1.1875 1.6490 1.3703 1.1983
667fq 2 T2
B=
D 5p~c cos 0 (C.7)
i
;
2.2
2.3
1.5167
1.4808
1.3029
1.2811
1.1595
1.1438
1.5643
1.5275
1.3263
1.3042
1.1721
1.1565
1.6077
1.5684
1.3480
1.3258
1.1831
1.1676
i
:: 2.4 1.4466 1.2595 1.1281 1.4906 1.2824 1.1408 1.5310 1.3038 1.1521
where 0 is the angle of drift from the vertical. 2.5 1.4140
4. (a) If using original SukkarCornell table of integrals, obtain
j 1.2382 1.1123 1.4562 1.2608 1.1251 1.4951 1.2820 1.1364
.,'
Jj 1 =
f"'
(z/p /,,)dp,,
1
i2 1 + B(z/p,,,)2
and calculate
I
;
1
2.6
2.7
2.8
1.3829
1.3531
1.3246
1.2173
1.1966
1.1764
1.0965
1.0807
1.0650
1.4234
1.3919
1.3616
1.2395
1.2184
1.1977
1.1093
1.0935
1.0777
1.4608
1.4297
1.3963
1.2604
1.2497
1.2180
1.1206
1.1048
1.0890
f'"'
!
2.9 1.2972 1.1564 1.0493 1.3325 1.1772 1.0619 1.3659 1.1972 1.0732
(z/p 1,,) 3.0 1.2708 1.1369 1.0338 1.3045 1.1571 1.0462 1.3366 1.1767 1.0575
dp,,, = Jj,  0:
12 1 + B(z/p,,,) (C.8)
3.1 1.2453 1.1176 1.0187 1.2775 1.1373 1.0306 1.3082 1.1565 1.0417
where p,,,2 is the bottomhole pseudoreduced pressure. 3.2 1.2208 1.0988 1.0030 1.2515 1.1179 1.0151 1.2809 1.1366 1.0261
(b) If using extended SukkarCornell table of integrals, obtain 3.3 1.1970 1.0803 0.9878 1.2262 1.0988 0.9997 1.2544 1.1170 1.0105
fjz = f'"'
11 . 2
.
I
(z/p,,,.)
+ B(z/p1")
, dp,,,
i
3.4
3.5
3.6
1.1740
1.1516
1.1299
1.0621
1.0442
1.0266
0.9728
0.9579
0.9431
1.2018
1.1782
1.1552
1.0800
1.0615
1.0433
0.9844
0.9692
0.9542
1.2288
1.2039
1.1798
1.0977
1.0787
1.0600
0.9951
0.9797
0.9645
and calculate 3.7
3.8
1.1087
1.0881
1.0093
0.9923
0.9285
0.9140 
1.1329
1.1112
1.0254
1.0078
0.9393
0.9245
1.1563
1.1336
1.0416
1.0235
0.9493
f'"'
0.9343
3.9 1.0680 0.9756 0.8997 rOa99 0.9905 0.9099 T.1ii3 1.0057 0.9194
z/p,,, 2 dp,,,. = lh + 0: 4.0 1.0484 0.9591 0.8856 1.0692 0.9735 0.8954 1.0897 0.9881 0.9047
11.2 I + B(z/p,,,) (C.9)
4.1 1.0292 0.9429 0.8715 1.0490 0.9567 0.8810 1.0685 0.9708 0.8901
5. Determine p,,,.2 from table.
4.2 1.0104 0.9269 0.8576 1.0292 0.9401 0.8668 1.0478 0.9538 0.8756
6. Calculate
4.3 0.9920 0.9112 0.8439 .19.Q22. 0.9239 0.8528 1.0276 0.9370 0.8612
/>,, . , = (P,"2)(p,,J (C. JO) ..4.4 0.9739 0.8957 0.8303 0.9909 0.9078 0.8388 1.0077 0.9204 0.8470
... 4.5 0.9562 0.8804 0.8168 0.9723 0.8919 0.8250 0.9883 0.9041 0.8239
if well is shutin (/3 = 0)
4.6 0.9388 0.8652 0.8034 0.9541 0.8763 0.8113 0.9693 0.8880 0.8189
or 4.7 0.9216 0.8503 0.7902 0.9361 0.8608 0.7977 0.9506 0.8721 0.8051
4.8 0.9048 0.8356 0.7770 0.9185 0.8456 0.7843 0.9323 0.8564 0.7914
Pwf = (Ppr2)(p,,c) (C.11) 4.9 0.8882 0.8210 0.7640 0.9012 0.8305 0.7710 0.9143 0.8409 0.7778
5.0 0.8719 0.8066 0.7511 0.8842 0.8156 0.7578 0.8966 0.8256 0.7643
if well is flowing (B 'f 0).
5.1 0.8558 0.7923 0.7384 0.8674 0.8009 0.7447 0.8791 0.8104 0.7509
5.2 0.8400 0.7183 0.7257 0.8508 0.7864 0.7317 0.8620 0.8645 0.7377
(Continued)
'
Ci
468 BottomHole Prcs.~urcs
.e
TABLE C.1 (Contmueto, / l
~
e The Slkkar and Cornell Method
9.1
9.2
8=0
0.3225
0.3108
8=5
0.3036
0.2926
8 = 10
0.2869
0.2766
8=0
0.3214
0.3097
8=5
0.3027
0.2917
8 = 10
0.2862
0.2758
8=0
0.3211
0.3093
8=5
0.3024
0.2914
8 = 10
0.2860
0.2756
5.5 0.7936 0.7369 0.6883 0.8026 0.7436 0.6933 0.8120 0.7506 0.6986 I 9.3 0.2922 0.2817 0.2664 0.2980 0.2808 0.2656 0.2976 0.2804 0.2653
9.4 0.2876 0.2709 0.2561 0.2864 0.2699 0.2553 0.2859 0.2695 0.2550
5.6
5.7
0.7785
0.7636
0.7233
0.7090
0.6760
0.6638
0.7869
0.7714
0.7297
0.7158
0.6807
0.6683
0.7958
0.7799
0.7363
0.7221
0.6858
0.6730
I 9.5 0.2760 0.2600 0.2460 0.2748 0.2591 0.2451 0.2743 0.2586 0.2448
5.8 0.7488 0.6966 0.6517 0.7561 0.7021 0.6559 0.7641 0.7081 0.6604 j 0.2492 0.2358 0.2663 0.2483 0.2350 0.2627 0.2477 0.2345
9.6 0.2645
0.6834 0.7410 0.6886 0.6435 0.7485 0.6942 0.6479
5.9
6.0
0.7342
0.7198 0.6703
0.6396
0.6277 0.7260 0.6751 0.6313 0.7331 0.6805 0.6354 i 9.7
9.8
0.2531
0.2417
0.2385
0.2278
0.2257
0.2156
0.2519
0.2405
0.2375
0.2268
0.2248
0.2147
0.2512
0.2397
0.2370
0.2262
0.2155
0.2244
0.2143
0.2042
9.9 0.2303 0.2171 0.2055 0.2291 0.2162 0.2047 0.2284
6.1 0.7055 0.6573 0.6158 0.7112 0.6618 0.6192 0.7179 0.6668 0.6231 i.I 10.0 0.2190 0.2065 0.1955 0.2178 0.2055 0.1947 0.2170 0.2049 0.1941
6.2 0.6913 0.6445 0.6040 0.6966 0.6486 0.6071 0.7039 0.6533 0.6108
6.3 0.6773 0.6317 0.5923 0.6821 0.6355 0.5952 0.6880 0.6400 0.5986
6.4 0.6634 0.6190 0.5807 0.6678 0.6225 0.5833 0.6733 0.6267 0.5866 !
j:
10.1 0.2077
0.1964
0.1959
0.1853
0.1855
0.1755
0.2065
0.1953
0.1949
0.1844
0.1847
0.1747
0.2057
0.1945
0.1943 0.1841
0.1837 0.1742
.,; 10.2
6.5 0.6496 0.6065 0.5691 0.6536 0.6096 0.5715 0.6588 0.6135 0.5746 1 0.1852 0.1748 0.1655 0.1841 0.1739 0.1648 0.1833 0.1732 0.1642
10.3
:,i 10.4 0.1741 0.1643 0.1556 0.1730 0.1634 0.1549 0.1722 0.1627 0.1543
1 6.6 0.6360 0.5940 0.5576 0.6396 0.5968 0.5597 0.6444 0.6005 0.5626 I
10.5 0.1629 0.1538 0.1457 0.1619 0.1529 0.1450 0.1611 0.1523 .0.1454
6.7 0.6224 0.5816 0.5461 0.6257 0.5841 0.5481 0.6301 0.5875 0.5508
6.8 0.6090 0.5692 0.5347 0.6119 0.5715 0.5365 0.6160 0.5747 0.5390 10.6 0.1519 0.1433 0.1358 0.1508 0.1385 0.1351 0.1501 0.1419 0.1346
6.9 0.5957 0.5570 0.5234 0.5982 0.5590 0.5250 0.6020 0.5620 0.5273 10.7 0.1408 0.1329 0.1260 0.1398 0.1322 0.1253 0.1391 0.1315 0.1248
7.0 0.5824 0.5448 0.5122 0.5847 0.5466 0.5135 0.5882 0.5493 0.5157 0.1298 0.1225 0.1131 0.1289 0.1218 0.1155 0.1281 0.1212 0.1150
10.8
10.9 0.1188 0.1122 0.1063 0.1179 0.1115 0.1058 0.1172 0.1109 0.1053
7.1 0.5693 0.5327 0.5010 0.5712 0.5343 0.5021 0.5745 0.5368 0.5041 11.0 0.1078 0.1018 0.0966 0.1070 0.1012 0.0960 0.1064 0.1007 0.0956
7.2 0.5562 0.5207 0.4898 0.5579 0.5221 0.4908 0.5609 0.5243 0.4927
7.3 0.5433 0.5088 0.4787 0.5447 0.5099 0.4796 0.5474 0.5120 0.4811 0.0969 0.0915 0.0868 0.0962 0.0910 0.0863 0.0956 0.0904 0.0859
11.1
7.4 0.5304 0.4969 0.4677 0.5315 0.4978 0.4684 0.5340 0.4997 0.4699 11.2 0.0860 0.0813 0.0771 0.0853 0.0807 0.0766 0.0848 0.0803 0.0762
7.5 0.5176 0.4851 0.4567 0.5185 0.4858 0.4572 0.5207 0.4875 0.4586 11.3 0.0752 0.0710 0.0673 0.0746 0.0705 0.067.0 0.0741 0.0701 0.0666
11.4 0.0648 0.0608 0.0577 0.0638 0.0604 0.0573 0.0634 0.0600 0.0570
7.6 0.5049 0.4733 0.4457 0.5056 0.4739 0.4461 0.5076 0.4754 0.4474 0.0535 0.0506 0.0480 0.0531 0.0502 0.0477 0.0527 0.0499 0.0474
11.5
7.7 0.4923 0.4616 0.4349 0.4928 0.4620 0.4351 0.4945 0.4634 0.4363
7.8 0.4797 0.4500 0.4240 0.4800 0.4503 0.4242 0.4816 0.4514 0.4252 0.0428 0.0404 0.0383 0.0424 0.0401 0.0381 0.0421 0.0399 0.0379
11.6
7.9 0.4673 0.4384 0.4132 0.4674 0.4385 0.4133 0.4687 0.4396 0.4141 11.7 0.0320 0.0303 0.0287 0.0317 0.0301 0.0285 0.0315 0.0298 0.0284
8.0 0.4549 0.4269 0.4025 0.4548 0.4269 0.4024 0.4560 0.4278 0.4032 0.0213 0.0201 0.0191 0.0211 0.0200 0.0190 0.0210 0.0198 0.0189
