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A. A. Urayet, Ph.D.

Associate Professor /Al-Fateh University

NATU,RAL-G.As --,. .
:

RESERVOIR ENGINEERING

Prepared By:
Dr. Urayet, Abdulhamid

Part of the Technical Training Program organized by:


The Petroleum Research Center, PRC

Tripoli, 2004

AAU/C/CONSULATANT/TRAINING/SIAlA/GASOUTLINES.doc
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This course offers a comprehensive review of all aspects related to


Natural-Gas Reservoir Engineering
from the Producing Formation to the surface:

.. i .... ..1r
- The course has been :divided into 8 main chaplers as follows: ....

o Definitions and Classifications


oGas Laws & Gas Deviation Factor
o Natural-Gas Physical Properties
o Gas Volumetrics and Gas Material Balance Calculations
o Inflow Performance & Deliverability Testing
o Transient Pressure Analysis
o Vertical Flow Performance
o Gas Field Development

This course does not consider advanced aspects related to


Condensate-Bearing Gas reservoirs
such as vapor-liquid equilibrium, phase behavior, etc.

The analytical solutions are presented without derivations


except when necessary
to understand the main assumptions involved
and/or the sources of uncertainty in the results.

Practical application to actual field data are discussed


and practical analysis procedures are illustrated through
Example Problems

AAU/C/CONSULATANTITRAINING/SIALA/GASOUTLINES.doc 2
Natural-Gas Reservoir Enqineerinq

CONTENTS
1. Chapter 1 : DEFINITIONS AND CLASSIFICATION
1. 1 Definitions and Terminology
1.2 Dry Gas Reservoirs
1.3 Wet Gas Reservoirs
1.4 Condensate-bearing Gas Reservoirs
1. 5 Impurities
:i
"!
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......
2. Chapter 2 : GAS DEVIATION FACTOR
2.1 Definitions and Terminology
2.2 Gas Deviation Factor
2.2.1 Deviation factors for single-component system
2.2.2 Deviation factors for pure natural gases
Standing I Katz correlation
Brill and Beggs z-factor correlation
2.2.3 Gas deviation factor I Effect of impurities
The additive z-factor method
The modified Pc and Tc method (Wichert & Aziz)
2.2.4 Gas deviation factor I Practical _aspects
Treatment of heavier hydrocarbon components
Unavailability of the gas chemical composition
Effect of water vapor

3. Chapter 3: NATURAL-GAS PHYSICAL PROPERTIES


3. 1 Gas Formation Volume Factor
3.2 Isothermal Compressibility
Trube correlation
McCain, W.D.Jr. numerical correlation
3.3 Viscosity of Natural Gases
Carr, et. al. Graphical correlation
Lee, Gonzalez, and Eakin numerical correlation
3.4 Water Content of Natural Gases
3.5 Hydrate Formation Conditions

4. Chapter 4 : GAS VOLUMETRICS


4. 1 Introduction
4.2 The Volumetric Method
4. 2. 1 Calculation of the gas-initially-in-place
The lsopach method
The HPV method
The Grid method
4.2.2 Calculation of the recovery factor
Recovery factor for volumetric reservoirs
Recovery factor for water drive reservoirs
4.3 Material Balance Calculations

AAU/C/CONSULATANT/TRAINING/SIALA/GASOUTLINES.doc 3
Cont'd Chapter 4.: GAS VOLUMETRICS

4.3.1 Mathematical formulation


4.3.2 Analysis of free-gas reservoirs
4.3.3 Volumetric reservoirs
4.3.4 Water-drive gas reservoirs
4.3.5 Treatment of condensates in the gas MBE
Gas equivalent of hydrocarbon condensates
Gas equivalent of condensing water vapor

,. 5. Chapter 5 : INFLOW PERFORMANCE AND DELIVERABILITY


~
TESTING ~ f l ..;. ' 1 '
5.1 Flow-after-Flow Test
5.1.1 Flow-after-flow procedure
5.1.2 Flow-after-flow test analysis
The Empirical method

5.2
5.2.1
5.2.2
The Modified method
The Exact (Pseudo-gas Potential) method
Isochronal Testing
Isochronal test procedure
Isochronal test analysis
5.3 Accounting for the Condensates in the Analysis

6. Chapter 6 : TRANSIENT PRESSURE ANALYSIS


6.1 Introduction
6.2
The P; Analysis Method
6.3 The Pw Analysis Method
6.4 The Pseudo-Gas Potential Method

7. Chapter 7 : VERTICAL FLOW PERFORMANCE


7.1 General Flow Equation in Pipes
7.2 The Trial and Error T - z Method
7.2.1 Static bottom-hole pressure calculations
9. 7.2.2 Flowing bottom-hole pressure calculations
7.3 Sukkar & Cornell Method
7.4 Practical Aspects
Gas flow in the annulus
Temperature distribution in the wellbore
Effect of liquid production

8. Chapter 8 : IMPORTANT RESERVOIR ASPECTS OF GAS


FIELD DEVELOPMENT
8. 1 Introduction
8. 2 Recovery in Gas Reservoirs
8. 3 Reservoir Deliverability
8.4 Number of Wells and Well Spacing
8.5 Deliverability of the Gas Production System
8. 6 Predicting Future Reservoir Performance

AAU/C/CONSULATANT/TRAINING/SlALA/GASOUTLINES.doc 4
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INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

Chapter 1

DEFINITIONS AND CLASSIFICATION

NATURAL GAS is defined as a vaporous miXture of hydrocarbons, usually


containing varying amounts of impurities .

To be more specific, a NATURAL GAS consists principally of the more volatile


members of the Paraffin series (Cn H20+2). The "more volatile" members signify
hydrocarbons containing one to four carbon atoms per molecule, such as
Methane (CH 4 ), Ethane (C2 H 6 ), Propane (C3Hg), and Butane (C4H10>
19 In addition to the hydrocarbon components, different types of impurities, such
as Carbon Dioxide (C0 2 ), Hydrogen Sulfide (H 2 S), and Nitrogen (Nz), are
commonly present in natural gases. The chemical composition of the natural
gas is pre-determined by the geologic environment of the source rock,
deposition, maturation, migration and trapping.

Natural free gas accumulations occure in different environments such as a


single gas phase (i.e. no liquid hydrocarbons) with interstitial water in a
volumetric reservoir, or as a single gas phase underlain by a thin column of
condensing hydrocarbons, or as a gas cap overlying an oil reservoir, or finally
as a single gas phase underlain by a water aquifer.

Natural gas occurs in different environments including conventional gas


reservoirs, gas in tight sands, gas in tight shales, gas occluded in coal, and gas
in geopressured reservoirs. However, in this course we only consider
Conventional Gas Reservoirs.

Conventional Natural gas reservoirs are, commonly, classified into three main
categories, as follows:

1. Dry natural gas reservoirs


2. Wet natural gas reservoirs
3. Condensate-bearing gas reservoirs

In general, Drv gas reservoirs are characterized by the negligible amount of


hydrocarbon liquids condensing at the separator conditions, Wet gas reservoirs
are characterized by more liquids condensing from the gas at separator
conditions, and possibly in the production string, whereas, Condensate-bearing

AAU/GAS/GASl.doc 1
I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

gas reservoirs are characterized by liquids condensing, not only in the


separator and production string, but also in the formation, (most noticeably, in
the area surrounding the well bore), as the pressure in the reservoir declines
below the dew point pressure due to production. In practical field applications,
the above classification has been based, in general, on the amount of the
separator Liquid Hydrocarbons which are associated with the production of gas
from the natural gas reservoir.

1.1 DEFINITIONS AND TERMINOLOGY

It is important to introduce, here, some basic definitions which are related to


gas engineering in general, and which will be used throughout these notes.
More definitions related to each specific topic will be introduced in following
chapters.

Liquid Recovery , LR

LR = volume of hydrocarbon liquids (in STB) accumulating under separator


conditions per one million scf (MM scf) of gas produced to the surface .

LR is normally used to classify the gas reservoir into dry or wet. It is important
to note that this definition should be used with caution when applied to the case
of condensate-bearing gas reservoirs, since LR, in this case, represents the
total amount of hydrocarbon liquids accumulating in the separator, which
includes the liquids condensing from the gas under separator conditions, in
addition to, liquids which have, already, condensed in the formation, and are
produced once the critical saturation of liquid has been exceeded in the
formation.

Even though some engineers use the term Gas Oil Ratio as the inverse of the
Liquid Recovery, however, it is advisable to restrict the use of the GOR term to
oilreservoir calculations and terminology, and the term LR to the gas reservoir
terminoloqv.

AAU/GAS/GAS 1.doc 2
INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

Mole Fraction . x;

The chemical analysis of a gas mixture is normally expressed in terms of a


mole fraction, x;, of each component, i, where,

number of moles of the component (i)


Xi=~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Eq (1.1)
total number of moles of the gas

Typical examples of the chemical analysis of different natural gases will be


given later in Tables (1.1, 1.2, 1.4, and 1.5). It is important to note that in these
examples, the sum of the mole fractions of all components heavier than the
normal Heptane, are grouped together under the term "Heptanes plus, C;''.
Some laboratories report the gas analysis to c;0 , or to C~. especially in case of
gas containing appreciable amounts of heavier hydrocarbon components.

Apparent Molecular Weight. M

Eq (1.2) I
The Molecular weights of the different hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon
components, M;, normally present in natural gases and crude oils are given in
Appendix-A, Table-1.1.

The number of pound-moles of a gas mixture, n, can be calculated as follows,

e n = mass of the gas mixture (lb) m m


Eq (1.3)
I Apparent molecular weight M L,xi.Mi

Gas Specific Gravity, y g

Mgas M
Yg = Eq (1.4)
Mair 28.966

AAU/GAS/GAS I .doc 3
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Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

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Example -1. 1

The chemical composition of the free gas produced from the Braebum field in
Canada is given in columns (1 and 2) of the attached Table. Calculate the
apparent molecular weight , M, and .the gas specific gravity, r g.

Solution

Use Table 1.1/Appendix-A to read the molecular weights,of the different


gas components, (column 3)
Multiply the mole fraction of each component by its molecular weight as
shown in column 4.:
Using Eq (1.2), calculate the molecular weight of the gas as follows:
M = LXi.Mi = 16.7794
Using Eq ( 1.4) calculate the specific gravity of the gas as follows :
Mgas M
rg = = = o.5793
Mair 28.966
..
- - .~"'

Braeburn Gas field, Canada

Components composition molecular X;.M;


x;( mole%) weight, M
(1) (2) (3) (4)=(2)X(3)/100

Methane 96.39 16.043 15.4638

I
- Ethane
Propane
(lso. +N) Butane
(lso. +N) Pentane
0.75
0.11
0.03
0.10
30.070
44.097
58.124
72.151
0.2253
0.0485
0.0174
0.0722

Carbon Dioxide 0.97 44.010 0.4269


Hydrogen Sulfide 1.04 34.076 . 0.3544
Nitrogen 0.61 28.013 0.1709

100.00 . 16.7794

AAU/GAS/GAS I .doc 4
INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

Recombined Reservoir-Gas Specific Gravity

The heavier components of the gas produced from a free gas reservoir would
condense into liquid at the surface conditions. In order to obtain the
composition of the reservoir gases and define the gas properties under
reservoir conditions, it is necessary to monitor the flow rates, the compositions,
and the related properties of the gas and condensate streams. Once the
necessary separator data is obtained, accurate determinations of the gas
composition in the reservoir can be obtained experimentally or analytically.

For quick estimation of the reservoir gas gravity, the following equation can be
used:

4584 Yes
Ygs +
Res Eq (1.5)
Yg =
1+132,800 Yes
MoRes

where,

rg = specific gravity of the reservoir gas


rgs = specific gravity of the separator gas
rcs = specific gravity of the stock tank condensate
Res =gas to condensate ratio, ( scf separator gas I one STB condensate)
M0 = Molecular weight of the tank oil

If the value of M 0 is not known, it can be estimated using the following


equation:

IM 0 0
6084 Eq (1.6)
AP! -5.9 I

AAU/GAS/GAS I .doc 5
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

Example -1. 2

Calculate the specific gravity of gas in the reservoir, given the following data :

separator pressure =680 psia


specific gravity of stock tank condensate 0.72 =
specific gravity of the separator gas =0.66
Liquid Ratio =
48 STB condensate I MM scf

Solution

141.5
1) calculate AP!= -131.5 = 141.5 -131.5 =65.03
Yes 0.72

2) R = 1,000,000 = 1,000,000 = 20 833


cs LR 48 '
6084 6084
3) Calculate M0 =0 - =102.892
AP! - 5.9 65.03-'- 5.9

4584 Yes 0.66 + 4584(0.72)


Ygs +
R ____ 20_..::,_83_3__ - 0.7835
3J rg = cs
1+132 800 Yes 1 + 132,800(0.72)
' MORCS (102.892)(20,833)

AAU/GAS/GAS I .doc 6
I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

1.2 DRY GAS RESERVOIRS

Although small amounts of heavier hydrocarbon components can be present,


most DRY natural gases consist predominantly of Methane (CH 4 }, the mole
percentage. of which may .be as .high as 98% of the hydrocarbon fractions.
Furthermore, Methane (CH 4 ) and Ethane (C2 H6) would constitute as high
as 99% of the total hydrocarbon mole composition. Considering this Universally
accepted classification, there are NO Dry Gas Reservoirs in Libya.

From a practical engineering point , the DRY gas is usually defined as a gas
which is associated with less than TEN barrels of separator liquids per Million
scf of gas produced (i.e. LR< 10 STB I MM sen. The very small amount of
hydrocarbon liquids will usually have an API gravity of 70+, corresponding to
liquid specific gravity less than 0.7.

TABLE 1.1
Typical Composition of natural DRY gas reservoirs

COMPONENTS COMPOSITION ( mole % )

Examole-A * Examole - B **
Methane 96.55 96.39
Ethane 2.15 0.75
Propane 0.45 0.11
(lso. +N) Butane 0.18 0.03
(lso. +N) Pentane 0.07 0.10
Hexane 0.25 ---
Heptanes plus 0.04 ---
Carbon Dioxide 0.31 0.97
Hydrogen Sulfide --- 1.04
Nitrogen --- 0.61

100.00 100.00

C1 % 96.85 98.98
(C1 + C2) % 99.01 99.75

* Example -A: West Cameron Pool, Louisiana Gulf Coast, USA


** Example - B : Belloy Formation , Braeburn Field , CANADA

AAU/GAS/GAS I .doc 7
INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

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1.3 WET GAS RESERVOIRS

Some natural gas reservoirs yield condensed liquids at ratios of 10 - 20 barrels


of separator liquids per Million scf of gas produced. Such gases are termed
WET. They contain greater quantities of the less volatile {heavy) hydrocarbons
(C3+) than do DRY gases. According to this Liquid Recovery criteria, only a
small number of Libyan gas reservoirs can be correctly termed WET. Two
examples of naturally occurring WET gas reservoirs in LIBYA are presented in
TABLE 1.2. It is noted that the Liquid Recovery in both reservoirs is 10- 20 STB
I MM scf.

TABLE 1.2
Typical Composition of natural WET gas reservoirs

COMPONENTS COMPOSITION ( mole % )

Examole-C * Examole - D **
Methane 89.132 85.83
Ethane 3.433 5.16
Propane 1.064 2.32
{lso. +N) Butane 0.676 1.38
(lso. +N) Pentane 0.349 0.57
Hexane 0.320 0.29
Heptanes plus 0.990 0.35
Carbon Dioxide 3.303 3.85
Hydrogen Sulfide 0.733 0.25

100.00 100.00

Other fluid 12rogerties

Liquid Recovery 11 16
(STB/MM scf)
Seoarator conditions 449 psia /91 F NA
Gas specific qravitv 0.6764 0.688
Liquid qravitv (API) 51.3 NA

* Example - C : NC 41-G , offshore Trip.oli , Libya


** Example - D : Sahl Field I Shegega reservoir , Libya

AAU/GAS/GAS I .doc 8
INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

1.4 CONDENSATE-BEARING GAS RESERVOIRS

Condensate-Bearing gases differ in composition from the DRY and WET gases
in that they contain appreciable amounts of the heavier hydrocarbons such as
Butanes (C4), P~ntanes (C5), Hexane (C6 ) ,and Heptanes plus (Cj).
Condensate-Bearing gas reservoirs will produce more than TWENTY barrels
of separator liquids per Million scf of produced gas at normal field separator
conditions. Rich Condensate-Bearing gases have been identified with
producing ratios as high as (400) barrels of liquid condensate per Million scf of
produced gas. The average API of the produced liquids ranges normally from
an API gravity of the light crudes ( i.e. 45 ) to a maximum of 60 .

The International terminology for the different classes of NATURAL gases is


presented in Table 1.3. Note that the Condensate-Bearing gases are classified
into three categories which are termed RICH, MODERATE, and LEAN.

According to this classification, many of the Libyan Gas Reservoirs can be


correctly termed Condensate-Bearing Gas reservoirs. The chemical
compositions for three free gas reservoirs in Libya, representing the three
classes of Condensate-bearing gases, are given in Table 1.4 for illustration.

TABLE-1.3
Practical Field Classification of Natural Gases

CLASSIFICATION LIQUID RECOVERY GOR


( STB I MM set) ( scf I STB)
Dry <10 > 100,000
Wet 10 - 20 50,000 - 100,000
Condensate - Lean 20- 50 20,000 - 50,000
Condensate - Moderate 50 - 100 10,000 - 20,000
Condensate - Rich > 100 < 10,000

NOTE:

In the normal field practice in Libya, no distinction is made between the


"Moderate" and the "Rich" categories. Ttie term "Rich" is used to represent any
free gas reservoir with LR > 50 STB I MM scf.

AAU/GAS/GAS I .doc 9
Appendix-A I Table 1.1
1
Physical Constants of Hydrocarbons
Crltlcol conatonta

...l...:
0
:!
ci
No. Compound :i-
1! .

;; ~
a
......
1~ t
: f
1 Moth0tto
1
IL

16.0.C3 -258.69
-lk
>
(5000)
:u:
IL

-296.46d 667.8
707.8
a':
-116.63
90.09
0
>
0.0991
0.0788
(800) -297.89d
2 Ethono 30.070 -127.CS 616.3 206.01 0.0737
-.C3.67 190 -305.8.Cd
3 Propotio .C.C.097 305.65 0.0702
51.6 -217.95 560.7
4 -autono 58.12.C 31.10 27.C.98 0.072.C
72.2 '..;255.29 529.1
5 loltvt- 58.12.C 10.90.
-201.51 .CS.8.6 385.7 0.0675
72.151 96.92 . 15.570 0.0679
6 -Pontono 20.4.C -255.83 490 .C 369.10
7 lopontono 72.151 12.12 2.11 '6.C.0 321.13 0.067.C
72.151 .ct.10 35.9
I Noo...,.tono 436.9 453.7 0.0688
155.72 .c.956 -139,58
9 -Hoiruo 16.178 -2.63 436.6 .C35.83 0.0681
16.178 140.c 6.767 4"8.3 0.0681
- 2-Mothrlpontono 6.098 453.1
I . 3-Mothrlpontono 86178 1.C5.19 4"6.8 420.13 0.0667
9.856 -1.C7.72
Noohoir- 16.178 121.52 -199.38 .CS3.5 .C.C0.29 0.0665
86.178 136.36 7.CO.C
13 2,3-0lmothrlbvtono '396.8 512.8 0.0691
209.17 1.620 -131.05
14 -Hoptono 100.205 -180.89 396.5 .C95.00 0.0673
100.205 19.C.09 2.211 0.06'6
15 2-Mothrlhoxono 408.1 503.78
100.205 197..32 2.130 513.CS 0.0665
16 3-Mothrlhoaono 2.012 -181 .CS '19.3
17 3-E~rlpontono 100.205 200.25 -190.86. 402.2 .cn.23 0.0665
100.205 17.C.S.C 3.492 475,95 0.0668
11 2,2-01-thrlpontono 3.292 -182.63 396.9
19 2,4-0lmothrlpontono 100.205 176.19 -210.01 .C27.2 505.85 0.0662
100.205 186.91 2.773 496 .C.C 0.0636
20 3,3-01-thylpontono 3.374 -12.12 .C28 .c
21 Trlptono 100.205 177.58 0.0690
-70.18 360.6 56.C.22
114.232 258.22 0.537 530. 0.0676
22 n-Octono 1.101 -132.07 360.6
23 Dliaobutrl 114.232 228.39 -161.27 372 . .C 519.46 0.0656
114.232 210.63 1.708
2.C faooctofto -6.C.28 332. 610.68 0.068"
128.259 303.C7 0.179
25 n-Nonono -21.36 30.C. 652.1 0.0679
142.286 345. .CS 0.0597 0;059
2' n-Docono -136.91 653.8 '61.S
70.135 '. 120.65 9.91.C .C99.35 0.0607
27 Cyclopontono 4.503 -224. S.CS.9
28 Mothylcyclopontono e.c.162 161.25 591. 536.7 0.0586
3.26.C 43.77
29 Cycloho- 14.162 177.29 503.5 570.27 0.0600
1.609 -195.87
30 Mothylcydoftoxono 98.189 213.68 . .CS.58 0.0737
-272 .C50 729.8
31 Ethylono 28.05.c -15.c.62 669. 196.9 0.0689
226 .C -301 .c5d
32 Propono 42.081 -53.90 $83. 295.6 0;0685
63.05 -301.63d
33 1-Bvtono 56.108 20.75 610. 32.C.37 0.0668
45.s.c -218.06 0.0680
:M Clo-2-Butono -56.108 38.69 595. 311.86
49.80 -157.96 0.0682
35 Trono-2-But.fto 56.108 33.58 . -220.61 580 292.55
56.108 19.59 63 .CO 376.93 0.0697
. . . . . .u t - . 19.115 -265.39 590.
70~135. 85.93 : (339.) (0.0649)
-1-Ponteno (20.) -213.16 (653.)
.S.C.o92 51.53 628. 306. 0.065"
38 1.2.:..allf041-
2.C.06 (60.) -164.02 . "'12.) (0.0650) .
39 1,3-BvtoclloRO" S.C.092 16.672 -230.7.C (558 .C)
68.119 . 93.30 95.31 0.0695
-114. 890..C
.co
.cl --
Acotrlono 26.038 -1.190
.Cl.96 710.C 552.22 0.0531
78.114 176.17 3.22.c 595,9 605."55 0.05.C9
Q Bona- 1.032 -138.9.C 0.056
43 Tol- . 92.1"1 ' 231.13 -138.91 523.5 . 651.2.C
106.168 277.16 0.371 0.0557
.c.c Ethrlbonaono -13.30 5.CU 615.0
29L97 0.26.C 0.0567
45 -x,,1one 106.168
106.168 282 .Cl 0.326 -5.C.12 513.6 651.02
6.C9.6 0.0572
'6 111-Xylono o.:M2 55.86 509.2
106.168 281.05 sao. 106.0 O.OS.Cl
41 p-Xylono (0.2.C) -23.10 0.0570
.cs Styrene 10.C.152 293.29 -140. 82 "65 .C '76 ..C
120.195 .306.:M . 0.188 0.0589(21)
49 laopropylbonaono -1"3.82(22) 117.C.2(21) "62.97(21)
148.1(2) .C.63(22) .C69.58(21) o.o580C2U
50 Motftyl Alcohol 32.G.42 -173 .C(22) 925.3(21)
'6.069 172.92(22) 2.3(7) -220.(17) o.os32C17>
51 Ethyl Alcohol -3.C0.6(2) 501 .(17) o.03.C2C23)
52 Cor.bon Monoxide 28.010 -313.6(2) 1071.(17) 87.9(23)
.C.C.010 -109.3(2) 212.7(17) 0.0459(2.C)
53 CorbOfl Oloaldo 39".0(6) -117 .2(7) 1306.(17)
5.C Hydrogen Sulfide :M.076 -76.6(2.C) 11.C5.(2.Cl 315.5(17) o.o306C2">
88.(7) -103.9(7)
55 Sulfur Oloaldo 6.C.059 1.c.0(7) 1636.(17) 270.3(2.Cl o.068H17>
212.(7) -107.9(2) o.0517C3>
56 Ammonlo NH1 17.031 -28.2(2.Cl 5.C7.(21 -221.3(2)
28.96.C -317.6(2) -399.8(17) o.5167(2.Cl
57 Air HzOi -.C3.C.8(2.C) 188.1(17) 0.0382(2.C)
S4 Hrdro9en Hz 2.016 -.C23.0(2.C) -361.8(2.C) 736.9(2.C) -181.1 (17)
31.999 -297 . .C(2) -232 . .C(2.Cl 0.051.ccm
59 Oargen Ci -3.C6.0(2.Cl .C9J.0(2.C)
60 Nitrogen 28.013 -320 . .C(2) 291.(17) o.028H17>
Na 154.(7) -U9.8(2A) 1118 . .C(2.Cl o.o5oocm
61 Chlorine Clz 70.906 -29.3(24) 32.0 3208.(17) 705.6(17)
212.0 0.9.C92(12)
62 Wotor HaO 18.015
Ho .C.003 12.C.5(17) o.0208C17>
63 Helium -173.6(16) 1198.(17>
HCI 36 ..C61 -121(16) 925.(7)
6.C Ht'droaen Chloride
INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

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TABLE 1.4
Typical Composition of CONDENSATE-bearing gas reservoirs

COMPONENTS COMPOSITION ( rnole % )

Examole- E* Examole - F** Examole-G***

Methane 78.90 80.77 66.64


Ethane 4.36 2.07 7.63
Propane 1.37 0.80 4.47
(lso.+N) Butane 0.78 0.72 3.50
(lso. +N) Pentane - 0.53 0.45 2.46
Hexane 0.38 0.13 2.06
Heptanes plus 1.71 3.26 7.47
Carbon Dioxide 11.16 9.50 3.03
Hydrogen Sulfide -- 1.91 ----
Nitrogen 0.72 0.39 2.74

100.00 100.00 100.00

Other fluid 12ro12erties

LR{STB/MM scf) 28.5 54 125


Gas specific aravitv 0.78 0.77 0.84
Liquid aravitv (API ) NA 52 37
Classification LEAN MODERATE RICH

* Example - E: Hateiba Field, Zmam/Waha/Gargaf, Libya


** Example - F: 137 S/K Field, offshore Tripoli, Libya
***Example - G : NC 41-A ,offshore Tripoli , Libya

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I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

1.5 IMPURITIES

As mentioned earlier, natural gases contain impurities in varying amounts. This


constitutes serious problems not only in the design of the field equipment and
. . transportation facilities, but also in gas safes contracts. in gas flaring (especially
near metropolitan areas), in evaluating the heat content of fuel gas ,(i.e. Btu
problem), in artificial lift design (i.e. corrosion problems), in the design of
tertiary recovery projects (Miscibility problems), and of course in the gas
treatment required to reduce the impurities to minimum tolerable levels which
do not violate environmental regulations. .

Impurities associated. with natural gases may include one or more of the
following items :

1. Carbon Dioxide 6. Water Vapor


2. Hydrogen Sulfide 7. Mercury
3. Sulfur Compounds 8. Dust
4. Oxygen 9. Helium
5. Nitrogen 10. Free liquids

New treatment and process technology allows the reduction of impurities to


tolerable limits, however, the costs of special treatment may constitute a heavy
load on the economics of the project, especially in the offshore gas
development projects.

Almost all the Libyan natural gas reservoirs are contaminated by Carbon
Dioxide, Nitrogen, and Hydrogen sulfide in varying amounts. Other types of
impurities are rare occurrences, and (usually) with negligible concentrations.

Typical Libyan gases containing impurities are illustrated in TABLE 1.5 . As can
be seen from the table, the Carbon Dioxide ( C02 ), and Hydrogen Sulfide (
H 2 S) can be considered the major (and consequently the most troublesome)
impurity constituents in the Libyan gas production and treatment practices.

It is very hard to set up a general guideline to "tolerable" concentrations of each


of the above impurities, since this will depend on the specific use of the gas,
the market place safety regulations, the Btu rating, the pressure base of the gas
measurements, etc. However, in general, the industrial use of natural gas in
most industrialized countries requires ttw concentration of water vapor to be
less than (6) pounds per million standard cubic feet of gas, and the hydrogen
sulfide content to be less than 1000 grains per million scf of gas .

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TABLE 1.5
Examples of some Libyan Gas Fields
containing high percentages of impurities

COMPONENTS COMPOSITION ( mole % )

Examole- H* Examole - I** Examole-J***

Methane 72.130 70.15 13.9


Ethane 4.290 4.66 1.5
Propane 2.150 2.11 1.1
(lso. +N) Butane 1.237 1.11 0.8
(lso. +N) Pentane 0.587 0.54 0.3
Hexane 0.498 0.35 0.2
Heptanes plus 2.293 1.20 5.5

Carbon Dioxide 12.204 13.58 65.8


Hydrogen Sulfide 1.702 0.12 0.6
Nitrogen 2.909 6.18 10.3
-
100.000 100.00 100.00

* Example - H : NC 41 - C2 , Metlaoui formation , offshore Tripoli , Libya


** Example - I : NC 41 - C1 , Reinche formation , offshore Tripoli , Libya

*** Example - J : NC 41 - D ,offshore Tripoli , Libya

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I Natural Gas Rese"YVoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

Water vapor. Carbon dioxide. and Hydrogen sulfide are normally present in
varying amounts in all natural gas reservoirs. All three impurities can cause
serious problems in the production of the wells. in the operation of the surface
facilities. and in the transportation and marketing of the natural gas. This
special treatment normally constitutes a heavy load on the initial investment
required for the field development; as well as, on the operating costs. In brief, .
the main production problems caused by these three types of impurities can be
summarized as follows :

Effect of Water Vapor

Every natural gas reservoir has a certain initial liquid-water saturation which is
determined by the geologic environment. In addition, the gas phase will always
contain a certain amount of water vapors. Even if only the single gas phase is
produced, the reduction of pressure and temperature in the well bore, in the
flow lines, and in the surface facilities will result in the condensation of the
water vapors to form a free water phase .

The presence of liquid water in communication with Carbon dioxide and/or


hydrogen sulfide will result in severe corrosion of the equipment due to the
formation of acids. In addition, the condensation of water in the flow lines will
reduce the area available for the gas flow, which increases the pressure drop in
the line, and consequently, the Horse Power requirements. In addition to that, a
serious problem will appear when the temperature of the natural gas falls below
a certain temperature limit, which allows the liquid water molecules and the gas
molecules to combine and form a solid phase known as " Hydrates". The
conditions necessary for the formation of Hydrates will be discussed in more
detail in Chapter-3.

Effect of Hydrogen Sulfide , H2S

The hydrogen sulfide is present in all natural gas reservoirs in concentrations


ranging from a trace to as high as 25%. The presence of hydrogen sulfide
represents one of the main problems to the production engineer, since the
hydrogen sulfide will combine with water to produce corrosive acids .

Hydrogen sulfide also constitutes a severe health and environmental problem.


The flaring of natural gas containing Hydrogen sulfide will result in sulfur dioxide

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INatural Gas Reservoir Engi.neering Dr. A. A. Urayet

which is very toxic. Extensive gas treatment is, especially, required if the flaring
center is in the proximity of inhabited areas.

Effect of Carbon Dioxide . C02

The effect of carbon dioxide is not as critical as the hydrogen sulfide, mainly,
because it does not constitute an environmental problem. The main production
problem associated with the presence of carbon dioxide in natural gases is the
formation of corrosive acids in the presence of water. Another problem would
be the lowering of the heat content of the natural gas, consequently, requiring
special treatment before marketing .

Finally, from Reservoir Engineering point of view, it is important to remember


that the presence of impurities (especially at high percentages) greatly affects
the physical properties of the natural gas, especially the viscosity and
compressibility, (as will be discussed in chapter-2). Neglect of the effect of
impurities in any Reservoir or Production Engineering calculations will always
result in erroneous evaluation of the fluid properties, leading, of course, to
improper reservoir analysis, production and development.

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INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

Chapter 2

GAS DEVIATION FACTOR

The most important gas properties are primarily determined by the Gas
Composition, Pressure, and Temperature. Prior to introducing the different
techniques of evaluating these properties, it is necessary to know understand
the basic gas laws governing ideal single-component gases, and to learn how
to account for the deviation of the Hydrocarbon natural gas performance from
these laws.