11.8
11.9 0.0106 0.0100 0.0095 0.0105 0.0100 0.0095 0.0104 0.0099 0.0094
8.1 0.4425 0.4155 0.3918 0.4423 0.4153 0.3916 0.4433 0.4161 0.3922
8.2 0.4303 0.4041 0.3811 0.4299 0.4038 0.3809 0.4307 0.4044 0.3814
8.3 0.4181 0.3927 0.3705 0.4176 0.3924 0.3702 0.4182 0.3928 0.3706
8.4 0.4059 0.3814 0.3599 0.4053 0.3810 0.3595 0.4058 0.3813 0.3598
8.5 0.3939 0.3702 0.3494 0.3931 0.3696 0.3489 0.3935 0.3698 0.3491
8.6 0.3818 0.3589 0.3389 0.3810 0.3583 0.3383 0.3812 0.3585 0.3385
8.7 0.3699 0.3478 0.3284 0.3690 0.3491 0.3278 0.3691 0.3471 0.3279
8.8 0.3579 0.3367 0.3180 0.3570 0.3359 0.3173 0.3570 0.3359 0.3173
8.9 0.3461 0.3256 0.3076 0.3451 0.3248 0.3069 0.3450 0.3247 0.3068
9.0 0.3343 0.3146 0.2972 0.3332 0.3137 0.2965 0.3330 o.:m5 0.2964
I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr A. A. Urayet I
TABLE 7.2
Pr(b)
J
z Ip
r 2 dp =
Pr(wh)
J
z Ip
r 2 dp +
O.OI875y L
g Eq 7.218
0.2 I + Bz 0.2 I + Bz T
2 2
Pr Pr
+i
AAU/GAS/GASFLOW.doc 25
TABLE C.2(a)
Extended SukkarCornell.lntegral for Bottomhole Pressure Calculation
Reduced Temperature for B = 0.00
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0
0.20 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
0.50 0.8387 0.8582 0.8719 0.8824 0.8897 0.8966 0.9017 0.9079 0.9082 0.9108 0.9147 0.9177 0.9194 0.9206 0.9218
1.00 1.3774 1.4440 1.4836 1.5129 1.5334 1.5514 1.5654 1.5781 1.5823 1.5889 1.5966 1.6059 1~111 1.6148 1.6184
1.50 1.6048 1.7373 1.8078 1.8565 1.8911 1.9192 1.9422 1.9609 1.9693 1.9798 1.9951 2.0063 2. 151 2.0211 2.0274
2.00
2.50
1.7149
1.7995
1.9116
2.0298
2.0157
2.1631
2.0642
2.2507
2.1331
2.3138
2.1709
2.3607
2.2023
2.3996
2.2273
2.4307
2.2397
2.4469
2.2536
2.4641
2.2744
2.4900
2.2893
2.5081
2.3013
2.5234
2.3100
2.5347
2.3104
2.5452 .,.
~
3.00 1.8750 2.1255 2.2778 2.3813 2.4570 2.5125 2.5583 2.5947 2.6148 2.6354 2.6654 2.6863 2.7050 2.7189 2.7134 Q
3.50 1.9473 2.2101 2.3746 2.4898 2.5762 2.6190 2.6909 2.7325 2.7561 2.7798 2.8138 2.8382 2.8589 2.8752 2.8896
4.00 2.0178 2.2882 2.4603 2.5945 2.6793 2.7480 2.8052 2.8515 2.8784 2.9050 2.9426 2.9699 2.9928 3.0114 3.0274 ti:
~
4.50 2.0689 2.3622 2.5390 2.6698 2.7715 2.8449 2.9065 2.9569 2.9867 3.0158 3.0571 3.0871 3.1119 3.1322 3.1496 ::::
5.00 2.1547 2.4330 2.6128 2.7484 2.8558 2.9330 2.9982 3.0523 3.0645 3.1158 3.1605 3.1930 3.2195 3.2413 3.2597 ~
5.50
6.00
2.2214
2.2872
2.5013
2.5677
2.6833
2.7512
2.8222
2.8926
2.9341
3.0079
3.0146
3.0911
3.0828
3.1616
3.1400
3.2215
3.1742
3.2575
3.2074
3.2924
3.2557
3.3428
3.2899
3.3795
3.3178
3.4085
3.3408
3.4325
3.3600
3.4524 $it'
6.50 2.3522 2.6329 2.8171 2.9603 3.0781 3.1635 3.2360 3.2980 3.3355 3.3720 3.4245 3.4629 3.4931 3.5176 3.5381
7.00 2.4165 2.6971 2.8814 3.0258 3.1452 3.2324 3.3065 3.3704 3.4092 3.4470 3.6012 3.5411 3.5722 3.5973 3.6181 ~
7.50 2.4802 2.7602 2.5442 3.0893 3.2100 3.2985 3.3740 3.4393 3.4792 3.5180 3.5738 3.6148 3.6467 3.6723 3.6934 ~
3.6847 3.7173 3.7432 3.7646
8.00 2.5432 2.8223 3.0058 3.1612 3.2727 3.3623 3.4367 3.5052 3.5460 3.5657 3.6486
3.7512 3.7844 3.8108 3.8323
ll
8.50 2.6057 2.8336 3.0864 3.2118 3.3338 3.4239 3.5012 3.5665 3.6101 3.6504 3.7144
9.00 2.6676 2.9441 3.1260 3.2713 3.3934 3.4838 3.5617 3.6297 3.6718 3.7126 3.7775 3.8148 3.8484 3.8750 3.8969
9.50 2.7289 3.0039 3.1847 3.3296 3.4516 3.5422 3.6204 3.6889 3.7315 3.7727 3.6382 3.8760 3.9099 3.9367 3.9588
e 10.00
10.50
11.00
11.50
2.7896
2.8499
2.9096
2.9690
3.0630
3.1215
3.1794
3.2369
3.2427
3.2999
3.3565
3.4126
3.3870
3.4436
3.4993
3.5543
3.5087
3.5647
3.6198
3.6741
3.5993
3.6552
3.7100
3.7640
3.6776
3.7336
3.7883
3.8420
3.7465
3.8026
3.8573
3.9108
3.7894
3.8456
3.9004
3.9540
3.8308
3.8872
3.9421
3.9958
3.8969
3.9538
4.0090
4.0627
3.9350
3.9921
4.0473
4.1010
3.9690
4.0262
4.0814
4.1351
3.9961
2.0583
4.1086
4.1622
4.0182
4.0755
4.1309
4.1845
12.00 3.0280 3.2940 3.4681 3.6086 3.7277 3.8171 3.8948 3.9634 4.0065 4.0432 4.1150 4.1532 4.1872 4.2143 4.2366
12.50 3.0867 3.3506 3.5231 3.6523 3.7806 3.8694 3.9467 4.0150 4.0579 4.0994 4.1660 4.2041 4.2380 4.2650 i.2872
13.00 3.1452 3.4068 3.5777 3.7154 3.8328 3.9211 3.9977 4.0557 4.1084 4.1495 4.2158 4.2567 4.2875 4.3144 4.3365
13.50 2.2033 3.4627 3.6319 3.7880 3.8644 3.9721 4.o480 4.1155 4.1580 4.1989 4.2645 4.3021 4.3357 4.3625 4.3846
14.00 3.2612 3.5183 3.6857 3.8200 3.9354 4.0224 4.0977 4.1547 4.2067 4.2472 4.3122 4.3494 4.3829 4.4095 4.4316
14.50 3.3189 3.5735 3.7391 3.8716 3.9859 4.0722 4.1480 4.2131 4.2546 4.2947 4.3589 4.3957 4.4289 4.4555 1 ..m5
15.00 3.3763 3.6285 3.7922 3.9228 4.0359 4.1215 4.1950 4.2609 4.3018 4.3414 4.4047 4.4410 4.4741 4.5005 1.6224
15.50 3.4335 3.6832 3.8450 3.9736 4.0866 4.1702 4.2428 4.8080 4.3483 4.3874 4.4497 4.4855 4.5183 4.5446 4.5663
16.00 3.4906 3.7376 3.8974 4.0240 4.1346 4.2185 4.2900 4.3546 4.3942 4.4327 4.4939 4.5291 4.5617 4.5878 4.6094
16.50 3.5474 3.7919 4.9497 4.0740 4.1833 4.2663 4.3368 4.4007 4.4395 4.4773 4.5374 4.5720 4.6042 4.6302 1.6518
17.00 3.6041 3.8459 4.0016 4.1237 4.2316 4.3138 4.3830 4.4462 4.4843 4.5213 4.5802 4.6141 4.6461 4.6719 4.6933
17.50 3.6606 3.8996 4.0533 4.1731 4.2795 4.3608 4.4289 4.4913
18.00 . 3.7170
4.5285 4.5648 ~6223 4.6555 4.5872 4.7129 4.7341
3.9532 4.1048 4.2221 4.3271 4.4075 4.4743 4.5359 4.5722 4.6077 .6638 4.6963 4.7276 4.7532 1.7743
18.50 3.7732 4.0066 4.1560 4.2709 4.3744 4.4538 4.5193 4.5801 4.6154 4.6501 4.7048 4.7365 4.7675 4.7928 !8138 ;;;l
e 19.00 3.8293
19.50 3.8853
20.00 3.9411
4.0599
4.1129
4.1658
4.2071
4.2579
4.3086
4.3195
4.3678
4.4158
4.4214
4.4681
4.5145
4.6998
4.5455
4.5909
4.5640
4.6053
4.6239
4.6574
4.6582
4.7006
4.6921
4.7335
4.7451
4.7850
5.7761
4.8151
4.8067
4.8454
4.8319 1.8527
4.870l 4.8911
~
~
20.50 3.9969
21.00 4.0525
4.2186
4.2712
4.3590
4.4094
4.4636
4.5112
4.5606
4.6065
4.6360
4.6808
4.6522
4.6959
4.7392
4.7104
4.7531
4.7955
4.7425
4.7841
4.8253
4.7746
4.8152
4.8554
4.8244
4.8633
4.9017
4.8536
4.8916
4.9291
4.8835
4.9211
4.9582
4.9083 1.9288
4.9457 1.9661
4.9827 5.0029
.~
I
:::
21.50 4.1080 4.3237 4.4595 4.5586 4.6522 4.7254 4.7822 4.8376 Q,
4.8662 4.8953 4.9397 4.9662 4.9969 5.0192 5.0392
22.00 4.1634 4.3760 4.5095 4.6058
22.50 4.2187 4.4282 4.5594 4.6528
4.6976
4.7428
4.7697 4.8250 4.8794 4.9068 4.9348 4.9774 5.0027 5.0311 5.0552 5.0751 ~
4.8138 4.8675 4.9209 4.9470 4.9739 ,5.0146 5.0391 5.0670 5.0908 5.1105 :i~
23.00 4.2739 4.4803 4.6091 4.6996 4.7879 4.8577 4.9098 4.9621
23.50 4.3291
l.9869 5.0128 5.0514 5.0750 5.1024 5.1260 5.1455 :::::
4.5323 4.6587 4.7463 4.8327 4.9014 4.9518 5.0031
~
5.0265 5.0513 5.0879 5.1104 5.137l 5.1808 5.1802
24.00 4.3841 4.5842 4.7081 4.7928 4.8773 4.9449 4.9935 5.0438 5.0659 5.0895 5.1241 5.1455 5.1720 5.1953 5.2144 :;.
24.50 4.4391 4.6360 4.7575 4.8391 4.9217 4.9882 5.0351 5.0843 5.1050 5.1275 5.1599 5.1803 5.2083 5.2291 5.2483 Q
25.00 4.4940 4.6877 4.8067 4.8853 4.9660 5.0312 5.0764
Q,
5.1245 5.1438 5.1651 5.1955 5.2147 5.2403 5.2631 5.2819
25.50 4.5488
26.00 4.6036
4.7392 4.8558 4.9314 5.0101 5.0741 5.1176 5.1646 5.1824 5.2025 5.2307 4.2488 5.2739 5.2965 5.3151 .,.
4.7907 4.9048 4.9772 5.0541 5.1169 5.1585 5.2044 5.2208 5.2397 5.2656 5.2826 5.3073 5.3296 5.3480
~
.....
26.50 4.6583 4.8421 4.9536 5.0230 5.0979 5.1594 5.1993 5.2440 5.2589 5.2766 5.3003 5.3162 5.3403 5.3621 5.3806
27.00 4.7129 4.8934 5.0024 5.0686 5.1415 5.2019 5.2398 5.2634 5.2968 5.3132 5.3347 5.3494 5.3780 5.3950 5.4129
27.50 4.7675 4.9447 5.0511 5.1142 5.1850 5.2441 5.2802 5.3227 5.3345 5.3497 5.3688 5.3823 5.405l 5.4272 5.4160
28.00 4.8220 4.9958 5.0997 5.1595 5.2284 5.2862 5.3204 5.3617 5.3720 5.3859 5.4027 4.4150 5.4376 5.4591 5.4767
28.50 4.8764 5.0469 5.1482 5.2048 5.2716 5.3282 5.3605 5.4006 5.4096 5.4219 5.4363 5.4475 5.4695 5.4903 5.5082
29.00 4.9308 5.0979 5.1966 5.2500 5.3147 5.3700 5.4004 5.4393 5.4465 5.4577 5.4697 5.4796 5.5012 5.5223 5.5394
29.50 4.9851 . 5.1488 5.2450 5.2950 5.3577 5.4117 5.4401 5.4779 5.4834 5.4933 5.5029 5.5116 5.5326 5.5935 5.5704
30.00 5.0394 5.1997 5.2932 5.3400 5.4005 5.4532 5.4797 5.5163 5.5202 5.5287 5.5369 5.5433 5.5638 5.5844 5.6011
TABLE C.2(b)
Extended SukkarCornell Integral for Bottomhole Pressure Calculation
0.20 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
0.50 0.0226 0.0220 0.0216 0.0214 0.0212 0.0210 0.0209 0.0207 0.0207 0.0205 0.0205 0.0206 0.0204 0.0204 0.0204
0.0983 0.0954 0.0934 0.0921 0.0909 0.0901 0.0894 0.0890 0.0886 0.0881 0.0877 0.0874 0.0871 0.0869
1.00 0.1036
0.1995 0.1954 0.1924 0.1901 0.1882 0.1868 0.1859 0.1850 0.1938 0.1829 0.1822 0.1816 0.1811
1.50 0.2121 0.2052
2.00 0.3002 0.3125 0.3102 0.366 0.3034 0.3007 0.2983 0.2965 0.2954 0.2943 0.2926 0.2914 0.2904 0.2896 0.2889
2.50 0.3741 0.4046 0.4126 0.4133 0.4124 0.4107 0.4090 0.4076 0.4066 0.4056 0.4048 0.4030 0.4020 0.4012 0.4005
3.00 0.4419 0.4854 0.5032 0.5105 0.5137 0.5144 0.5143 0.5140 0.5138 0.5134 0.5125 0.5118 0.5112 0.5108 0.5103
0.6156
"'"
..J
N
3.50 0.5074 0.5594 0.5847 0.5983 0.6065 0.6101 0.6123 0.6138 0.6147 0.6152 0.6154 0.6155 0.6155 0.6157
0.6291 0.6594 0.6785 0.6915 0.6982 0.7029 0.7064 0.7087 0.7104 0:7121 0.7133 0.7140 0.7149 0.7154 t:l:I
4.00 0.5715 C;)
4.50 0.6346
5.00 0.6966
0.6957
0.7601
0.7294
0.7960
0.7530
0.8229
0.7702
0.8440
0.7797
0.8560
0.7868
0.8653
0.7927
0.8734
0.7964
0.8785
0.7994
0.8827
0.8027
0.8879
0.8051
0.8916
0.8068
0.8941
0.8084
0.8965
0.8094
0.8980 s
5.50 0.7579 0.8225 0.8601 0.8895 0.9138 0.9280 0.9393 0.9493 0.9558 0.9611
1.0354
0.9682
1.0441
0.9732
1.0504
0.9765
1.0544
0.9795
1.0580
0.9315
1.0604
=
~
6.00 0.8185 0.8836 0.9222 0.9536 0.9803 0.9965 1.0095 1.0213 1.0289 ;;;
0.9437 0.9829 1.0156 1.0442 1.0620 1.0764 1.0896 1.0984 1.1060 1.1162 1.1236 1.1284 1.1324 1.1351
6.50 0.8784
7.00 0.9378 1.0030 1.0423 1.0758 1.1058 1.1249 1.1406 1.1552 1.1649 1.1734 1.1848 1.1932 1.1987 1.2031
1.2704
1.2060
1.2737
...4'
7.50 0.9967 1.0614 1.1005 1.1346 1.1656 1.1857 1.2024 1.2182 1.2286 1.2379 1.2504 1.2597 1.2657 1ll
c:
1.2999 1.3167 1.3234 1.3299 1.3349 1.3383
8.00 1.0551
8.50 1.1131
1.1191
1.1761
1.1578
1.2142
1.1921
1.2486
1.2237
1.2805
1.2447
1.3020
1.2621
1.3201
1.2788
1.3374
1.2900
1.3492 1.3596 1.3773 1.3845 1.3914 1.3967 1.4003 ~
1.2325 1.2698 1.3041 1.3361 1.3579 1.3764 1.3943 1.4066 1.4173 1.4357 1.4434 1.4506 1.4561 1.4599
9.00 1.1706
. 9.50 1.2275
10.00 2.2841
1.2883
1.3435
1.3248
1.3791
1.3687
1.4126
1.3907
1.4443
1.4125
1.4661
1.4313
1.4851
1.4497
1.5037
1.4623
1.5165
1.4733
1.5278
1.4922
1.5472
1.5003
1.5555
1.6090
1.5077
1.5630
1.5167
1.5135
1.5689
1.6226
1.5174
1.5729
1.6267
e 10.50 1.3403 1.3983 1.4328 1.4658 1.4970 1.5187 1.5377 1.5564 1.5694 1.5808 1.6006
1.4526 1.4860 1.5182 1.5490 1.5705 1.5894 1.6081 1.6211 1.6326 1.6526 1.6611 1.6687 1.6747 1.6789
'1.00 1.3961
1.5065 1.5387 1.5701 1.6002 1.6214 1.6401 1.6587 1.6718 1.6833 1.7034 1.7118 1.7195 1.7254 1.7296
11.50 1.4515
1.5910 1.6214 1.6509 1.6717 1.6901 1.7085 1.7215 1.7330 1.7530 1.7613 1.7689 1.7749 1.7790
12.00 1.5067 1.5601
1.6721 1.7010 1.7213 1.7393 1.7575 1.7704 1.7817 1.8015 1.8097 1.8172 1.8231 1.8271
12.50 1.5616 1.6133 1.6429
1.6944 1.7224 1.7505 1.7704 1.7879 1.8067 1.8184 1.8295 1.8489 1.8569 1.8644 1.8701 1.8742
13.00 1.6163 1.6662
1.7456 1.7722 1.7995 1.8188 1.8358 1.8532 1.8656 1.8765 1.8954 1.9032 1.9105 1.9161 1.9201
13.50 1.6708 1.7188
1.7711 1.7965 1.8216 1.8480 1.8667 1.8830 1.9001 1.9121 1.9227 1.9410 1.9485 1.9556 1.9612 1.9651
14.00 1.7250
1.8470 1.8706 1.8960 1.9142 1.9298 1.9463 1.9580 1.9681 1.9858 1.9927 1.9998 2.0053 2.0091
14.50 1.7791 1.8212
15.l)(j 1.8330 1.8750 1.8973 1.9192 1.9436 1.9612 1.9760 1.9920 2.0032 2.0128 2.0298 2.0364 2.0432 2.0485 2.0523
15.50 1.8867 1.9266 1.9472 1.9675 1.9909 2.0077 2.0217 2.0372 2.0478 2.0570 2.0730 2.0792 2.0857 2.0910 2.0946
16.00 1.9402 1.9780 1.9970 2.0154 2.0377 2.0538 2.0669 2.0818 2.0918 2.1005 2.1155 2.1212 2.1275 2.1326 2.1362
16.."ll 1.9936 2.0292 2.0465 2.0631 2.0842 2.0996 2.1117 2.1260 2. ~53 2.1434 2.1574 2.1626 2.1686 2.1736 2.1770
17.00 2.0469 2.0802 2.0958 2.1104 2.1303 2.1450 2.1561 2.1697 2.1783 2.1858 2.1987 2.2032 2.7090 2.2138 2.2172
17.5j 2.1000 2.1311 2.1449 2.1575 2.1762 2.1900 2.2000 2.2131 2.2209 2.2276 2.2394 2.2433 2.2488 2.2535 2.2567
18.011 2.1530 2.1817 2.1937 2.2043 2.2217 2.2347 2.2437 2.2560 2.2630 2.2690 2.2795 2.2828 2.2880 2.2925 2.2956
1850 . 2.2059 2.2323 2.2424 2.2509 2.2670 2.2791 2.2869 2.2965 2.3046 2.3100 2.3191 2.3217 2.3266 2.3309 2.3339
19.00 2.2587 2.2826 2.2909 2.2973 2.3120 2.3233 2.3299 2.3407 2.3459 2.3505
e ...~
2j582 2.3600 2.3646 2.3688 2.3717
19 50 2.3113 2.3329 2.3393 2.3434 2.3567 2.3671 2.3725 2.3825 2.3868 2.3906 2. 969 2.3979 2.4022 2.4062 2.4089
20.00 2.3639 2.3830 2.3875 2.3893 2.4012
..,.,"':>::>:
2.4107 2.4148 2.4241 2.4273 2.4303 2.4350 2.4353 2.4392 2.4431 2.4456 c:
20.50 2.H64 2.4329 2.4355 2.4350 2.4455 2.4541 2.4568 2.4653 2.4675 2.4696 2.4728 2.4723 2.4758 2.4795 2.4819
21.00 2A688 2..4828 2.4834 2.4306 2.4895 2.4972 2.4986 2.5062 2.5074
21.50 2.5210 2.5325 2.5311 2.5259 2.5333 2.5400 2.5401 2.5468 2.5470
2.5086
2.5472
2.5101
2.5471
2.5088
2.5449
2.5119
2.5477
2.5155
2.5510
2.5177
2.5531
..,
::::i
22.00 2.5733 2.5822 2.5788 2.5711 2.5770 2.5827 2.5814 2.5872 2.5862 2.5855 2.5837 2.5806 2.5830 2.5861 2.5881 Cl.