2.1 DEFINITIONS AND TERMINOLOGY

Prior to discussing the different fundamental gas laws, and the techniques used
in the evaluation of the different physical properties of natural gases, it is
important to introduce the following important definitions:

Critical Pressure . Pc , and . Citica1 Temperature . Tc

The critical pressure, Pc. and the critical temperature, Tc. for a single
component gas are defined as the Pressure and the Temperature at the Critical
Point (i.e. the point at which the intensive properties of the gas and liquid
phases are identical). In simple terms, the critical temperature, Tc. can be
defined as the temperature above which the gas CANNOT be liquified,
regardless of the pressure exerted on the svstem. Whereas, the critical
pressure, Pc. is defined as the pressure at which the gas phase will be in
equilibrium with the liquid phase when the system is at the critical temperatrure.
The critical values for the more common hydrocarbon components of natural
gases and the impurities normally associated with them are given in Appendix-
A, Table1 .1.

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Pseudo-Critical Pressure. Ppc, and,Pseudo-Critical Temperature. Tpc_

The Pseudo-Critical Pressure, Ppc. and the Pseudo-Critical Temperature, Tpc.


for any hydrocarbon mixture are defined and calculated as follows :

and, Eqs (2.1)

where,

n =number of components
x; = mole fraction of the i-th component
Pei= critical pressure of the i-th component, and
Tc;= critical temperature of the i-th component

Pseudo-Reduced Pressure, P,, and, Pseudo-Reduced Temperature, T,

The Pseudo-Reduced Pressure, Pr, and the Pseudo-Reduced Temperature,


Tr, for a pure natural gas system are defined and calculated as follows:

and, T. =_I_
r T
Pc
Eqs (2.2)
I
where, P and T are the Pressure and the Temperature of the gas system
respectively.

The Law of Corresponding States

The Law of Corresponding States expresses that "All PURE gases have the
same characteristics at the same values of reduced pressure and reduced
temperature". By characteristics, it is meant the physical properties such as
deviation factor, density, and viscosity. This Law has proven to be a very
powerful tool in the analysis of the behavior (and the evaluation of the physical
properties) of gases in general, and natural gas systems in particular.

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Different investigators have shown that this law applies very effectively for any
gas mixture. as long as the gas components have similar molecular
characteristics O.e. if the components are closely related chemically).
Consequently, this law is expected to apply very effectively for pure hydro-
carbon gases since they are all of the paraffin group. However, deviations will
occur with increasing percentage of impurities (since they have a different
molecular and chemical structures). The degree of deviation will depend on the
type of impurity component in the natural gas; with the highest deviations
occuring in the case of Hydrogen Sulfide (H 2 S), lesser deviations in the case of
Nitrogen (N 2 ), and the least deviations would be in the case of Carbon Dioxide
(C02).

Extensive Properties

These are the physical properties which are dependent on the quantity of gas
available, such as Volume (V), and, mass (m), and,

Intensive Properties

These are the physical properties that are independent of the quantity of gas,
such as density, specific gravity, viscosity, and, gas compressibility. These are
the properties which are basically of interest to the reservoir engineer.

Equation of State

The "Equation of State. EOS " can be defined as an equation which relates the
three fundamental thermodynamic properties of any gas system, namely,
Volume (V), Pressure (P), and, Temperature (T).

An "Ideal Gas" is defined as a gas which has the following characteristics:

1) the total volume of the gas molecules is considered negligible with respect
to the volume occupied by the gas, (i.e. the volume of the container),

2) there are no attractive or repulsive forces between the gas molecules, nor,
between the gas molecules and the container, and,

3) all collisions between the molecules are perfectly elastic.

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Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

Combining the three fundamental gas laws which govern ideal gas behavior,
namely, Boyles Law, Charles and Gay Lussac Law, and Avogadro Principle,
the Equation of State for an Ideal Gas can be written in the following form:

IPV=nRT Eq (2.3) I
where,
n =the number of pound (lb) moles of gas present in a Volume, V,
P = Pressure of the system, psia,
T =Temperature of the system, degrees Rankin, and,
R = the Universal Gas Constant, R = 10.72 lb.;ole , (English system)
in .0 R

Example 2.1

3
The volume of a vessel containing 5 lbs of methane is 2 ft . Assuming ideal gas
behavior, calculate:

a - the pressure of the gas system, if the temperature is maintained at 50 C,

b - the gas volume at standard conditions.

Solution

m 5
n = number of lb-moles = - = = 0.31166 lb-moles
M 16.043

a) T F = 32 + 2_(T 0
C) = 32 + 2_(50) = 122 F
5 5

PV= nRT

- nRT _ 0.31166(10.72)(122 + 460) _ .


P- - - 972 .23 psta
v 2.0

b) At standard conditions, P = 14. 7 psia, and T =60 F


PV =nRT or, V = nRT = (0.31166)(10.72)(60 + 460) =118.18 scf
p 14.7

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Equation Of State for Natural Gases

At the standard pressure of 14.7 psia, and standard temperature of 60 F, the


form of Eq (2.3) can be used with negligible error for any gas system, since the
assumptions regarding the definition of Ideal gas are generally met.

However, the ideal-gas law is completely inadequate to describe the behaviour


of natural gases at the high reservoir. or even separator, pressures and
temperatures, since at such conditions the molecules would be nearer to each
other and consequently the volume of the molecules and the effect of the
attractive forces cannot be considered Negligible. Also, the high gas
temperatures would result in higher kinetic energy which would result in more
frequent collisions.

Numerous forms of the EOS have been developed to describe the natural gas
behavior. Some of the best known forms are:

The Beattie-Bridgeman Equation

this equation is best suited for single component gases, and consequently its
use should be restricted to Dry natural gases composed mainly of Methane.
The equation contains five constants which have been determined empirically
from laboratory measurements.

The Benedict-Webb-Rubin Equation, (RF-2.1)

this equation is considered, currently, as one of the best and most suitable
forms of the Equation of State describing the Pure (i.e. less than 2 mole %
impurity) Dry, Wet and Lean Condensate-Bearing natural gases (LR<50) over
the single and two phase regions. The BWR equation contains eight constants
which have been determined semi-empirically. The BWR Equation have been
tested by comparison of computed to experimental behavior of different gas
samples world-wide, and was proven to be very accurate in describing natural
gas behavior for all ranges of pressures, temperatures, and. compositions.
However. corrections must be introduced in case of gases containing high
heptane plus and/or impurity content.

The Avasthi-Kennedy Equation. (RF-2.2)

this correlation is considered as one of the most adequate and comprehensive


equations of state for all types of natural hydrocarbon gases, including those
which contain a high percentage ( >30%) of impurities. The equation contains
21 constants which have been determined from experimental data of 264
natural gas and condensate systems. In addition to its accuracy for all normal

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reservoir pressure and temperature ranges, the main advantages of this


equation is that its use is a direct procedure (i.e. does not require trial and error
procedure), and it can be differentiated easily to obtain the gas compressibility.

2.2 GAS DEVIATION FACTOR

In the field of Petroleum Engineering, a much simpler method is used to


account for the deviation of natural gas behavior from the Ideal Gas Law. This
is achieved by introducing One single factor to correct for all the different
sources of deviation; whether the deviation is due to the high pressure and
temperature of the system, or to the presence of more than one hydrocarbon
component, or due to presence of non-hydrocarbon components (i.e.
impurities). This factor which is termed the "Gas Deviation Factor, z", is
included into the Equation of State for an ideal gas, Eq (2.3), as follows:

I PV =znRT Eq (2.4)
I
The term "Gas Deviation Factor" will be used through out these notes, even
though many technical people in the industry use the term "Gas Compressibility
Factor" to signify the same factor, z. Our choice is made mainly to avoid
confusion in terms, since the term "Compressibility factor, C", is used in all
branches of science and engineering to signify the relative change in volume
with respect to the change in pressure and/or temperature.

2.2.1 Deviation Factors for Single Component System

The Deviation Factors for different single hydrocarbon component gases were
determined experimentally, and, then plotted and correlated as a function of
pressure, P, and Temperature, T. These correlations are found in all Reservoir
Engineering books. The characteristic shape of the z-factor correlation is
illustrated in Figure (2.1) for Methane. This figure clearly indicate the following
important features:

The z -factor will decrease in value with increasing Pressure until a certain
minimum is reached, then the z-factor will start increasing afterwards with
any increase in pressure, (i.e. dzldp becomes positive).

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Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

1.20
Methane

1.10

1.00

le
0.9

0.8
..
....0u
.!': 0.7
c
0
;;
"'
;; 0.6
<1>
-0
....
"'
(.'.)

0.5

0.4

0.3

-40
0.2 -22
-""'-I--\- - 4 -+------1----~---+---f
68 32
140 104
0.1 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000
0 500 1000 1500 Pressure psi a
Pressure pounds per square inch absolute

Fig. 2_.I Gas deviation factor for methane

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j Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

The minimum value for the z-factor is dependent on the Temperature


isotherm value (lower minimum value of z, for lower Temperature, as seen
from Fig 2.1 ). Note that the minimum value of z will be lower for heavier
gases (such as Ethane).

It is noted that beyond a certain Pressure range (usually between 5000-


7000 psia), the deviation factor, z, of the lower-Temperature isotherm will
start having higher values than the deviation factor, z, of the higher-
temperature isotherms.

2.2.2 Deviation Factors for Pure Natural Gases

Even though laboratory measurements are the most accurate method for
determining the z-factor for any gas mixture, however, the extensive effort and
time, and the sophisticated measuring devices required, have encouraged the
trend toward developing semi-empirical techniques in order to evaluate the z-
factor of any gas mixture.

Standing I Katz Correlation

The determination of the Deviation Factor for a PURE (i.e. negligible


percentage of impurities) multi-component natural gas can be achieved, to a
high degree of accuracy, by employing the concept of Pseudo-Reduced
Pressure and Pseudo-Reduced Temperature. The Deviation Factors were
determined experimentally for a large number of natural gases and were
correlated as a function of Pr, and Tr, in line with the principle of Corresponding
States. The results were presented in the "Standing I Katz z-factor charts"
shown in Appendix-A I Figure 2.1.

These extended charts cover the normal range of Field Pressures and
Temperatures. Linear extrapolation of these curves beyond (Pr= 24) can be
applied with minimum error.

Consequently, in order to calculate the z-factor for any pure natural gas system
at a certain pressure and temperature, the following procedure can be applied :

1- Read from Appendix-A I Table 1.1 the critical values of pressure and
temperature for each component,

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I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

2- Use the chemical analysis of the gas mixture to calculate Ppc, and Tpc for
the gas, using Eqs (2.1 ),

3- Calculate Pr, and Tr, of the gas system, using Eqs (2.2),

4- Use the Standing I Katz charts, Appendix-A I Fig (2.1) to read the value of
the z-factor corresponding to the calculated Pr and Tr values;

The proper procedure for the use of Standing I Katz charts to calculate the Gas
Deviation Factor is illustrated in Example Problem 2.2.

It is important to note that the accuracy of the above procedure, (which is


developed for pure gases) can still be maintained, even in the case of gases
contaminated by SMALL concentrations of C02 and N2 (less than 2%
maximum for each), and by smaller concentrations of H2S (less than 1%),
provided that these components are included in the calculation of the Pseudo-
Critical Pressure and Temperature. Different investigators have shown that
further corrections must be introduced if higher percentages of impurities are
present in the gas mixture (Reference 2.3).

Example 2.2

The chemical composition of the gas produced from Braeburn field in Canada is
given in the attached Table (columns 1 and 2). Calculate the gas deviation
factor, z, for the following conditions:

a - P = 3000 psia , and T = 230 F


b- P = 1000 psia , and T = 150 F
Assume that x (iso-C4) = 0, and x(iso-C5 ) = 0

Solution:

1. Read the values of Pc and Tc for each component from Appendix-A I


Tablet. 1, and enter into columns 3 and 4.

2. Calculate (x; . Pei) and (x; . Tci) for each component as shown in columns 5
and 6.

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3. Calculate:
n n
PPc = L:XiPc; = 677.32 ,and, TpC = LXi.Tc.I =350.62
i=l i=l

4. Calculate Pr and Tr as follows :

Case-a Case-b

P, = _!...._ = 3000 = 4.429 Pr = _!__ = 1000 = 1..476


r PPc 677.32 PPc 677.32

Tr = _!_ = 230 + 460 = 1.97 Tr=_!_= 150+460 =1.74


TPc 350.62 TPc 350.62

Using Standing and Katz charls, Appendix-A I Fig 2. 1, read:

z = 0.94 z =0.92

Calculation of pseudo-critical constants

( 1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)

components composition Pei Tei X;. Pei X;. Tei


x;( mole%) ( psia) (o R)

Methane 96.39 667.8 343.37 643.69 330.97


Ethane 0.75 707.8 550.09 5.31 4.13
Propane 0.11 616.3 666.01 0.68 0.73
(lso.+N) Butane 0.03 550.7 765.65 0.17 0.23
(lso.+N) Pentane 0.10 488.6 845.70 0.49 0.85

Carbon Dioxide 0.97 1071.0 547.90 10.39 5.32


Hydrogen Sulfide 1.04 1306.0 672.70 13.58 7.00
Nitrogen 0.61 493.0 227.60 3.01 1.39

I 100.00 677.32 350.62

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Brill and Beggs z-factor Correlation

I
Different investigators have tried to represent the Standing/Katz z-factor charts
mathematically for computer use. However, most of the available mathematical
expressions would require the solution of a system of Non-Linear equations
numerically such as the "Hall-Yarborough correlation" and the "Dranchuk,
Purvis and Robinson" correlation. One of the simplest and most practical
expressions available in literature for the evaluation of the z-factor is the Brill
and Beggs Correlation which has the following form:

1-A D
z=A+--+c.Pr Eq (2.5)
eB
where,

A= 1.39(T,. - 0.92)o.s - 0.36T,. -0.101


6
_ 0.066 . .2 0.32Pr
B-(0.62-0.23Tr)Pr +(T _ -0.037)Pr + . ( 9 T. _ 9)
r 0.86 10 r
C = (0.132- 0.32 log T,.) \\

D = Anti log( 0.3106 - 0.49 T,. + 0.1824 T,.2 )

The Brill and Beggs correlation is within the accuracy requirements for all
practical Reservoir Engineering problems. They are most accurate in the range
1.2 < Tr < 2.4 , and Pr < 13.

The proper procedure for the use of the Brill and Beggs correlation to calculate
the Gas Deviation Factor is illustrated in Example Problem 2.3.

Example 2.3

Use the data given in Example 2.2 (part-a) to calculate the z-factor using the
Brill and Beggs z-factor correlation

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Solution

The pseudo-reduced values, Pr and Tr (calculated in Example 2.2) are:

Pr = _!__ = 3000 = 4.429


PPc 677.32
Tr = _.!__ = 230 + 460 = 1. 97
TPc 350.62

Consequently,
05
A= l.39(Tr - 0.92) - 0.36Tr -0.101
A= 1.39(1.97 -0.92) 0 5 - 0.36(1.97)- 0.101=0.614126

6
- 0.037)P} + OC~;~ 9)
66
B = (0.62 - 0.23Tr )Pr + ( 0.0
Tr -0.86 10 r
6
- 0.03 7)(4.429) + 0. ~~;:;~?
66 2 3
B = (0.62 - 0.23xl .97)(4.429) + ( 0.0
1.97 - 0.86 10 . -

B =1.1707703

C = (0.132- 0.32 IogTr)


C = 0.132 - 0.32 log(l .97) = 0.03777081

2
D = Antilog(0.3106-0.49Tr + 0.1824Tr )
D = Anti log(0.3106 - 0.49(1.97) + 0.1824(1.97) 2 ) = 1.1302543

Consequently ,

1-A D
z =A+ B +c.Pr
e

= 0.614126 + l :1;~9\~~; + 0.03777081( 4.429)1.1


6 302543
z

z = 0.9358

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2.2.3 Gas Deviation Factor I Effect of Impurities

The presence of impurities (such as C02, N2, H2 S, etc.) in Natural Gases


affects the values of the gas Deviation Factor. The magnitude of change in the
value of z depends on the type and mole percent of the impurity.

Two approaches have been suggested in the literature for including the effect
of the impurities in the calculation of the Deviation Factor. These two
approaches can be termed the "Additive z-factor method", and the "modified Pc
and Tc method". These two approaches can be summarized as follows:

The Additive z-factor Method

In this method the Deviation factor is considered to be equal to the arithmetic


sum of the individual z-factors of the different components, each weighted
according to its mole percentage in the gas mixture. Thus, the Deviation Factor
of a natural gas can be represented by the following equation:

Eq (2.6)

where,
Xhydr = sum of the mole fractions of the hydrocarbon components

xco2, Xtt2s , and xN2 =mole fractions of the different impurities, and,
zco2, ZH2s, and ZN2 =deviation factors of the different impurities.
It is important here to note that the Deviation Factor for the hydrocarbon
components, Zhydr, should be calculated as if only hydrocarbons are present in
the system. In other words the Tpc and Ppc used in Eq 2.5 (or entered to the
Standing I Katz charts) to evaluate zhydr should be calculated as follows:

Ppc =I Pei Yi and


where,
xi(hydr)
Yi= Eqs (2.7)
LXi(hydr)

AAU/GAS/GAS2.doc 13
-----------------------.-------""' -,,,,,,,,, __ ----
,,,,_,_, ,,,.

j Natural Gas Rese~oir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

It has been suggested to use certain eccentric factors to be multiplied by the z-


factors of the different impurities to obtain more accurate estimate of the
Natural Gas Deviation Factor. However, such accuracy is rarely required for
Reservoir Engineering calculations. Different investigators have demonstrated
that Eq (2.6) will have an error less than 0.1 % for a Nitrogen mole percent of
10%. Similar demonstrations have been made for C02 and H2 S.

The Modified Pc and Tc method

In this method the calculated value of Ppc and Tpc are modified, and then the
(~ new values of Pr and Tr calculated on this basis are entered to the Standing I
Katz charts or Brill and Beggs correlation, Eq 2.5, to evaluate the Deviation
Factor. It is important to note that the modified values have NO physical
significance, and should only be understood as a mathematical correction to
the Katz charts.

One of the simplest (and yet very accurate ) methods available in literature for
the modification of Ppc and Tpc was presented by Wichert and Aziz, (RF-2.6).
In this method, the modified pseudo-critical properties can be calculated as
follows:

' =T -&
Tpc pc------. ---
'
, PP .TP
p = c c Eqs (2.8)
Pc TPc + B(l - B)&

where,

Tpc and Ppc are the critical temperature and pressure for the gas mixture
including the impurities, and,

A = Sum of the mole fractions of Hydrogen Sulfide and Carbon Dioxide

B = mole fraction of the Hydrogen Sulfide in the gas mixture= X (H2S)

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Dr. A. A. Urayet
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering

Note : Quick estimate of (8) can be obtained from the graphical form of the
correlation given in Appendix-A I Fig (2.2) .

The Wichert and Aziz correlation should prove very useful in the analysis of
Libyan gas reservoirs. The correlation has an average absolute error of 0.97%
(for P < 7026 psia, and T < 300 F) for the range of data used in the
development of the correlation which included C02 concentrations as high as
54.4 %, and H2 S concentrations as high as 73.8 %.

There are many other correlations available in the literature, however, most of
them require a trial and error procedure, and consequently, make them fit for
computer use mainly .

The proper procedure for the use of the Wichert and Aziz correlation to
calculate the Gasoeviation Factor is illustrated in Example Problem 2.4.

Example 2.4

Use the data given in Example 2.2 (parl-a) to calculate the z-factor using the
modified Pc and Tc method, (Wichert and Aziz correlation).

Solution:
the modified Pc - Tc method

A= X (H2S) + X ( C02) =(1.04+0.97)% =0.0201


i e B =X (H2S) =0.0104
s = 120(A 0 9 -Al. 6)+15(Bo.s -B 4 )
4
=120(0.0201 9 -0.02011. 6 )+15(0.0104 5 - 0.0104 ) = 4.8633

TPc = TPc - e = 350.62-4.86 = 345.76


I

I pp .Tp (677.32)(345.76) = 667.84


p = c c
Pc TPc + B(l - B)s 350.62+0.0104(1- 0.0104)( 4.8633)

and, consequently ,

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Tr =_I__= 230+460=1. 996


TPc 345.76
Pr = _!_ = 3000 = 4.492
PPc 667.84

Substitution of the modified Pr and Tr in the Brill and Beggs correlation, (as
=
illustrated in Example 2.3) will give a value of ( z 0.9432 ), as compared to the
=
value of (z 0.9358) obtained by using the Brill and Beggs correlation directly
(without any modifications for impurities) in Example 2.3. The very small
difference in the results clearly proves that Brill and Beggs correlation can be
used with very small error for any natural gas with Low concentrations of C02 L
or Hz..S.

2.2.4 Gas Deviation Factor I Practical Aspects

Treatment of the heavier hydrocarbon components

The composition of a Natural Gas is reported, normally, in a form similar to that


shown in Tables 1.1-1.5 (Chapter-1 ). It is important to note that the mole
percentage of all the heavier components (i.e. C7 +, or C9+ or sometimes
C13+) is normally reported as one single value. In such cases, the molecular
weight and the specific gravity of this group of components should be reported.
These two properties have been correlated in literature with (Pc) and (Tc) as

/- shown in Appendix-A I Fig 2.3. And, consequently, the heavier components can
now be included in the normal procedure of calculating (Pr) and (Tr) which
would be introduced to the Standing/Katz charts to calculate the z-factor.

Another method preferred by many reservoir engineers is to use the physical


properties of Octane ( C8H 18 ) for the C7+ fraction, properties of ( C10H22) for
the C9+ fraction, etc. This should always give good results for Dry and Wet
gases.

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Unavailability of the gas chemical composition

In many instances the accurate chemical composition of the natural gas might
not be available. This normally occurs when field calculations are required at
the early life of the field (to make preliminary estimates of the gas in place and
recoverable reserves). In this case the specific gas gravity can be used to esti-
mate the values of (Pc) and (Tc) for the gas system from the available charts
shown in Appendix-A I Fig (2.4).

Sutton R.P. presented the following relationships for the calculation of the
pseudocritical properties using the specific gravity of the natural gas:

Ppc =756.8-131.0(yg)-3.6(yg) 2 + {y.J..lzs. +'+.'LG Xc 6 z.- lt- X1\J2


and,

This simple correlation should be corrected using the correction graphs given in
Appendix-A I Fig 2.4 to account for impurities.

The proper procedure for the application of these practical techniques to


calculate the Gas Deviation Factor is illustrated in Example Problem 2.5.

*Effect of water vapor


Finally, the gas laboratory analysis is usually run after the gas sample has been
dried. Consequently, the water vapor content is not reported. However, different
investigators have concluded that the Deviation Factors calculated by the
previous techniques are little affected by the water vapor content, and
consequently no corrections are required for normal Reservoir and Well
Productivity calculations.

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Problem 2. 5.

The chemical composition of a Libyan gas is given in columns 1 and 2 of the


accompanying table. The following data is also available:

reservoir pressure = 2852 psia


reservoir temperature = 227F
specific gravity of the reservoir gas =0.688
molecular weight of C 7 + = 100.1
specific gravity of C1 + = 0.80

Calculate the gas deviation factor. Use the pseudo-critical constants evaluated
from:
a) the individual Pci and Tc; ,
b) the Sutton correlation

Solution:

a) using individual Pei and Tei

1) enter with the molecular weight and specific gravity of C7 + to Fig 2.3
(Appendix-A), and read Pc; (C1 +) = 1040 psia, and Te; (C1 +) = 505 R

2) Read from Table 1. 1 (Appendix A) the values of P ci and Tc; for the individual
components, and enter into columns 3and 4

3) calculate x; .Pc; and x;. Te; as shown in columns 5 and 6

n
4) calculate PPc = L,xi.Pq =680.7 psia
i=I

5) enter with the values of C0 2 and H 2 S mole percentages to the Wichert and
Aziz graph, Fig 2.2 (Appendix-A), and read 5 - 6

6) use Wichert and Aziz correlation, Eqs (2.8), to correct Ppc and Tpc as follows:

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\ Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet I

TPc = TPc - 8 = 382.3 - 6 = 376.3


I

p' = PPc .TPc _ (680.7)(376.3) =


67 0.0l
Pc TPc +B(l-B)& 382.3+0.001(1-0.001)(6)

7) calculate : Tr=_!__= 227+460=1.826


TPc 376.3

and, P. = _.!!__ = 2852 = 4.26


r PPc 670

e 8) finally, enter with the values of Pr and Tr to the Standing I Katz correlation,
Fig 2. 1 (Appendix-A), and read z =0.905

b) using Sutton correlation

1) substitute the value of y g = 0.688 into the Sutton correlation, Eqs.(2.9), as


follows:

Ppc = 756.8-131.0(yg )-3.6(yg) 2

= 756.8-131.0(0.688)-3.6(0.688) 2 = 665

and,

Tpc = 169.2 + 349.5(yg)-74.0(yg) 2

= 169.2 + 349.5(0.688)- 74(0.688) 2 = 374.6

2) use the appropriate correction charts in Fig 2.4 (Appendix-A) to read:

pseudo-temperature correction for C0 2 = - 3 F


pseudo-temperature correction for N 2 0=
pseudo-temperature correction for H 2 S = 0

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pseudo-pressure correction for C02 = + 14 psi


pseudo-pressure correction for N2 =O
pseudo-pressure correction for H2S =O

3) consequently, Tpc = 374.6-3 = 371.6 R


and, Ppc = 665+14=679 psia

4) claculate : Tr =_I_= 227 + 460 =I.SS


TPc 371.6

and, P. = _!___ = 2852 = 4.2


r PPc 679

5) finally, enter with the values of Pr and Tr to the Standing I Katz correlation,
Fig 2.1 (Appendix-A), and read z =0.908

Calculation of pseudo-critical constants (Example 2.5)

(2) (3) (4) ( 5) (6)


( 1)

components composition Pei Tei Xi. Pei Xi. Tei


x;( mole%) ( psia) (o R)

Methane 85.83 667.8 343.37 573.17 294.71


Ethane 5.16 707.8 550.09 36.52 28.38
Propane 2.32 616.3 666.01 14.30 15.45
n- Butane 1.38 550.7 765.65 7.60 10.57
n- Pentane 0.57 488.6 845.70 2.79 4.82
Hexane 0.29 436.9 913.70 1.27 2.65
Heptanes + 0.35 505.0 1040.00 1.77 3.64
Carbon Dioxide 3.85 1071.0 547.90 41.23 21.09
Hydrogen Sulfide 0.10 1306.0 672.70 1.31 0.67
Nitrogen 0.15 493.0 227.60 0.74 0.34

100.00 680.7 382.32


I

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REFERENCES

RF-2.1 "Predicting Phase and Thermodynamic Properties of Natural


Gases with the Benedict-Webb-Rubin Equation of State",
Gas Technology, SPE Reprint series , No 13 , vol.1

RF-2.2 "The Prediction of Volumes, Compressibilities, and


Thermal Expansion Coefficients of Hydrocarbon Mixtures",
Avasthi and Kennedy
SPEJ, June 1968 (95)

RF-2.3 "Volumetric Behavior of Natural Gases Containing


Hydrogen Sulfide and Carbon Dioxide'',
Macry Georgos and Govier
Gas Technology, SPE Reprint series , No 13 , vol. 1

RF-2.4 "A New Equation of State for z-factor Correlations",


Yarborough and Hall
Gas Technology, SPE Reprint series, No 13, vol. 1

RF-2.5 " How to Solve Equation of State for z-factor'',


Yarborough and Hall
Gas Technology, SPE Reprint series , No 13 , vol. 1

RF-2.6 "Calculate Z's for Sour Gases'',


Wichert E. and Aziz K.
Hydr.Proc., May 1972, (119-122)

RF-2.7 "Compressibility Factor for High-Molecular-Weight


Reservoir Gases",
Sutton , R.P. , paper SPE 14265
( 1985 SPE Annual) , Las Vegas , Sept. 22-25

RF-2.8 "Compressibility of Natural Gases'',


Albert Trube
Petroleum Transactions, AIME, vol. 20, 1954,(264)

RF-2.9 "Viscosity of Hydrocarbon Gases under Pressure"


by Carr , Kobayashi , and Burrows
Petroleum Transactions, AIME, Vol. 201 , 1954, (264)

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RF-2.10 "The Viscosity of Non-Polar Gases at Normal Pressure"


by Stiel L., and Thodos G.
AIChE Jour. 1961 , 7 ,(611)

RF-2.11 "Calculation of the Viscosity of Technical Gas Mixtures from


the Viscosity of the Individual Gases"
by Heming F.,and Zipperer L.
Gas and Waserfoch , 1936 , 79 , 49

RF-2.12 "The Viscosity of Natural Gases"


by Lee A., Gonzalez M., and Eakin B.
Journal of Petroleum Technology, Aug. 1966, (997)

RF-2.13 "The properties of Petroleum Fluids"


2nd edition , Penn Well Books ,
Tulsa (1989) 120,175,214,318,513,525-28

RF-2.14 "An hnproved Method for the Determination of the


Reservoir-Gas Specific Gravity for Retrograde Gases"
Gold,D.K., McCain, W.D.Jr., and Jennings ,J.W.
JPT (July 1989) 747-52, Trans. AIME, 278

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Chapter 3

NATURAL-GAS PHYSICAL PROPERTIES


(RELATED TO RESERVOIR ENGINEERING)

As has been mentioned in previous chapters, the most important gas


characteristics are determined primarily by the Gas Composition, Pressure, and,
Temperature. New, easy to use, and improved correlations for the evaluation of
different natural-gas properties are being introduced continuously in the
literature. The accuracy of any reservoir or production engineering calcu~ations
will be primarily affected by the accuracy of calculating these properties:.

Even though there are numerous gas properties which are of importance in the
industrial use of natural gases, such as thermal conductivity, enthalpy, entropy,
gasoline content, etc.; however, in this section, only the physical properties which
are related to Reservoir Engineering will be considered; namely, the Gas
Formation Volume Factor (Bg ), the Gas Compressibility (Cg), the Gas Viscosity
(ug), the Water Content of natural gases, and the Hydrate-formation conditions.

3.1 GAS FORMATION VOLUME FACTOR

The Formation Volume Factor, Bg , is not an independent gas property, it is


merely an expression of the relationship between the volume of a certain amount
of gas (say n-lb moles) under reservoir conditions, Vr, and the volume of the
same amount under standard conditions, Vs. Consequently, the Gas Formation
Volume Factor is expressed as follows:

B . Vr - 0.0282 zT (ft3) , or, Eq (3.1)


g V:S P scf
B = Vs = 35.35_!_(scf) Eq (3.2)
g Vr zT ft3

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Example 3.1

The following data is available for a newly discovered natural gas reservoir

3
Gas Initially In Place , GllP = 17. 53 Billion ft
reservoir pressure = 3320 psia
reservoir temperature = 195 F
gas specific gravity = 0.75

a - calculate the gas formation volume factor


b - calculate the GllP in scf

Solutlon

- since the gas composition is not available, the gas specific gravity can be used
to calculate the pseudo-critical properties.

Enter Fig 2.4 (Appendix-A) with the value of r g =O. 75, and read,Ppc =665 psia, .

and Tpc =410 R '

- calculate
P. =~ = 3320 = 4.99 and, T, =_I_= 195+460=1.60
r ppc 665 I
Tpc 410

- enter with the calculated values of Pr and Tr to the Standing/Katz charts, Fig
2.1 (Appendix-A), and read z 0.845 =
a) substitute into Eq (3.2) as follows:
B = 35.35~ scf
g zT ft3

B = 35.35. (332 0) = 212.046 scf


g (0.845)(195 + 460) jt 3

b) calculate Gl/P (set) =GllP (ft3 ) x Bg (.scf


-)
3
ft
9
= 17.53 x 10 x 212.046
= 3717.2 B set

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3.2 ISOTHERMAL COMPRESSIBILITY

The "coefficient of compressibility " which represents the ability of the substance
to be compressed is a complex function of the chemical composition and
. physical properties of the substance. This coefficient is Highly pressure-sensitive
in the case of gases, Less pressure:-sensitive in the case of liquids with gas in
solution such as oil, Even Less pressure-sensitive in the case of non-
hydrocarbon liquids (such as water), and is, practically, Insensitive to pressure
variations in the case of solids.

The " Isothermal Compressibility " can be defined as the "relative" change in the
volume of a substance due to the change in pressure imposed on the system,
when the Temperature is constant. Using this definition, the Isothermal
Compressibility, "c", for any substance can be written as follows:

lc=-_!_.dV
V dP
Eq (3.3) I
This equation is combined to the Real-Gas law (Eq 2.4) to derive an expression
for the Coefficient of Isothermal Compressibility for natural gases (normally
abbreviated as "Gas Compressibility') as follows:

c = _ _!__ dV = _ P _!!:_(znRT)
g V dP znRT dP P

c =- P .nRT.-(-)=--
d z P( z(-)+-.-
-1 1 dz)
g znRT dP P z p2 P dP

and,

Eq (3.4) I
If the Z vs. P plot has already been developed by the engineer for a certain gas
reservoir, then Eq 3.4 can be used effectively to calculate the gas
compressibility.

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,,... -
(
Inspection of Eq 3.4 clearly indicates that :

the units of the coefficient of isothermal compressibility is 1/psia.

for an Ideal gas the value of (z) is constant and is equal to 1; consequently,
the coefficient of iso-thermal compressibility is inversely proportional to the
pressure, (Le. Cg =1 IP).

for natural gases, the gas compressibility could be higher or lower than the
"ideal" gas compressibility depending on the pressure of the system; that is,
at low pressures, the term dz/dP is negative and consequently, Cg > 1/P,
whereas at high pressures, dzldP is positive, and consequently, Cg < 1/P.

Direct substitution of Pr =P/Ppc (i.e. P =Ppc.Pr) into Eq (3.4) would result in the
following expression:

IC g =
1 - .1( - -1-dz
Ppc Pr z dPr
-) Eq (3.5) I
where Ppc is the pseudo-critical pressure of the gas.

Calculating the Gas Compressibility

There are different numerical approaches to the evaluation of the isothermal gas
compressibility. One of the simplest and more accurate involves the concept of
Pseudo-Reduced Compressibility, c,, which was defined by Trube (RF-3.1) as
follows:

or, Eq (3.6) I
Combining Eqs 3.5 and 3.6, the following expression is obtained,

Eq (3.7) I
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3.3 VISCOSITY OF NATURAL GASES

The viscosity of a fluid, in general, represents the resistance of that fluid to flow.
It is a character of the fluid and is independent of the media in which the fluid is
flowing. More specifically, the Dynamic Viscosity of a fluid represents the ratio
between the shear stress per unit area divided by the velocity gradient
perpendicular to the plane of shear.

In petroleum engineering, the viscosity term appears in all the dynamic equations
representing the fluid flow; in the porous media of the reservoir system, into the
wellbore, up to the well head, and through the flow lines and pipelines to the
gathering systems.

In petroleum engineering, and especially in Reservoir Engineering, the Dynamic


Viscosity is expressed in units of "centipoise". The centipoise is defined as (1 gm
2 4
mass I (sec)(100 cm ), and is equivalent to (6.72x10 lb mass I (ft)(sec)).

The measurement of the dynamic viscosity of a natural gas in the laboratory


requires difficult procedures, and consequently graphical and numerical
correlations have been developed for the calculation of the viscosity of a certain
gas at any given pressure and temperature.

There are two main approaches in the literature for the evaluation of natural gas
viscosity under reservoir conditions:

Graphical techniques that require the knowledge of the Atmospheric Viscosity


in addition to the Pseudo-reduced Pressure and Temperature of the gas.
Numerical techniques that require the evaluation of the Gas Density under
reservoir conditions.

3.3.1 Carr. Kobayashi and Burrows Graphical Correlation

A widely used graphical correlation for evaluating the viscosity of the gas was
developed by Carr et.al. The procedure involves two main steps as follows:

Knowing the molecular weight or the specific gravity of the gas, use Carr
et. Al correlation (Fig 3.3 Appendix-A) to read the atmospheric viscosity,
a at the required temperature.
Calculate Pr and Tr and enter to Carr et. Al. correlation (Figs 3.4 or 3.5
Appendix-A) to read g I a, and hence calculate the gas viscosity g .

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Experimental investigation has concluded that natural gas viscosities calculated


using this correlation will have less than 2% error for all P, values less than 10.

The Carr et. al. correlation includes Corrections for Carbon Dioxide, Hydrogen
Sulfide, and Nitrogen. It is not advisable to extrapolate the correction graphs
beyond the 15% impurity mole percent limit indicated on the graph,

3.3.2 Lee , Gonzalez. and Eakin Numerical Correlation

Different investigators have tried to represent the behavior of natural gas


viscosity in numerical forms. Most of the expressions available in the literature
represent the viscosity as a function of temperature, mixture density, and
molecular weight. The effect of the impurities is incorporated implicitly in the
evaluation of the gas Deviation factor which would be used to calculate the gas
density.

Practically one of the most accurate formulas for the calculation of the gas
viscosity is that developed by Lee, Gonzalez, and Eakin (RF-3.6), which has the
following form:

g = (10-4 )K.exp(Xpy) Eqs (3.9)


where,
p = 1.4935(10)-3 PM
zT
K = (9.379 + 0.01607M)Tt. 5
(209.2+19.26M + T)
986
X = 3.448 + .4 + O.OI009M
T
Y _;__ 2.447 -0.2224X

and,

p = gas density, gm/cc


P = Pressure, psia
T =Temperature, 0 R
M = Molecular weight of the gas mixture

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The standard deviation factor of the calculated viscosity using the above
correlation (as compared to the measured lab data) is only 2.69 % in spite of the
wide range of data used in the derivation of the correlation. The data range
included 100 < P (psia) < 8000, 100 < T ('F) < 340, and C02 content of 0.9 - 3.2
mole%. 4
. "O'
It is important to note that this correlation should lbe used u r when
applied to some Libyan reservoirs which have a very high C02 content,
(reaching to more than 60% in some cases).

Example 3.3

Given the gas composition shown in Table 3.3 (columns 1 and 2), calculate the
= =
gas viscosity at T 200 F and P 3520 psia , using

a) the Carr et.al graphical correlations


b) the Lee, Gonzalez, and Eakin correlation

Solution:

a) using the Carr et.al. correlations

-
1-Tabulate the molecular weights of the individual gas components, using
Appendix A, Table 1.1, as shown in column (3),

2- Calculate the molecular weight of the natural gas, M = l.,xi.Mi, as shown


in column (4),

3- Enter the Carr et.al. correlation (Fig 3.3/Appendix-A) with the calculated
=
M=20.0527, and read, a =0.0128 at T 200 F,

20.0527
4- Calculate y g = = 0.6923 ~ 0.7
28.966
5- Use the specific gravity of the gas as well as the individual mole fraction of
each of the impurities to read the correction values as follows:

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correction for C02 = +0.0003 for Xco2 = 5.42%

correction for H2S = +0.0000 for xH s= 0.83%


2
'

.
correction for N2 =+0.0002 for XN2 =2.03%

6- Calculate g = a+ corrections
=0.0128 + 0.0003 + 0 + 0.0002
=0.0133 cp

( 1) (2) (3) (4)


components composition Ml XM
l l
mole fraction, xi

Methane 0.8216 16.043 13.1809


Ethane 0.0528 30.070 1.5877
Propane 0.0314 44.097 1.3846
iso- Butane 0.0021 58.124 0.1221
n- Butane 0.0093 58.124 0.5406

Carbon Dioxide 0.0542 44.010 2.3853


Hydrogen Sulfide 0.0083 34.076 0.2828
Nitrogen 0.0203 28.013 0.5687

1.0000 20.0527
I

7) Calculate Ppe and Tpe for the gas mixture, using the individual component Pei
and Tei as explained in earlier examples. The results should be Ppc = 670 psia,
and Tpe = 385 R.
p 3520
8) Calculate Pr = - = = 5 .254
Ppc 670
2 460
and, Tr = __!_ = 00 + = L714
Tpc 385

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9) Enter the Carr et.al. correlation, Fig (3.5) with the values of Py and Tr and

read ~=1..7
a

10) Calculate g = (l.7)(a) = (1.7)(0.0133) = 0.02261 cp

b) Lee, Gonzalez. and Eakin correlation

1) Enter with the values of Py and Tr to the Standing/Katz correlation, Fig (2.1),
and read z = 0.89

2)Ca/cu/ate:

p = 1.4935(10)-3 PM
zT

= 1.4935(10)-3 (3520)(20.527) = 0.18371


p . (0.89)(200 + 460)

5
K = (9.379 + 0.01607M)Tl.
(209.2+19.26M + T)

5
K = (9.379 + 0.01607(20.527))(660)1. = 130 _18
(209.2+19.26(20.527) + 660)

986
X = 3.448 + .4 + 0.01009M
T
986.4
x = 3.448 + + 0.01009(20.527) = 5.1497
200+460
Y = 2.447 - 0.2224X

y = 2.447 - 0.2224(5.1497) = 1.3017

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3) Finally, calculate the natural gas viscosity at the reservoir conditions,

g = (10- 4 )K.exp(Xpy)

g = (10- 4 )(132.123).exp(5.199(0.18371)1. 360158 ) = 0.02296 cp

Note that the results of both techniques are practically identical (1.5%
difference). The vety small difference can be attributed to the inherent error in
reading the graphs.

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3.4 WATER CONTENT OF NATURAL GASES

All natural gases contain varying amounts of water vapor. The amount of water
required to saturate a natural gas (normally termed Saturation Content) is a
function of pressure and temperature.

At any given pressure, the saturation content. "mwv" decreases as the


temperature is decreased, leading to the condensation of liquid water which will
result in the formation of Hydrates in the gas stream, and will result in severe
corrosion to the field equipment and surface facilities in the presence of free
water in communication with C02 and/or H2S in the gas stream.
" v\-i t '"- \ './.
/' "\ ~

._ "Sweet natural gases" are defined as natural gases containing NO (or negligible)
9 amounts of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide. A plot of the water vapor
content of "Sweet natural gases" as a function of pressure and temperature is
given in Appendix-A I Fig 3.6. It is important to note that the value of the water
vapor content read from the plot should be corrected for the water salinity and
the gas gravity. An illustration of the proper use of this plot is given in the
following example.

Example 3.4

The following information is available from a natural gas well :

daily production rate = 7.5 MMscf I day


gas gravity = 0.70
stream pressure = 1500 psia
stream temperature = 110F

Calculate the total amount of free water condensing in the stream, when the
temperature is lowered to 80 F. Assume sweet gas. Also, assume that there
was no free water at the original temperature of 110 F.

Solution

1) Enter the vapor content chart (Fig 3. 6) at T =110 F, and P =1500 psia , and
read mwv =59 lb water I MM scf of gas
2) make the necessary corrections as follows :

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- use the gas gravity correction chart to read CG =0. 99, for T =110 F, and the
given gas gravity of 0. 70 .

- the corrected mwv =mwv x CG =59 x 0.99 =58.4 lb I MM scf

3) similarly, at T =80 F, the corrected mwv will be equatto 25 lb/MM scf

4) consequently, the amount of water condensing from the natural gas will be:

mwv (at T= 110F) -mwv(at T = 80F) = 58.4- 25 = 33.4 lbl MM scf

5) finally , the free water accumulating daily in the gas stream will be equal to :

mw =(33.4 lb!MM scf)( 7.5 MM scf!day) =250.5 lb of free water

3.5 HYDRATE-FORMATION CONDITIONS

The presence of liquid water in the same stream with natural gas results in the
formation of Hydrates which are solids resembling ice in appearance. Hydrates
form under pressure at temperatures as high as 85 F (29.4 C). The presence
of liquid water is necessary for the formation of Hydrates. This is one reason why
the gas stream must be de-hydrated to certain minimum limits.

H1 0 The Hydrates (which should not be confused with free liquid water condensing

c.~
. :z.
e from the gas) are materials that have fixed chemical composition. but exist
-?-
'6 without chemical bonds (clathrates). Their structure consists of several water
molecules associated with each hydrocarbon molecule. Consequently, the
~;
1 ' presence of liquid water in sufficient quantities will always result in the formation
"" 11 ,J (1 0 of Hydrates.
l{. ~(j' A.IC'<.(
J
;!/o The formation of Hydrates is accelerated by turbulence, and for this reason, they
frequently occure downstream from valves, chokes, orifice plates, sharp bends,
6 etc. Hydrate formation in the flow string would result in lower well-head pressure
readings. Also, hydrate formation in the flow-rate meters would result in lower
readings for the flow rate.

The temperature and pressure conditions necessary for the formation of


Hydrates can be estimated using Fig 3.7 I Appendix-A. These conditions are
normally termed "Hydrate-formation conditions". As can be seen from the charts,

AAU/GAS/GAS3.doc 14
I Natural-Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

a natural gas having a specific gravity of 0.7 and stream pressure of 1000 psia,
will form Hydrates when the temperature is lowered to 65 F or less, which is a
much higher temperature than the freezing point of water.

.Important Remarks

The Hydrate formation charts, Fig 3.7, are suitable for the field quick estimate of
the pressure and temperature conditions necessary for the formation of
hydrates, however, the following two important remarks should always be
remembered by the practicing engineer:

--
The charts are prepared for sweet gases only. They should not be used if
Carbon Dioxide and I or Hydrogen Sulfide are present in any quantities. It is
well known that the presence of Hydrogen Sulfide and/or Carbon Dioxide in
the natural gas will elevate the temperature required for the formation of
hydrates. Also, Hydrates occure at relatively higher pressures in the presence
of Nitrogen. For example, the pressure required for the formation of Hydrates
in a natural gas which contains 25 mole% of nitrogen, will be (approximately)
double the pressure required for the formation of hydrates in the natural gas if
it was nitrogen free. In general, the presence of impurities enhances the
chances of hydrate formation).

It is important to note that Hydrates occure in different forms. The Hydrate


form is related to the chemical composition of the gas mixture. Consequently,
two natural gases having different chemical compositions, will form two
different types of Hydrates even if the specific gravity of the two gases is the
same. This means that the two gases will have some difference in the
temperature/pressure conditions required for the formation of Hydrates.
Consequently, the charts mentioned earlier (Fig 3?f) will only give the
APPROX/MA TE pressure and temperature conditions necessary for the
formation of Hydrates.

More accurate calculations of the Hydrate-forming conditions can be obtained


using the chemical composition of the gas. Reference is made here to the GPSA
Engineering Data Book (RF-3. 7) for more in-detail study of the Hydrate-formation
conditions.

AAU/GAS/GAS3.doc 15
I Natural-Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

REFERENCES

RF-3.1 "Compressibility of Natural Gases",


Albert Trube
Petroleum Transactions, AIME, vol. 20, 1954,(264)

RF-3.2 "An Improved Method for the Determination of the


Reservoir-Gas Specific Gravity for Retrograde Gases"
Gold,D.K., McCain, W.D.Jr., and Jennings ,J.W.
JPT (July 1989) 747-52, Trans. AIME, 278

RF-3.3 "Viscosity of Hydrocarbon Gases under Pressure"


by Carr , Kobayashi , and Burrows
Petroleum Transactions , AIME , Vol. 201 , 1954 , (264)

RF-3.4 "The Viscosity of Non-Polar Gases at Normal Pressure"


by Stiel L., and Thodos G.
AIChEJour.1961, 7 ,(611)

RF-3.5 "Calculation of the Viscosity of Technical Gas Mixtures from


the Viscosity of the Individual Gases"
by Heming F.,and Zipperer L.
Gas and Waserfoch, 1936, 79, 49

"*' RF-3.6 "The Viscosity of Natural Gases"


by Lee A., Gonzalez M., and Eakin B.
Journal of Petroleum Technology, Aug.~, (997)

RF-3.7 GPSA Engineering Data Book


9 th edition , 5 th revision
Gas Suppliers Association, Tulsa (1981)

AAU/GAS/GAS3.doc 16
APPENDIX-A

GAS PHYSICAL PROPERTIES


(TABLES AND FIGURES)
Step-by-Step Procedure for Calculating
z-Factor of a Natural Gas by Dr. A.A. Urayet

Case-I Gas Composition is Available

SteQ:1
Use MW and y of er to read Pc and Tc of er (Fig 2.3)
SteQ:2 Read MW; , Pei , Tei of each component (Table 1.1)
Step-3 Calculate MW , Ppc, Tpc of the natural gas using ALL components
Step-4 If % of impurities ( eo 2 , N 2 , H 2 8 ) is very small (i.e. < 1% for each) then
calculate z-factor using:
~ Standing & Katz graphical type curve (Fig 2.1)
~ Brill & Beaas z-factor numerical correlation (Eq 2.5)
SteQ:5 If % of impurities ( eo2 , N 2 , H 28) is high, then use Wichert & Aziz
correlation (Eqs 2.8) to modify the Ppc, Tpc calculated in Step-3.
SteQ:6 I I

Use the modified Ppc, Tpc to calculate the z-factor using Standing &
Katz graphical type curve or Brill & Beggs z-factor numerical correlation.

Note: In case of high impurities it is possible to check the value of z calculated in


step-6 using the Additive z-factor method which can be summarized as follows:
1 Re-calculate MW, Ppc, Tpcof the natural gas assuming that the

impurities do not exist. In this case you should use Yi = X; f"L,xhydr to

multiply the MW; , Pei , Tei of each hydrocarbon component.


2. Calculate the z-factor of the hydrocarbons using Standing & Katz graphical
type curve or Brill & Beggs z-factor numerical correlation.
~ Enter with P and T of the system into the given impurities z-factor
Zc02 , zN2 , zn2 s
correlations (Figs 4.31, 4.33, 4.34) to read

Calculate Z = ZhydrXhydr + Zc02 .Xc02 + ZN2 .xN2 + zn2 s.xn2 s


Check this value with the z value calculated in Step-6 (Wichert & Aziz
I I

modified Ppc , Tpc method.

Case-II Gas Composition NOT Available

1. Use Sutton correlations to calculate Ppc, Tpc as follows:

Ppc = 756.8-131.0(yg )-3.6(yg ) 2 + 4.26xc02 - 4.0xN2 + 6.0xn 2 s


Tpc = 169.2 + 349.5(rg )- 74.0(yg ) 2 -0.8xc02 -2.4xN2 + l.33xn2 s
Where x is in %.

2. Use Standing & Katz graphical type curve or Brill & Beggs z-factor numerical
correlation to calculate the z-factor.

AAU/C/CONSULTANT/TRAINING/GAS/SUMMARY.doc
1.2Effi:illfTff
---t-,... -~~T-.,.
-- 1_ .....;---;- - - I-
-t-- -1- :-___ ,_ .-~- . - ~*
----'-t- -- -- J ~- -M
~~~--,, L+ -"--r- ------ +g'-'~-"'--l;;:~
-1-
r - +-
_ 1
- - 1 - - --1- --1- _......... - -- 1- - -
-!- --- - ., -1oF, - 7 V'
-.... - -

4i"F . I- - - - - - . --1- - - .
to -i-4-100. -1 , - 100 r ,_ .::::.v ~171
1--f 1+ -- ,- -
~Ji-- ~
++
1
L..~' I340F-'--1I----1---r-r- t--~-<- .. -
-.+ ---1- ;>::J..-;:::~!JfE'll

~\:~;;, ,,,"\""'o - ', ~--,-1.


_...~,:\:,~,\
I-----.,.,,.,.,,,,
.'<~\\)\ > -.\-,-. - ,\
, .- .. '\'.~~>.:-.\.:
,. __1 , ,
,I___ - --r
i -
--Ti '
-r--T--T~
,
-
\ ___ : --
'
1:
-- --:--- -
. '
I
_L 0
t~
._Cl:

-~ -
u
0
0.8 -
-
-
I

~1 ~
., -+ i_-:-,~
1'' :
'<-\
:
-
I I

1--l:r- --_ --- -L~-- -f:+;~~~ _22Ho.r__


_,
I
..
1
7280 F
---- .;.- -+-1+---if
I-;--

--'-NJ---l22or
"
;_c;__ -
- - ---
, i--r-r-

I
_J_
J..

,..~ ---- . - -
--;q-~~-- - I--
.,,.,..,...-
y
-t60F"
I "-
b&.i5J:;;,:Jj'280f -
v
VY.:-; ....-
-~-r-
34o.c-:
I/ I

I'
1
! .,_ -c} - ----
I
_,/--l///}<~k:~;<;,_,-\-:__
~
I-
,.c.~.t'~,,,--~ ~1
' " """' \ - - - '' I'
I ____ -- --- I:--_____ 8
'I I 10 .;::
~~:
OG ..,,
,,__.,._\
-1~~~-~~tf
I

_Jllf
:11 I

b, - ~i-- --,_ -- ----------


'i--.1 I ,_-
1....-/,-</
;..-'
~?~;,~f----r--- '-f---t----'-

.;;'~~~R~~1;ll \~,:
:.-: -- -"'O ---- - - , ---

- --/://, ! 1'.--
"'' \'? -- - '~ -_
------~
: _'
~ I
!- ___J ________ ,\______
------:----
I II

~
100 l ~
~
o~,
. :1--l---1
f-
I!
1' - I - " ' I 11rt~,:;r
~~ ..
f\.1
_J--~-~~~~------t----1--i-----------
I -- . - -- - - - - ---,
I
I

__ L_~---~--~\~-~
-------i--

-k:=-c--
l_l__Jg
,

I
---
I I
------ I"; ! ----

1 ::;'
:..;
(.)

0.2
I-

---:-
-i--!-

t+~-: ~;;~~
-j~w--------
v'----i--i------ -1-----
.

--- - -- --- --- ----


-- ----------- - ------- ---- -- -
-e---

----------H::::: :.: !
__ ,_

I \ --.~ -
1
<:I
.._,.
0 -- - --------..
s ~
"' 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000
Pres~:u
5,000
e, psio
G.000 7,000 8,000 9,000 10,000

I~:....... ' ' !-1l()_ "


~ F1G. 1-34. Comp1c:-:Ribilit;y fact.or for liydrngcn sulfide. (/l'rnrn. TI. JI. Rcnmc1, B. II.
~
;:: 8ur;e, and lV. N. Lacey, "Volumelric Behavior of Ilyclrogcit Sulfide," Ind. Rny. Chem.,
;;, -vol. 42, no. 1, 71. 140, Jmu.wry, l!l50.)
::;:
.._.

- d
<.>
~n

.......
0

I a
....""
0

is:
~
l I l \ I I ...::I
0
1.2
- -- -
-
'- '- '-
~
..::;
~
...... - 1- ~- ::: ::::
'--
,~~
0 1.0'.~ :-- ~~
,\,--1------1 g_ ;e
'-
6i~F 1--t- I - -
~-
..... ,_.__ ,_,..._ ....
~
~~

..,...
-
~

0 I()
~
--I() 0 I()
-. C\I
~
"""
\1', ,... 'F .... i- '-':::'
$ ,.J - ~ ~ 8
"I " r-. -~. 4or
71 ~
":::~
::::. ~ 0.8l "' I'- ..... ..... ""'-...,..
--- 0
0
e 2eor ----1...,
I .: '?~\\\ \ \ " 18 ' ' .....

~f
0 .2
N {.)
...__ 22/;or I -,,,. 1~

..,._ ,...; ~ 0.6 )


I
' ,, ,_....-v
,;f~ l I I Ul\l\l\il\1111111 ".".)
~'~" g
'? ::0
;;; I.;
""0
[/
I
0-
~ 11-. I 11 J!!J. .,"' I
,..!60F_ !,;
r;:;
~ r I/
l1L

8 e c3
0!1 t,...

i~\HI\
_,..v
N~ I I II 1
0 ... ~ "
- e
"' c.
~
. 0.2

~ I I \Wll/ lg
0
....0 I <q:i,
0 1,000 2,000 3,000_ 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000 10,000
Pressure, psia
- o
..I
an
L
8 ll"lo
...2- .
an
:: -1'~.-
II')

~ "'
d
0.
-.
-
I()

s ... ~ Fxo. 4-33. Compressibility factor for carbon dioxide. (Fl'om Olds el al.")
J1: Z JO+:>OJ ~111q1ss;udwob , i
e e
1 -1 -1...-..-
1 _-T"""1~,-r-,T"""-r--~..--.--.-"""T"--.-...--1 ...:....,-..--
800r--r--r 1 -1-,..---,-...-..--,-..--,-,-..--,-,-...-.......-.--..--.~
,__ -
,_ .... - ....
1001,...,....,........................,................................. ..........,................................-.--.
100~...-.-

--- ...
'--
'-- -'--
i
z -- z z0
~~-Illm
Q
,_ -'-
u ;:: . ;:0.6-2.0
0 750 1--'- _,__ =0.6-2.0 ..,
u
...a. :o
0 -'-- . oi-+++44-1-14-1-1-'-+-l-J-l
"'
~ 01...+-++++++4-l'+-l+-l-+-I
u
'-'- w G=0.6-tS
-- ..."'::> ..,u -
w
a::
:::> --
--
....,,"'
::>
w
G=2.0
I
-- ......... - "'::>
"'"'w
-
(/)
"'
0.. -- "' "' -
--
(/) 0.. O..
w
a::
a..
~
<(
700--
-- -,S(hL..L.._.._LS.LJ....L..L..L.JlO...L..JU....UlS

MOL /o Nz --
-'--
I I I I
15
-
-
I I I I I
s
MOL /o H2 s
10
15
-
-

-
u
l- ;~ MISCEllANioJs ~A,SE1
a::
u
0
Q
:::>
w

-~ u
600
a.
- ....so -- ...so
-
z0 -- z
- ;:: -- 0
550 - u
"'"' -- 5w
- "'
80
-- "'"'
80
- ..."' -'-- w
;;=0.6-2.0
"'
...~...w
a:: '- -'-- ::>
0

w
a:: . 500
'-

'- ......
~
-G=0.6-2.0
I
---
-'--
!<
"'"'....
..."'2E
:::>
~
a::
w
,__
'-
-so 0 s
I

10
MOL /o N
2
lS ---
'-- .
-soo lS
_....._._

a..
:E
w
I-
~
<(
u
9=
..JC
u
0
Q
:::>
w
(/)
a..

15 --1-+---1--1

300L-L-:L..-1'--L-L-L-L-L.-L.....J......J..-1..-L.-L.-1--1-..J__L....1-.,J_J_J__,1__1,_1,_1,_1,_L......JL....JL....JL......IL......IL......1-J
0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 l.l 1.2

GAS GRAVITY AIR= l

FIGURE 1" 4 PSEUDO CRITICAL PROPERTIES OF MISCELLANEOUS NATURAL GASES


From Brown, Kotz, Oberfell ond Alden (1948)
Inserts from Corr, Koboyoshi ond Burrows (1954)
1400

c;;O: 1300
-........,-
(,)

.:: a
8
"tJ .,
e 1200
:::J 0.

\-
St E
a.. a 1100
1000

500
-"'-"'
:E c: 400
(,)"'

(,) Q)
0 ...
"tJ iil
~ ;: 300
"'
a.. ...0.
200
100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240
Molecular weight

Fig. 2 .3 Correlation charts for estimation of the pseudocritical temperature and pressure
of hep tan es plus fractions from molecular weight and specific gravity. (Courtesy Mathews,
Roland, and Katz.)
50
0 "'
u
...c
Cl>

.,~
0..
40

10 20 30 ~ 50 60 70 80
Per~ent H2 S

Fig.J..'1 Pseudocritical temperature adjustment factor, E3 ,


0
R. (After Wichert and Aziz.)
384 Properties of Natural <:;ases
<:;as Compressibility Cg 38S

-t-~-r+-W----
10.0 I . _ 10.0
~ , , , - .~r:::-- ~~~'-
~"I S:>,.
1''- 'I
)...__
I
I r-!--1 I I
' --,...-, ----
~ :\.~
1'.......
'' --r _]
~ '-"...... '-""\\ ~
~'"Ir-
I I __l - ~~~~~
I L ,_
~
I
"'
,I,
I l -
I ~~~~

~ - v - "~~~ ~'
/
I II'I -=
~ ~
' I TI ~~~~~~
t----t---t---+-+-+
~~~~~

1 / I ,.,:-. r '!f -~~~


1.0 1.0
~ ~,
-.,..--~L-r-
' \
~'''''

Ll~ ~ +
- - -L [:l
- .
~....''"~'-
......
,....._~, ~

--
-
I
-~
\
I
-
-
= '"~~~
~~~~

,~1\\
~~~
=
-o
......
C,T, -- ' tJ' ~~~~~

I I \~ \ \ -,- --= ~~~~~~'\


'l\~
\\\\i\~
",\ ' '

-~
T.

o. ' - - '----'I I T \ \ \ 0.1 ~~ \~~ ~:g


' ' ' ' ' 2.6-
TI --
-- ' '
\ " "
_,_ 1'\ ' ' ;, -

--' ' ' \ ''' 2.2


- -
1

-- ..
--'---~I
'\ ' '\ '\
\.'
- "

=
\
_, \ \ ' - . . ' ,\ \ 2.0-

. , ' ,- , , \\ 1.8

r1 I :l - I "\' -,\ \ - ~~- -~ \ ~ 1.6

_,___ I - '~l"I~ \\:\~ I \ . \ 1.40


\ 1.5
1.4

- I ,, "~ 130 -
L ' I I II I _J I I I 11
' 11~
I
' '\1.:: I
0.0 0.01
0.2 1.0 10.0 0.2 1.0 10.0
Pr Pr

ig . ..3-.I Variation.of c,Tr with reduced temperature and pressure (1.05.;;:; Tr.;;:; 1.4;
1 Fig. 3 2. Variation of crTr with reduced temperature and pressure (1.4 .;;:; T, "" 3.0;
.2"" Pr"" 15.0). (From Mattar, Brar and Aziz (1975).)
1 0.2 .;;:; Pr .;;:; 15.0). {From Mattar, Brar and Aziz (1975).]
I
I
l
j
1 -Viscosity at 1.0 atmosphere, centipoise
p 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 p 0 0
0 0
0
0 0 0
0
0
0 ~ ~ 0 0 ~ ~
..,, ~
~ 01 8 0
..... Q) <O 0
" "' ~
(!)

0
Correction added 0
10 visc-sg i.n
0 0 0
g 0
g
0
g
0
0
"
0 "' "'

"'0

~
0

(n
~
I
Cl
~ :JI
01
I 0
s: ~
0 "'
s.
~ <
.,..,
c:
~-
~
Correction added
0"
.o (!)
0
10 visc-sg
0 0
"
;;- 0
0 0
8 g ~
0
0 "' "'

.....
0
/ '
e 0
"(n

Q)
0
u;
Correction added
10 vise- sg
0 0
~ ~ "'0
<O
0 "' 0
"'

"' n
2
-8 "" 0
..,8
"'(n
-"'
60 0 zo zeo

;
-, IT

- ... Warnlnc: Dashed lines are -~ : : 200


0
:-
- meta-stable equilibrium. :.
2 000 Actual equilibrium Is 1o-r _ ""- _
i "": water content. Angle Is a 5
.-e.
~
:l~f~u~n~c~t~lo~n~o~ficio~mlp~o~slH~i!oni.~::t.~::::~~::~~5
CJ IOO

eo
I:: 1000 .
j 800'.:'._-N--ll--ll--f-..f...-...,1"'-'-4't....I-~
I-
i..
I
.~-t---f---1--.f---'1--~~...,..-'~.~- W..+-,,f--#-~1~.,..,f#-"21~1'1~.M-......f...-f-+-il-l-++-ll-++-ll-+-1-i~
I
60

Q
~- ~
e --~i-~+--+--"-~-.Jl~~~-l--LJ'a: ....'lt-.i~'~""'lt.,!~1_,11..,..~,,,,.IMl~.,._....1-1............-1-......................
I.I 0 J ,, I/ '!/If.
"""+t ~
- , , I
.,..

200
-
I

..
:x:

Position of this line


Is a function of cas ~ 10
20

composition.
- 8

11111-1,1,111L::::::::::Jz
Weter contenta of netu<1I guea with corrections

20
-
. . . >. , , for afinity and relative density. After Mc Kett and
Wehe. Hydrocert>on ProcHaing. ~gull 1958
1
1
I I I 1 I j ; I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
-50 -.CO' -30 -20 -10 0 20 .co 60 80 100 120 1"0
Temperature, C

Figure 3.6 Water content of natural gas in equilibrium with water


6000 .
. '
\
-
.
...

/ " /jg
4000

3000

/
v /) 'II J
~,
,
..

..

.!!
a
g
1500

1000 ,, .
v /~r
#Ill
.
.
/ / /Ill
~ 800 7 / /ID ;

E ./H .
.e I/ / ,J

..
600 -Methane
-.---e---
f
/ 7
//~
/ .J [Q

,/
II'
"O /
~ 400
/J V/#
300

200
Gravi7/hw -

150
oy "V7hl
100
Qv'l ij7
., , ,
o.a.,. , J
80
0.,,../
"/I

60 1.~

40
30 40 50 60 70 80 90
Temperature, F

Fig. ~r.1.''1- Pressure-temperature curves for predicting hydrate formation. (Courtesy Gas
Processors Suppliers Assoc.)
I
1.4 ..
I ...
1.2 l:

I ..
12
s 15
:

1.0 10' PARTS PER MILLIONE


'.NaCl "' ; < i.,. IO
Q.
Cl

z:. 0.8
I > ii
0
Cl
0 1000 1500
SaNrallon Preasura, psla
2000
! 0.6

I ~ Fig. 9.10-Effect of COz solubility (in terms of saturation pres:


sure) on water viscosity.