22.50 2.6254
23.00 2.6774
2.6317 2.6263 2.6161 2.6204 2.6252 2.6224 2.6273 2.6252 2.6235 2.6199 2.6159 2.6179 2.6209 2.6226 g
2.6811 2.6736 2.6610 2.6637
23.50 2.7294 2.7304
2.6674 2.6632 2.6672 2.6639 2.6612 2.6558 2.6508 2.6524 2.6552 2.6568 i:l
...:::::
2.7209 2.7057 2.7068 2.7095 2.7038 2.7068 2.7023 2.6986 2.6913 2.6854 2.5866
24.00 2.7813 2.6892 2.6906
2.7796 2.7680 2.7503 2.7497 2. 7514 2.7441
24.50 2.8332 2.8288 2.8151 2.7047 2.7924 2.7931 2.7843
2.7462
2.7854
2.7405
2.7784
2.7357
2.7726
2.7266
2.7615
2.7197
2.7536
2.7204
2.7540
2.7229
2.7562
2.7241
2.7573
~
:;;.
25.00 2.8849 2.8778 2.8620 2.8390 2.8351 2.8346 2.8243 2.8244 2.8161 2.8092 2.7961 2.7872 2.7872 2.7892 2.7901 ~
25.50 2.9367 2.9268 2.9088 2.8832 2.8775 2.8760 2.8640
Cl.
2.8532 2.8536 2.8456 2.8305 2.8206 2.8200 2.8192 2.8226
26 0() 2.9883 2.9757 2.9556 2.9272 2.9198 2.9172 2.9037 2.9018 2.8908 2.8818 2.8646 2.8536 2.8526 2.8543 2.8548
26.5(1 3.0399
27.((1 3.0915
3.0245
3.0733
3.0022
3.0488
2.9711 2.9620 2.9583 2.9431 2.9402 2.9279 2.9177 2.8985 2.8864 2.8850 2.8864 2.6867 "'"
..J
(;.>
3.0149 3.0040 2.9993 2.9824 2.9785 2.9648 2.9534 2.9320 2.9189 2.9170 2.9182 2.9184
27.50 3.1429 3.1220 3.0953 3.0586 3.0459 3.0400 3.0215 3.0165 3.0014 2.9889 2.9654 2.9512 2.9488 2.9498 2.9497
28.00 3.1944 3.1706 3.1417 3.1022 3.0877 3.0807 3.0604 3.0544 3.0379 3.0242 2.9985 2.9832 2.9803 2.9811 2.9809
28.50 3.2458 3.2191 3.1880 3.1457 3.1294 3.1212 3.0992 3.0922 3.0742 3.0593 3.0314 3.0149 3.0116 3.0122 3.0117
29.()(1 3 2971 3.2676 3.2343 3.1891 3.1710 3.1616 3.1379 3.1297 3.1103 3.0942 3.0641 3.0465 3.0426 3.0430 3.0424
29.50 3.3484 3.3160 3 2804 3.2324 3.2124 3.2019 3.1764 3.1672 3.1463 3.1289 3.0966 3.0778 3.0735 3.0736 3.0728
30.(\1) 3.3997 3.3644 3.3265 3.2756 3.2537 3.2421 3.2148 3.2045 3.1821 3.1635 3.1288 3.1089 3.1040 3.1040 3.1029
TABLE C.2(c)
Extended SukkarCornell Integral for Bottomhole Pressure Calculation
P, Reduced Temperature for 8 = 10.0
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0
0.20 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
0.50 0.0115 0.0112 0.0110 0.0108 0.0107 0.0107 0.0106 0.0105 0.0105 0.0105 0.0104 0.0104 0.0104 0.0103 0.0103
1.00 0.0561 0.0525 0.0507 0.0494 0.0486 0.0479 0.0474 0.0470 0.0468 0.0465 0.0462 0.0460 0.0458 0.0456 0.0455
1.50 0.1292 0.1187 0.1132 0.1098 0.1074 0.1056 0.1041 0.1031 0.1024 0.1018 0.1009 0.1003 0.0997 0.0994 0.0990
2.00 0.2028 0.1968 0.1891 0. i837 0.1797 0.1767 0.1743 0.1725 0.1713 0.1703 0.1687 0.1676 0.1667 0.1660 0.1653
o.~475 0.2461 0.2440 0.2426 0.2413 0.2403 0.2394
~
2.50 0.2684 0.2723 0.2677 0.2624 0.2578 0.2543 0.2513 0.2490
3.00 0.3300 0.3422 0.3427 0.3399 0.3364 0.3332 0.3302 0.3278 0.3263 0.3248 0.3225 0.3210 0.3195 0.3184 0.3174
3.50 0.3897 0.4080 0.4130 0.4135 0.4123 0.4102 0.4080 0.4061 OA047 0.4035 0.4014 0.3999 0.3985 0.3974 0.3964
4.00 0.4485 0.4708 0.4793 0.4832 0.4846 0.4841 0.4830 0.4820 0.4812 0.4803 0.4787 0.4776 0.4764 0.4755 0.4746 tli
c:.
4.50 0.5065 0.5315 0.5423 0.5492 0.5533 0.5545 0.5547 0.5549 0.5549 0.5546 0.5538 0.5532 0.5523 0.5517 0.5511 ;:
'
5.00 0.5638 0.5904 0.6029 0.6122 0.6189 0.6217 0.6233 0.6248 0.6256 0.6260 0.6262 0.6263 0.6258 0.6256 0.6252
0.6934 0.6946 0.6959 0.6967 0.6967 0.6968 0.6967
0.6617 0.6729
~
5.50 0.6204 0.6480 0.6818 0.6861 0.6891 0.6919
0.7190 0.7316 0.7424 0.7481 0.7522 0.7563 0.7586 0.7605 0.7629 0.7645 0.7650 0.7654 0.7655
6.00 0.6765 0.7045 ;
6.50 0.7321 0.7602 0.7752 0.7808 0.8010 0.8079 0.8131 0.8182 0.8214 0.8240 0.8273 0.8297 0.8307 0.8314 0.8317
7.00 0.7873 0.8153 0.8304 0.6447 0.8580 0.8659 0.8720 0.8781 0.8819 0.8852 0.8895 0.8925 0.8940 0.8950 0.8955 ~
0.8846 0.8994 0.9134 0.9221 0.9290 0.9360 0.9404 0.9443 0.9494 0.9531 0.9550 0.9562 0.9566 ~
a=
7.50 0.8421 0.8697
8.00 0.8965 0.9236 0.9381 0.9531 0.9676 0.9770 0.9845 0.9921 0.9971 1.0015 1.0092 1.0115 1.0138 1.0152 1.0160
8.50 0.9506 0.9769 0.9909 1.0059 1.0207 1.0305 1.0385 1.0467 1.0522 1.0569 1.0653 1.0681 1.0706 1.0723 1.0732
9.00 1.0043 1.0296 1.0431 1.0580 1.0729 1.0829 1.0912 1.0999 1.1057 1.1108 1.1197 1.1228 1.1256 1.1275 1.1286
9.50 1.0575 1.0819 1.0947 1.1094 1.1242 1.1342 1.1428 1.1518 1.1579 1.1633 1.1726 1.1760 1.1790 1.1810 1.1822
e 10.00
10.50
11.00
1.1104
1.1630
1.2153
1.1338
1.1852
1.2363
1.1458 1.1601
1.1964 1.2102
1.2466 1.2598
1.1747
1.2245
1.2736
1.1847
1.2344
1.2834
1.1935
1.2432
1.2920
1.2027
1.2525
1.3013
1.2090
1.2689
1.3078
1.2145
1.2645
1.3135
1.2242
1.2746
1.3238
1.2278
1.2783
1.3275
1.2309
1.2814
1.3907
1.2331
1.2836
1.3329
1.2343
1.2850
1.3343
11.50 1.2674 1.2871 1.2964 1.3089 1.3222 1.3317 1.3402 1.3494 1.3559 1.3616 1.3719 1.3756 1.3788 1.3810 1.3824
12.00 1.3192 1.3376 1.3458 1.3574 1.3702 1.3794 1.3876 1.3967 J.4032 1.4088 1.4190 1.4227 1.4258 1.4280 1.4294
12.50 1.3708 1.3877 1.3949 1.4056 1.4178 1.4266 1.4345 1.4433 !A497 1.4552 1.4653 1.4688 1.4719 1.4740 1.4753
13.00 1.4222 1.4377 1.4437 1.4533 l.4649 1.4733 1.4807 1.4893 J.4955 1.5008 1.5106 1.5140 1.5169 1.5139 1.5202
13.50 1.4734 1.4873 1.4921 1.5006 1.5115 1.5194 1.5264 1.5346 1.5406 1.5457 1.5551 1.5582 1.5611 1.5630 1.5642
14.00 1.5244 1.5368 1.5403 1.5476 1.5511 1.5652 1.5716 1.5794 l.5S51 1.5899 1.5988 1.6016 1.6043 1.6062 1.6074
14.50 1.5753 1.5860 1.5883 1.5942 1.6035 1.6104 1.6163 1.6237 1.6290 1.6335 1.6417 1.6443 1.6468 1.6486 1.6497
15.00 l.6261 1.6351 1.6360 l.6405 1.6490 1.6553 1.6605 1.6575 1.6723 1.6764 1.6840 1.6862 1.6885 1.6902 1.6912
15.50 1.6767 1.6839 1.6835 1.6865 1.6941 1.6999 1.7043 1.7108 1.7151 1.7188 1.7256 1.7274 1.7296 1.7311 1.7320
16.00 1.7271 1.7326 1.7308 1.7323 1.7389 1.7440 1.7477 1.7537 1.7575 1.7607 1.7666 1.7679 1.7699 1.7713 1.7722
16.50 1.7775 1.7811 1.7778 1.7778 1.7834 1.7878 1.7906 1.7961 1.7993 1.8020 1.8070 1.8078 1.8096 1.8109 1.8116
17.00 1.8277 1.8294 1.8247 1.8230 1.8275 1.8314 1.8333 1.8382 1.8407 1.8429 1.8469 1.8472 1.8487 1.8499 1.8505
11.50 . 1.8778 1.8777 1.8714 1.8680 1.8714 1.8746 1.8756 1.8799 1.8818 'i..8833 1.8862 1.8859 1.8872 1.8883 1.8888
18.00 1.9278 1.9257 l.9179 1.9127 1.9151 1.9175 1.9175 1.9212 1.9224 1.9232 1.9251 1.9242 1.9252 1.9261 I.9265
;;;l
18.50 1.9111 1.9737 1.9643 1.9573 1.9585 1.9602 1.9592 1.9622 1.9626 1.9628 1.9634 1.9619 1.9626 1.9634 1.9637
2.0002 2.0004
19.00 2.0276 2.0215 2.0105 2.0017 2.0016 2.0026 2.0005 2.0029 :.0025 2.0020 2.0013 1.9992 1.9996
"'
~
19.50 2.0773 2.0592 2.0566 2.0458 2.0446 2.0447 2.0416 2.0433 2.(1420 2.0408 2.0388 2.0359 2.0360 2.0365 2.0366 =
:0:
20.00 2.1269
20.50 2.1765
2.1167
2.1642
2.1026
2.1484
2.0898
2.1336
2.0873
2.1298
2.0867
2.1284
2.0824
2.1229
2.0833
2.1232
:.OSl2 2.0792
2.1201 2.1173
:.1587 2.1551
2.0759
2.1126
2.1489
2.0723
2.1082
2.1438
2.0721
2.1077
2.1429
2.0724
2.1079
2.1429
2.0723
2.1077
2.1425
....