0.4 9.4.6 Water/Brine Viscosity. Fig. 9.9 presents the viscosities of


I pure water and NaCl brines as functions of temperature and salinity.
. The following equations (except for the pressure correction Ao) are
presented by Kestin et al.,29 who report an accuracy of 0.5% in
0.2 the range 70 < T < 300F, 0 < p < 5,000 psia, and 0 < C,,.. < 300,000
le ppm (0< c,,.<5 M).

.., = (1 + A0 p)u:.
so 100 150 200 zso 300
I Temperature, F

Fig. 9.9-Water/NaCl-brine viscosity as a function of tempera-


~
log 0 = A 1 + A1 log.,-,
w
:,
"'~

ture and salinity. A 0 = 10- 3[0.8 + O.Ol(T - 90) exp( - 0.25c,,.)],

I where A 0 = 106[0.314 + 0.58w, + (1.9 x 10- 4 )T Ai= 2:a1;c',,..,


,...
3

-(l.45 x 10- 6)r 2]


I and A1 = 8 + 50w, - 0.125w,T, ............. ; . (9.17) A1 = 2:a2 ,c!.,..
3.

c: with in psi - 1p in psia, Tin F. and w, in weight fraction of NaCL


iI
1
Solving Eq. 9.16 for the FVF of a brine without solution gas, s:,. gives 4

I _ " ( A, )(1/.-t1)
logo
:,
w20
= ll
{20 - T)
2:a3; 96 + T '

B:,(p, 7) - B,.(psco 7) 1 + Ao p , .......... (9.18) and : 10 = l.002 cp, .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. (9.22)

I whereAoandA1 are given by Eq. 9.17. Eq. 9.18 results in water and
brine densities that are within 0.5% of values given by Rogers and Pit-
where an =3.324X 10- 2,a12=3.624X 10- 3, a13= -1.879x 10- 4,
a21=-3.96x10- 2, an= l.02X 10- 2, an= -7JT1.x 10- 4,a31 =

I
. .~~s27 highly accurate correlation for 60 < T < 400F, 0 <p < 15,000 1.2378, a32= - l.303x 10-3, aJ3=3.060X 10-6, a34=2.550X
;a, and Q< C, < 300,000 ppm. For the same range of conditions, 10-s, with in cp, Tin C, andp in MPa. Kestinetal.'s pressure
tq. 9.17 calculates isothermal compressibilities within approximate- correction Ao contains 13 constants and does not extrapolate well at
ly 5% of Rogers and Pi12er's values. high temperatures. The pressure correction for Ao in Eq. 9.22 is
With Dodson and Standingsl3 data for pure water saturated with more well-behaved, with only small deviations from the original
Kestin et al. correlation at low temperatures. _
I a natural gas, an approximate correction for dissolved gas on water/
brine FVF at saturated conditions is
BJ.p, T,R,..) = B:.(p,1)(1 + O.OOOIR;_-5), ....... (9.19)
The effect of dissol'Ved gas on water viscosity h.aS not been re-
ported. Intuitively, one might suspect that water viscosity decreases
with increasing gas solubility, although Collins30 suggests that dis- -
solved gas may increase brine viscosity. As Fig. 9.10 shows, sys-
I with R_ in scf/STB. This relation fits the Dodson-Standing data
at 150, 200, and 250F but overpredicts the effect of dissolved gas
at 100F.-
tems saturated with c~ show an increase in viscosity with increas-
ing gas solubility.
Dodson and Standing also give a correction for the effect of dis- . 9.2.7Solubility of Water in Natural Gas. Fig. 9.11 shows the solu-

I solved gas on water/brine compressibility. bility of pure water in methane. McKetta and Wehe3 l give two chart
c..f.p, T, R...,) = c :,(p, 1)( 1 + 0.00877 R,,..), . . . (9.20) inserts for correcting pure-water solubilities for salinity and gas
gravity (based mainly on Dodson and Standing's13 values). A best-
-W:ith R_ in scf/STB. This relation is valid only for undersaturated- fit equation for these charts is
01V":ater systems at higher than oil bubblepoint pressure. For gas/
~~t;r system~ and saturated-oiVwater systems, the total compress-
y.., = y:A,A,, ........................ (9.23a)
1b1lity effect 1s given by the Perrine fonnula,28 . 0.05227p + 142.3 In p - 9,625
lny: -- T+460
c~-~-~ 1 (as .. ) + _1_ B, (aR,,..} .... (
9.2 1)
(9.23b)
8 .. ap r.R,,.. 5.615 B., ap 1 ' - 1.117 ln p + 16.44,
147 .

L WATER/HYDROCARBON SYSTEMS

. ---- -

--//~:~-
- - l

.;.:~4i~~~3
I
I

I -- ,Cit SALINITY

I
I - -
ti)
as
(!)

le
~
~
0
u
ti)

:c
N
--
aE
I ~
,_rn

I
I
I

Oewpoint of Natural Gas


J.J. McKetta and A.H. Wehe,
U. of Texas (1958)

I 1AO .0 190 ZOO l .O lllO I

I Fig. 9.11-Water solubility In natural gases, Including gas-composition and salinity effects
(adapted from Ref. 31). . .

I A
1
=1+ . yr - 0.55
(1.55 X 10')y1 T-t446 - (1.83 x J04)T-l.2SB'
. less than 10% for 100 < T < 460F and 200 < p < 10,000 psia. Eq.
9.23d is from the Dodson-Standing correlation and is not recom-
mended. Eq. 9 .23e is from the Katz et al. 32 correlation an~ is recom-
......... (9.23c)
I A, = 1 - (2.222 x 10- 6)C,. .. . . .. .. .. .. . .. . . (9.23d)
mended. Mole fraction of water in gas, y,., can be converted to a wa-
ter/gas ratio, r ..,, with 1 .

and A, = 1 - (3.92 x 10- 9 }C!44 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (9.23e)


r.., = 1 31 -y
y., - -=
5
..
135y,., (9.24)

..with Tin F, p in psia, and C, in ppm or mg/L. Eq. 9.23 yields an where r.., is in STB/MMscf. Replacing the constant 135 with
absolute average deviation of 2.5% for y:, with a maximum error 47,300 yields r.., in lbm/MMscf.

[_ 148 PHASE BEHAVIOR

......
I '::
it~4-;. ~a:.
,Li_ti::J;;;~~__J_J
0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 . 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0 3.2 3.4
Pseudoreduced temperature

Fig.3 .: ~ Viscosity ratio versus pseudoreduced temperature. (After Carr et al.)

6.5

I
...
I
lo.,'
6.0 I
J I

5.5
I
11
JJ J
I

~ 1/ / I I Ii
1 I
5.0

4.5
'/
I
I
I
I

:r
~ 4.0
8
T I / I I II I
.ti
!
-~ I 1
lh I //

I I ~I~/ '/I
~ 3.5
> I - J
J /
3.0

/, JI ~lo~,, I
1

/ / '/
2.5 0

II 1/ I I I~ ~~~1 //;
1

llh ~//I;~~
2.0

/~~/// ~ J
1.5

1.0
O~,
/ffi""'
~ ~~~v ,....... ~~t:::::::
/,_,,, .... ,,,

20 30
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.5 1.0 2.0 3.0 5.0 10
Pseudoreduced pressure, P,

Fig. 3:.,S Viscosity ratio versus pseudoreduced pressure. (After Carr et al.)
~;1 ~;1 ..m1 e'4
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

HW#
Due by: I~ov3, 2002 IGas Properties
Problem-1
The Q reservoir is a wet gas reservoir with an average LR=12 STB/MMscf.
The following information is available:

Component X;

Methane 85.00
Ethane 2.50
Propane 0.92
N - Butane 0.60 Calculate the gas physical properties (i.e. Ppc, Tpc,
lso- Butane
N- Pentane g:~~ MW, y g z, Bg, Cg, and g) at the initial ~. .\/o.
lso - Pentane 0.08 reservoir conditions ofPi=2200 psia and Ti=l75F
Hexane 0.15
Heptanes plus 0.80
Carbon Dioxide 4.70
Hydrogen Sulfide 2.91
Nitrogen 1.82

100.00
Assume M(C7+)=110 and rg(c1 +> =0.800

Problem-2
The U reservoir is a wet gas reservoir with an average LR=14 STB/MMscf.
The following information is available:

Yg = 0.695

X(H2S) =2.20%
Calculate the gas physical properties z, Cg, and g .
X(Ni) = 1.20 %
X(COi) = 5.75 %
Pi = 2550 psia
Ti = 198 F

IMPORTANT NOTES:
~ Use Numerical equations rather than graphical correlations whenever
possible.
~ In evaluating any gas physical property use all different techniques
studied in class or which you might have read in literature.

AAU/C/UNIV_F0203/NATGAS/PROBLEMS&FIGS/HW1 .doc
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

REFERENCES

RF-1 "LinearAquiferBehavior"
Nabor G. W. and Barham R.H.
.JPT, May 1964 ,(561-563)

RF-2 " Calculation of Water Influx for Bottom Water Drive


Reservoirs"
by : D. R. Allard and S. M. Chen
SPE Reservoir Engineering (May 1988),369-379

RF-3 "A Mathematical Model for Water Movement about Bottom -


Water Drive Reservoirs"
by : K. H. Coats
SPE Jour. (March 1968) 44-52; Trans. AIME,225

RF45 "The Material Balance as an Equation of a Straight Line


Part -11, Field Cases "
D. Halvena and A.S. Odeh
JPT, July 1964, (815-822)

AAU/GASNOLillvfETRICS.doc 35
I Natural Gas Resel'Voir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

chapter 4

GAS VOLUMETRICS

4.1 INTRODUCTION

Natural gas accumulations can be classified into three main categories :

Non-Associated (Free) Gas existing with the interstitial water in the pore
space. The free gas could be in dynamic communication with an underlying
or surrounding water aquifer (i.e. ''water drive reservoir"), otherwise, it is
termed "Volumetric".
Associated Gas existing as a free "gas cap" overlying crude oil.
Dissolved Gas existing "in solution" with the crude oil in the reservoir.

In this section only the Non-associated (i.e. free) gas volumetrics will be
considered, since the other two categories are normally treated in the oil
reservoir volumetrics.

Gas Volumetrics

The term "Gas Volumetrics" is used, here, to signify different techniques related
to the calculation of the volume of gas initially in place, GllP or Gi, and to the
estimation of the produce-able reserves. Two main techniques are commonly
employed in Gas Volumetrics, which are:

1 - The Volumetric Method

This method is used to calculate the GllP, and is applicable as soon as the
first discovery is made. Consequently, it is .the primary tool in the
techno/economic evaluation of the gas property and the field development
project.
The basic data required in this method consists of the petrophysical
properties obtained from well logs and core analysis, the geologic maps, the
initial reservoir conditions in terms of pressure and temperature, and, finally,
the gas PVT data.

AAU/GASNOLUMETRICS.doc
I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

The credibility of the GllP estimated by the Volumetric method will be


improving as more wells are drilled and more accurate reservoir description
and reservoir geologic and petrophysical maps become available.

2 - The Material Balance Method

This method is used to validate the GllP estimates obtained by the


Volumetric Method, as well as, to determine the ultimate reserves, and, the
reservoir pressure performance as a function of production.
The basic data required includes the historical production and reservoir
average pressure data, in addition to the gas PVT data. Consequently, this
method can be used once the production has started from the reservoir.
However,
The results obtained by Material Balance can be misleading at the very early
stage of production, (i.e. produced gas < 3% of GllP). The credibility of the
results will continue improving with continuing production from the reservoir.
Normally, once more than 10% of the GllP have been produced, the results
obtained by this method will have a high degree of credibility.

Prior to presenting the different techniques employed in Gas Volumetrics, it is


important to introduce the following basic terms and definitions:

Gas Initially In Place, GllP or G

It is the total volume of gas (in scf) existing initially in the reservoir.

Cumulative Gas Produced, GR

It is the total volume of gas (measured in scf) produced from the start of
production to the time when the calculations are performed.

Proven Gas Reserves

The Proven Gas Reserves are the estimated gas volumes (in scf) which geologic
data and engineering calculations demonstrate with high degree of certainty to
be recoverable from the reservoir, under the existing economic conditions and
the available engineering technology.

AAU/GASNOLUMETRICS.doc 2
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

Unit Recovery

It is the technically proven reserves (in scf) which can be produced from one unit
volume of the pay (normally one acre-ft).

Cumulative Water Production, WQ

It is the total volume of water (in STB) produced with the gas since the start of
field production to the time when the calculations are performed.

Cumulative Water Influx, W!

It is the total volume of water (in reservoir barrels) which has encroached from
the water aquifer to the formation section occupied initially by the free gas, since
the start of production to the time when the calculations are performed.

Net pay thickness. h0

It is the thickness (at the well bore) of the reservoir portion occupied initially by
the free gas, after excluding the zones which have negligible contribution to gas
production (such as shale streaks).

lsopach Map

Once the net pay thickness has been defined for each well and placed on the
well location map, points of equal thickness are connected, and, the resulting
contour map is normally termed "Jsopach map". The choice of the contour
interval is normally dependent on the highest net pay value, and on the
smoothness of the structure. A typical lsopach map is shown in Fig 4.1.

AAU/GASNOLUMETRICS.doc 3
I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

Fig 4.1_
A typical lsopach map

AAU/GASNOLUMETRICS.doc 4
INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

Net Pay Volume I vf

It is the volume of that section of the formation which is occupied, initially, by gas
after excluding the zones which are not contributing to the gas production. In
order to calculate the Net Pay Volume, Vt, it is necessary first to construct the
lsopach map, then the total area enclosed by each contour is measured (using a
planimeter, a graph paper, or, the proper computer software). Finally, the Net
Pay Volume, Vt. is calculated using the "Simpson Rule" as follows:

- hr
Vf -)Lao +2a1 +4a2 +2a3 +4a4 + ..... +4an-2 + 2 an-I +an ] + tn-an
2
Eq (4.1)

where,
3
Vt =net pay volume, ft
h = contour interval, ft
ai = area of the contour- i, ft
tn = highest thickness above the n-th contour, ft

It is important to note that the application of the Simpson Rule necessitates that
the number of contours be EVEN.

Another (less accurate) method which can be used in case of odd or even
number of contours is the "Trapezoidal Rule" which has the following form:

Well Porosity,

It is the average porosity of the net pay of the well. If the porosity is read from the
well logs for each foot of the net pay, then,

Eq (4.3)
I
AAU/GASNOLUMETRICS.doc 5
INatural Gas Resavoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

where,
<A= porosity of section- i, fraction
hi = net pay thickness, ft

Reservoir Average Porosity,

The average porosity of the reservoir signifies the average porosity of the net
pay only, (i.e. it should not be confused with the average porosity of the
formation). It can be calculated numerically using the individual well porosities as
follows,

where,
Eq (4.4)
I
=reservoir average porosity, fraction
j =average porosity of well - j, fraction
hn} =net pay thickness of well - j, ft

The average porosity of the reservoir can also be calculated graphically, by first
preparing an iso-porosity map, and, then applying the Trapezoidal or the
Simpson rules.

Reservoir Average Water Saturation, Swi

the reservoir average water saturation can be calculated numerically using the
individual well water saturations as follows ,

-s . -- __L
I Wl

where,
swi
L-Swi(J)hnJ
--...o;:.._;__....-0--

h .
n;

= reservoir average water saturation, fraction


Eq (4.5)
I
Swi( j) = average water saturation of the gas zone in well - j, fraction
hnj = net pay thickness of well - j, ft

AAU/GASNOLUMETRICS.doc 6
I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

The average water saturation of the reservoir can also be calculated graphically,
by first preparing an iso-Sw map, and then applying the Trapezoidal or the
Simpson rules. This mapping method is rarely necessary in the calculation of
GllP since the water saturation variation across the reservoir is normally minimal
except in highly heterogeneous systems.

4.2 THE VOLUMETRIC METHOD

4.2.1 Calculation of the Gas Initially In Place

There are three different volumetric techniques for the calculation of the GllP, all
utilizing the same petrophysical data obtained from well logs and geologic maps,
and gas physical properties at the initial reservoir conditions. These three
techniques are normally termed:

The lsopach method


The Hydrocarbon-Pore-Volume, HPV, method, and,
The Finite Grid method

A summary of the procedure used in each of these methods is presented here.


The proper use of these techniques is illustrated in Example Problem 4.1.

The lsopach method

1) Calculate the net pay thickness, the average porosity, and, the average water
saturation for each well.
2) Prepare the lsopach map of the reservoir, and calculate the areas enclosed
by each contour, then calculate Vt using the Simpson rule, Eq 4.1, or, the
Trapezoidal rule, Eq 4.2.
3) Calculate of the reservoir using Eq 4.4, and the average Swi of the
reservoir using Eq 4.5.
4) Calculate the volume of the gas initially in place using the following equation:

Vr..(1-Swi)
G (scf) = - - - -
Bgi
Eq (4.6)
I
AAU/GASNOLUMETRICS.doc 7
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

where,
T.z
1 1
ft3
= gas formation volume factor at the initial conditions =
35.3 .Ff scf
= gas deviation factor at the initial reservoir conditions of P; and T;
0
=reservoir temperature, R, and,
= initial reservoir pressure , psia

Finally, it is important to note that the above equation can be used to calculate
the Gas Initially In Place, whether the gas is free (i.e. non-associated), or,
whether, the gas is present in an associated gas cap, in which case, the net
volume, the average porosity and the average water saturation, will represent the
gas-cap portion of the reservoir only.

The Hydrocarbon Pore Volume. HPV. method

1) Calculate the net pay thickness, the average porosity, and, the average water
saturation for each well.
2
2) Calculate the hydrocarbon pore volume per 1 ft of reservoir area, which is

equal to 1x hn (1- Swi) for each well separately, and, place the
calculated values on the well location map.
3) Prepare the HPV map, by drawing the contours of equal HPV. Then calculate
the areas enclosed by each contour.
4) Calculate the volume of the Gas Initially In Place, Vhydr ( in reservoir cubic
feet ), using the Simpson rule or the Trapezoidal rule.
5) Calculate GllP (scf) = Vhydrl 8 9 ;

The Grid method

1) Calculate the net pay thickness, the average porosity, and the average water
saturation for each well.
2) Prepare the lsopach, the iso-porosity, and, the iso-Sw; maps of the reservoir.
3) Place a suitable grid which covers the whole area of the net pay over the
three iso-maps. A suitable grid requires that the grid lines be running parallel
to the faults, and that no grid should contain a peak or a low value of any of
the three parameters, if possible. Choosing a square grid system of equal
dimensions (for example 500 ft x 500 ft) simplifies the calculations. However,
unequal grid sizes and grid shapes (as will be illustrated in Example Problem

AAU/GAS/VOLUMETRICS.doc 8
I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

4.1) might be more suitable sometimes, especially in areas adjacent to faults


and reservoir outer boundary.
4) Read the corresponding values of hn. , and, Sw; for each grid from the iso-
maps. These values should be read at the center of the grid.
2
5) For each grid calculate Vi= (hn )( )(1- Sw;) x grid area (ft )

6) Calculate GllP (set) = L Vj


Bgi

Finally, these three techniques should, normally, produce comparable results.


However, large differences in the results might occur due to insufficient number
of wells (i.e. wide spacing), and/or high degree of heterogeneity in the reservoir.

4.2.2 Calculation of the Recovery Factor

The "Recovery Factor, R" of a free gas reservoir is defined as:

IR= Gpa = GIIP-Gra


GJJP GJJP
Eq (4.7) I
where,
Gpa= Total gas production (in scf) from start of production to abandonment
time, and,
Gra =Volume of gas (in scf) remaining in the reservoir at abandonment time.

Substituting the appropriate expressions for the initial and abandonment


volumes of gas into Eq 4.7,

R = ___B_g_i_--=~---B_g~a_ _ _ = 1- 1- Swa. Bgi Eq 4.8


VJ. .(1- Swi) 1- Swi Bga
Bgi

AAU/GASNOLUMETRICS.doc 9
INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

Recovery Factor for Volumetric Reservoirs

Assuming a Volumetric reservoir, i.e. We = 0, and assuming negligible water


production, then, Swa will be (approximately) equal to Sw; , and consequently,
Equation 4.8 can be rewritten in the following form:

1 1
Bgz Bga Bgz
R ------ =1-- Eq (4.9)
1 Bga
Bgi

For fast calculations of the Ultimate Recovery Factor, the reservoir abandonment
pressure used to evaluate Bga can be taken as (Pwfm+ 100) psia, where
Pwfm is the minimum flowing bottom hole pressure required to produce the well

at a minimum well head pressure, Pwhm . The value of Pwfm can be estimated to
a high degree of accuracy using the following equation:

Pwfm = ~vhm ~l + 5 x 10-5 x D, Eq (4.10)


D = depth of the producing formation, ft

More accurate techniques for. the calculation of the bottom hole pressure at
abandonment would use the following equation:

where,
Eq (4.11)
I
~vfa = flowing bottom hole pressure at abandonment, psia
~vhm = minimum well head pressure requirement, psia
Mr =flowing pressure drop in the tubing string, psi (will be discussed in detail
in Chapter 7).

AAU/GASNOLUMETRJCS.doc 10
I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

Recovery Factor for Water Drive Reservoirs

Unlike oil reservoirs. the Recovery Factor in water drive gas reservoirs is always
less than the Recovery Factor in Volumetric reservoirs. This can be attributed to two
main reasons;

the first is the fact that a portion of the free gas will be trapped by capillary forces.
and by-passed by the channeling water. The volume of the gas which is by-
passed is the most difficult term to estimate since it is dependent on too many
factors, including the pore configuration, the thickness of the formation, the ratio
of the vertical to horizontal permeabilities, the permeability variation factor, the
aquifer size and characteristics, the dip of the gas bearing strata, and the gas-
water relative permeability relationship,

the second factor contributing to the lower Recovery is the increase in the water
cut, resulting in higher Mt, and consequently, higher abandonment pressure
requirements.

For a quick estimate of the Recovery Factor in water drive systems using Eq 4.8, the
following practical values of Swa have been suggested in the literature:

un-consolidated sand Swa =80-90 %


consolidated sand stones Swa =70-60 %
limestones Swa =60-50 %

These values are suggested as First estimates, however, more accurate estimates
can be obtained by applying the recovery factor of a depleted reservoir which has
similar geological and petrophysical characteristics, or by reservoir simulation.

In general, the recovery factor will normally be more than 70% in volumetric
reservoirs, and may reach as high as 90% in shallow formations with high
permeabilities. Whereas, the recovery factor will normally range from, as low as 50%
in very strong water drive (where pressure is maintained near initial pressure), to as
high as 70% in thin, homogeneous, weak-water drive reservoirs.

The volumetric calculations of the Reserves and the Recovery Factor in Free Gas
reservoirs are illustrated in Example Problem (4.1)

AAU/GASNOLUMETRICS.doc 11
l Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

4.3 MATERIAL BALANCE CALCULATIONS

Introduction to Tank Models

A reservoir Tank Model is a model in which the reservoir system is treated as ONE
single homogeneous unit {or block). The main assumptions incorporated in the
formulation of the reservoir Tank model can be summarized as follows:

Constant Tank Volume: The formation section containing the initial


hydrocarbons, is considered to be of constant volume and is not changing with
production and injection. In hydrocarbon reservoirs subject to high degree of
pressure depletion, the change in the ratio of the Overburden to the Internal
pressures might cause small changes in the volume of the hydrocarbon-bearing
formation, however, for all practical engineering calculations this change is
considered negligible.

Constant Pressure Distribution: The pressure is the same at every point in the
reservoir at any moment in time, and is equal to the average reservoir pressure.
However, the system average pressure is changing with time.

Homogeneous Properties: The rock and the fluid properties are considered
homogeneous throughout the reservoir. Each property {such as kg, kw, </>,
Sg, Sw, g , w, etc.) will always have the same value across the reservoir at
any one single moment in time.

Constant Composition: The fluid chemical compositions are assumed constant


throughout the history of production. However, the effect of these changes on the
fluid properties (i.e. PVT values) and on the production data are considered in
the calculations.

Uniform Withdrawals: The fluid volumes produced from (or injected into) the
reservoir are considered uniformly distributed throughout\9.
system.

Reliability of Tank Models

The Tank Model can be considered a reliable tool for the calculation of the
hydrocarbons originally in place, and for predicting future reservoir :perfqrmance, as
long as the production data, the pressure history data, and the fluid properties
relationships are accurate and reliable. In general, the credibility of the tank model
results will be improved if (and when):

AAU/GASNOLUMETRICS.doc 12
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

the reservoir connectivity is confirmed from geologic, seismic, well-logs, and


pressure test data,
the main petrophysical properties ( including fluid permeability, porosity, pore
size distribution, and fluid distribution) are more uniform across the reservoir,
the reservoir becomes more mature, and more production and pressure
history data are made available.

There are many sources of error in the use of Tank Models to represent oil
reservoirs. This includes errors in the GOR and WOR data, choice of the set of
PVT data which best represents the liberation process in the reservoir, definition
of the oil-water contact, the treatment of the oil-water transition zone, volumetric
estimate of the original gas cap size, etc.

These factors are not applicable when using the Tank model to describe a Gas
reservoir. Practically the major source of err.or in the application of the Tank
model to Gas reservoirs is the correct averaging of the system pressure.

Uses of the Material Balance method

One of the earliest, simplest, and yet most suitable tank models used in
Reservoir Engineering is the "Schilthius" tank model which is expressed in the
form of a Volumetric Material Balance Equation. This model is normally used:

1. to validate the GllP estimates obtained by the Static Volumetric Method,


2. to determine the ultimate recoverable reserves,
~;!jt!~:~~s;~.~:~f~i~~;~r;s!~~tf!~~-~mance .
The basic data required for the Gas Material Balance calculations includes,

the historical production and gas injection data,


the history of the reservoir average pressure, in addition to,
the gas PVT data.

The Generalized Material Balance Equation will be derived specifically for the
Dry gas and Wet gas reservoirs assuming NO condensate production. Later in
this section simplified techniques will be introduced to take into consideration the
condensates associated with Dry and Wet gas production.

AAU/GASNOLUMETRICS.doc 13
I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

4.3.1 Mathematical Formulation

The Material Balance Equation for free gas reservoirs, can be formulated in
different forms depending on the applicable assumptions.

In this section, the balance principle is applied in the form of Volumetric balance
to derive a Generalized MBE for Gas Reservoirs. Only the case of NO gas
injection will be considered in this section.

In order to derive the Material Balance Equation in its Generalized form, assume
that the portion of the formation occupied initially by Gas is ( V ). The Volumetric
Material Balance assumes that this volume remains constant from the start of
production until the reservoir is abandoned.
V..(l-S )
The Gas Initially In Place, G = wz , consequently,
Bgi

Eq(4.12)

The portion of the formation defining the gas zone can be considered as equal to
the sum of the volumes of Free Gas, Liquid Water, and the Grain Particles in the
gas zone. These volumes can be expressed as follows:

Volume At Initial After Production


Conditions
Gas Volume G.Bgi (G-Gp).Bg
Grain Volume V.(1-) V.(1- ) + V.(1-).CgrM
Water Volume V..Swi V..Swi + V..SwiCw.M +We -Wp.Bw

The Material Balance Equation can now be formulated as follows:

L Volumes at Initial conditions= L Volumes after production(at any P <Pi)

or,

G.Bgi + V.(1-) + V..Swi = (G-Gp).Bg+V.(l-)+V.(1-).Cgrf.V>


+V..Swi + V..SwiCw.M +We -H'pBw

AAU/GASNOLU:METRICS.doc 14
I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

. 1-
Substituting Eq 4.12 into the above equation, and defining cf = T .cgr, then,

- G(Bg -Bgi)-GBgi (cf +cwSwi).M-


- -GpBg -WpBw +We
1-SWl

Finally, the General Material Balance Equation for free gas reservoirs can be
written in the following form:

Eq (4.13)

Drive Indices

If VW is used to define Volume Withdrawals from the reservoir, i.e.

then Eq (4.13) can be written in the following form:

Cf +Cw.Swi
G (B - B ) G.Bgi( ).t:J>
. g g1 + 1- Swi + We =1 Eq (4.14)
vw vw vw

These three terms represent the natural energy sources of the gas reservoir, i.e.
the Gas Expansion Index, GEi, the Rock (with the natural interstitial water)
Expansion Effect, R&WI, and the Water Drive Index, WDI.

4.3.2 Analysis of Free Gas Reservoirs

With slight re-arrangement, Eq 4.13 can be re-written in a form which is more


suitable to analyze the historic production data, and to achieve the main
objectives underlying the use of the Schilthuis material balance, which are the

AAU/GASNOLUMETRICS.doc 15
/Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

calculation of the Gas Initially In Place, Gas Reserves, and the calculation of the
Water Influx constants. The suggested form is:

where,
Eq(4.15)

I
Eg = Bg - Bgi =effect of free gas expansion
CJ +c S
Ef w = ( w wz )11p =effect of formation and initial water expansion
' 1-SWl
and,

e F = GPBg + WpBw - G;Bw =total production volumes - total injected volumes

Modified Form of the Gas MBE

Since the effect of the gas compressibility, Eg = Bg - Bgi' is normally


hundreds of times greater than the effect of the water and formation
compressibilities, Ef, w, consequently, Eq 4.15 can be modified into the
following form:

Eq(4.16)

Equations 4.15 and 4.16 (termed The straight line form of the Material Balance)
are very adequate for the analysis of Water Drive Reservoirs. However a simpler
and more modified form is normally used for Volumetric Reservoirs.

Identification of the Driving Mechanism

In order to determine whether a water drive exists or not, the left-hand side of Eq
4.15 (or the modified form, Eq 4.16) is calculated at each of the historic
pressure-production data points. If the values at different Gp are practically
constant, then the assumption of NO water drive is correct and the average of

AAU/GASNOLUMETRICS.doc 16
I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

these calculated values is equal to GllP. The gas reservoir, in this case, is
termed a Volumetric Reservoir.

If. however. the calculated values are increasing with production, as shown in
Fig.4.2, then this is indicative of the presence of a water drive system, and the
reservoir is termed Water Drive Reservoir.

FIG 4.2: Identification of Driving Mechanism


20

18

Effect of Water Drive


16

e -><
:::s 14 -
ti::
c:
w ...
u: .s 12 -i----------------volumetrfo-Reser-voiF------i
~ ~
"O 0
<I) 210
1U
- c:
O>
:::s -
8
ns
(.) U)
U)
ns
~ 6
-
4

0
0 0.5 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

time

MU/GAS/PROBLEMS/FIG 4.2.xls 11-


INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

The MBE Expressed in Terms of the Gas Deviation Factor

When working with natural gas reservoirs, the Material Balance Equation is,
normally, expressed in terms of the deviation factor, z, instead of the gas
formation volume factor, Bg. Substituting the definition of Bg into the General
MBE (Eq 4.13) and re-arranging the equation gives the following form of the
General Material Balance Equation for free gas reservoirs in terms of the gas
deviation factor,

p R
-(1- cf wllP) = _z
Z ' Zl

Where,
5 615 520
a= ( ). , T =reseNoir Temperature in R, and
T 14.7
cf +cwSwi
cf,w=( 1-S. )
Wl

In the special case where cf,wllP is less than 0.01, Equation 4.17 is modified
into the following form:
---------------------------------------------
p
___l R
Eq 4.18
z z.l

The form of Equation (4.18) is the most practical form of the General Material
Balance Equation for free gas reservoirs, since it describes the new reservoir
conditions (P/z) as a function of three main components:

a. the initial reservoir condition (P;I z; ),


b. the cumulative gas produced from the reservoir (Gp ), and, finally
c. the effect of the net water accumulating in the reservoir, ( We-Wp.Bw).

AAU/GASNOLUMETRICS.doc 18
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

4.3.3 Volumetric Gas Reservoirs

For a volumetric reservoir, there is No water influx (i.e. We= 0). In such reservoirs
the water production is normally negligible (i.e. Wp = 0). Consequently, Eq (4.18)
is reduced to the following form,

p R
-
__l
Gp .(1}) Eq 4.19-A
z Zl G Zl
or,
1 1 Gp .(-1-)
---- Eq 4.19-B
Bg Bgi G Bgi

The form of Eq 4.19-B is rarely used by the practicing engineer since the
calculation of Bg would require the prior evaluation of the z-factor.

Equation 4.19-A clearly indicates that if (Plz) is plotted as a function of Gp (as


shown in Fig 4.3) then the data should plot as a straight line in case of a
volumetric reservoir. The slope of the line can be used to calculate the value of
the Gas Initially In Place, G. The value of the Gas Initially In Place can, also, be
calculated by extrapolating the best straight-line fit of the data points to the Gp-
axis (i.e. Plz =O).

Calculation of Gas Reserves

The only method of producing all the gas in place is to deplete the reservoir
pressure completely, i.e. (to P = 0). This is not possible in practice due to the
technical restrictions imposed by the bottom hole pressure required to lift the gas
to the surface, the minimum pressure requirements at the well head, and the
limitations imposed by the reservoir minimum economic production rate.
Consequently, the following procedure is used to calculate the gas reserves:

1) Prepare a plot of Plz vs. Gp, and fit the data points to the best straight-line
passing through Pi!Zi.
2) Define an abandonment pressure, Pa, based on the pressure and production
limitations.
3) Determine the value of the Gas Deviation Factor, Z, at Pa.
4) Calculate the value of Pa!Za .

AAU/GASNOLUMETRICS.doc 19
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

FIG 4.3
Evaluation of GllP and Gas Reserves

3500 - I

~
IPi/Zi I
3000

2500 " ~

2000

1500
" ~
~

""'~ ~
1000
~
IPa/Za
500
""'1,, "'~f
~

.....

"'
IGpa
0 '
'
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000
Gp (MMMscf)

20
AAU/GASNOLUMETRICS.doc
INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

5) Finally, calculate the reserves using the following equation:

p z.
Reserves= Gpa = G.(1-_Q_._l) Eq (4.20)
If za

Important Remarks

It is important to note, that since the values of Pi and Zi are, normally, the
most certain values in the data set, consequently, the initial data point (Pi I Z1)
should always be used as a pivot point for the straight line fit..

An accurate evaluation of ( G) necessitates obtaining a definite straight line on


the plot. Consequently, it is important to collect accurate data of (Gp) and of
the average reservoir pressure, especially during the early life of production.
Pressure tests to obtain average reservoir pressure should be run at least
once every (3-6) months during the first few years of the field production.

The use of the MBE to Calculate the GllP, and the Gas Reserves of a Volumetric
reservoir is illustrated in Example Problem (4.2)

4.3.4 Water-Drive Gas Reservoirs

The general form of the material balance equation (Eq 4.15) is normally used for
the analysis of the free-gas water drive reservoirs. There are multiple unknowns
in Eq 4.15; namely, the initial gas in place, G, and the water influx, We. whose
value is continuously increasing with time and production. Consequently, the
number of unknowns will always be higher than the number of equations by a
factor of 1. In order to solve this mathematical difficulty, it is necessary to use a
mathematical model which represents the aquifer performance, We. as a
function of pressure and time.

There are three main models representing the water encroachment into the
reservoir: namely, the Radial Water Influx Model (such as The Van-Everdingen
and Hurst Un-steady State Model), the Linear Water Influx Model (such as the
Nabor and Barham Model, REF.1 ), and the Bottom Water Influx Model (such as
the Allard and Chen Model, REF.2, or the Coats Model, REF.3). An in-depth and
detailed study of these models is given in the Advanced Reservoir Engineering
course, (WATER INFLUX MODELS by Dr. A. A. Urayet).

AAU/GASNOLUMETRICS.doc 21
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

FIG4.4
Effect of Water Influx

3500 -

3000

2500

2000 -
-
N
a..
1500
!Volumetric Reservoir

1000 -

500

0 -
500 1000 1500 2000
0
Gp (MMMscf)
e

22
AAU/GASNOLUMETRICS.doc
I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

Important Remark

The effect of water drive can be easily recognized on the P/z vs. Gp as shown in
Fig 4.4. After some time of production the effect of water influx would tend to
stop (or reduce) the pressure decline as compared to a volumetric reservoir, and
consequently the P/z data points will start diverging up ward from the regular
volumetric straight line performance.

J'. /

(At the early stage of production (i.e. Gp < 10%G) it is difficult to recognize
j whether the reservoir is volumetric or under a water drive. This would normally
leads to incorrect {higher than actual) forecast of future production potential and
reserves. However, the GllP estimates obtained from the P/z vs. Gp plot will
have a high degree of accuracy even in case of a water drive system if the
straight line fitting is restricted to the early points prior to the deviation caused by
the effect of water influx into the reservoir.

4.3.5 Treatment of the Condensates in the Gas MBE

Previous discussions of the different forms of the Material Balance Equation


assumed that only free gas is produced at the surface. This is rarely the case
except in very Dry gas reservoirs. Different types of liquids are almost always
produced at the surface.

As mentioned in Chapter-1, the condensation of liquids normally occurs at the


separator stage in all types of gases. In addition, the condensation may start in
the well bore, in case of Wet gases. In order to simplify the problem. it will be
assumed that all the condensing liquids are produced into the separator, and
that NO liquids are accumulating in the well bore.

Consequently, the value of Gp used in the Material Balance Equation should


include the measured volumes of the free gas produced, in addition to the gas
equivalent of the condensing liquids.

Three types of liquids are normally associated with the gas production,

water existing initially in liquid form in the formation, such as interstitial water
or water from the water aquifer. This type of liquids have been considered in
the derivation of the General Material Balance Equation, and, consequently,
will not be considered here.
hydrocarbon liquids, condensing from the produced gas, and which existed
initially as a gas phase in the reservoir, and,
water liquids, condensing from the water vapors associated with the gas
phase in the reservoir.

AAU/GASNOLUMETRICS.doc 23
INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

Gas Equivalent of Produced Hydrocarbon Condensates

The gas equivalent of the hydrocarbon liquids, (G8 ), signifies the volume (in scf)
of the reservoir gas which condenses into one STB of hydrocarbon liquids at the
surface. The gas equivalent can be calculated using the following relationship:

Ge -- n. R.Tsc -- 350.5ya . R.Tsc -133


- Yo
, 000 --scf/STB Eq (4.21)
Psc Mo Psc Mo
where,
n = lb. moles of gas condensing into one STB of hydrocarbon liquids
141.5
y0 = specific gravity of the liquid hydrocarbon = , and ,
131.5 +AP!
M0 =Molecular weight of the liquid hydrocarbon
In many instances, only the API gravity of the liquid hydrocarbon is reported in
the field. In such cases, the following equation, developed by Crago, can be
used to estimate the molecular weight of the liquid hydrocarbon,

Eq (4.22)

and, consequently, the gas equivalent of the hydrocarbon condensates can


be calculated using the following simplified formula :

_ 133,ooox
Ge - =3003(1.03-y0 ) Eq (4.23)
44.29 Yo
1.03-yo

Gas Equivalent of Condensing Water Vapors

As mentioned earlier, even though there is No water flowing from the formation,
however, some FRESH water (which existed originally as a water vapor content
of the gas in the reservoir) would condense into liquid under the normal
separator conditions. If it is certain that the origin of the water produced at the
surface is the vapor content of the gas in the reservoir, (and not the formation
water), then the value of Gp, to be used in the Material Balance Equation, should

AAU/GAS/VOLUMETRICS.doc 24
INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

also be modified to include the gas equivalent of this amount of condensing


water vapor.

For all practical reservoir engineering purposes, the gas equivalent of the
produced water vapors, Gw . can be assumed equal to ( 7390 scf I STBW ).

Finally, combining the previous relationships, the values of the historic Gp to be


used in the Material Balance calculations should be corrected as follows :

GP(corrected) = Gp(sep) + N P.(3003)(1.03- r 0 ) + Wvp(7390)


Eq 4.24

where,
Np =
cumulative production of hydrocarbon condensates, STB
Wvp =
cumulative water condensing from vapor, STB

The neglect of these corrections can lead to some error in the calculated values
of the Gas Initially In Place and the Ultimate reserves. This error is normally less
than 2% in the case of dry gases, but will be increasing with the increased
wetness of the gas.

The proper use of the above relationships in the Material Balance calculations is
illustrated in Example Problem 4.3.

AAU/GASNOLUMETRICS.doc 25
r
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

Example 4.1
(Calculation of the Gl/P using the Volumetric Methods)

a) Given the following data about a hypothetical free gas reservoir, (X):

Well location map, Fig Ex 4.1-A


Individual well petrophysical characteristics, Table Ex 4.1-A
P;= 3000 psia, T= 190 F, and, Zi =0.825

Calculate the GllP using the lso-pach, the HPV, and the Finite Grid
methods.

b) Assume that the following additional information was made available:

The gas reservoir rock is composed of consolidated sandstone


The average reservoir depth is 7400 ft
The minimum pressure required at the well head is 350 psia
The gas specific gravity is 0.7

Calculate the reserves assuming:

1) a volumetric system
2) a very strong water drive system

Table Ex 4.1-A

Well# Net Qay thickness, Average Qorosity Average Swi


ft % %
X-1 55 16.5 15.6
X-2 11 13.4 16.8
X-3 45 16.2 15.5
X-4 33 14.9 15.6
X-5 6 15.8 17.0
X-6 12 14.3 16.7
X-7 18 15.8 16.3
X-8 6 13.0 16.9
X-9 36 14.1 15.4

AAU/GASNOLWvIETRICS.doc 26
as . u. .s.. x1a1_211...11m.-.tz1:e1.1;..221.-211u1111J11.212.-t.-1"-1--;s:.a.--21a. . 1.. -1--
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

Fig Ex 4.1 ..
Well location map I Field: X

~

.X-1

X-3 I
I>

x-+ x-5
I

.... X-Y.
0 c.
/


X-'=>
x-6&-~
/
,.. ' ./

' ~t:..<t,
,,,
,,,,

0 \ Km

A:\l',C.\S. VOLUivIETRICS.doc 27
INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

Example Problem 4. 2
(Calculation of GllP and Gas Reserves in Volumetric Reservoirs)

The following data is available from a free gas reservoir which has been
producing for five years:

Year Yearly Production Average Reservoir Pressure at end of


(MMM scf) Year
P(psia)

1 36.50 3160
2 33.58 3040
3 33.75 2930
4 32.45 2800
5 37.95 2650

The following data is also available :

Formation Depth 7500 Ft


Initial Pressure 3324 Psi a
Reservoir Temperature 215 OF
Gas Specific Gravity 0.688

a) prepare a plot of P/Z vs. Gp to confirm that the gas system is volumetric, i.e.
No water influx.
b) calculate the value of the Gas Initially In Place, G,
c) calculate the cumulative gas production when the reservoir pressure drops to
P = 1500 psia,
d) estimate the ultimate reserves and the recovery factor, assuming the minimum
well head pressure requirement is 650 psia.

AAU/GAS/VOLUMETRICS.doc 28
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

Solution

1) Calculate the gas physical properties required for the P/z vs. Gp plot, as
follows:

- Since the gas chemical composition is not available, use Sutton correlation to
calculate the pseudo-critical properties,

2
Ppc = 756.8-131.0(yg )- 3.6(y g )2 = 756.8 -131.0(0.688)- 3.6(0.688)
Ppc = 665 psia
2
Tpc = 169.2 + 349.S(yg ) - 74.0(yg ) 2 =169.2 + 349.5(0.688)- 74.0(0.688)
0
Tpc =374.6 R

- calculate the pseudo-reduced temperature,

Tpr = __!_ = 215+460=1. 80


Tpc 374.6

- enter the Katz/Standing charts, Fig 2.1, (or the Brill and Beggs z-factor
=
numerical correlation, Eqs 2.5), with Tpr 1.80 to calculate the values of (z) for
the different reservoir average pressures, as follows : ..
)\._r .I
to
\,'<'... :r
P (psi a) P,. = PI Ppc z - factor.,~~~- t/\;'J' PI z

3324 5.00 0.912 3645

- 3160 4.75 0.906 3488


3040 4.57 0.900 3378
2930 4.41 0.898 3263
2800 4.21 0.895 3128
2650 3.98 0.890 2978

AAU/GASNOLUMETRICS.doc 29
I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

2) Prepare a table for P/z vs. Gp, as follows:

Year Yearly Production Gp P/z


(MMM scf) ( MMM scf)

0 000 3645
1 36.50 36.50 3488
2 33.58 70.08 3378
3 33.75 103.83 3263
4 32.45 136.28 3128
5 37.95 174.23 2978

3) Prepare a linear plot of Plz vs. Gp as shown in Fig Ex.4.2.

a) The plot indicates a linear relationship between Plz and Gp, which confirms
that it is a volumetric gas reservoir.

b) Fit the data points to a straight line, and calculate the value of the Gas Initially
In Place graphically or numerically as follows:

Extrapolate the straight line to the Gp-axis, and read the value of:
Gl/P = 980 MMM scf at P/z = 0.

Or read the slope of the straight line fit, slope = 3. 72x10


-9 R1
= - -
- (].zi
3645
consequently,(]= = 979.8 MMM scf
3.72x10- 9
It is important to note that using numerical calculations is always more accurate
than reading a graph , and consequently, it is best to derive the equation of the
straight line and use it for future calculations .

In this case the equation of the best straight line fit is,
p
3645--
p = 3645-(3.72xl0- 9 ).(]P , or, (] = -----=z:o.- MMM scf
P 3.72
z

p 1500
c) at P =1500 psia, Ppr = - = -- = 2.256
Ppc 665

AAU/GASNOLUMETRICS.doc 30
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

FIG Ex 4.2
Evaluation of GllP and Gas Reserves

4000 -

3600 ......- IPi/Zi I

3200
~.
2800

2400 -
'~ ~ !".....
Islope=3.72x10 I -9
I
I
~
-
N
a.. 2000 "" ~ ~
1600 -

1200 ""' ~

800
""' ~ ~
~
G=
979.8 MMM
\
400

0
""' "'N.~

e 0 100 200 300 400 500


Gp (MMMscf)
600 700 800 900 1000

31
AAU/GAS/VOLUMETRICS.doc
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

- enter the Katz/Standing charts with Ppr= 2.256 and Tpr =1.80, and read the
value of z = 0.91
- calculate P/z = 1500/(0.91) = 1648
- substitute into the equation of the straight line to calculate the value of Gp at
1500 psia, as follows,
p
3645--
Gp = z = 3645 -1648 = 536.8 MMM scf
3.72 3.72

d) since the abandonment pressure is not defined, use the reported values of
Depth and minimum well head pressure required, to obtain the minimum
abandonment bottom hole flowing pressure, using Eq (4.10), as follows:.

Pwfm = P,,vhm~l + (5xl0- 5 ).D = 650~1+(5x10- 5 )(7500)=762 psia

Consequently, the average reservoir pressure at abandonment can be taken


equal to 762+100=862 psia
p 862
- at, P =862 psia, Ppr = - =- = 1.2977
Ppc 665
- enter the Katz/Standing charts with Ppr= 1.2977 and Tpr =1.80 , and read z=
0.941
- calculate Pa I Za = (862)/(0.941) = 916
- substitute into the equation of the straight line as follows,

3645- Pa
3645 916
Resesrves = Gpa = ___za=- = - =733.5 MMM scf
3.12 3.72
G a 733.5
- finally, the recovery factor=__!?__= = 74.86 %
G 980

AAU/GASNOLUMETRICS.doc 32
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

Example Problem 4. 3
(Effect of Condensates on the Material Balance Calculations)

A gas reservoir was put on production in Nov.9, 1993. The following data was
available after one year of production:

Initial pressure (9/11/1993) 4300 psi a


reservoir temperature 228 F
gas specific gravity 0.71
Zi 0.945 0. ~ 'Z. t't l\-

reservoir pressure (9/11/1994) 4120 psia


cumulative gas produced 23.5 MMM scf
Z factor at P= 4120 psia 0.936 t:J 9 I 'r'+
cumulative hydr. liquids production 865,000 STB
API of hydrocarbon liquids 61
Cumulative water production 14,200 STBW

Assuming a Volumetric reservoir performance, calculate the Gas Initially In


Place,

a) assuming only gas is being produced


b) taking into consideration the liquid condensates, and assuming that all the
water produced is condensing from the water vapor

AAU/GASNOLUMETRICS.doc 33
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

Solution

a) Calculate the Gas Initially In Place using Eq (4.19-A) as follows:

9
. 4120 _ 4300 -(4300)23.5x10
0.936 0.945 0.945 G
0 ~16r4' tJ9l1-'-lf.f c7t.'Pl''f
GllP =719.8 MMMscf
~' ''t>"t
b) Correct the value of as follows:

GP(corrected) = Gp(sep) + N p.(3003)(1.03-y0 ) + Wvp(7390)

Gp (corrected) =
4 5
= 23.5xl09 + (865,000).(3003)(1.03- l t. + (14,200).(7390) = 24.37lxl09
131.5 + 61

- Calculate the Gas Initially In Place, using Eq (4.19-A), as follows:

p P: P:
-=-' - (-').GP
z zi G.zi

9
4120 = 4300 -(4300)24.371x10

~
0.936 0.945 0.945
O'JJ,r't c5'i2.l-'t-<t- 09'Z1-'t-c+
G =746.49 MMM scf
G

t "l't. 't >?..

AAU/GASNOLUMETRICS.doc 34
.. _........ -- ------------

-Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering bv: Dr. A.A. Urayet

- Reliability of the Material Balance Technique

Except for Depletion reservoir systems, the results obtained by Material


Balance can be misleading at the very early stage of production, (i.e. produced
oil < 3-5 % of OllP, or produced gas <10% in case of free gas reservoirs). The
credibility of the HllP estimates will continue improving with the continuing
production from the reservoir. Once more than 10% of the OllP has been
produced from the oil reservoir, or 10-15% of the GllP has been pr-oduced from
the free-gas reservoir, the results obtained by this method would normally have
a high degree of credibility.

The Tank Model can be considered a reliable tool for the calculation of the
HllP, if, and only if, the production-pressure history data, and the fluid
properties relationships are accurate and reliable. In general, the results of the
tank model will be more reliable in the following cases:
* If geologic, seismic, well-logs, and pressure test data confirm reservoir
connectivity
* If the main petrophysical properties (including effective permeability,
porosity, pore size distribution, and fluid distribution) are more uniform
acros~__the reservoir,

* As the reservoir becomes more mature, and more production and pressure
history data are made available.

-- One major source of error in the application of the Material Balance Method is
the need at the early life of the reservoir to make some assumptions regarding
the driving mechanism and the water aquifer (model, size, petrophysical
properties, etc.).

Once sufficient production and pressure data have accumulated, the


major source of error becomes the correct averaging of the reservoir
pressure, even when the individual average pressures obtained from well tests
are run and analyzed properly. In this regard, two main problems are realized
by the practicing engineer,

AAU/C/GASrrEXT/MBC.doc JV 29
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering bv: Dr.A.A. Uraret

the first problem being the fact that only a small number of wells in the
field are normally chosen at any one time for pressure tests (normally less
than 10% of the number of wells in large fields). This problem is most
critical in highly heterogeneous systems, and the only solution would be to
increase the number of wells being tested.

* the second problem is the technique of averaging the reservoir


pressure using the average pressures obtained from build-up tests and
static measurements of the individual wells. There are different numerical
approaches available in the literature for calculating the average reservoir
pressure based on the individual well average pressures. These methods
are given in Table (11.1 ).The use of any of these techniques will result in
some error in the results; the magnitude of which, will depend on the shape
and the heterogeneity of the reservoir system, as well as on the level of
field development, (i.e. well density).

Before applying any of the pressure averaging techniques, it is important to


introduce the following remarks regarding the applicability and the accuracy of the
different averaging techniques:

The arithmetic average and the flow-rate weighted average techniques give, in
general: poor results since they do not take into consideration the effect of
volumes depleted nor the production time of each well.

The Volume-weighted technique is more difficult to apply, due to the difficulty


of defining the volume drained by each well. However, if the drainage volumes
used are taken from the HPV map this method would normally give reliable
results.
The cumulative production weighted average is very representative in case of
Volumetric reservoirs, but should be used with caution in case of water drive
reservoirs, since it does not take into consideration the higher pressure at the
gas water contact.

AAU/C/GASrrEXT/MBC.doc IV 30
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering bv: Dr. A.A. Uraret

TABLE (11.1) Different Techniques for Averaging the Reservoir Pressure

n
Arithmetic average
LP;
p = i=l
n
n
Flow rate-weighted average
LP;.qi
p =_i=...;;1;___
n
Lqi
i=l
n
i

Cumulative production-weighted average "'LP;.Gpi


P=-i=...;;I_ __
n
LGpi
i=l
n
Areal-weighted average
LP;.Ai
P=-i=_I_ _
n
LAi
i=l
----.,-----------------------------------------------i
n
Volume-weighted average
LP;.V;
P=-i=._;I_ _
n
LV;
i=l

where, n = number of tested wells


P; = individual well average pressure(from pressure tests)
q; =stabilized corrected production rate for well-i
Np; =cumulative corrected production from well-i
A; = drainage area of well-i
V; = the volume of the formation drained by well-i = Ai*hi

AAU/C/GASffEXT/MBC.doc IV 31
Natural Gas Resenoir Engineering bv: Dr. A.A. Uravet

Finally, Another popular technique with the Libyan engineers is preparation of the
iso-pressure maps (lso-bar maps), and, then applying the Trapezoidal or the
. Simpson rules to calculate the average reservoir pressure. The main difficulty with
... :
this method is the preparation of the map due to two main reasons:
1) Normally a small number of wells is tested at any one single period of time,
thus forcing the engineer to use a lot of guess work and extrapolation in the
drawing of the iso-bars. This is a big problem in Libya due mainly to very
wide spacing and due to lack of reliable structure maps sometimes.
2) Normally commercial softwares are used to prepare the iso-bar map. This
. normally gives good results in case of closed reservoirs, however, in water

ie drive reservoirs, the main problem would be how to assume the correct
pressures at the Gas water contact since pressure measurements in the
surrounding aquifer are very rarely performed.

In many Libyan reservoirs, the problem of constructing accurate average


pressure historv for the reservoir can be considered the primary cause of
errors in the evaluation of the dynamic HllP using MBC. ~ .. -

- ... --.......... ___ _

AAU/C/GASffEXT/MBC.doc IV 32
INatural Gas Reservoir Engi,neering Dr. A. A. Urayet

Chapter 5

INFLOW PERFORMANCE
AND
DELIVERABILITY TESTING

Deliverability tests are run by producing the gas well at three or more different flow
rates. The pressures and flow rates are recorded as a function of time. These tests
are required by the regulatory body when the well is first drilled and afterwards
periodically. They are also required to obtain for different reservoir and production
studies such as production forecast, determining number of required development
wells, designing compression requirements, evaluation of well damage, etc.

In this section the testing procedures and the analysis techniques of the two most
popular deliverability tests will be presented. The first is the conventional back-
pressure test known as the "multi-point" (or "flow-after-flow") test, and the second
is the "isochronal" test.

The stabilized flow condition is a pre-requisite for all deliverability tests. All the
analysis techniques presented in this chapter are based on the assumption of
stabilized flow conditions.

5.1 FLOW-AFTER-FLOW TEST

The main objective of the Flow-After-Flow test (also called Back-Pressure Test) is
to define a simple inflow performance relationship between the flow rate and the
bottom hole flowing pressure (or the tubing well-head pressure), which can be used
to predict the production rate at any given pressure.

5.1.1 Flow-After-Flow Test Procedure

The normal procedure for performing this test in the field is illustrated in Figure (5.1 ),
and can be summarized as follows:

1. The well should be flown at a high rate, for at least 24 hours, in order to clean the
well bore from liquids (and for the case of a new well, from drilling mud, solids,
and acidizing fluids).

AAU/ GAS/GAS5b.doc 1
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

Fig 5.1 r... .-.


~~ '.
. :.
.

Conventional Flow-After-Flow
Test Procedure

q3
q q2
q, I
I I
I I I
(

--~--- -r--~----r---
PwJ; I I I
p I Pw/2 I I
I Pwh

t~

Conventional test, flow rate and pressure diagrams.

AAU/ GAS/GAS5b.doc 2
INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

2. The well is shut down for a period of time sufficient to reach a stabilized bottom
hole static pressure, Pws, (at least 24 hours for high permeability formations, and
48-72 hours for low permeability wells). This pressure should represent the
average pressure in the drainage area.

3. The well is put on produCtion on a small choke size. The flow is continued until
the pressure has stabilized. In North America stabilized pressure is defined as
when two consecutive pressure readings over a period of 15 minutes agree within
0.1 psi. Slightly less restrictive definitions are used in other countries. The
following equation can be used to define the time required for stabilization:

Eq 5.1
I
This relationship indicates clearly that the flow-after-flow test is not suitable for
low permeability reservoirs due to the long time required reaching stabilization.

During the flow period, the temperatures, pressures, hydrocarbon accumulation,


and water accumulation are recorded normally once every 15 minutes. Also, a
representative gas sample, which can be used to calculate the specific gas
gravity, should be taken once the well has been flowing for at least one hour.

4. Tabulate the stabilized bottom hole flowing pressure, Pwf1 , and the stabilized flow
rate, q 1 , for use in the analysis of the Flow-After-Flow test.

5. Change to a larger choke size, and continue production, until the new stabilized
flow is reached as mentioned in steps 3 and 4, and record the new stabilized
bottom hole flowing pressure, and the new stabilized flow rate for use in the
analysis.

6. Repeat steps 3 and 4 for larger choke sizes, until a total of Four stabilized rates
and Pwfs have been recorded.

In order to ensure accurate results from the Flow-After"'.Flow Back-pressure test, the
following critical precautions should always be observed during the test:

1. The pressures should be measured using a bottom-hole pressure gauge. If this


was not possible, then the pressure measurements made at the well head can be
used to calculate the stabilized bottom hole flowing pressures, (as will be
discussed in Chapter"?").

AAU/ GAS/GAS5b.doc 3
I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

2. All the analysis techniques assume that stabilized flow conditions are prevailing.
Consequently, it is most critical that each flow rate should be continued for a long
period of time to ensure that the pseudo-steady state conditions have been
reached, (Eq 5.1 ).

3. An. increasing-"rate sequence should always be used. The decreasing rate


. (reverse) sequence might be necessary in case of high-liquid-ratio wens to help
clean the well from accumulating liquids. It might also be required in very high-
flowing-temperature conditions, where starting at the highest flow rate will help in
maintaining a constant well head temperature throughout the test.

4. It is critical that the gas flow rates used in the analysis should include all the
produced volumes of hydrocarbon and water condensates existing originally in
the vapor phase in the reservoir.

5.1.2 Flow-After-Flow Test Analysis

There are three well-known analysis procedures, which are commonly used in the
gas industry:

the first method is termed the "EMPIRICAL" method, since it is based on the
empirical equation presented by Rawlins and Schellwardt. This method is also
called the "Classical" method, since it has been in use since the early 1930's. l!
is critical to remark that the use of this method to forecast flow rates outside the
tested pressure range can result in serious errors. as will be illustrated in
Example Problem (5.1 ),

the second method is called the "MODIFIED" method, since it is based on


modification of the pseudo-steady state solution of the Diffusivity equation. This
method is more accurate than the Empirical method, and ensures more accurate
forecast of the flow rates. However, the user should realize that a basic
assumption incorporated in this method is that the system pressure should be
less than 2000 psia.

the third method has been given different names, the "THEORETICAL", the
"ANALYTICAL", and the "EXACT" method. It is based on the original analytical
solution derived for the pseudo-steady state case. This method is more accurate
than the previous two methods for ali pressure ranges. The main difficulty with
this method is the need to calculate the pseudo-gas potential at each pressure.
However, with the advent of the PVT computer softwares, this method is
becoming more and more popular.

AAU/ GAS/GAS5b.doc 4
INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

1. The Empirical Method

This classical technique is based on the following empirical relationship suggested by


Rawlins and Schellhardt:

I. --2 . 2
qg =C(P -Pwf} Eq (5.2)
I
where,

qg =gas flow rate, scf/day


Pwf = bottom hole flowing pressure, psia
P =average reservoir pressure of the drainage area, psia
C =inflow (or performance) coefficient which represents the combined effect
of k,h,g, z,S,re I rw, and, reservoir temperature
n = performance exponent constant which is introduced to compensate for
the deviation of the actual gas flow from the ideal radial flow, gas slippage
and turbulence, and the fact that ( . z) product is not constant for all
pressure ranges.

For Laminar flow in extremely low permeability reser\/oirs, the exponent constant, n,
would be very near to 1. There has not been any reported value of n equal to or
more than 1 in any published reservoir data all over the world.

In most natural gas wells the value of the exponent constant, n, would be much less
than 1 due to turbulence effects, with the lower limit (theoretically) being equal to 0.5.
However, practical experience indicate that n could be less than 0.5 in highly wet (or
condensate bearing) permeable gas reservoirs. A field example for such a case is
given in Example Problem 5.1.

Equation (5.2) can be re-written in the following form:

-2 2 log(C) 1
Iog(P -Pwf) = - +-Iog(qg) Eq (5.3)
n n
2
The form of this equation clearly indicates that a plot of (P - P;f) vs. qg on log-
log paper should produce a straight line with a slope equal to 1/n, as shown in Fig
(5.2). The Least Sum of Squares is normally used to obtain the best straight line fit of
the data points.

AAU/ GAS/GAS5b.doc 5
FIG5.2
Flow-After-Flow Test Analysis
The Empirical Method

l.OOE+07 /
/
/
/
/
p.2 ~

~
~
I
,.IAI
I/
v
v
v
N
~
='" l.OOE+06 ,.
~
N /
c:L
s ooe= =1m

AOF p
~,

l.OOE+OS
10 100

Flow Rate, q, MMscf/D

I actual data I

AAU/GAS/GAS52.xls 6
I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

In the absence of the proper software, the following Two Least Square equations for
the log-log straight line fit will be used:

2
n = _ _ _ _ _2:logq2:logq-m2:(logq)
_..;:.....:;;.....____;:.......;::..._ _
__;__..:;:..~-----

-2 2 -2 2
Z:logq:Llog(P -Pw1)-m2:(logq).log(P -Pwf)
and,
2
:Llogq2:(logq).log(P -P;1 )-2:(logq) 2 2:log(P
2
)
1ogC = - n - - - - - - - - - - - - = o - - - - - - - - - - - - = - - -1-
-P;
:Llogq2:logq - m2:(logq)~
where m =number of _data points

Absolute Open Flow Potential. AOFP

The Absolute Open Flow Potential of a gas well is defined as the theoretical flow rate
of the well once the Back-pressure at the sand face is reduced to zero gauge
pressure. Consequently, extrapolation of the straight-line fit of the log-log plot of
( P - P~f) vs. q g to P should yield the value of the AOFP, as illustrated in Fig
2 2

(5.2).

Important Remarks

It has been mentioned earlier, the inflow constant, C, represents the combined effect
of many factors includinggand, z. Consequently, in volumetric reservoirs, the
value of C will be continuously changing during the operating life of the well, and the
plot of a certain Back-pressure test will be viable (and representative of the well
potential) for, only, a short period of time. However, the calculated value of C can
remain constant for a long period of time in strong water drive systems, as long as
there is no water production or if the water cut remains constant. In such a case, the
plot of a certain Back-pressure test will be viable (and representative of the well
potential) for, a long period of time.

Consequently, for a well producing from a Volumetric system (where the pressure is
declining continuously). it is recommended that the well be re-tested. and a new
performance plot be developed, once every 3-6 months. Whereas, in strong water
drive systems (where the reservoir pressure is maintained by the water influx) it is

AAU/ GAS/GAS5b.doc 7
INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

sufficient to retest the well to prepare a new performance plot. when there is a clear
indication of a change in the wellbore damage (i.e. S), or. change in the water cut
affecting the gas relative permeability.
i

I
Finally, the use of the Empirical IMethod to analyze Back-pressure tests is illustrated
in Example Problem.(5.1).