~
:::
21.00 2.2260 2.2116 2.1941 2.1773 2.1722 2.1699 2.1632 2.1627
Q,,
21.50 2.2754 2.2588 2.2396 2.2207 2.2143 2.2112 2.2033 2.2020 2.1970 2.1926 2.1848 2.1789 2.1777 2.1775 2.1770
22.00 2.3248 2.3060 2.2851 2.2641 2.2563 2.2523 2.2432 2.2411 :.2350 2.2298 2.2204 2.2137 2.2121 2.2118 2.2111 ~
22.50 2.3741 2.3531 2.3304 2.3073 2.2981 2.2932 2.2828 2.2799 2.2728 2.2667 2.2557 2.2461 2.2462 2.2457 2.2449 3
23.00 2.4233 2.4001 2.3757 2.3503 2.3397 2.3340 2.3222 2.3185 2.3103 2.3033 2.2906 2.2822 2.2799 2.2792 2.2783 ~
23.50 2.4725
2l.OO 2.5216
2.4470 2.4208 2.3932 2.3812 2.3745 2.3615 2.3569 :.3476 2.3397 2.3253
2.3597
2.3160
2.3494
2.3133
2.3463
2.3124
2.3453
2.3133
2.3440
~
2.4938 2.4659 2.4360 2.4226 2.4149 2.4005 2.3951 2.3817 2.3758 So
c:.
24.50 2.5706 2.5406 2.5108 2.4787 2.4637 2..\952 2.4394 2.4331 2.1215 2.4117 2.3937 2.3826 2.3791 2.3779 2.3765 Q,,
25.00 2.6196 2.5873 2.5557 2.5212 2.5048 2.4953 2.4761 2.4709 2..J581 2.4473 2.4275 2.4155 2.4115 2.4102 2.4086
2.4481 2.4437 2.4422 2.4404
25.50 2.6685
26.00 2.7174
2.6339
2.6805
2.6005
2.6452
2.5637
2.6060
2.5457
2.5865
2.5353
2.5751
2.5166
2.5550
2.5085
2.5459
2..\946 2.4827
:.5308 2.5179
2.4611
2.4944 2.4804 2.4756 2.4739 2.4719 ""'
.:i
!JI
26.50 2.7663 2.7269 2.6898 2.6482 2.6272 2.6148 2.5932 2.5832 2.5668 2.5529 2.5275 2.5124 2.5073 2.5053 2.5032
27.00 2.8151 2.7734 2.7343 2.6904 2.6677 2.6543 2.6312 2.6203 :.6027 2.5877 2.5603 2.5443 2.5386 2.5365 2.5342
27.50 2.8638 2.8197 2.7788 2.7324 2.7082 2.6938 2.6691 2.6573 2.6384 2.6223 2.5929 2.5758 2.5698 2.5675 2.5650
28.00 2.9125 2.8660 2.8232 2.7743 2.7485 2.7331 2.7069 2.6941 2.6739 3.6567 2.6253 2.6072 2.6007 2.5982 2.5955
28.50 2.9612 2.9123 2.8675 2.8162 2.7887 2.7723 2.7446 2.7307 2.7092 2.6909 2.6575 2.6383 2.6314 2.6286 2.6258
29.00 3.0098 2.9585 2.9118 2.8579 2.8288 2.8114 2.7821 2.7673 2.7444 2.7250 2.6895 2.6692 2.6618 2.6589 2.6558
29.50 3.0584 3.0046 2.9560 2.8996 2.8689 2.8504 2.8194 2.8036 2.7794 2.7589 2.7212 2.6999 2.6970 2.6889 2.6857
30.00 3.1069 3.0507 3.0001 2.9412 2.9088 2.8892 2.8567 2.8399 2.0113 2.7926 2.7528 2.7304 2.7221 2.7187 2.7153
~ ....... , .  ..... .
TABLE C.2(d)
Extended SukkarCornell Integral for Bottomhole Pressure Calculation
P, Reduced Temperature for B = 15.0
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0
0.20 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
0.50 0.0077 0.0075 0.0074 0.0073 0.0072 0.0071 0.0071 0.0071 0.0070 0.0070 0.0070 0.0070 0.0069 0.0069 0.0069
1.00 0.0385 0.0359 0.0345 0.0336 0.0330 0.0325 0.0322 0.3119 0.0317 0.0316 0.0313 0.0311 0.0310 0.0309 0.0308
I.SO 0.0939 0.0838 0.0793 0.0765 0.0746 0.0732 0.0721 0.0713 0.0708 0.0703 0.0696 0.0692 0.0687 0.0685 0.0682
2.00 0.1571 0.1453 0.1371 0.1319 0.1282 0.1257 0.1236 0.1220 0.1211 0.1202 0.1189 0.1180 0.1172 0.1167 0.1161
2.50 0.2162 0.2093 0.2008 0.1943 0.1892 0.1857 0.1827 0.1804 0.1790 0.1777 0.1758 0.1745 0.1733 0.1724 0.1716 ~
.I
3.00 0.2725 0.2710 0.2648 0.2587 0.2533 0.2493 0.2458 0.2431 0.2413 0.2397 0.2374 0.2357 0.2342 0.2331 0.2320 Q'\
3.50 0.3275 0.3302 0.3267 0.3222 0.3176 0.3138 0.3102 0.3074 0.3055 0.3038 0.3012 0.2994 0.2978 0.2964 0.2952
4.00
4.50
0.3818
0.4355
0.3874
0.4430
0.3862
o.~35
0.3837
0.4431
0.3805
0.4415
0.3774
0.4393
0.3743
0.4369
0.3717
0.4349
0.3699
0.4335
0.3683
0.4320
0.3657
0.4298
0.3679
0.4281
0.3622
0.4265
~.3608
0.4252
0.3596
0.4240 ..
~
~
~
5.00 0.4887 0.4975 0.4992 0.5004 0.5006 0.4994 0.4978 0.4966 0.4956 0.4945 0.4928 0.4914 0.4S'OO 0.4888
0.5512
0.4877
0.5503
~
~
5.50 0.5113 0.5508 0.5535 0.5561 0.5579 0.5577 0.5570 0.5566 0.5561 0.5554 0.5543 0.5534 0.5522
6.00 0.5936 0.6034 0.6066 0.6103 0.6135 0.6143 0.6144 0.6149 0.6149 0.6147 0.6143 0.6138 0.6129 0.6121 0.6113 ;
6.50 0.6454 0.6553 0.6590 0.6634 0.6676 0.6694 0.6703 0.6715 0.6720 0.6724 0.6726 0.6727 0.6721 0.6715 0.6708
7.00 0.6969 0.7068 0.7105 0.7155 0.7205 0.7230 0.7246 0.7256 0.7276 0.7284 0.7293 0.7299 0.7296 0.7291 0.7286 4'
7.50 0,7432 0.7577 0.7613 0.7666 0.7722 0.7754 0.7776 0.7802 0.7817 0.7829 0.7844 0.7854 0.7855 0.7852 0.7848 ~
8.00 0.7991 0.8082 0.8114 0.8170 0.8230 0.8266 0.8293 0.8360 0.8391 0.8395 0.8398 0.8397 0.8394 ~
0.8324 0.8344 ~
8.50 0.8197 0.8582 0.8611 0.8666 0.8729 0.8768 0.8799 0.8835 0.8858 0.8878 0.8914 0.8920 0.8926 0.8927 0.8925
9.00 0.9000 0.9078 0.9102 0.9157 0.9220 0.9261 0.9295 0.9334 0.9360 0.9382 0.9423 0.'1432 0.9440 0.9442 0.9441
9.50 0.9500 0.9570 0.9588 0.9641 0.9704 0.9746 0.9782 0.9824 0.9852 0.9876 0.9920 0.9932 0.9941 0.9444 0.9944
10.00 0.9998 1.0059 1.0071 1.0121 1.0181 1.0223 1.0260 1.0304 l.0334 1.0359 1.0407 1.0420 1.0430 1.0434 1.0435
e 10.50
11.00
11.50
1.0492
1.0985
1.1475
1.0544
1.1026
1.1506
1.0549
1.1024
1.1496
1.0595
1.1065
1.1530
1.0653
l.1119
l.1580
1.0694
1.1159
1.1618
1.0731
1.1195
1.1653
1.0776
l.1239
l.1696
1.0806
1.1271
1.1728
1.0833
1.1298
1.1755
1.0883
1.1349
1.1807
1.0897
1.1364
1.1822
1.0908
1.1375
1.1832
1.0913
1.1380
1.1837
1.0914
1.1381
1.1839
12.00 1.1963 1.1983 1.1964 1.1992 1.2037 1.2072 1.2105 1.2147 1.2178 1.2205 1.2256 1.2270 1.2281 1.2285 1.2287
12.50 1.2419 1.2458 1.2430 1.2449 1.2490 1.2522 1.2551 1.2592 1.2622 1.2648 1.2698 1.2711 1.2720 1.2724 1.2725
13.00 1.2934 1.2931 1.2893 1.2903 1.2939 1.2967 1.2993 1.3031 1.3060 1.3084 1.3131 1.3143 1.3152 1.3155 1.3156
13.50 1.3417 1.3402 1.3354 1.3354 1.3384 1.3408 1.3430 1.3465 1.3492 1.3514 1.3558 1.3567 1.3575 1.3578 1.3578
14.00 1.3899 1.3870 1.3812 1.3802 1.3825 1.3845 1.3862 1.3694 1.3918 1.3938 1.3977 1.3984 1.3991 1.3993 1.3992
11.50 1.4380 1.4337 l..t268 1.4247 1.4263 1.4278 1.4290 1.4319 1.4339 1.4356 1.4390 1.4395 1.4400 1.4401 1.4400
15.00 1.4860 1.1803 1.1722 1.4689 1.4698 1.4708 1.4714 1.4739 1.4756 1.4769 1.4797 1.1798 1.4802 1.4802 1.4800
15.50 1.5338 1.5266 1.5174 1.5129 1.5130 1.5135 1.5134 1.5155 1.5168 1.5177 1.5198 1.5196 1.5197 1.5197 1.5194
16.00 1.5815 1.5728 1.5625 1.5566 1.5559 1.5558 1.5551 1.5567 1.5575 1.5580 1.5594 1.5587 1.5587 1.5585 1.5582
16.50 1.6291 1.6189 1.6073 1.6001 1.5985 1.5979 1.5964 1.5976 1.5978 1.5979 1.5984 1.5973 1.5971 1.5968 1.5964
17.00 1.6766 1.6649 1.6520 1.6434 1.6409 1.6397 1.6374 l.638k...._ 1.6378 1.6373 1.6370 1.6354 1.6350 1.6346 1.6341
17.50 1.7211 1.7107 1.6966 1.6865 1.6830 1.6812 1.6781 1.6783 1.6773 1.6764 1.6750 1.6730 1.6723 1.6718 1.6712
18.00 1.7714 1.7564 1.7110 I. 7293 1.7249 1.7225 1.7186 1.7181 1.7166 1.7150 1.7127 1.7100 1.7091 1.7085 1.7078
.18.50 1.8187 1.8020 1.7853 1.7720 1.7666 1.7635 1.7587 1.7577 1.7554 1.7533 1.7499 1.7466 1.7455 1.7447 1.7439 ;!