Z. The Modified Method

The basic relationship expressi~g the pseudo-steady state inflow performance of a


gas well producing at stabilized ~ow conditions was presented by Lee (1982) in the
- following general form: 1

q
lf/(Pwf) = lf/(P)-l.422_L
T( ~n(_L)-0.75
1

r + .
S + D.qg
) Eq (5.4)
kh !
i
rw

where,
qg = gas flow rate, scf/day
T = reservoir temperature, 0 ~
k = average permeability, mtf'

h = net pay thickness, feet 1

re =outer reservoir (or draintge) radius, feet


rw =well bore radius, feet I

S =mechanical skin (cause~ by damage or stimulation),

D = non-Darcy flow coefficiert caused by gas slippage and turbulence

The pseudo-gas potential at any pressure, P, is defined by the following equation:

'lf/(P) = 2 f ~dP
.z
14.7
Eq (5.5)
I
where,

=gas viscosity, cp
z = gas deviation factor

AAU/ GAS/GAS5b.doc 8
INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

For pressures < 2000 psi a, the (u. z) poduct is practically constant. Consequently,
Eq (5.4) can be modified into the following form:

2 qgzT( r )
Pwf = -2
P -1.422 . ln(1)-0.75+ S + D.qg . Eq (5.6)
kh . rw

The modified method of Flow-After-Flow analysis is based on re-writing the pseudo-


steady state inflow equation (5.6) in a simplified form as follows:

-2 2 2
P -Pwf = a.qg +b.qg
or,
p2 -P,2
-----'wf_ = a + b. q g Eqs (5.7)
qg

The theoretical values of a and b can be calculated using the following equations:

a= 1.422 ~T(ln(!g_)-0.75 +
kh rw
s)
and,

b = 1.422 zT D
kh

The following relationship has been introduced, in the literature, for the numerical
calculation of the "turbulence factor",

ID 0.0518(y g)
. hrwk0.2
Eq (5.8)

where, "" is the gas viscosity in centipoise, calculated at the flowing bottom hole
I
pressure.

AAU/ GAS/GAS5b.doc 9
INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

,-~..,,

( .

, (P2 -P.2 )
The form of Eq (5.7) clearly suggests that a linear plot of wf vs. qg should
qg
produce a straight line with a slope equal to the actual "b" and a y-intercept equal to
the actual "a", as shown in Fig (5.3). Once the values of "a" and "b" have been
determined, the AOFP can be calculated by substituting Pwf= 0 inEq (5.7).

The theoretical definitions of "a" and "b" indicate that these values will be changing
during the operating life of the well, and consequently, the same comments and
recommendations discussed earlier in the "Empirical" method, are true when
applying this method of analysis also.

The Least Sum of Squares is normally used to obtain the best straight line fit of the
data points. In the absence of the proper software, the following two Least Square
equations for linear straight line fit will be used:
( p2 -P.2 )
2:qZ:(P2-P;f)-Z: wf z:q2
a= - - - - - - - - - - - ' q = - - - - -
2:qZ:q - mz:q2

and,
( p2 -P.2 )
l:qZ: wf -m2:(P2 -P;f)
b= q
2:qZ:q-m2:q2

where m =number of data points


Finally, the use of the "Modified" Method to analyze the Backpressure test is given in
Example Problem (5.1 ).

AAU/ GAS/GAS5b.doc 10
FIG5.3
Flow-After-FlowTest Analysis
The Modified Method

0.25
I/
I/
'-*'
0.20
[//
l/
0.15
I~
l/
l/ sl 01 te =b
0.10 /
lJ
/
!!
N.-.. 0.05 I/v
/
~ /
fl.
I l/
....
N,_ 0.00
ll..
/
v"
-0.05
/
/
v
)/
-0.10
I/
I/

-0.15
'~ . in - I = ::i

-0.20
0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Flow Rate, q, MMscf/D

I actual data j

AAU/GAS/GAS53.xls 11
INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

/-- .
3. The Exact Method
c

This method is based on the original pseudo-steady state inflow equation (5.5). The
equation can be re-written in the following simplified form:

or,

Eq (5.9)

where,

a'= 1.422_!_(ln(!L)- 0.75 +


kh rw
s)
and,

b'= I.422_!_D
kh
Equation (5.9) clearly suggests that a linear plot of the left hand side of the equation
versus q g should produce a straight line with a slope equal to "b' " and an intercept
equal to "a'", as shown in Fig (5.4). Once the values of "a'" and "b'" have been
=
determined, the AOFP can be calculated by substituting Pwf 0 in Equation (5.9).

This method of analysis requires some extra work to evaluate the gas potential
integral prior to the analysis. However, it ensures more accurate results than the
previous two methods for all pressure ranges.

Finally, the proper use of the "Analytical" Method to analyze the Back-pressure test is
illustrated in Example Problem (5.1 ).

AAU/ GAS/GAS5b.doc 12
FIG 5.4
Flow-After.;Flow Test Analysis
The Exact Method

40.00

v
35.00

/
v
30.00
v
.e-
~
25.00
/
v
;}
E / sic pe: =b'

- I
20.00
/v
-
ci-
E
...... 15.oo
v
/

10.00
1V
:/
5.00 ..... -- .
,.;iJL
L..

17"4
/.

0.00
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

Flow Rate, q, MMscf/D

I actual data I

AAU/GAS/GAS54.xls 13
INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

5.2 ISOCHRONAL TESTING

As suggested by the form of Eq 5.1 the time to reach stabilization might be very long
for low permeability.formations. The main objective of the lso-chronal test is to obtain
data to establish a .stabilized Deliverability curve for a gas well without flowing the
well for a long period of time to achieve stabilized flow conditions for each rate.

5.2.1 lso-chronal Test Procedure

The lso-chronal test procedure is similar to the procedure described earlier for the
Flow-After-Flow test with ONE critical difference. In case of lso-chronal testing, the
well is shut down after each flow period, and is allowed to return to a shut-in
condition similar to the conditions existing at the time the well was first opened to
flow. The lso-chronal test procedure (illustrated in Fig 5.5) can be summarized as
follows:

1. Flow the well at a fixed flow rate, and record Pwf after a certain period of time
(from as low as 15 minutes for very high permeability to as high as 12 hours for
very tight formations).

2. Shut in the well until the pressure builds back to original pressure.

3. Repeat steps 1-2 for other flow rates, and record the bottom hole flowing
pressures at the same increments of time.

4. Finally, flow the well for a long period of time sufficient to obtain stabilized flow
conditions, and record the stabilized flow rate and Pwf.

AAU/ GAS/GAS5b.doc 14
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
,,," _}
$~\.)\" ~~

(''&..
--.
True Back Pressure Curve
j
/f~
.~

Extend to Steady State

<l
,......rr/ ~ ~.
Last Flow Rate
C>
0 Slope A Slope B .
~
s\o9e

04 log(Q)

Extend to Steady State


(J) t X'
E
:;:;
TIME

TIME

Typical Isochronal Test

AAU/ GAS/GAS5b.doc 15
INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

5.2.2 lso-chronal Test Analysis

The performance coefficient, C, in Eq (5.2) is a constant with respect to any specific


time, but is actually changing with time until stabilized flow conditions have been
achieved. More simply, if the performance plot 5.2 is made at the end of each period
of time (say after 15 minutes, 30, 45, etc.) the result would be a series bf parallel
lines which are getting closer to each other as the stabilized flow conditions are
approached, as shown in Fig 5.6. This is most clear in tight permeability systems, but
might be hard to identify in highly permeable reservoirs.

The methods of analysis of Isochronal tests are practically identical to those


presented earlier for the Flow-After-Flow tests, and can be summarized as follows:
2
1. Draw the best straight line through the data points of the (P -P;f) vs. qg plot
using the data collected after 15 minutes,

2. Repeat step 1 for data points collected at each increment of time. These straight
lines are termed "the transient deliverability lines". They should all be parallel to
each other as shown in Fig 5.6.

Even though one transient line is sufficient for the analysis, however it is customary ;
to collect data at different increments in time, since obtaining parallel lines will ensure
credibility of the data collected and the results obtained from the test.

3. Draw a straight line paratlel to the transient lines, and passing through the (last)
stabilized flow point. This line is normally termed "the stabilized deliverability line"
and will be used to extrapolate to the AOFP, and to calculate the value of the
Exponent constant, n. Once the value of n has been determined the Inflow
Coefficient, C, for the stabilized flow conditions can be calculated using the
following relationship:

C = extended flow rate


Eq(5.10)
- -2 2 n
(P - Pwf(ext))

where Pwf(ext) is the measured bottom hole flowing pressure when the well
stabilizes at an extended flow rate.

Finally, the proper analysis of an lso-chronal test is illustrated in Example Problem


(5.2).

AAU/ GAS/GAS5b.doc 16
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

FIG 5.6
lso..,chronal TestAnalysis
The Empirical Method

I.OOE+07
p.2
I
~
~

/
..
/
/

/
/
/
/
..
/

""
sta ~ilizec dat ~D li1'1
.
l.f / I~"- """
I /
/
lfi / t r :msier tlin es
~... l/ I/
stabilize< flow, line ....
/ v I/
\..., / v ~:A
_7
v /
l(

N
~
D;- l.OOE+06
/ ..........
/
:) ,/
(

N / /
a:- ,
~

: :; G;: ~-
''

,,AOFF
l.OOE+05
10 100

Flow Rate, q, MMscf/D

I 30 minutes ~ 15 minutes I

AAU/GAS/GAS56.xls 17
j Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

5.3 Accounting for Condensates in the Analysis

Previous analysis assumed that only free gas is produced at the surface. This is
rarely the case except in very Dry gas reservoirs. Different types of liquids are almost
always produced at the surface.

The condensation of liquids normally occurs at the separator stage in all types of
gases. In addition, the condensation may start in the well bore, in case of Wet gases.
In order to simplify the problem. it will be assumed that all the condensing liquids are
produced into the separator. and that NO liquids are accumulating in the well bore.

Consequently, the value of qg used in the analysis should include the measured
volumes of the free gas produced, in addition to the gas equivalent of the condensing
liquids.

Three types of liquids are normally associated with the gas production,

water existing initially in liquid form in the formation, such as interstitial water or
water from the water aquifer.
hydrocarbon liquids, condensing from the produced gas, and which existed
initially as a gas phase in the reservoir, and,
water liquids, condensing from the water vapors associated with the gas phase in
the reservoir.

The Gas Equivalent to the Produced Hydrocarbon Condensates

The gas equivalent of the hydrocarbon liquids, (Ge). signifies the volume (in scf) of
the reservoir gas which condenses into one STB of hydrocarbon liquids at the
surface. The gas equivalent can be calculated using the following relationship:

. e -- n. R.Tsc -- 350.Syo . R.Tsc -.


G Yo
-133 ,000 --scf/STB Eq (5.11)
f>sc Mo f>sc Mo

where,
n = number of lb. moles of gas condensing into one STB of hydrocarbon liquids
1415
Y0 = Spec1.f.IC gravity
. 0 f the 11qu1.d hyd rocar bon = , an d ,
131.5 +AP!
M 0 = Molecular weight of the liquid hydrocarbon

AAU/ GAS/GAS5b.doc 18
INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

In many instances, only the API gravity of the liquid hydrocarbon is reported in the
field. In such cases, the following equation, developed by Crago, can be used to
estimate the molecular weight of the liquid hydrocarbon,

IMo 44.29y0
1.03-ro
Eq (5.12)

and, consequently, the gas equivalent of the hydrocarbon condensates can be


calculated using the following simplified formula :

G = 133,000y
e =3003(1.03- r o) Eq (5.13)
44.29 Yo
1.03-ro

The Gas Equivalent to the Condensing Water Vapors

In some reservoirs, even though there is No water flowing from the formation,
however, some FRESH water (which existed originally as a water vapor content of
the gas in the reservoir) would condense into liquid under the normal separator
conditions. If it is certain that the origin of the water produced at the surface is the
vapor content of the gas in the reservoir, (and not the formation water), then the
value of qg to be used in the analysis should also be modified to include the gas
equivalent of this amount of condensing water vapor.

For all practical reservoir engineering purposes, the gas equivalent of the produced
water vapors, Gw , can be assumed equal to (7390 set I STBW).

Finally, combining the previous relationships, the values of qg to be used in the


analysis should be corrected as follows :

qg(corrected) = qg(scf of gas produced I day)+ q0 .Ge + qw.Gw


Eq (5.14)

AAU/ GAS/GAS5b.doc 19
INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

Finally, it is important to note that the neglect of these corrections can lead to some
error in the calculated values of C and n. This error is normally less than 2% in the
case of dry gases, but will be increasing with the increased wetness of the gas.

Final Remarks

It is important here to note that the main objective of both the Flow-After-Flow and
lso-chronal tests is to define a simple inflow relationship between the flow rate
and the bottom hole flowing pressure (or the tubing well-head pressure), which
can be used to predict the production rate at any given pressure, and to set a
base against which future performance is to be compared.

If sufficient data is collected from the lso-chronal test, then it can be analyzed as
a transient pressure test which can be analyzed using the principle of super-
position to calculate kg,S,and D.

The Flow-After-Flow test should always be limited to high permeability systems


where the Transient period is very short. The lso-chronal testing can be applied to
both low- and high-permeability reservoirs.

In extremely low permeability systems, the exponent factor, n, of a Flow-After-


Flow test will always be less than those obtained from lso-chronal testing. This is
mainly because in the later flow rates, the position of each of the succeeding
points of the Flow-After-Flow are not only influenced by the rate change, but also
by the super-position effects of previous rates. However, for highly permeable
reservoirs the time required to reach stabilized-flow conditions is shorter, and the
difference in the results of the two tests will be much smaller.

AAU/ GAS/GAS5b.doc 20
INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

Example 5.1
(Different Techniques for the Analysis of the Flow-After-Flow Gas test)

A flow-after-flow test was run in a wet gas reservoir. The following data was available
from the test,

reservoir temperature =227 OF


condensate gravity =56.5 AP/

flow period Pwf (psia) Qg (MM scf/D) Qc(STBID)

Initial conditions 2852 0 0


1 2700 5.2 495
2 2300 8.2 780
3 2000 10.0 951
4 1600 11.0 1200

A -gas sample was collected from the reservoir, and the following compositional
analysis data was available:

component mole fraction

C1 .. 0.86030
C2 0.05160
C3 0.02320
i-C4 0.00000 results of lab measurements of Cl+
n-C4 0.01380
i-C5 0.00000 molecular weight = 100.100
n-C5 0.00570 specific gravity = 0.800
C6 0.00290 Pc = 505 psia
Cl+ 0.00150 Tc = 1040 R
H2S 0.00100
N2 0.00150
C02 0.03850

1.00000

a) Prepare a table of the data required for the plots and the calculations of the
Empirical, the Modified, and the Analytical methods
b) Calculate the absolute open flow potential using all three analysis techniques,
and predict the production rate at Pwf=1000 psia for each method.

AAU/ GAS/GAS5b.doc 21
INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

Solution
r-.
a) Data Preparation

1. The physical properties were calculated using the different relationships and
correlations discussed in Chapters 2 and 3. The results are given in the attached
Table (Ex 5.1-1). The pseudo-gas potential at each pressure was determlned first by
calculating the value of (2P/uz) at different pressures, and then using the Trapezoidal
method to calculate the area under the curve from P=14.7 to the required pressure.
(A plot of pseudo gas potential vs. Pressure is shown in Figure (Ex 5.1-1)

2. It is important first of all to correct the gas flow rates for the liquid condensates.
Since there is no water production, the gas rates need to be corrected for the
hydrocarbon condensates as follows:

141.5 14 1 5
AP/ =56.5 I consequently, r0 = ----- - -- -- = 0.75266
131.5 +AP! 131.5 + 56.5
Using Crago correlation for the calculation of the gas equivalent:

Ge= 3003(1.03- r0 ) = 3003(1.03-0.75266) = 832.9 scf I STBC

3. Calculate the different parameters required for the three analysis techniques as
follows:

-p2 -P;f 'f/( P;) - If/(P)


Pwf Q(gas) Q(cond.) qg(corr.) lf/(P)
(psia) (MMscf/D) (STBID) =Qg+Qc(Ge) -p2 -P;f qg qg

2852 0 0 0 0 - 5.28E+08 0
2700 5.2 495 5.6123 843904 0.1504 4.78E+08 8.909
2300 8.2 780 8.8497 2843904 0.3214 3.59E+08 19.097
2000 10.0 951 10.7921 4133904 0.3830 2.77E+08 23.261
1600 11.0 1200 11.9994 5573904 0.4645 1.81E+08 28.889

AAU/ GAS/GAS5b.doc 22
INatural Gas Reser-voir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

Table Ex 5.1-1
Gas Physical Properties
Gas Molecular Weight , M = 19.76037
Gas S ecific Gravi = 0.682192

681.0172 psia
380.7928 oR

Reservoir Temperature , T = 227 oF


Pseudo-reduced Tern erature = 1.804131

p z density Bg Ug Cg m(p)
(psia) factor (am/cc) (SCF/ft3) (cp) (1/psi)

14.7 0.998916 0.000632 0.76 0.013679 0.068094 0


200 0.986526 0.008709 10.43 0.013811 0.005066 2919395
400 0.973432 0.017652 21.14 0.014022 0.002566 11716474
600 0.960506 0.026835 32.14 0.014282 0.001732 26325479
800 0.947954 0.036253 43.42 0.014586 0.001313 46644719
1000 0.936023 0.045894 54.97 0.014933 0.001059 72524998
1200 0.924951 0.055732 66.76 0.015320 0.000887 1.04E+08
1400 0.914954 0.065731 78~73 0.015749 0.000762 1.4E+08
1600 0.906215 0.075846 90.85 0.016216 0.000665 1.81E+08
1800 0.898885 0.086023 103.04 0.016722 0.000588 2.27E+08
2000 0.893077 0.096202 115.23 0.017265 0.000524 2.77E+08
2200 0.888872 0.106323 127.36 0.017840 0.000469 3.31E+08
2400 0.886314 0.116323 139.33 0.018446 0.000422 3.88E+08
2600 0.885418 0.126145 151.10 0.019079 0.000380 4.48E+08
2800 0.886171 0.135733 162.58 0.019733 0.000344 5.11E+08
3000 0.888534 0.145041 173.73 0.020404 0.000311 5.76E+08
3200 0.892451 0.154031 184.50 0.021088 0.000282 6.43E+08
3400 0.897846 0.162675 194.85 0.021780 0.000256 7.12E+08
3600 0.904633 0.170952 204.77 0.022475 0.000233 7.82E+08
3800 0.912716 0.178851 214.23 0.023170 0.000212 8.53E+08
4000 0.921992 0.186370 223.24 0.023861 0.000194 9.26E+08
4200 .0.932359 0.193513 231.79 0.024545 0.000177 9.99E+08
4400 0.943711 0.200289 239.91 0.025219 0.000162 1.07E+09
4600 0.955947 0.206713 247.60 0.025883 0:000149 1.15E+09
4800 0.968969 0.212802 254.90 0.026534 0.000138 1.22E+09
5000 0.982685 0.218574 261.81 0.027173 1.3E+09

AAU/ GAS/TABLE_Ex51.xls 23
INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

Figure Ex 5.1-1
Pseudo-Gas Potential
1.30E+09

1.20E+09 /
1.10E+09 I
1.00E+09 I
,e I
9.00E+08 '

~ 8.00E+08
I
ii
;;
c 7.00E+08
.s0
I
Q.
UI
co
(.!)

,,0
6.00E+08 I
,
::J
(I)
UI
Q. 5.00E+08 J
4.00E+08 I
3.00E+08 I
,
I
e 2.00E+OB

1.00E+OB
/
/
O.OOE+OO
/
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
Pressure, psia

AAU/ GAS/TABLE_Ex51.xls FIG 24


INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

b.1 The Empirical Method

P~f) vs. qg
2
> Plot ( P - on a log-log plot, and flt to a straight line as shown in Fig
(Ex 5.1-~).

> Read from the plot (or calculate using Least Square Fit):

n =0.4062 , c =21,774
> Consequently, the inflow performance relationship can be represented by:

qg = 21 ' 774(P2 ~ P.2wf )0.4062

> For P=14.7 psia.


qg=AOFP = 21,774(2852 2 -14.7 2 )0.4062 =13.96 MMscf ID

> For P=1000 psia,

qg=21,774(2852 2 -1000 2 ) 04062 =13.23 MMscf ID

:>-

AAU/ GAS/GAS5b.doc 25
r

Figure (Ex 5.1-A)


Empirical Method
l.E+o7
I
~ I
I
I
slope=2.4618 fi
n=l/2.462=0.4062 ~
j
I

I
/
J actual data
-best fit

I
I
J

I
I/
AOFP=13.23 MMscf/D

'F
l.E+05
10 100

qg (corrected) Mmscf/day

AAU/GAS /Ex5 I Ex5 I 26


e e

Inflow Performance
Example Problem-5.1

3000.i:;~~=i==i=+:i==r:r=r=J:::c=CJ=r::C""T""9~r-1-r-r-ri-11-i--r.,-r-11-r-i--r--r--,..._,. ___

2500 1 I I II I I IIII III II I I~ I IIIIIIII IIIIII I I II


~
.. 1'.

2000 I I I I I I I I 11111-~ 111111 llitt 111111111111


'
,
'"
1ooor=~=t=t:t==t=t=i==t:==l=J=J=-f--t-t-~=f=F=J=~r=f=l==f==f=~~~=J=j=tj=~j
~
500+--+---+--+--+--+--+--+--+-+~--if--l---l--+--1--1---+--+--+--+--l--+--I--+-+~

0+-....__.__,__._-+__.~.__..__.......,.-+-....__.__,__._-+__,, __.__..__.......,.-+-...&.-.....i.....j,.,.--l..-!---1.......1~'"--.i...-.+--...i.-...r...

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
flow rate, MMscf/D
INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

b.2 The Modified Method

(P2 -P.2 )
)> Plot wf vs. q g on linear paper, and fit to a straight line as shown in
qg
Fig (Ex 5. 1.-B).

)> Read from the plot (or calculate using the Least Square Fit):

a= -0.11303 I b= 4.76x10-8

)> Consequently, the.inflow performance can be represented by:

( p2 P.2 )
- wf = -0.11303 + 4.76x10-8 qg
qg

or,

-2 2 -8 2
(P - Pwf) = -0.11303 qg + 4.76x10 qg

)> For P=14. 7 psia,

consequently, qg =AOFP= 14.313 MM scf!D

)> ForP=1000 psia,

2 2 . 8 2
(2852 -1000 ) ~ -0.11303 qg + 4.76xl0- qg

consequently, q g = 13.487 MM scf/D

AAU/ GAS/GAS5b.doc 27
Figure (Ex 5.1-B)
Modified Method
0.7

/
v
0.6

o.s /
e ../
0.4
slopt ~ = b = 4 76(10)-8
ntercep =a =-1 I, 11 ;jU;j
/
V
~
bl)

~
.......
..,,_ 0.3

~ !/ actual data

--
~ --best fit I,

M
~
I

~
.......
0.2
/
/
0.1
I/
/
0.0
v
/
-0.1 /
/
-0.2
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

qg (corrected) Mmscf/day

AAU/GAS /Ex5 l Ex5 1 28


e e

Inflow Performance
Empirical vs. Modified

3500-.--.--.-.....-....-....--.--.--.--.--.---.------.---....-------..--..--.---.---.---,,....-,....-.--....-..--..--.,.-.,---.--.--.--.-.....-....-....,.....,.....,.....,........

3000 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I . I I I I I I I

2500 I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I -- -........_
.......
f""'llllli

l ......
1'."'-
a. 1500 ~

"~'X'-

1000 --------I---+-....._.__ I I I I I I I I'"\\l\.I'- I !\111111111~


'I v ~
I
llt{

500 I I I I I I I I I .I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I .::111,1~1111~b l I . ~ ~ I I I I I
0 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 'I II I I I I
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
flow rate, MMscf/D
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

b.3 The Exact Method

0 / t'l'(/})-'!'(Pwf)
,"- ,-. o vs. qg on l"mear paper, an dfitt
1 o a s tra1g
htl"me as sh own m
dg
c:
qg
(Ex 5.1-C).

~ Read from the plot (or calculate using the Least Square Fit):

a' =-7.99049 'b' =3.009601(10f6


~ Consequently, the inflow performance can be represented by:

l/l(R )- l/f(R 1)
l w = -7.99049 + 3.009601(10)- 6 .q g
qg
or,
'!'(/} )- l/l(Pwf) = -1.99049.qg + 3.009601(10)- 6 .q:

~ For P=14.7 psia,

'!'(2852)- '!'(14.7) = -1.99049.qg + 3.009601(10)- 6 .qi

5.28(10) 8 = -7.99049.q g+ 3.009601(10)-6.q:


'

consequently, qg =AOFP= 14.6392 MM scf/D

~ For P=1000 psia,

'!'(2852)- '1'0 000) = -7 .99049. q g + 1009601ci 0)- 6 . qi

8
5.28(10) -0.725(10) 8 = -7.99049.q g + 3.009601(10)- 6 .qi
'

Consequently, qg = 13. 701 MM scf/D

AAU/ GAS/GAS5b.doc 29
Figure (Ex 5.1-,:C)
Exact Method
35.0
'/

30.0
1y
I
25.0 I
I/.
20.0 I

- C"'
ell

........
~ 15.0 I
I/
./ I
cf
.._ actual data
s I
--best fit
c
c.
.._ 10.0
s
I
~

5.0
v . -
:: - - I.; 1~up ut
-6
I
\'= 3.00 6 .

0.0

v
I
I
-5.0

-10.0
v
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

q" (corrected) Mmscf/day


"'

AAU/GAS /Ex5 1 Ex5-1 30


INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet I

Example 5.2
(Analysis of a typical Isochronal Test)

. An 1so-chronal test was run in a dry gas reservoir, and the following data was
collected from the test,

we// status time, hours (MM scflday) Pwf, psia

Initial S.I. 48 -- 1952


Flow# 1 12 2.62 1761
S.I. 15 -- 1952
Flow#2 12 3.29 1680
S.I. 17 -- 1952
Flow#3 12 4.95 1420
S.I. 18 -- 1952
Flow#4 12 6.25 1100
Extended Flow 72 6.25 700
Final S.I. 100 --- 1952

Calculate the AOFP using the Empirical method.

AAU/ GAS/GAS5b.doc 30
.INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet I

Solution

The Empirical Method

2
> Plot ( P - P;,
1) vs. qg on a log-Jog plot, and fit to a straight line as shown in
Fig (Ex 5.2).

> Read from the plot (or calculate using Least Square Fit):

n =0.6719

> Draw a line parallel to the best fit (i.e. with slope=0.6710) passing through the
extended flow data point

> Calculate the value of C for the extended flow rate:

C = extended flow rate = 6,250,000 =


260
( p2 _ P.2 )n (l 952 2 _ 700 2)0.6719
wf(ext)

> Consequently, the inflow performance relationship for the stabilized flow can be
represented by:

> For P=14.7 psia.

qg=AOFP = 260(19522 -14.7 2 ) 06719 = 6.864 MMscf ID

AAU/ GAS/GAS5b.doc 31
Figure (Ex 5.2)
Empirical Method

10000000.0

.l ,J

, /
I, /
........
,,, v
~
,/
1'

,,. ~/
1000000.0 ,,
,'/
,'
7
actual data
--best fit
v = 1 ...Cl o ..
-
;: iUflC
, 1' / n=1/ .884= IJ.67' 9
,,
,, '
,,,
1'

,,,,1'
,
,,,

AOFP=6.864 MMscf/D

,
100000.0
10

qg (corrected) MMscf

AAU/GAS /Ex5 2 Ex5_2 33


INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

Chapter 6

TRANSIENT PRESSURE ANALYSIS IN GAS WELLS

6.1 INTRODUCTION

There are three main differences in the formulation of the flow equations
describing the oil and gas flow in porous media. These differences can be
summarized as follows:

Fluid Properties

In the derivation of the Diffusivity Equation for liquids it was safe to assume that
liquid properties (such as Bo, Co, and Uo) are constant. This assumption cannot
be applied in the case of gas flow, because gas properties are highly sensitive to
pressure changes with time and location in the reservoir.

Skin Factor

Due to the relatively small liquid velocity toward the well bore, it was safe to
neglect the effect of turbulance and thus use Darcy equation to represent
steady-state flow of into the wellbore. However, due to the large velocities by
which the gas flows toward the wellbore, the original Forchheimer equation
should be used to represent the gas flow. This equation takes into consideration
the effect of gas Slippage and Turbulence as follows:

I- dP = uV + j3pV2
dr k
Eq (6.1)
I
where fJ is a formation constant determined by the petrophysical characteristics
of the formation (mainly type of rock, porosity, and permeability).

The last term in the above Equation (normally known as the Non-Darcy effect)
accounts for the slippage and turbulence.

In order to visualize the importance of the Non-darcy effect, consider a gas well
producing at a constant rate of (5 MM scf I day) . Also assume that p = 0.001

AAU/GAS//GASPTA.doc 1
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

gm/cc, u = .02 cp, h = 25 ft,


= 0.15, and k = 100 md.
r/J (such petrophysical -.

characteristics would correspond to /3 =3). Then,

at a distance 10 ft. away from the well bore

V =_!I_ =3183. 1 ft/day =1.12 cm/sec


2wh
and consequently ,

f3pV 2 = 3(0.001)(1.12) 2 = 0.003763


uV
(.02)(1.12)/(0.1) =0.224
k
dP
- - = 0.224 + 0.003763 =0.227763
dr
It is clear that the Non-Darcy effect, in this case, has negligible contribution (i.e.
<2%) to the total pressure drop at a distance of 10 feet away from the well bore .

at a distance of 1 ft. away from the well bore

V= _q_ = 31831 ft/day = 11.2 cm/sec


2wh

f3pV 2 = 3(0.001)(11.2) 2 = 0.3763


uV
- = 2.24
k

~ -dP = 2.24 + 0.3763 =2.6163


dr

It is clear that the Non-Darcy contribution cannot be neglected at a distance of


one foot away from the well bore, since it accounts for as much as 15 % of the
pressure drop. The degree of contribution is inversely proportional to the
distance from the well bore.

AAU/GAS//GASPTA.doc 2
Fig 6.1-A
2
The Pw analysis method
(for P<2000 psia)
3.60E+06
..... I
3.50E+06
3.40E+06
3.30E+06 ~ .-2 I :n
!"- r-..._
--r--.."
11L
,,--..._..._.
- -- -

...........
- . ,. -. -.
.;;;. -

/
,_
~

/
,_ i...
,.

1--actuatl
N 3.20E+06 ~
~
a_
} 3.10E+06
3.00E+06
-r....... 11:>..
2.90E+06
""' ~ .....
2.80E+06
2.70E+06
2.60E+06
0.1 1 10
flowing time, hours

Fig 6.1-B
The Pw analysis method
(for P>3000 psia)
3400
r--........_ ,,, ...
3350
!---..!'--- 0
1., ----L.
-r-/ - ' --
..... t: ~- 'I ~
"l:l
3300 -r1 h -....... i....
i-.. .... I~-/ .... I actual data I
e l
3250

3200
~ ,.........,,.

a. --.......
i"1 ~ i.... L,"
3150

3100

3050

3000
0.1 1 10
flowing time, hours

AAU/GAS6P .xis Fig 6.1 9


I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

Different investigators have conCluded that since the Non-Darcy effect becomes
appreciable only at very small distances from the well bore, consequently, it is
safe to include this effect as an additional skin. So, unlike oil wells, the SKIN
factor in gas wells is variable with flow rate.

General Diffusivity Equation

Unlike the Diffusivity equation describing liquid flow in porous media, the general
diffusivity equation describing the gas flow is NON-linear as can be seen from
the following form:

;::,2 2 2 .:::> 2 .:::> d. .:::> 2


u p + _!_ 0 p + (u p )2 (UZ) u (-1) = 'f/ UCg u p Eq 6.2
8 r2 r 8 r 8 r 8 P 2 uz k 8 t

There are two main approaches in the literature to the solution of this non-linear
equation:

1) The Carter approach

which incorporates certain assumptions regarding the gas physical


properties in order to linearize the third term in the above equation. Two
analysis techniques where developed by assuming that certain terms are
constant or negligible depending on the pressure range:
a) P; technique for P<2000 psia
b) Pw technique for P>3000 psia
These solutions are sufficiently accurate within the pressure ranges

mentioned .

2) The pseudo-gas potential technique

where the Gas Diffusivity equation is re-written in a linear form through the
introduction of a transform known as the Pseudo-Gas Potential, m(p) or
lf/(P). This approach was developed by Alhussainy and Ramey in 1966,
and it is correct analytically for all ranges of pressures.

AAU/GAS//GASPTA.doc 3
INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

6.2 THE P; ANALYSIS METHOD


Carter made the observation that the value of .z is practically constant for p <
2000 psia. Consequently, the third term in Eq 6.2 can be neglected, and the
Diffusivity equation is reduced to the following form:

182p2 +
I} r 2
p2 - t/J UCg 8 p2
_!_ 8
r I} r k I} t
Eq 6.3

This is very similar to the oil diffusivity equation except for the replacement of P
I
2
by P . The analytical solution of this equation for an infinite acting system can
be written in the following form:

63
P/-P;f = 1. ?qTuz (logt+log kP -3.23+0.87S') Eq 6.4
kh urw2

where,

q =gas flow rate, scf I day


T =reservoir temperature , R
2 2
Pwf + !}
P=
2
UZ == U. z where each property is evaluated at P

Equation 6.4 clearly indicates that a plot of:


2
Pwf vs. log (t) for Draw-down, or,
P;s vs. log(t + ~t)/(~t) for build-up
would result in a straight line (as shown in Fig 6.1-A) with a slope, b, where,

Eq 6.5
I
AAU/GASl/GASPTA.doc 4
INatural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

Similar to the pressure analysis of oil wells, the early-time pressure data will be
distorted due to the effect of well bore storage. Different authors have shown that
for gas wells in which the casing-tubing annulus is not packed off, the duration of
the well bore storage effect can be estimated using the following relationship:

I
,o,i, I .,j ' '
..,.,,,,,,.;:';~ l ,,.,/ iiloc-'> "'"'' ~.,,

t =4 785 g cg r.2L

where,
'
L
w
kh
=length of the flow string, feet,
Eq 6.6
I
and, rw =well bore radius, feet
This equation indicates that the well bore storage effects can be very long in low-
pressure, deep formations due to the combined effect of L and the high gas
compressibility.

It is important to note that the above equation is developed for a skin factor =
zero. Different investigators have concluded negative skin will reduce the
duration of the well bore storage, and visa versa. However, there is still NO
concrete analytical expression which takes into consideration the effect of skin.

Similar to the case of oil wells, Eq 6.6 cannot be used unless the value of the
permeability has been estimated from previous tests. In case of in-availability of
k, the Ramey rule of 1 % cycle after the end of the log-log unit straight line
should be used, and then once k has been calculated, Eq 6.6 is used to check
whether the correct portion of data has been used in the semi-log analysis or not.

The total skin factor can be calculated using the following equation:

S =1.151
( ~2b Ihr - log k
(uct )irw
2
+ 3.23 J Eq 6.7

where,
Cti = (1- Swi )cgi+ SwiCw +Cf

M1h;= [12 - Pi~r for Draw-Down test analysis,

M1h;= Pi~r - P;fo for Build-up test analysis

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Swift and Kiel have concluded that the total skin factor, S', is dependent on two
components; namely, the mechanical skin, S, and the non-darcy skin effect, as
follows,

Is' =S+Dq Eq 6.8


I
where D is the Non-Darcy flow coefficient .

Calculation of the Mechanical Skin factor. S

The above equation includes two unknowns, namely, the mechanical skin factor,
S, and the Non-Darcy flow coeffeicient, D. Consequently, two tests at two
I I

different flow rates need to be run. The skin factors S1 and S2 are evaluated
and substituted into Eq 6. 7 as follows:

Finally, the two equations are solved simultaneously to calculate (S), and (D) .

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6.3 THE (Pw )ANALYSIS METHOD

Carter made the observation that the value of .Bg is practically constant for p
> 3000 psia, i.e. the gas flow can be approximated by liquid flow, and
consequently, the analytical solution for the Diffusivity equation will be:

quBg kP
f1-Pwf =162.6 (logt+log 2
-3.23+0.87S') Eq 6.9
kh ,./,
'r
UY,
lW

where,
q =flow rate, scf I day,

Bg = 0.005035. T.z bbl I set,


p
p= _lj'--+_P_w_if_
2

A plot of Pwf vs. Log t for Draw-down, or, ~vs vs. Log (t + ~t) I ~t for build-up
will result in a straight line with a slope,

Eq 6.10 I
and,

Eq 6.11

where,
cti = (1- Swi )cgi + swiCw +cf
Mihr = f1 - lhr for Draw-Down test analysis
Mihr = lihr - Pwfo for Build-up test analysis
I

S =S+Dq

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P;
The same procedure, described earlier for the method, for the calculation of
the mechanical skin factor, S, and the Non-Darcy flow coefficient, D, can be
used in this case .

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6.4 THE PSEUDO-GAS POTENTIAL METHOD

In order to linearize the original diffusivity equation, Eq 6.2, Alhussainy and


Ramey introduced the concept of the Pseudo-gas Potential, m(p }, where:

Im(p) = 2 J.!_dP
14.7uz
Eq 6.12
I
Substituting the m(p) transform into the original Diffusivity Equation, the following
form is obtained:

o 2
m(p) 1 O m(p) </J UCg O m(p)
--"'-----+- = ------- Eq 6.13
o2r r 0 r k 0 r

This equation is analogous to the Diffusivity Equation for liquid flow, except for
the substitution of (p) by the pseudo-gas potential m(p ).

Consequently, the solution of Eq 6.13 for the infinite acting system will be:

m(p)i-m(p)=l.637- log qT(


2
kt
. -3.23+0.87S J Eq 6.14
kh (uct)irw

where,

q
T
= gas flow rate in set I day , and ,
=reservoir temperature, 0 R

A plot of m(p )wf vs. Log t for Draw-down, or, m(p )ws vs. Log (t + b..t)I b..t for
build-up will result in a straight line with a slope,

Im = 1.637 ~: Eq 6.15
I
If more than one test is being run, then the permeability values calculated from
the different tests should be identical. However, differences can occure due to
errors in data, errors in reading the values of m(p) from the plot, or error in fitting
a set of data points to the correct straight line. In this case, calculate an

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arithmetic average of permeability to represent the most probable value for the
formation. Use engineering sense to exclude any test whose calculated k has a
high degree of divergence from the other calculated values.

The total skin factor is calculated using the following equation:

s' = l.151(~m(p) -log k 2 +3.23) Eq 6.16


m (uct )irw

where,

Cti =(1-Swi)cgi +Swicw+cf


~m(p) = m(pi )- m(p )t=l for Draw-Down, and,
~m(p) = m(p) ~t=l - m(p) M=O for Build-up test

The procedure for the calculation of the mechanical skin factor, S, and the Non-
Darcy flow coefficient, D, will be the same as described earlier in the p_;
method.

In case more than two tests are being run, calculated the value of S' for each test
and plot versus the corresponding flow rates, on linear paper, and obtain the
best straight line fit. The value of the mechanical Skin, S, will be equal to the y-
intercept, whereas, the value of the Non-Darcy flow coefficient, D, will be equal
to the slope of the straight line.

Finally, in order to enhance the pseudo-gas potential analysis, it is


recommended to prepare representative m(p) vs. p tables and/or graphs using
the gas composition. In general such tables can be used through out the life of
the reseNoir in dry and wet reseNoirs except in fields which have remarkable
differences in gas composition from one area of the reseNoir to the other (such
as in the case of re-cycled gas-injection projects).

Example Problem 6.1 illustrates the proper analysis procedures for the Pw2
method and the pseudo-gas potential method.

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Example Problem 6. 1
(Draw-Down Test Analysis in Gas Wells)

Two Draw-Down tests were performed in a new gas well. The following bottom
hole flowing pressures were recorded:

Time Pwf (psia) Pwf (psia)


(hours) at at
01=1600 Mscf I day 02=3200 Mscf I day
0.232 1855 1105
0.4 1836 1020
0.6 1814 954
0.8 1806 906
1 1797 860
2 1758 700
4 1723 539
6 1703 387

The following reservoir and fluid data was also available :

T = 130 F , h = 10 feet = 0.10


/f ..,..;
re= 2980 ft , rw = .0;5 eet 0 Pi = 2300 psia
Sg = 0.77 , Cw = 0.000004 I psi , Cf= 0.0000041 psi

GAS PROPERTIES

P (psia) z u (cp)
400 0.95 0.0117
800 0.90 0.0125
1200 0.86 0.0132
1600 0.81 0.0146
2000 0.80 0.0163
2400 0.81 0.0180

Analyze the two tests using:

a) the m(p) method


b) the P!; method

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Solution

a) The pseudo-gas potential method

1) Prepare tables of p/(u.z) vs. p, and then calculate a table of the corresponding
m(p) values using the Trapezoidal Rule as shown in Tables Ex 6.1-A and 6.1-B.
The corresponding working plots of p/(u.z) vs. p and m(p) vs. p are given in
Figures (Ex 6;1-A and Ex 6.1-B)

Table Ex 6.1-A
Calculation of P/uz

p z u P/uz

400 0.95 0.0117 35,987


800 0.90 0.0125 71, 111
1200 0.86 0.0132 105,708
1600 0.81 0.0146 135,295
2000 0.80 0.0163 153,374
2400 0.81 0.0180 164,609

Table Ex 6.1-B
Calculation of m(p) vs. P

(A)j =
j
J P (psia) (PI uz) j +(PI uz) j-l fj-l L:(A)i 6
.!iP . m(p)xI0
2 J i=O

0 0 0 0 0
1 400 7,197,400 7, 197,400 14.39
2 800 21,419,600 28,617,000 57.23
3 1200 35,363,800 63,980,800 127.96
4 1600 48,200,600 112' 181 ,400 224.36
5 2000 57,749,600 169,931,000 339.86
6 2400 63,596,600 233,527 ,600 467.05

2) Using the working m(p) plot in Fig. Ex 6.1-B, convert the given data values of
Pwf to the corresponding m(p) values.

Important Note: Normally the m(p) vs. p plot can be satisfactorily fitted to a
second degree equation (as shown in Fig Ex6.1-B) which will make the
conversion of the actual data to m(p) a very simple procedure. This method is
more accurate than reading the graph.

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Fig Ex 6.1-A

180,000
_.
160,000
~
~
140,000 _,,,.-
/
120,000
/"
-N
::J
a_
100,000
80,000
/
/
v
60,000
40,000
v
20,000 /
0 ./
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000

P, psia

Fig Ex 6.1-B

500
450 A
!
400 / i
I
co 350 v = 7F-n :=i)(" + n r 178)( /
~r:
~ 300
J$.. 250 /
.,e; 200
E 150 /
_.,,Jt' !I
100 __.,,,, I
I
50 ~
0 ----!::-" I
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000

P, psia

AAU/GAS/PROBLEMS/FIG_ Ex6.xls 13
l Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

In this problem the representative equation is:


m(p) 17,773(P) + 74.62(P 2 )
=
The values obtained using this representative equation are given in the following
Table:

Table Ex 6.1-C
Conversion of pressure data to corresponding m(p) values

01=1.6 MMscf I day 02=3.2 MMscf I day

Time Pwf (psia) 6 Pwf (psia) 6


m(p) x10 m(p)x10

0.232 1855 289.74 1105 110.75


0.4 1836 284.17 1020 95.76
0.6 1814 277.78 954 84.87
0.8 1806 275.48 . 906 77.35
1 1797 272.90 860 70.47
2 1758 261.86 700 49.01
4 1723 252.15 539 31.26
6 1703 246.68 387 18.05

3) Plot m(p) vs. log (t), where t is in hours, for each of the Draw-Down tests, as
shown in Figure Ex 6.1-C.

4) Fit early data points in each plot to a straight line

5) Read the absolute value of the slope for each test ,


m1 = 31.12(10) 6 I cycle
m2 = 65.64(10) 6 I cycle

(1.6)10 6.(130 + 460)


6) Calculate k1 = 1.637 q1T I m1h = 1.637 = 4.97 md
(31.12)10 6 (10)
6
and, k2 =l.637q 2 Tlm2h=l.637( 32)lO (1 30+ 46 0) =4.71 md
(65.64)10 6 (10)

The average permeability for the formation is (4.84) md.

AAU/GAS//GAS PTA. doc 14


Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

0
....-

J
I
,...
lolll

I '
!D
~
;

c.'
I~'
1..:
I'"=
=~
<N I
1..:
IC!> <P.
IT" it)
II
IC~
) (/)
s...
::s
0

...I
..!:
0I
~
....- Q)
E
CD '
.,..1
+-'
x 5:
w 0
(.9 '+=
',2,:t1}!< 'j
LL 1--+--+-+-t---<-~-..;;:.o];~:_;l-+--1-11-+--t-l-+--t-t-t--t--t--t--t--t<im
I/
l}~t I
t-+--+-r-t--+-~--r'p I ,,,~

--!--+-1--+-l--+---Hl-+-+-t-t--t-t-l'llt-t
l
r

l-i- +- t-+- +- f i-t-~.1:1 1~1 .- +-+-+-l-+-l- -+-t-+- i-t- +-I+J-t-t-~


. ....
~.
f.:.:.:.:.
I
!
I
J

l~,:j
I i )
I
i

I
i !
0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
I.() 0 I.() 0 I.() 0 I.()
C0 C0 N N ....- ....-
o~ (d)w
9

AAU/GAS//GASPT A doc
15
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

7) Extrapolate the straight line for each test to t = 1 hour, and read (on the
straight line ) the value of m(p )ihr for each test as follows

m(p )1hr ( for the first test ) = 272.9 x 1OA6


m (p )1hr ( for the second test ) = 70 .4 7 x 1OA6
6
8) Also, read from the m(p) plot the value of m(pi) = 435.6(10)
corresponding to the initial pressure of 2300 psia, and, calculate,

Cti = (1- Swi)cgi + SwiCw +Cf


1
cti =(0.77)( )+(1-0.77)(4)10- 6 +(4)10- 6 = 0.00034/psi
2300
Since the value of Cgi was not available, it was approximated by the value of
1/Pi. This approximation is within engineering accuracy for dry gases (more than
96% of C1 and C2).

9) Calculate the total Skin Factor for each flow test:

s~ = 1.15 l(m(pi) - m(p)Jhr - log k 2 + 3.23]


m1 (uct )irw

s~ =l.151(435-279 -log 4.97


4 2
+3.23)
30.5 (O. l)(.01155)(3.4)1 o- (0.25)
I

,....;v S1 = + 0.363
,,,
and,

s; = 1.15 l(m(pi) - m(p )ihr - log k 2 + 3.23]


m2 (uct)irw

s; = 1.151(435.6- 70.47 - log 4.71 + 3.23)


4 2
65.64 (O. l)(o.01155)(3.4)1 o- (0.25)
I

S2 = + o.796

10) Calculate the mechanical skin and the Turbulence factor as follows:
Since there are only two tests, it would not be necessary to plot the calculated
values of S' versus the corresponding flow rates. It is sufficient to solve the two
simultaneous equations representing the total skin factor as follows:

AAU/GAS//GASPTA.doc 16
I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet
s'l,.cs
1) . . .
)('
I

S1 = S + D.ql or , 0.363.,= S + D (1,600,000)


Jir-0-fl>
I

S2 = S + D.q2 or, 0.796= S + D (3,200,000)


~-~ ~ i,."k
Thus , S = -0.01 D = 0.271 I MMscf
~ot.:1~
11) Since the value of the mechanical skin is approximately zero, consequently,
the duration of the well bore storage can be estimated using Eq 6.6 using the
approximation of 1/Pi for the compressibility:

t = 4 785 gcgr;L =4,785(0.0117)(1/2300)(0.5) 2 (5400) = 0. 68 hours


' kh 4.84(10)

consequently, the choice of the straight line was correct in both plots.

b) The P; method

2 2
- ~vf +~
1) Calculate P = for each test. The results will be P1 = 2024 psia
2
-
and and P2=1649 psi a. The corresponding values of z and for test-1 are
0.805 and 0.0164, and for test-2 0.809 and 0.0149.

2) Prepare a plot of P; vs. log (t) for each of the Draw-Down tests, as shown in
Figure Ex 6.1-D.

3) Fit early data points in each plot to a straight line

4) Read the absolute value of the slope for each test ,


6
bi= 0.3908(10) I cycle
b2 = 0.7599(10) 6 I cycle

S)Calculate
- 6
ki = 1. 637 qiTuz1 = 1. 637 (1.6)10 (130 + 460)(0.0164)(0.805) = 5 .22 md
qh 0.3908x10 6 (10)

AAU/GAS//GASPTA.doc 17
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Fig Ex 6.1-D
2
The P method

4.0E+06

--
3.5E+06 IQ1=1.6
I
MMscf/D --~

3.0E+06
-
- - -
N~ 2.5E+06

a. I 2.0E+06

N
~
a. 1.5E+06
..._r--....
1.0E+06
~ 1-...
H l.""I IQ2=3.2 MMscf/D
~
5.0E+05

O.OE+OO '
---- __. l_
f-.J l

0.1 1 10
flowing time, hours

AAU/GAS//GASPTA.doc 18
I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

- 6
k =1. q2Tuz2 = 1. (3.2)10 (130 + 460)(0.0149)(0.809) = 4 .90 md
2 637 637
b2h 0.7599x106 (10)

The average permeability for the formation is (5.06) md. The value obtained by
using the pseudo-gas potential method was (4.84) md. The very small difference
indicates that the P; method will give very reliable results when the pressure
data is< 2000 psia.

6) Extrapolate the straight line for each test to t = 1 hour, and read (on the
straight line ) the value of P; for each test as follows

P; (for the first test ) = 3.2292 x 10


6

P; ( for the second test ) = 0. 7396 x 10


6

Cti = (1- Swi )cgi + SwiCw +Cf


1
cti = (0. 77)( ) + (1- 0.77)(4)1 o- 6 + (4)1 o- 6 = 0.00034 /psi
2300
Since the value of Cgi was not available, it was approximated by the value of
1/Pi. This approximation is within engineering accuracy for dry gases (more than
96% of C1 and C2).

7) Calculate the total Skin Factor for each flow test:

s~ =1.151
(
(2300 2 - 3.2292xl 06 ) - log
6
5.22
2
+ 3.23 J
0.3908xl 0 0.1(0.0175)(0.00034)(0.25)
,
S1 = + 0.4098

and,

AAU/GAS//GASPT A.doc 19
Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr. A. A. Urayet

s' = 1.151 (2300 2 -0.7396x10 6 ) -log 4.90 +3.23 )


2 ( 6 2
0.7599xl 0 0.1(0.0175)(0.00034)(0.25)

S2=+1.2642

8) Calculate the mechanical skin and the Turbulence factor as follows:


Since there are only two tests, it would not be necessary to plot the calculated
values of S' versus the corresponding flow rates. It is sufficient to solve the two
simultaneous equations representing the total skin factor as follows:

S1 = S + D.q1 or , 0.4098 = S + D (1,600,000)


I

S2 = S + D.q 2 or , 1.2642= S + D (3,200,000)

Thus, S = -0.44 D = 0.534 I MMscf 5 .: -


9) Since the value of the mechanical skin is approximately zero, consequently,
the duration of the well bore storage can be estimated using Eq 6.6 using the
approximation of 1/Pi for the compressibility:

2 0~:J 2 (j 1&
t = gcgrwL =4,785(0.0117)(1/2300)~5) (5400) =J}:65 hours
4 785
' kh 5.06(10)

consequently, the choice of the straight line was correct in both plots.

AAU/GAS//GASPTA.doc 20
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Example Problem 6. 2

A Draw-Down test was run in a gas well producing from a bounded sandstone
reservoir. The well was produced at a constant rate of q=4.485 MMscf/day for
120.53 hours before it was shut down for a build up test. The pressure-time data
is given in Table Ex 6.2 and the following reservoir and fluid data was available:

T = 162 F h = 20 feet = 0.10


re= 2640 ft , rw = 0.29 feet Pi = 3732 psia
Sg = 0.68 , Cf= 0.000004 I psi
Gas specific gravity= 0.69, water salinity= 80,000 ppm

Table Ex 6.2

Time, hours Pw (psia) Time, hours Pw (psia)


1.60 3729 124.26 3573
2.13 3628 124.80 3582
2.67 3546 125.33 3591
3.20 3509 125.86 3599
4.00 3465 126.40 3605
5.07 3435 126.93 3609
6.13 3425 127.46 3614
8.00 3415 127.93 3619
10.13 3400 128.53 3623
15.20 3387 129.60 3630
20.00 3376 130.40 3634
0
30.13 3354 131.46 3640
40.00 3342 132.53 3644
')
60.27 3325 134.13 3648
Q ' 80.00
100.27
3315
3306
135.20
137.16
3650
3655

\:
,J\
120.53
121.06
121.86
3297
3296
3296
139.20
141.86
145.06
3660
3665
3670
l 122.13 3385 149.86 3675
122.66 3521 156.26 3681
123.20 3547 166.40 3687
123.73 3562 170.40 3693
h
v1 Analyze the test.

\,

./ r

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Chapter 7

VERTICAL FLOW PERFORMANCE IN GAS WELLS

The determination of the static bottom-hole pressure, and of the flowing pressure
at any depth, is often needed for different reservoir studies and production
design such as to calculate the productivity index of the well, to calculate the
reservoir average pressure which is needed for the Material Balance
Calculations, to design the well bore and well head equipment, etc. Sometimes,
it is not practical to run a bottom-hole pressure gauge for such measurements,
and consequently, the pressure readings at the well-head, Pwh, are used to
calculate the pressures below the surface.

7.1 GENERAL FLOW EQUATIONS IN PIPES

The techniques available in the literature for the calculation of the pressure drop
between any two points for steady-state gas flow in a pipe are based on the
Energy Balance Equation which can be written in the following form:

where
U =internal energy
pV =energy of expansion or compression
mv2 = kinetic energy

mgZ =potential energy


g =acceleration due to gravity ,
2
9c =conversion factor= 32.174 ft/sec ,
Q =heat energy added to fluid
w =shaft work done by the fluid on the surroundings

AAU/GAS/GASFLOW.doc
I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr A. A. Urayet I

Without going into detailed mathematical derivations which apply the well-known
thermodynamic relationships, it can be shown that Eq 7.1 can be re-written in
petroleum engineering terms as follows:

dp g dz f p v2 p v dv
-=-p-+ + .-+ws Eq 7.2
dL gc dL 2gc D 2agc dL

This equation shows that the total pressure drop is made up of three distinct
components in addition to the mechanical work done by or on the fluid:

dp (dp) (dp) (dp) Eq 7.3


dL = dL el + dL f + dL ace + Ws

where,

dp) = g p dz = pressure drop due to elevation change.


( dL el gc dL
2

( dp) = f P v =pressure drop due to irreversible work (such as friction)


dL f 2gc D .
dp) p vdv = pressure drop due to acceleration
(-
dL ace - 2 a gcdL

The elevation component applies for compressible and incompressible, steady-

state and transient flows, in vertical and inclined systems. It is zero for horizontal
flow.

The acceleration component causes pressure drop in the direction of velocity


increase in any flow condition in which velocity change occurs. It is zero for
constant-area, incompressible flow.

The work term represents work done on the gas (compression) or by the gas
(expansion through a turbine or engine). This term is normally set equal to zero
in pipe flow equations.

The main parameter which requires some elaboration is the friction factor, f,
known as the Darcy-Weisbach or Moody friction factor (not to be confused with
the Fanning friction factor, f'= f I 4 ). Dimensional analysis shows that the friction

AAU/GAS/GASFLOW.doc 2
I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr A. A. Urayet I

factor is a function of two main parameters; namely, the Reynolds number, NRe
and the relative roughness, e/D.

Reynolds Number. NRe

The Reynolds number, NRe is a dimensionless group which defines the ratio of
the fluid momentum forces to viscous shear forces. defined as:

N _ p(lbm/ cuft).v(ft lsec).D(ft)


Re -
(lbm/ ft.sec)
4
If the viscosity is expressed in centipoises (Note that 1 cp = 6.7197 x 10
lbm/ft.sec) then the Reynolds number can be written as follows:

Eq 7.4

The change from laminar to turbulent flow is usually assumed to occur at a


Reynolds number of 2100 for flow in a circular pipe.

For the case of gas flow it can be shown easily that the above equation can be
re-written in the following form:
\

- / l (Mi I'd)
N Re= (20,140). qg CJ' r g Eq 7.5
D(in.)g(cp)

where,
qg =gas flow rate at 60F and 14.73 psia, MM scf/day
Yg =gas specific gravity (air= 1)
g = gas viscosity at the flowing pressure and temperature, cp
D =inside pipe diameter, in.

Relative Roughness. e/D

Technically speaking, the absolute roughness, e, of a pipe wall is defined as the


mean protruding height of relatively uniformly distributed and sized, tightly paced

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sand grains that would give the same pressure gradient behavior as the actual
pipe wall. This definition was used because from a microscopic point of view the
wall roughness is not uniform, and thus the distance from the peaks to valleys on
the wall surface will vary greatly.

The selection of a value for pipe wall roughness is sometimes difficult. The
following values of absolute roughness are recommended for use in natural gas
flow problems:

e (inches)
j
Drawn tubing 0.00006
Well tubing 0.0006
Line pipe 0.0007
Galvanized pipe 0.006
Cement-lined pipe 0.01-0.1

Also, Moody diagram (shown in Figure 7.1) can be consulted for choosing an
=
effective e/D. If no information is available on roughness, a value of e 0.0006
inches is recommended for tubing and line pipe.

It is the Relative roughness, e/D, (and not the absolute roughness) that
determines the pressure drop due to friction.

Friction Factor, f(NReel D)

The correlation of Moody friction factor is shown in Fig 7.2. It is a log-log graph
of log(f) versus log(NRe) for different e/D. Four different flow regimes can be
recognized on the plot; namely, laminar, critical, transition, and turbulent.

Laminar single-phase flow

For Laminar flow, the friction factor is dependent only on the Reynolds Number
as follows:

1!=64=~ Eq 7.6 /
pvD NRe

4
AAU/GAS/GASFLOW.doc
I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr A. A. Urayet I

and the pressure drop due to friction is represented by the Hagen-Poiseuille


equation as follows:

32 v
Eq 7.7
gc D2

Turbulent single-phase flow

Experimental studies of turbulent flow have shown that unlike laminar flow, the
velocity profile and pressure gradient for turbulent flow are greatly affected by the
pipe roughness as shown in Fig 7 .1.

Different numerical correlations have been developed to represent the Moody


friction factor correlation in the Turbulent region. Some of the best known
correlations are:

.11 For Smooth Wall Pipes

Two good correlations can be used to represent turbulent flow in smooth


pipes. These correlations are:
6
Drew, Koo, and McAdams correlation (best for 3 x 103 < NRe < 3 x 10 )

I f = 0.0056 + O.SNR~.3 2 Eq 7.8 /

5
Blasius correlation (NRe up to 10 )

Eq 7.9

2) For Rough Wall Pipes

The correlation that is used as the basis for modern friction charts was
proposed by Colebrook and White in 1939:

AAU/GAS/GASFLOW.doc 5
I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr A. A. Urayet I

Eq7.10 /I
>/ -
This equation is applicable to smooth pipes and to flow in transition and fully
rough zones of turbulent flow. However, it is not explicit in f and
consequently would require an iterative procedure to solve for the friction ,, 4-\
factor. ' ~-.c
~..., " " le"'

An explicit correlation for friction factor was presented by Jain in 1976:

1
- - = 1.14 -
Ii
25
210{~D + 2N0.9
L J Eq 7.11 __,.-//
-VJ Re

This equation is recommended for all calculations requiring friction factor


determination for turbulent flow. For relative roughness between 1o-6 and 10-2
and Reynolds number between 5 x 103 and 108 , the errors were within 1.0%
when compared with the Colebrook and White correlation.

Another good correlation for turbulent flow in rough pipes at large values of
NRe is the Nikuradse's friction factor correlation which has the follow!ng form:

I Jr= l.74-2xlo\~) Eq 7.12

For steady-state gas flow between any two points 1 and 2, Equation 7 .2 .is
usually written in integral form as follows:

Eq 7.13

All different forms of equations derived for gas flow in pipes is based on Eq 7 .13. It is
the basis for static and flowing calculations in vertical wells and horizontal flow lines.

AAU/GAS/GASFLOW.doc 6
I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr A. A. Urayet I

28.97y p
Since the gas density can be written in the following form: pg = g
zRT
zRT m
and the gas velocity is: v = .
28.97ygP (tr I 4)D 2
where m =mass flow rate (lbm/sec)
Consequently, the General Vertical Flow Equation can now be written as
follows:

I zl p
2 2
dp = J0.01875rg dL Eq 7.14
1 667 fqiT z 1 T
I+ 5 2
Dp

where,

qg =gas flow rate at 60F and 14.73 psia, MM scf/day


rg = gas specific gravity (air = 1)
D = inside pipe diameter, in.

The above equation cannot be easily integrated because of the interdependence


of z, T, and p. Consequently, different investigators have made different
simplifying assumptions to be able to put Eq 7 .14 into a usable form. This is the
main reason behind the many different solutions available in the literature for the
static and flowing bottom hole pressure calculations in gas wells. In this course
we study two of the best-known solutions which are: \. >..
\ :_-1S ~ \;_ ~\il
1. The trial and error "Average T -Average z" method
'\-...-" >..-:
e'- J.rcr>
::r-

2. Sukkar and Cornell method

Each of these methods will be applied for the calculation of the static and flowing
bottom hole pressure. Other available techniques in the 1ft8ratUre will be
discussed in the Final Remarks.

AAU/GAS/GASFLOW.doc 7
I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr A. A. Urayet I

7.2 TRIAL AND ERROR SOLUTIONS FOR VERTICAL


FLOW CALCULATIONS (f - METHOD) z
~

7.2.1 STATIC BOTIOM HOLE PRESSURE

For a static fluid column, qg =O, and consequently, Eq 7.14 can be simplified into
the following form:

12J-dp=
z 20.01s1srg
f dL Eq 7.15
1P 1 T
A practical method for the calculation of the static bottom-hole pressure is based
on substituting the average values of z and T (between the well head and the
bottom of the well) into Eq (7.15). Then direct integration and rearrangement of
the equation will result in the following simplified form:

- 0.0! 875(yg ).L. cos B

I- Pws - Pwh .e T.z Eq 7.16

where,

z = deviation factor
-
= T.h+T.b ~vh +~vs

Twb
calculated at T w
2
w
'
and P = --""'-'--'---

=the gas temperature at the bottom of the well


2

Since Pws is not known, and since the right hand side of Eq (7.16) requires the
-
knowledge of Pws to calculate z, consequently, the solution would require a
Trial and Error procedure.

Normally, two or three trials are sufficient to reach to the engineering accuracy
required in such calculations. In order to minimize the number of iterations
required to reach the desired accuracy, it is recommended to use the following
equation to calculate the initial guess,

AAU/GAS/GASFLOW.doc 8
I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr A. A. Urayet I

I Pws = Pwh (1+2.5xl 0- 5 D) Eq 7.17

-5
where the factor (2.5x10 ) represents the methane gradient under standard
conditions .

Finally, it is important to note that once the above calculations of the static
bottom hole pressure have been carried out, a "gas head factor, Fg" can be
calculated for the specific well conditions (i.e. specific geothermal gradient of the
well, specific gas composition, etc.) as follows:

Eq 7.18-A

This factor can, now, be used for future calculations of the static or well head
~ pressures of the well using the following relationship:

j \ lpws =Pwh(l+Fg.D) Eq7.18-B

An illustration of the proper use of the Trial and Error Technique for the
calculation of the static bottom hole pressure is given in Example Problem 7.1.

7.2.2 FLOWINMG BOTTOM HOLE PRESSURE


'
.' ~

A practical method for the calculation of the flowing bottom-hole pressure is


based on substituting the average values of z and T (between the well head and
the bottom of the well) into the General Vertical Flow Equation (7 .14 ). Then
direct integration and rearrangement of the equation will result in the following
form:

-- 2 s,
25(y g )T.z.f.q .(e -1).L

s.D 5
Eq 7.19

where,
_ 2ygL.cosB
s
53.34.T.z

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I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr A. A. Urayet I
.:.;
q =gas flow rate , MMscf/D .

D = inside diameter of pipe , inches , and


f = Moody Friction Factor at the arithmetic average temperature and
pressure

Since Pwf is not known, and since the right hand side of Eq (7.19) requires the
-
knowledge of Pwfto calculate z, consequently, the solution would require a
Trial and Error procedure. Two or three trials are normally sufficient to reach to
the engineering accuracy required in such calculations. The above equation can
be applied from the well head to the sandface in one step (as the equation is
written), or, it can be applied in multi-step calculation which is preferable if the
flowing temperature diagram is available.

Finally it is important to note that this method (unlike its application to static
pressure calculation) is not as accurate as other techniques such as the Sukkar
and Cornell method or the Cullender and Smith method. Also, the friction factor
needs to be re-evaluated at each trial which makes it tedious to apply for fast
calculations. Consequently, it is very rarely used by reservoir and production
engineers.