19.00 1.8659 1.8175 1.8294 1.8146 1.8081 1.8043 1.7986 1.7970 1.7940 1.7912 1.7866 1.7828 1.7814 1.7805 1.7796 <I>
19.50 !. 9130 1.8929 1.8734 1.8569 1.8158 1.8148 !:Ii
1.8493 1.8449 1.8382 1.8360 1.8322 1.8288 1.8230 1.8186 1.8169 c:
20.00
20.50
1.9600
2.0070
1.9382
1.9831
1.9173
1.9611
1.8991
1.9412
1.8904
1.9314
1.8853
1.9255
1.8776
1.9168
.1.8747
1.9132
1.8702
1.9079
1.8661
1.9031
1.8590
1.8947
1.8540
1.8889
1.8519
1.8866
1.8508
1.8853
1.8496
1.8840 ..~
21.00
21.50
2.0539
2.1007
2.0285
2.0736
2.0048
2.0184
1.9831
2.0248
1.9721
2.0127
1.9655
2.0054
1.9557
1.9944
1.9515
1.9895
1.9453
1.9824
1.9397
1.9761
1.9300
1.9650
1.9236
1.9578
1.9209
1.9549
1.9195
1.9532
1.9180
1.9517
"'Cl.
=
22.00 2.1475 2.1185 2.0918 2.0665 2.0531 2.0450 2.0330 2.0273 2.0193 2.0122 1.9997 1.9917 1.9884 1.9867 1.9850 g
22.50 2.1913 :.1634 2.1352 2.1080 2.0934 2.0845 2.0713 2.0649 2.0560 2.0481 2.0341 2.0253 2.0217 2.0148 2.0179 =i
23.00 2.2410 2.2082 2.1785 2.1494 2.1335 2.1239 2.1095 2.1024 2.0924 2.0837 2.0681 2.0586 2.0546 2.0525 2.0506 ~
23.50
24.00
2.2876
2.3342
2.2529
2.2976
2.2217
2.2618
2.1906
2.2318
2.1735
2.2134
2.1631
2.2021
2.1475
2.1853
2.1346
2.1766
2.1286
2.1646
2.1191
2.1542
2.1019
2. 1355
2.0916
2.1212
2.0872
2.1196
2.0850
2.1171
2.0829
2.1149 ~
:;.
24.50 2.3807 :.3422 2.3079 2.2728 2.2531 2.2410 2.2229 2.2135 2.2005 2.1891 2.1687 2.1567 2.1516 2.1490 2.1466 Q
Cl.
25.00 2.1272 2.3867 2.3509 2.3138 2.2927 2.2798 2.2604 2.2502 2.2361 2.2238 2.2017 2.1888 2.1834 2.1806 2.1780
25.50 2.4736 2.1312 2.3937 2.3546 2.3322 2.3184 2.2978 2.2867 2.2715 2.2583 2.2345 2.2207 2.2149 2.2119 2.2092 ~
.I
26.00 2.5200 1.1756 2 ..B66 2.3953 2.3716 2.3569 2.3550 2.3230 2.3067 2.2927 2.2671 2.2523 2.2461 2.2430 2.2101 :i
26.50 2.5664 2.5200 2.1793 2.4360 2.4109 2.3953 2.3720 2.3592 2.3418 2.3268 2.2994 2.2837 2.2771 2.2738 2.2707
27.00 2.6127 :.5643 2.5220 2.4766 2.4501 2.4336 2.4089 2.3953 2.3767 2.3607 2.3315 2.3149 2.3078 2.3044 2.3011
27.50 2.6590 2.6036 2.5646 2.5170 2.4891 2.4718 2.4457 2.4312 2.4115 2.3944 2.3634 2.3458 2.3384 2.3347 2.3313
28.00 2.7053 2.6520 2.6072 2.5574 2.5281 2.5098 2.4824 2.4670 2.4460 2.4280 2.3951 2.3765 2.3687 2.3648 2.3612
28.50 2.7515 2.6969 2.6197 2.5977 2.5669 2.5478 2.5189 2.5026 2.4805 2.4614 2.4266 2.4070 2.3987 2.3947 2.3909
29.00 2. 7977 2.7110 2.6921 2.6380 2.6057 2.5856 2.5553 2.5382 2.5148 2.4947 2.4579 2.1373 2.4286 2.4244 2.4205
29.50 2.8138 2.7851 2.i315 2.6781 2.6444 2.6234 2.5916 2.5736 2.5489 2.5278 2.4890 2.4674 2.4583 2.4538 2.4497
30.00 2.8899 2.8291 2.i769 2. 7182 2.6830 2.6610 2.6278 2.6088 2.5829 2.5607 2.5200 2.1974 2.4878 2.4831 2.4788
TABLE C.2(e)
Extended SukkarCornell Integral for Bottomhole Pressure Calculation
P, Reduced Temperature for 8 = 20.0
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0
0.20 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
0.50 0.0058 0.0056 0.0055 0.0055 0.0054 0.0054 0.0053 0.0053 0.0053 0.0053 0.0052 0.0052 0.0052 0.0052 0.0052
1.00 0.0294 0.0272 0.0262 0.0255 0.0250 0.0246 0.0243 0.0241 0.0240 0.0239 0.0237 0.0236 0.0235 0.0234 0.0233
1.50 0.0740 0.0649 0.0610 0.0587 0.0572 0.0561 0.0561 0.0545 0.0541 0.0537 0.0532 0.0528 0.0525 0.0522 0.0520
2.00 0.1295 0.1156 0.1077 0.1030 0.0998 0.0976 0.0958 0.0945 0.0937 0.0930 0.0918 0.0911 0.0905 0.0900 0.0895
2.50 0.1832 0.1712 0.1614 0.1547 0.1498 0.1465 0.1438 0.1417 0.1404 0.1393 0.1376 0.1364 0.1354 0.1346 0.1339
3.00 0.2350 0.2264 0.2172 0.2099 0.2040 0.1999 0.1964 0.1937 0.1920 0.1904 0.1882 0.1867 0.1853 0.1842 0.1832 ""'
Qi!
3.50 0.2860 0.2801 0.2725 0.2657 0.2597 0.2553 0.2514 0.2484 0.2463 0.2445 0.2419 0.2401 0.2384 0.2371 0.2359
4.00
4.50
0.3365
0.3865
0.3326
0.3841
0.3264
0.3790
0.3208
0.3747
0.3154
0.3703
0.3111
0.3664
0.3073
0.3629
0.3041
0.3599
0.3020
0.3578
0.3000
0.3559
0.2972
0.3531
0.2952
0.3510
0.2934
0.3492
0.2919
0.3476
0.2906
0.3462 =
<:)
5.00
5.50
0.4360
0.4852
0.4346
0.4843
0.4305
0.4809
0.4273
0.4787
0.4240
0.4765
0.4208
0.4740
0.4177
0.4714
0.4151 0.4132
0.4678
0.4114
0.4662
0.4088
0.4639
0.4068
0.4622
0.4050
0.4604
0.4034
0.4589
0.4021
0.4577
~
~
0.4594
6.00 0.5341 0.5335 0.5305 0.5291 0.5279 0.5261 0.5241 0.5226 0.5213 0.5201 0.5182 0.5167 0.5151 0.5137 0.5125
1;"
6.50 0.5827 0.5821 0.5794 0.5786 0.5783 0.5771 0.5756 0.5747 0.5738 0.5729 0.5714 0.5703 0.5689 0.5676 0.5665
a~~
7.00 0.6310 0.6304 0.6277 0.6274 0.6276 0.6270 0.6261 0.6257 0.6252 0.6246 0.6236 0.6228 0.6216 0.6205 0.6194
7.50 0.6791 0.6782 0.6755 0.6754 0.6761 0.6760 0.6755 0.6756 0.6754 0.6752 0.6746 0.6741 0.6732 0.6722 0.6712
8.00 0.7269 0.7257 0.7227 0.7228 0.7238 0.7241 0.7240 0.7245 0.7247 0.7247 0.7251 0.7244 0.7237 0.7227 0.7219
~
8.50 0.7745 0.7728 0.7695 0.7696 0.7708 0.7714 0.7716 0.7725 0.7729 0.7732 0.7740 0.7735 0.7730 0.7722 0.7714 "'
9.00 0.8219 0.8196 0.8159 0.8160 0.8172 0.8179 0.8184 0.8195 0.8202 0.8207 0.8218 0.8216 0.8212 0.8205 0.8198
9.50 0.8690 0.8661 0.8620 0.8618 0.8631 0.8638 0.8644 0.8658 0.8666 0.8673 0.8687 0.8687 0.8684 0.8678 0.8672
e
.
10.00
.10.50
11.00
0.9159
0.9626
1.0091
0.9123
0.9582
1.0089
0.9077
0.9530
0.9981
0.9073
0.9523
0.9969
0.9083
0.9531
0.9975
0.9091
0.9538
0.9980
0.9098
0.9545
0.9987
0.9113
0.9561
1.0002
0.9123
0.9571
1.0014
0.9131
0.9580
1.0023
0.9147
0.9599
1.0043
0.9148
0.9601
1.0045
0.9146
0.9599
1.0043
0.9141
0.9595
1.0039
0.9135
0.9589
1.0034
11.50 1.0554 1.0494 1.0429 1.0412 1.0414 1.0418 1.0423 1.0438 1.0450 1.0459 1.0479 1.0481 1.0479 1.0475 1.0470
12.00 1.1016 1.0946 1.0874 1.0851 1.0849 1.0851 1.0855 1.0868 1.0879 1.0688 1.0908 1.0909 1.0908 1.0903 1.0698
12.50 1.1476 1.1397 1.1317 1.1288 1.1282 1.1280 1.1282 1.1294 1.1304 1.1312 1.1331 1.1331 1.1328 1.1323 1.1318
13.00 1.1935 1.1846 1.1758 1.1721 1.1710 1.1706 1.1704 1.1714 1.1723 1.1730 1.1746 1.1745 1.1742 1.1736 1.1731
13.50 1.2392 1.2293 1.2197 1.2151 1.2136 1.2128 1.2122 1.2130 1.2137 1.2142 1.2156 1.2153 1.2149 1.2143 1.2136
14.00 l.2849 1.2739 1.2833 1.2579 1.2558 1.2547 1.2537 1.2542 1.2547 2.2549 1.2559 1.2564 1.2549 1.2542 1.2535
14.50 1.3304 1.3183 1.3068 1.3005 1.2977 1.2962 1.2948 1.2949 1.2952 1.2952 1.2957 1.2949 1.2463 1.2935 1.2928
15.00 1.3759 1.3625 1.3501 1.3428 1.3394 l'.3375 1.3355 1.3353 1.3352 1.3349 1.3349 1.3339 1.3331 1.3322 1.3315
15.50 1.4212 1.4067 1.3933 1.3849 1.3808 1.3784 1.3759 1.3754 1.3749 1.3743 1.3736 1.3723 1.3713 1.3704 1.3695
16.00 1.4665 1.4507 1A363 1.4267 1.4220 1.4191 1.4150 1.4151 1.4142 1.4132 1.4118 1.4101 1.4090 1.4080 1.4071
16.50 1.5116 1.4945 1.4792 1.4684 1.4629 1.4595 1.4558 1.4544 1.4531 1.4517 1.4496 1.4475 1.4462 1.4451 1.4441
17.00 1.5567 1.5383 1.5219 1.5099 1.5036 1.4997 1.4953 1.4935 1.4916 1.4898 1.4869 1.4844 1.4829 1.4817 1.4806
17.50 'l.6017 1.5820 1.5645 1.5512 1.5441 1.5397 1.5345 t.5323 1.5298 1.5275 1.5238 1.5208 1.5191 1.5178 1.5166
18.00 1.6467 1.6256 1.6069 1.5924 1.5844 1.5794 1.5735 1.5708 1.5678 1.5649 1.5603 1.5588 1.5549 1.5584 1.5522
e 18.50
19.00
19.50
20.00
1.6916
1.7364
1.7811
1.8258
1.6691
1.7125
1.7558
1.7990
1.6493
1.6915
1.7336.
1.7757
1.6334
1.6742
1.7149
1.7555
1.6245
1.6644
1.7042
1.7438
1.6190
1.6583
1.6975
1.7364
1.6123
1.6508
1.6891
1.7271
1.6090
1.6470
1.6847
1.7222
1.6054
1.6427
1.6797
1.7165
1.6020
1.6388
1.6752
1.711l
1.5964
1.6321
1.6675
1.7025
1.5924
1.6275
1.6623
1.6967
1.5902
1.5252
1.6597
1.6938
1.5837
1.6235
1.6579
1.6919
1.5973
1.6220
1.6563
1.6902
~
"'
~
:ii:
20.50 1.8705 1.8421 1.8176 1.7959 1.7832 1.7752 1.7650 1.7595 1.7530 1.7473 1.7372 1.7308 1.7276 1.7256 1.7238 .,"':ii:
21.00 1.9150 1.7716 1.7645 1.7611 1.7589 1.7570
21.50 1.9596
1.8852
1.9282
1.8594
1.9012
1.8362
1.8763
1.8225
1.8616
1.8139
1.8523
1.8027
1.8401
1.7965
1.8334
1.7893
1.825l
1.7829
1.8183 1.8056 1.7979 l.79l2 1.7918 1.7898 "'
=
Q.
22.00 2.0041 1.9711 1.9429 1.9164 1.9006 1.8906 1.8774 1.8700 1.8612 1.8534 1.8394 1.8310 1.8270 1.8245 1.8223
~
22.50 2.0485 2.0140 1.9844 1.9563 1.9395 1.9288 1.9146 1.9065 1.8968 1.8882 1.8730 1.8638 1.8595 1.8568 1.8545 3
23.00
23.50
2.0929
2.1372
2.0568
2.0995
2.0259
2.0674
L9982
2.0359
1.9782 1.9668 1.9516 1.9428 1.9322 1.9229
1.9573
1.9062
1.9392
1.8963
1.9286
1.8916
1.9235
1.8889
1.9206
1.8864
1.9180
"'
::::::
~
2.0168 2.0047 1.968l 1.9789 1.967l
24.00 2.1815 2.1422 2.1087 2.0756 2.0553 2.0425 2.0250 2.0149 2.0025 1.9916 1.9719 1.9605 1.9551 1.9521 2.9493
1.9804 :::
24.50 2.2258 2.1849 2.1500 2.1151 2.0937 2.0801 2.0615 2.0507 2.0373 2.0256 2.0044 1.9922 1.9865 1.9832 Q
~
25.00 2.2700 2.2274 2.1912 2.1546 2.1319 2.1176 2.0979 2.0863 2.0719 2.059l 2.0367 2.0237 2.0176 2.0142 2.0112
25.50 2.3142 2.2700 2.2324 2.1939 2.1701 2.1550 2.1341 2.1218 2.1064 2.0980 2.0687 2.0549 2.0484 2.0449 2.0417
26.00 2.3584 2.3124 2.2735 2.2332 2.2002 2.1923 2.1702 2.1671 2.1408 2.1265 2.1005 2.0858 2.0790 2.0753 2.0720 """
!
~
26.50 2.4025 2.3549 2.3145 2.2724 2.2461 2.2295 2.2062 2.1923 2.1749 2.1598 2.1321 2.1166 2.1094 2.1055 2.1020
27.00 2.4466 2.3973 2.3555 2.3115 2.2840 2.2665 2.2420 2.2274 2.2089 2.1929 2.1636 2.1471 2.1395 2.1355 2.1318
27.50 2.4907 2.4396 2.3964 2.3505 2.3218 2.3035 2.2778 2.2823 2.2428 2.2258 2.1968 2.1774 2.1695 2.1652 2.1614
28.00 2.5347 2.4819 2.4373 2.3895 2.3595 2.3404 2.3134 2.2971 2.2765 2.2586 2.2258 2.2075 2.1992 2.1948 2.1908
28.50 2.5787 2.5742 2.4781 2.4284 2.3971 2.3772 2.3l09 2.3118 2.3100 2.2912 2.2566 2.2375 2.2287 2.2241 2.2220
29.00 2.6227 2.5664 2.5189 2.4672 2.4146 2.4119 2.3843 2.366l 2.3435 2.3217 2.2873 2.2677 2.2540 2.2662 2.2480
29.50 2.6666 2.6085 2.5596 2.5060 2.4720 2.4504 2.4195 2.4008 2.3768 2.3560 2.3178 2.2967 2.2871 2.2822 2.2777
30.00 2.7106 2.6507 2.6003 2.5447 2.5094 2.4870 2.45.n 2.4352 2.4100 2.3882 2.3481 2.3261 2.3161 2.3109 2.3063
. TABLE C.2(f}
Extended SukkarCornell Integral for Bottomhole Pressure Calculation
P, Reduced Temperature for 8 = 25.0
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0
0.20 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
0.50 0.0047 0.0045 0.0044 0.0044 0.0043 0.0043 0.0043 0.0042 0.0042 0.0042 0.0042 0.0042 0.0042 0.0042 0.0042
1.00 0.0237 0.0219 0.0211 0.0205 0.0201 0.0198 0.0196 0.0194 0.0193 0.0192 0.0191 0.0189 0.0189 0.0198 0.0187
1.50 0.0611 0.0529 0.0496 0.0477 0.0464 0.0454 0.0446 0.0441 0.0438 0,0435 0.0430 0.0427 0.0424 0.0422 O.M20
2.00 0.1106 0.0961 0.0888 0.0846 0.0818 0.0798 0.0783 0.0771 0.0764 0.0758 0.0749 0.0742 0.0737 0.0733 0.0729
2.50 0.1598 0.1453 0.1352 0.1287 0.1241 0.1211 0.1186 0.1188 0.1156 0.1146 0.1131 0.1171 0.1111 0.1104 0.1098
0.1561 0.1547 0.1534 0.1524 0.1515 ;$
3.00
3.50
0.2079
0.2554
0.1952
0.2444
0.1846
0.2346
0.1769
0.2267
0.1711
0.2202
0.1670
0.2156
0.1637
0.2117
0.1612
0.2087
0.1596
0.2067
0.1581
0.2049 0.2024 0.2007 0.1991 0.1978 0.1967 =
4.00 0.3025 0.2930 0.2840 0.2766 0.2702 0.2654 0.2613 0.2579 0.2557 0.2537 0.2508 0.2488 0.2470 0.2455 0.2442 t::::s
Q
4.50 0.3492 0.3408 0.3325 0.3260 0.3200 0.3154 0.3112 0.3078 0.3055 0.3036 0.3004 0.2982 0.2962 0.2946 0.2932
5.00 0.3957 0.3879 0.3803 0.3745 0.3693 0.3650 0.3610 0.3578 0.3555 0.3536 0.3503 0.3481 0.3461 0.3444 0.3429 ~
~
5.50 0.4418 0.4345 0.4274 0.4223 0.4178 0.4139 0.4103 0.4073 0.4052 0.4031 0.4002 0.3980 0.3961 0.3943 0.3929
6.00 0.4878 0.4806 0.4739 0.4694 0.4656 0.4622 0.4589 0.4563 0.4543 0.4525 0.4498 0.4477 0.4450 0.4441 0.4428
6.50 0.5335 0.5263 0.5198 0.5158 0.5126 0.5097 0.5068 0.5045 0.5028 0.5012 0.4988 0.4969 0.4951 0.4935 0.4922 ~
7.00 0.5790 0.5718 0.5653 0.5616 0.5589 0.5564 0.5539 0.5520 0.5506 0.5492 0.5471 0.5454 0.5437 0.5422 0.5409 ::r
...
7.50 0.6243 0.6169 0.6104 0.6069 0.6045 0.6024 0.6003 0.5987 0.5975 0.5966 0.5946 0.5932 0.5917 0.5902 0.5690 [:l
8.00 0.6694 0.6618 0.6550 0.6516 0.6495 0.6477 0.6459 0.6447 0.6437 0.6428 0.6415 0.6401 0.6388
0.6850
0.6374
0.6837
0.6362
0.6826
=
....~
8.50 0.7143 0.7063 0.6993 0.6960 0.6940 0.6924 0.6908 0.6899 0.6892 0.6884 0.6874 0.6882
0.7315 0.7304 0.7292 0.7282
e
9.00 0.7591 0.7506 0.7433 0.7399 0.7380 0.7365 0.7351 0.7344 0.7338 0.7333 0.7325
9.50 0.8036 0.7946 0.7870 0.7834 0.7814 0.7800 0.7788 0.7783 0.7778 0.7774 0.7769 0.7760 0.7750 0.7739 0.7830
10.00 0.8480 0.8384 0.8303 0.8266 0.8245 0.8231 0.8219 0.8215 0.8212 0.8208 0.8205 0.8198 0.8189 0.8178 0.8169
10.50 0.8922 0.8520 0.8735 0.8695 0.8671 0.8657 0.8645 0.8641 0.8639 0.8636 0.8635 0.8628 0.8619 0.8609 0.8600
11.00 0.9362 0.9254 0.9163 0.9120 0.9094 0.9078 0.9056 0.9063 0.9061 0.9058 0.9058 0.9052 0.9043 0.9033 0.9024
11.50 0.9801 0.9686 0.9590 0.9542 0.9514 0.9496 0.9483 0.9679 0.9477 0.9475 0.9475 0.9468 0.9459 0.9449 0.9.i40
12.00 1.0239 1.0117 1.0014 0.9961 0.9930 0.9910 0.9896 0.9891 0.9889 0.9886 0.9885 0.9879 0.9864 0.9854 0.9850
12.50 1.0676 1.0545 1.0437 1.0378 1.0343 1.0321 1.0304 1.0298 1.0295 1.0292 1.0240 1.0283 1.0273 1.0262 1.0253
13.00 1.1111 1.0973 1.0857 1.0792 1.0753 1.0729 1.0709 1.0701 1.0698 1.0693 1.0689 1.0681 1.0670 1.0659 1.0650
13.50 1.1546 1.1398 1.1276 1.1204 1.1161 1.1134 1.1111 1.1101 1.1095 1.1089 1.1083 1.1073 1.1062 1.1050 1.1040
14.00 1.1979 1.1823 1.1693 1.1614 1.1566 1.1535 1.1509 1.1496 1.1489 1.1481 1.1472 1.1459 1.1447 1.1435 1.1425
)
.. . . . . '" :",_
~"'''"'""'"" . . ..=.,>..
,_.,,,.__~ ...,,,~ _
""'=~,..,.. _.""'~""'"'"""""~.....,.~~~
14.50 l.2412 1.2246 1.2109 1.2021 1.1968 1.1934 1.1904 1.1889 1.1879 1.1868 1.1855 1.1840 1.1827 1.1615 1.1604
15.00 1.2844 1.2668 1.2523 1.2427 1.2368 1.2331 1.2296 1.2278 1.2265 1.2252 1.2234 1.2217 1.2202 1.2189 1.2177
15.50 1.3275 1.3089 1.2936 1.2830 1.2766 1.2725 1.2685 1.2663 1.2647 1.2631 1.2608 1.2588 1.2572 1.2558 1.2546
16.00 1.3705 1.3509 1.3347 1.3232 1.3161 1.3116 1.3071 1.3046 1.3026 1.3007 1.2978 1.2954 1.2937 1.2922 1.2909
16.50 1.4135 1.3928 1.3757 1.3632 1.3555 1.3505 1.3455 1.3426 1.3402 1.3379 1.3343 1.3316 1.3298 1.3281 1.3268
17.00 1.4564 1.4346 1.4166 1.4031 1.3947 1.3892 1.3836 1.3803 1.3775 1.3748 1.3705 1.3674 1.3653 1.3637 1.3623
e 17.50
18.00
18.50
1.4992
1.5420
1.5847
1.4763
1.5180
1.5595
1.4574
1.4981
1.5387
1.4428
1.4823
1.5217
1.4336
1.4724
l.Slll
1.4278
1.4661
1.5042
1.4215
1.4591
1.4965
1.4178
1.4550
1.4920
1.4145
1.4512
1.4876
1.4114
1.4476
1.4835
1.4062
1.4617
1.4767
1.4028
1.4377
1.4728
1.4005
1.4353
1.4697
1.3987
1.4334
1.4677
1.3973
1.4318
1.4660
..;
19.00 1.6274 1.6010 1.5792 1.5610 1.5496 1.5422 1.5338 1.5287 1.5238 1.5192 1.5114 1.5065 1.5036 1.5015 1.4998
19.50 1.6700 1.6424 1.6196 1.6002 1.5879 1.5800 1.5708 1.5653 1.5597 1.5546 1.5458 1.5404 1.5373 1.5351 1.5332 ...:::'
20.00
20.50
1.7126
1.7551
1.6837
1.7250
1.6597
1.7001
1.6392
1.6781
1.6261
1.6641
1.6176
1.6551
1.6076
1.6443
1.6016
1.6377
1.5954
1.6308
1.5997
1.6246
1.5799
1.6137
1.5739
1.6071
1.5706
1.6035
1.5692
1.6011
1.5663
1.5990 ,..,..~
21.00 1.7975 1.7662 1.7403 1.7169 1.7020 1.6924 1.6808 1.6736 1.6660 1.6592 1.6472 1.6400 1.5362 1.6336 1.6614 :;
21.50
22.00
1.8400 1.8073 1.7803 1.7556 1.7398 1.7296 1.717! 1.7094 1.7011 1.6936 1.6804 1.6726 1.5685 1.6658
1.6977
1.6635
1.6953
"'
=
~
1.8824 1.8484 1.8203 1.7942 1.7775 1.7667 1.7532 1.7450 1.7359 1.7278 1.7134 1.7049 1.7005
22.50 1.9247 1.8895 1.8603 1.8327 1.8150 1.8036 1.7892 1.7804 1.7705 1.7617 1.7460 1.7370 1.7322 1.7243 1.7267 9
23.00 1.9670 1.9304 1.9001 1.8711 1.8524 1.8404 1.8251 1.8156 1.8049 1.7955 1.7785 1.7687 1.7637 1.7606 1.7579 :::!
23.50 2.0093 I. 9714 1.9399 1.9094 1.8898 1.8771 1.8608 1.8507 1.8392 1.8290 1.8107 1.8002 1.7949 1.7916 1.7889 ~
:;;.
24.00 2.0516 2.0122 1.9797 1.9477 1.9270 1.9136 1.8964 1.8856 1.8733 1.8623 1.8427 1.8315 1.8258 1.8224 1.8195 .....
24.50 2.0938 2.0531 2.0193 1.9858 1.9641 1.9501 1.9318 1.9204 1.9072 1.8955 1.8744 1.8625 1.8565 1.8530 1.8499 a.
25.00 2.1360 2.0938 2.0590 2.0239 2.0011 1.9864 1.9671 1.9550 1.9409 1.9285 1.9060 1.8933 1.8870 1.8833 1.8801 ~
~
25.50 2.1761 2.1346 2.0985 2.0618 2.0380 2.0226 2.0023 1.9895 1.9745 1.9613 1.9373 1.9238 1.9172 1.9133 1.9100
26.00
26.50
27.00
27.50
2.2202
2.2623
2.3044
2.3464
2.1753
2.2159
2.2566
2.2971
2.1380
2.1775
2.2169
2.2562
2.0998
2.1376
2.1754
2.2131
2.0749
2.1116
2.1403
2.1848
2.0588
2.0948
2.1307
2.1666
2.0373
2.0723
2.1071
2.1418
2.0239
2.0581
2.0923
2.1263
2.0079
2.0412
2.0744
2.1074
1.9939
2.0264
2.0587
2.0909
1.9684
1.9994
2.0301
2.0607
1.9542
1.9843
2.0142
2.0440
1.9472
1.9769
2.0065
2.0359
1.9431
1.9728
2.0022
2.0314
1.9397
1.9692
1.9964
2.0275

oe
"'""
28.00 2.3885 2.3377 2.2955 2.2507 2.2213 2.2024 2.1764 2.1601 2.1403 2.1229 2.0911 2.0735 2.0650 2.0603 2.0563
28.50 2.4305 2.3782 2.3348 2.2883 2.2578 2.2380 2.2110 2.1939 2.1730 2.1548 2.1213 2.1028 2.0940 2.0891 2.0849
29.00 2.4724 2.4186 2.3740 2.3258 2.2941 2.2736 2.2454 2.2276 2.2056 2.1865 2.1913 2.1320 2.1228 2.1178 2.1134
29.50 2.5144 2.4591 2.4132 2.3632 2.3304 2.3091 2.2797 2.2611 2.2331 2.2181 2.1812 2.1610 2.1514 2.1462 2.1417
30.00 2.5563 2.4995 2.4523 2.4006 2.3666 2.3446 2.3139 2.2946 2.2705 2.2496 2.2110 2.1898 2.1798 2.1744 2.1698
TABLE C.2(g)
Extended SukkarCornell Integral for Bottomhole Pressure Calculation
P, Reduced Temperature for 8 = 30.0
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0
0.20 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
0.50 0.0039 0.0038 0.0037 0.0037 0.0036 0.0036 0.0036 0.0035 0.0035 0.0035 0.0035 0.0035 0.0035 0.0035 0.0035
1.00 0.0199 0.0184 0.0176 0.0172 0.0168 0.0166 0.0164 0.0162 0.0162 0.0161 0.0169 0.0159 0.0158 0.0157 0.0157
1.50 0.0521 0.0447 0.0418 0.0401 0.0390 0.0382 0.0375 0.0371 0.0368 0.0365 0.0361 0.0358 0.0356 0.0355 0.0353
2.00 0.0967 0.0823 0.0755 0.0718 0.0692 0.0676 0.0672 0.0652 0.0646 0.0640 0.0632 0.0626 0.0621 0.0618 0.0615
2.50 0.1422 0.1264 0.1164 0.1103 0.1060 0.1033 0.1010 0.0993 0.0963 0.0974 0.0960 0.0951 0.0943 0.0937 0.0931
3.00 0.1870 0.1719 0.1608 0.1531 0.1474
3.50 0.2314 0.2174 0.2063 0.1980 0.1914
0.1436
0.1869
0.1404
0.1831
0.1381
0.1801
0.1366
0.1782
0.1353
0.1765
0.1334
0.1741
0.1321
0.1725
0.1309
0.1710
0.1300
0.1697
0.1292
0.1687
"'"
00
N
4.00 0.2756 0.2625 0.2519 0.2436 0.2367 0.2318 0.2275 0.2242 0.2219 0.2199 0.2172 0.2152 0.2135 0.2120 0.2108
4.50
5.00
0.3195
0.3632
0.3071
0.3513
0.2970
0.3416
0.2891
0.3343
0.2823
0.3278
0.2773
0.3229
0.2729
0.3186
0.2693
0.3149
0.2669
0.3124
0.2647
0.3101
0.2617
0.3069
0.2594
0.3046
0.2675
0.3025
0.2559
0.3008
0.2545
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