AAU/GAS/GASFLOW.doc 10
I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr A. A. Urayet I

7.3 SUKKAR AND CORNELL METHOD

This method allows direct calculation of the bottom hole pressure without trial
and error. It also gives more accurate results as compared to the average T-
average z method. In this solution, it is assumed that the Kinetic energy term can
be neglected (normally< 0.1%), and that the irreversible energy losses can be
expressed by friction loss correlations. An average temperature is used, and
Equation 7 .14 is re-written in terms of pseudo-reduced pressure as follows:

Prf2 z Ip 0.01875ygL
_ _...::,_r_ d]J.r= - - - - = - - Eq 7.20
Prt 1 Bz2 T
+--
p2;
where,

P,.1 = Pi I Ppc
Pr2 =P2I Ppc
L = vertical distance between points 1 and 2 , ft , and
T =average temperature between points 1 and 2, 0 R
2 2
B = 667 fq T
D5P2
pc

In order to simplify the calculations, Sukkar and Cornell re-wrote Eq 7.20 and
evaluated the pseudo reduced integrals as follows:

If using the ORIGINAL Sukkar and Cornell table of integrals (Table 7.1) then
Equation 7 .20 will have the form:

Eq 7.21-A

AAU/GAS/GASFLOW.doc 11
I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr A. A. Urayet I

where, P,.(b) represents the reduced pressure corresponding to the bottom-hole


pressure, P,.(wh) represents the reduced pressure corresponding to the well-
head pressure, and the lower limit (12) a base number for the evaluation of the
integral.

If using the EXTENDED Sukkar and Cornell table of integrals (Tables 7.2)
then Equation 7 .20 will have the form:

Pr(b) z/ P Pr(wh) zip 0.01875ygL


f r
2
dp= f r
2
d p +---- Eq 7.21-B
0.2 l + Bz 0.2 l + Bz T
p; p;
Note the change of the base number to (0.2) and the change of sign on the right
hand side of the equation from"-" to"+".

For the static pressure calculations the value of B is set equal to zero. Whereas
for the flowing pressure calculations it is required first to calculate the friction
factor, f, in order to be able to calculate B .

It is recommended to use Equations 7.9 (Blasius smooth pipe correlation) and


Eq 7 .11 (Jain rough pipe correlation) for the Turbulent flow case, and Eq 7 .6 in
the Laminar flow case.

An illustration of the proper use of the Sukkar and Cornell method for the
calculation of the static and flowing bottom-hole pressure is given in Example

Problems 7.1 and 7.2 .

AAU/GAS/GASFLOW.doc 12
I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr A. A Urayet I

7.4 CONCLUDING REMARKS

Gas Flow in the Annulus

It is important to note that the equations presented for the static and flowing
pressure calculations in the tubing can also be used for gas flow in the annulus.
In such case the following modifications are required:
use Deq in the calculation of the Reynolds Number, NRe, where
Deq =De +Di, and De is the inside diameter of the casing, and Di is the
outside diameter of the tubing.
for the calculation of the" f3 " factor, use the following substitution :

Eq 7.22

Temperature Distribution in the Well bore

The geothermal gradient is different in the various sedimentary basins, usually


ranging between 1.3 to 1.9 F increase for each one hundred feet of depth.

In the Sirte basin the average geothermal gradient is 1.6 F / 100 ft of depth, and
consequently, the formation temperature at any depth in the Sirte basin can be
approximated by the following correlation:

IT( F) = 80 + l.6(_Q_)
100
Eq 7.23

where, D is the vertical depth of the formation from the surface.

When the fluid flows in the borehole, such as in drilling and production
operations, the temperature effect will be different on different formations due to
the difference in the thermal conductivities of the formations and the different
well hole completions at each depth. Consequently, when the well is closed,
temperature equalization will be reached after a very long time (months usually).
This is why temperature irregularities in the temperature surveys can sometimes
confuse the production engineer, and would be mistaken for an anomaly in the
well bore, such as a hole in the casing, or fluid migration behind the pipe, etc.

AAU/GAS/GASFLOW.doc 13
I Natural Gas ReseNoir Engineering Dr A. A. Urayet I
~
l~ \ ~./ .
Two main features about the temperature diagram in a gas well are:
rt;ithe gas temperature at the well head will always be higher in case of the
(,f~f v flowing well than in case of shut-in.
, unlike the oil temperature diagram, the gas temperature at any depth will be
higher than the temperature obtained by linear interpolation between the well
head and formation temperatures

Consequently, the average gas temperature (to be used in the calculations) is


not actually the temperature at a point one half the total depth, nor is it the
average between the well head and the formation temperatures. And,
consequently, if the flowing temperature diagram is available, more accurate
results can be obtained by applying a multi-step calculation (of 1000-2000 feet
each step). If a temperature diagram is not available then a geometric rather
than linear average should be used. Practical gas field experience shows that
the use of the such an average would normally minimize the error in the pressure
calculations to a tolerable range of less than 10 psi.

Effect of Liquid Production

Different correlations are available in the literature for two phase flow, such as
Hagedorn and Brown, Duns and Ros, Orkiszewski, Beggs and Brill, and Govier
and Aziz.

However, different authors have concluded that for gas wells producing less than
~ ffia, of condensing water and hydrocarbons per MM scf of gas, then the
met~of Sukkar-Cornell can still give very reliable results, if the following
adjustments are made:

Use a TWO-phase z-factor instead of the gas z-factor in all previous


equations to account for the condensing liquid hydrocarbons in the tubing.
The Elfrik et.al. correlation, shown in Fig (7.3) can be used for this purpose.

Use the MIXTURE specific gr.avity, ym, instead of the gas specific gravity,
'1:)
Yg , where: ~{tr
. ,l
~J
fj

Eq 7.24

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I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr A. A. Urayet I

GLR =Gas Liquid Ratio (scf I STB)


rL =Liquid specific gravity (water=1)

Adjust the gas flow rate in all previous equations to include the produced
liquids as follows:

Iqg(corrected) = qg + qe.{3003(1.03- re)}+ qw(7390) Eq 7.25

where,
qe =hydrocarbon condensate flow rate ( STB/D), and ,
qw = condensing water vapor flow rate ( STBW /D) , and ,
re =hydrocarbon condensate specific gravity= 141.5 / (131.5+API)

Finally, it is important to note that more accurate, but more sophisticated,


techniques for calculating the pressure traverse in the wellbore would include the
Temperature as a variable inside the original integral (Eq 7.14), instead of
assuming an average temperature. One of the best known methods of this type
is the Cullender and Smith numerical method which is normally used in the
commercial softwares because it offers higher accuracy especially in case of gas
wells producing large quantities of formation or aquifer water.

Unlike the Sukkar-Cornell method, this method require a tedious trial and error
procedure in addition to the numerical evaluation of the integrals. In order to
achieve higher accuracy, this method also requires the calculations to be
repeated at small depth increments (normally every 1000 ft), and requires a good
temperature survey.

AAU/GAS/GASFLOW.doc 15
I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr A. A. Urayet I

Example Problem 7. 1

The following information is available about a certain gas well:


formation depth 6500 ft
specific gravity r g
I 0. 70
static well-head pressure, Pwh 2500 psia
well head temperature 136 oF
bottom hole temperature 194 oF

a) Calculate the static bottom hole pressure using the trial and error procedure
b) Estimate the future well head pressure when the static pressure at the bottom
of the well declines to 2600 psia.
c) Calculate the static bottom hole pressure using the Sukkar and Cornell
method

S}- C-=-( -
- -

AAU/GAS/GASFLOW.doc 16
I Natural Gas ReseNoir Engineering Dr A. A. Urayet I

Solution

a) Calculation of the static bottom-hole pressure using the T:Z


method

Use the specific gravity of the gas to calculate the pseudo-critical constants as
follows:

Ppc = 756.8-131.0(rg )- 3.6(yg ) 2


= 756.8-131.0(0.70)- 3.6(0.7)2 = 663.3
2
Tpc = 169.2 + 349.5(rg)-74.0(rg)
= 169.2 + 349.5(0.7)- 74.0(0.7) 2 = 377.6

Trial-1

1) Apply Eq (7. 17) to estimate the first guess for Pws as follows:

Pws = Pwh(l + 2.5xl0- 5 D) = 2500(1+2.5x10- 5 x6500) = 2906 psia

2) Calculate P
-
= P.ws + P. 1h = 2906 + 2500 = 2703
11
psia
2 2
-
2703
3) Calculate Pr = 4.075
(at P) =
663.3
- 194+136 0 165+460
4) Calculate T= = 165 F, and T,. = = 1.655
2 377.6
5) Use Standing/Katz charts or Brill and Beggs correlation to estimate the
deviation factor, z = 0.84

6) Use Eq (7 .16) to calculate Pws,

0.01875(rg ).L.cos B 0.01875(0.7)(6500)

1n ws =
n
1 wh
e T.z = 2500.e (165+460)(0.84) = 2941 psia

AAU/GAS/GASFLOW.doc 17
I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr A. A. Urayet I

There is a difference of 2941 - 2906 =


35 psi between the assumed and
calculated values. Consequently, it is advisable to run another trial.

Tria/-2
Repeat steps 2-6 (using the new calculated value of Pws as a second guess)
and calculate ,

2 p = Pws + Pwh = 2941 + 2500 = 2720.5 psia


) 2 2
2720 5
3) P. (at P) = = 4.1015
r 663.3

4
T = 165+460=1. 655
) r 377.6
5) z =0.842
0.01875(yg ).L.cosB 0.01875(0.7)(6500)
6) Pws = Pwh .e T.z = 2500.e (l 65 +46 0)(0. 842 ) = 2940 psia

The difference between the assumed and calculated values is 1 psi only, so
there is no need for more trials.

b) Simplified method to estimate future static pressures.

1) Using Eq 7 .18-A, Calculate:


F = Pvvs -Pvvh = 2940- 2500 = 27.08x10-6 /ft
g PwhD 2500(6500)
2} Using Eq 7 .18-B, calculate:
6
Pws =Pwh(l+Fg.D) :. 2600=Pwh(l+27.08xl0- (6500))
or Pwh = 2211 psia

AAU/GAS/GASFLOW .doc
18
I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr A. A. Urayet I

c) Calculation of the static bottom-hole pressure using Sukkar and


Cornell Method

165 + 460
1) Calculate: Tr = = 1.655 an
377.6

2500
21_Calculate Pr (at the well head, Pwh) = = 3.769
663.3
3) Enter Table 7.1 with B=O, Tr=1.655, and P,.(wh)= 3.769. The value of the
reduced integral is calculated by interpolation to be =..:l-:t3269 J. 13 "'1- ~t>
4'

4) Substitute into Eq 7.21-A as follows; '\ ''


Pr(b) z / p Pr(wh) z Ip 0.01875y L
J r2 dp = J r2 dp - g
12 l + Bz 12 l + Bz T
2 2
Pr Pr
Pr(b) /./3t'J'f- /.13'f ='~!3:S!\?..
z/ d =l.rl-3169.- 0.01875(0.7)(6500) =l~-0. 1365 =~
J Pr JJ (460+ 165)
12

5) Re-enter Table 7.1 with the value of 0.99619, and Tr =1.655 and read(by
linear interpolation) the corresponding value of Pr= 4.42945
6) Calculate Pws = Pr.Ppc = (4.42945)(663.3) = 2938 psia

It is important to note the similar results obtained by the Sukkar and


Cornell method and by T-Z method in the evaluation of static pressures.

~o
O'
tV

"'.)

AAU/GAS/GASFLOW.doc 19
I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr A. A. Urayet I

Example Problem 7. 2

The following information (same as Example Problem 7.1) is available about a


certain gas well :

formation depth 6500 ft


specific gravity, rg 0.70
tubing inside diameter, d; 1.995 inches
well head temperature 136 oF
bottom hole temperature 194 oF

The well was put on production and the following data was available:

flowing well-head pressure , Pwh 1200 psia


gas production rate, qg 12.5 MM scf ID

Assuming a smooth pipe, calculate the flowing bottom hole pressure using
Sukkar and Cornell method

AAU/GAS/GASFLOW.doc 20
I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr A. A. Urayet I

Solution

1) The values of the pseudo-critical pressure and temperature (calculated in


Example Problem 7. 1) are:

Ppc = 663.3 psia and Tpc = 377.6 R

2) calculate the pseudo-reduced temperature at the average temperature of the


well bore,
Tr=_.!_= 460+(194+136)/2 =1. 655
Tpc 377.6

3) calculate the pseudo-reduced pressure at the flowing well head pressure,

P. = Pwh = 1200 = 1.S09 l


r(wh) ppc 663.3

4) The calculation of the friction factor requires the prior calculation of the
Reynolds Number. Analytically, this number should be evaluated at the average
flowing viscosity which is not known. Consequently, it is always sufficient to use
the viscosity at the known pressure (well head pressure in this case).

- enter with T= 165 F, and r g = 0. 7 into the Carr et.al. atmospheric


viscosity correlation, (Fig 3.3) and read the gas atmospheric viscosity ,
a= 0.0118 cp.

- enter with Tr= 1.655, and Pr= 1.809 into the Carr et al correlation, (Fig

3.4 or 3.5) and read_!!_ = 1.17


a
-calculate gf =1.17(a)=l.17(0.0118)=0.01381 cp

- calculate Reynolds Number ,

Re= 20,140 qgrg = 20,140 0 2 -5)(0. 7) = 6.396x10 6


Dgf (1.995)(0.01381)
- finally, substituting in the Drew, Koo, and McAdams correlation (Eq 6.8),
calculate the Moody friction factor as follows:

AAU/GAS/GASFLOW.doc 21
I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr A. A. Urayet I

= 0.0056 + 0.5NR_~
32 6 032
f = 0.0056 + 0.5(6.396xl0 )- = 0.00892

2
:i p-- 667 f.qiT _ 667(0.00892)(12.5) 2 (165 + 460) 2 _
51 calculate
5 2
-
5
2 - 26 12
D .Ppc (1.995) (663.3)
6) Enter Table 7.2 with B =26.12, Tr =1.655, and P,.(wh) = 1.809. The value of
the reduced integral is calculated by interpolation to be =0.06345
7) Substitute into Eq 7.21-B as follows;

Pr(b) z Ip Pr(wh) z/p 0.01875y L


J r2 dp = J r2 dp + g
0.2 l + Bz 0.2 l + Bz T
p; p;
Pr(b)
f z I Pr dp = 0.06345 + O.OlS 75 (0. 7)( 65 00) = 0.06345 + 0.1365 = 0.19995
2
0.2 1 Bz
+-
(460+ 165)
2
Pr
8) for Tr= 1.655 and the value of the integral obtained in step(?), calculate by
interpolation from Tables (7.2) the value of P,.(b) =3.42472

9) finally, calculate the flowing bottom hole pressure,

J;vf = PpcP,.(wf) = 663.3(3.42472) = 2272psia

AAU/GAS/GASFLOW.doc 22
I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr A. A. Urayet /

Field Problem

The following information is available about a certain gas well :

formation depth 6000 ft


specific gravity' rg 0.73
tubing inside diameter, di 1.995 inches
tubing roughness, e 0.0006 . inches
well head temperature 132 oF
bottom hole temperature 185 oF

e. The well was put on production and the following data was available:

flowing well-head pressure , Pwh 950 psia


gas production rate , q0 8. 5 MMscf/D
liquid recovery 24
condensate AP/ 56

a) Using Sukkar and Cornell method calculate the flowing pressure in the tubing
at every 2000 ft. depth interval.
b) Prepare a plot of the pressure results vs. depth

/ I
J l

' !
(~J
J ~

j
J

J
"'.
'' !
AAU/GAS/GASFLOW.doc ' 23
Pipe diameter, in feet-d
1 2 3 4 56 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 2025
0.05
I l'I
I I II 1- 0.07
0.04
'" I\"
0.0

0.0
3 '
2~ ... " ['\
I\. ~
.... ~
-
-
0.06

0.05
" - '
Rivqted

0.0 ~
1 "'\.."'\.. ' ... , ' "' " I\..
~
Steel'

"'\.. ....
- 0.04

~
0.00 0.035
... ... !\
0.006

'"'\.."' I"' .
0.0085"-"""- ...., I"-.
""'"""'
" " ["-.
.....
' -
."
Concrete ... :'I~ 0.03
0.004 II... _,
l"\.. I I I
~~ "I\.

""'""' ~ "N' ~ ' ~ f"


~.po3
Wood

~oo.-
Stave
- 0.025 ~
0.002 I\ .9-
r.... ~
I" .... G>- a.

~ ' ~ "~ " " ' '' -


Cast Iron
"['I
~ ~"' .s::.
01

""
::J
Galvanized Iron
0.00 1
... ~
IX I" "'-
I\" ~ ['I\."'\.. ... ~ ""\'.~oo_
'f\.. - 0.02 E
tv'
0.000,8
""
(.)
c
~ ... ~['I
,,
""''I\.
... I'\ "\"
" -
0.000,6 I\.
0.018 "'
::J
0.000.5 I'... ~ "" '' I"" I". .0

"
~

... "'\.."'\.. I'\.."


....... ::J
0.000,4
0.000.3 ._ Asphalted Cast
...
fron""
I"
~ ~.
,...
~'
f\.. ~ ~
'~ 'Zoo'
" 0.016 ....;
"'
a.

0.000.2 " ~~ "'I'\ f' I'\


' l'...""f\"oos.'I.~ ~~",
u>--=
'Q~~l"~f' ..,
f"
0 .014
E
0
u
~
0
u.

0.000,1 ,__
Commercial Steel or Wrought Iron
-
....... ,,.,,.. ~
'~"~ oa QCb
O 0 ~
0 .012
I
<-.,

0.000,08 "' ~- t?sl.s-. , __


0.000,06
0.000,05
0.000,04
I"-.
"'\.. "" '" ...
(!>~Qa~' 'I". "

,vo9'~"'\.. ' "


'

0.000,03

0.000.02
" .. ,
""" ~~I " 0
"'"\:!\.. ~
' ~ 0. 009
0. 01

Drawn """Tu~~ ['I~

~-...
0.000,01
0.000,008
' I\.~~
'Qa
"'- v.
~Oo. '
"""- 0.008
0.000,006
0.000,005
1 2 3456810
f'.. 3'-

Pipe diameter, in inches-d


20 30 40 50 60 BO 100 "
200 300

Figure 1-. i Relative ro~ghness of Pipe materials and friction factors for
complete turbulence
e --

0.1 \
C
ri11ca 1
11 'Ill
,.,.
Ill T bl t
ur u l!n lone
I 1 111:111

O.Og Laminar ~~ Tram1t1on J 11 I l I 111111 l I .


0.08 ~Lone~ -!:i:_zone \.' Complete turbulence, rough pies 1 1 1 1 1 111

0.07 \ ... .
0.06 ~ ""'"" "'
\
~"""'-
~
......... - "I
~.
0.05 \ ~....~~.. .. ...........__ ' ...
"' I :Z
.
0 04 I I ~ ..~ :"'"' ............
... ~
'
IN . I I \ ~~ ~ ~""'-~ .
,...-:-
I'\ ~~~ t-....::: ""'- .._ ~
.....~...,; ~
,.._. ~- "- .... ~
0.03 ~ l ~. . . . . ,. . . . """"- ...
II
.... ~!'...
~~~ ~: ....
-
.\ .......... '
0 \ '-- '1. I

u
C1J t ... ~ ~ ..._ ~
......
I I I t'.: ~-
c: 00
. 2 I ~ '-...~. . . . -~ - """
-0 I I T \
~ ~ ........ -~..
u ~::-...... ......... ..
....
LL .
Smoothp1pes
~;:::::
:::::::~~~
.... ~ ..__ ' JN.. 1 1 1 1111111
I..... ~ .. : - - - _ I ~
l -~ ~ ........._ - 1
111111 I I I 111111
e ~~~......_ 11
-0 : 0.000,005 ~ -.....LJ II I . II... I I

0.011 I I I 1111111 I I 111111. I I""" .~ I I~~~


c
-:-: = 0.000.001
0 .008 I I I I I I 11111 I I I 111111 I ,... , I I II II I i I I I ~ I 1111 ti 0;000,01
10 -2 '4 6 10 2
3 4 5
4 6 10 2 4 6 106 2 4 6 10 7 2 4 6 108
3 5 8 3 5 8 3. 5 8 3 5 8 3 5 8
/)I'
,\'Re - Reynolds number= -

Fig. 7~ Friction factors for any type of commercial pipe.


Gas-Oil Ratios are for Normal Temperature
Separation of the Mixture for Which the Example
Z Factor is Desired. (Gas-Oil Ratios for For Pseudo Reduced Temp. of 1.195, Pseudo
Low Temp. Sep. May be Greatly Different.) Reduced Presst1re of 2.00 and Gas-0 ii Ratio of
Reduced Pressure of 2.00 and Gas-Oil Ratio of
4,000 SCF /STB, Z Factor from One Phase Z
1.0 r---,r--~---r---r--.,.--..----.. Factor Correlation is 0.545, Corrected below to 0. 732

Accuracy
-t---t---+--+----+ At Dew Points Deviation of From 1.5% at 150F to
.._ 0.5% at 250F. If Uncorrected and Corrected
0 Z Factors Differ by no More Than This, One May
Q>

c
0 Assume Only One Phase is Present ( ie, at or
above Dew Point).
~
0.
0.8 - - - - -
..... Gas-oil ratio
.....0 Lines ( MSCF /STB)
-g
t> 0. 7 t--1t--t--+--t---t--P~~~~:i..e-...:-+--+--l-~--+--f
...f:'0

....u0 0.6 r----1r----t--r--+--+--t--11---+__.:...-N!~~~~.....,.:....
~
N
Example
1.0

"'
Q>
"'co
.r.
a.
0.9 0
....;: ..
-0
Q>
()
c
0.8 Q>

"'
Q>
.....
...0a.
-
Lines of pseudo
11...-
()

0.6 .....0
reduced pressure
,..0
O>
.t>
.<JI
'!?
o -
N
g

0.5

Fig. 7-. '3 Gas deviation factor corrections for two-phase natural gas systems. (After
Elfrik, Sandberg, and Pollard.)
I Natural Gas ReseJVoir Engineering Dr A. A. Urayet I

TABLE 7.1

SUKKAR-CORNELL INTEGRAL

Pr(b) Z/ p Pr(wh) Z Ip 0.01875y L


J r2 dp = J r2 dp - g Eq 7.21-A
12 l Bz 12 l Bz T
+ -2 + -2
Pr Pr

AAU/GAS/GASFLOW.doc 24
C.2
466 Bottom-Hole Pressure

THE SUKKAR AND CORNEH METHOD


'.j
e The Sukkar and Cornell Method

TABLE C.1
467

Sukkar-Cornell Integral
Sukkar and Cornell's original table of integrals (Table C. l) was extended by Tabl f
JP,
(z/P) dP
r r
Messer, Raghavan, and Ramey (Tables C.2(a) to C.2(m)]. The procedure for r 12 1 + B(z!P,) 2
using these tables is as follows: .,.,' T, = 1.5 T, = 1.6 T,= 1.7
1. Compute o: = 0.01875-y11 H cos 6/T (C.6)
2. Calculate the average pseudo-reduced temperature, 7~,,, and the wellhead P, B=O 8=5 8 = 10 8=0 8=5 8 = 10 B=O 8 = 5 8 = 10
pseudo-reduced pressure, p,,, 1. ;i
i 2.0 1.5946 1.3471 1.1904 1.6458 1.3708 1.2027 1.6925 1.3926 1.2134
3. Determine the value of B using ;1
j 2.1 1.5546 1.3249 1.1751 1.6040 1.3485 1.1875 1.6490 1.3703 1.1983
667fq 2 T2
B=
D 5p~c cos 0 (C.7)
i
;
2.2
2.3
1.5167
1.4808
1.3029
1.2811
1.1595
1.1438
1.5643
1.5275
1.3263
1.3042
1.1721
1.1565
1.6077
1.5684
1.3480
1.3258
1.1831
1.1676
i
:: 2.4 1.4466 1.2595 1.1281 1.4906 1.2824 1.1408 1.5310 1.3038 1.1521
where 0 is the angle of drift from the vertical. 2.5 1.4140
4. (a) If using original Sukkar-Cornell table of integrals, obtain
j 1.2382 1.1123 1.4562 1.2608 1.1251 1.4951 1.2820 1.1364
.,'

Jj 1 =
f"'
(z/p /,,)dp,,
1

i2 1 + B(z/p,,,)2
and calculate
I
;
1
2.6
2.7
2.8
1.3829
1.3531
1.3246
1.2173
1.1966
1.1764
1.0965
1.0807
1.0650
1.4234
1.3919
1.3616
1.2395
1.2184
1.1977
1.1093
1.0935
1.0777
1.4608
1.4297
1.3963
1.2604
1.2497
1.2180
1.1206
1.1048
1.0890

f'"'
!
2.9 1.2972 1.1564 1.0493 1.3325 1.1772 1.0619 1.3659 1.1972 1.0732
(z/p 1,,) 3.0 1.2708 1.1369 1.0338 1.3045 1.1571 1.0462 1.3366 1.1767 1.0575
dp,,, = Jj, - 0:
12 1 + B(z/p,,,) (C.8)
3.1 1.2453 1.1176 1.0187 1.2775 1.1373 1.0306 1.3082 1.1565 1.0417
where p,,,2 is the bottom-hole pseudo-reduced pressure. 3.2 1.2208 1.0988 1.0030 1.2515 1.1179 1.0151 1.2809 1.1366 1.0261
(b) If using extended Sukkar-Cornell table of integrals, obtain 3.3 1.1970 1.0803 0.9878 1.2262 1.0988 0.9997 1.2544 1.1170 1.0105

fjz = f'"'
11 . 2
.
I
(z/p,,,.)
+ B(z/p1")-
, dp,,,
i
3.4
3.5

3.6
1.1740
1.1516

1.1299
1.0621
1.0442

1.0266
0.9728
0.9579

0.9431
1.2018
1.1782

1.1552
1.0800
1.0615

1.0433
0.9844
0.9692

0.9542
1.2288
1.2039

1.1798
1.0977
1.0787

1.0600
0.9951
0.9797

0.9645
and calculate 3.7
3.8
1.1087
1.0881
1.0093
0.9923
0.9285
0.9140 -
1.1329
1.1112
1.0254
1.0078
0.9393
0.9245
1.1563
1.1336
1.0416
1.0235
0.9493

f'"'
0.9343
3.9 1.0680 0.9756 0.8997 rOa99 0.9905 0.9099 T.1ii3 1.0057 0.9194
z/p,,, 2 dp,,,. = lh + 0: 4.0 1.0484 0.9591 0.8856 1.0692 0.9735 0.8954 1.0897 0.9881 0.9047
11.2 I + B(z/p,,,) (C.9)
4.1 1.0292 0.9429 0.8715 1.0490 0.9567 0.8810 1.0685 0.9708 0.8901
5. Determine p,,,.2 from table.
4.2 1.0104 0.9269 0.8576 1.0292 0.9401 0.8668 1.0478 0.9538 0.8756
6. Calculate
-4.3 0.9920 0.9112 0.8439 .19.Q22. 0.9239 0.8528 1.0276 0.9370 0.8612
/>,, . , = (P,"2)(p,,J (C. JO) ..4.4 0.9739 0.8957 0.8303 0.9909 0.9078 0.8388 1.0077 0.9204 0.8470
... 4.5 0.9562 0.8804 0.8168 0.9723 0.8919 0.8250 0.9883 0.9041 0.8239
if well is shut-in (/3 = 0)
4.6 0.9388 0.8652 0.8034 0.9541 0.8763 0.8113 0.9693 0.8880 0.8189
or 4.7 0.9216 0.8503 0.7902 0.9361 0.8608 0.7977 0.9506 0.8721 0.8051
4.8 0.9048 0.8356 0.7770 0.9185 0.8456 0.7843 0.9323 0.8564 0.7914
Pwf = (Ppr2)(p,,c) (C.11) 4.9 0.8882 0.8210 0.7640 0.9012 0.8305 0.7710 0.9143 0.8409 0.7778
5.0 0.8719 0.8066 0.7511 0.8842 0.8156 0.7578 0.8966 0.8256 0.7643
if well is flowing (B 'f 0).
5.1 0.8558 0.7923 0.7384 0.8674 0.8009 0.7447 0.8791 0.8104 0.7509
5.2 0.8400 0.7183 0.7257 0.8508 0.7864 0.7317 0.8620 0.8645 0.7377
(Continued)

'
-Ci
468 Bottom-Hole Prcs.~urcs

.e
TABLE C.1 (Contmueto, / l
~
e The Slkkar and Cornell Method

TABLE C.1 (Continued)


469

T, == 1.5 T, = 1.6 T, = 1.7


i' T, = 1.5 T, = 1.6 T, = 1.7
P,
5.3
5.4
8= 0
0.8243
0.8089
8= 5
0.7643
0.7505
8 = 10
0.7131
0.7007
8=0
0.8345
0.8184
8=5
0.7720
0.7577
8 = 10
0.7188
0.7060
8=0
0.8451
0.8285
8=5
0.7797
0.7651
8 = 10
0.7246
0.7115
I
!
\
P,

9.1
9.2
8=0
0.3225
0.3108
8=5
0.3036
0.2926
8 = 10
0.2869
0.2766
8=0
0.3214
0.3097
8=5
0.3027
0.2917
8 = 10
0.2862
0.2758
8=0
0.3211
0.3093
8=5
0.3024
0.2914
8 = 10
0.2860
0.2756
5.5 0.7936 0.7369 0.6883 0.8026 0.7436 0.6933 0.8120 0.7506 0.6986 I 9.3 0.2922 0.2817 0.2664 0.2980 0.2808 0.2656 0.2976 0.2804 0.2653
9.4 0.2876 0.2709 0.2561 0.2864 0.2699 0.2553 0.2859 0.2695 0.2550
5.6
5.7
0.7785
0.7636
0.7233
0.7090
0.6760
0.6638
0.7869
0.7714
0.7297
0.7158
0.6807
0.6683
0.7958
0.7799
0.7363
0.7221
0.6858
0.6730
I 9.5 0.2760 0.2600 0.2460 0.2748 0.2591 0.2451 0.2743 0.2586 0.2448

5.8 0.7488 0.6966 0.6517 0.7561 0.7021 0.6559 0.7641 0.7081 0.6604 j 0.2492 0.2358 0.2663 0.2483 0.2350 0.2627 0.2477 0.2345
9.6 0.2645
0.6834 0.7410 0.6886 0.6435 0.7485 0.6942 0.6479
5.9
6.0
0.7342
0.7198 0.6703
0.6396
0.6277 0.7260 0.6751 0.6313 0.7331 0.6805 0.6354 i 9.7
9.8
0.2531
0.2417
0.2385
0.2278
0.2257
0.2156
0.2519
0.2405
0.2375
0.2268
0.2248
0.2147
0.2512
0.2397
0.2370
0.2262
0.2155
0.2244
0.2143
0.2042
9.9 0.2303 0.2171 0.2055 0.2291 0.2162 0.2047 0.2284
6.1 0.7055 0.6573 0.6158 0.7112 0.6618 0.6192 0.7179 0.6668 0.6231 i.I 10.0 0.2190 0.2065 0.1955 0.2178 0.2055 0.1947 0.2170 0.2049 0.1941
6.2 0.6913 0.6445 0.6040 0.6966 0.6486 0.6071 0.7039 0.6533 0.6108
6.3 0.6773 0.6317 0.5923 0.6821 0.6355 0.5952 0.6880 0.6400 0.5986
6.4 0.6634 0.6190 0.5807 0.6678 0.6225 0.5833 0.6733 0.6267 0.5866 !
j:
10.1 0.2077
0.1964
0.1959
0.1853
0.1855
0.1755
0.2065
0.1953
0.1949
0.1844
0.1847
0.1747
0.2057
0.1945
0.1943 0.1841
0.1837 0.1742
.,; 10.2
6.5 0.6496 0.6065 0.5691 0.6536 0.6096 0.5715 0.6588 0.6135 0.5746 1 0.1852 0.1748 0.1655 0.1841 0.1739 0.1648 0.1833 0.1732 0.1642
10.3
:,i 10.4 0.1741 0.1643 0.1556 0.1730 0.1634 0.1549 0.1722 0.1627 0.1543
1 6.6 0.6360 0.5940 0.5576 0.6396 0.5968 0.5597 0.6444 0.6005 0.5626 I
10.5 0.1629 0.1538 0.1457 0.1619 0.1529 0.1450 0.1611 0.1523 .0.1454
6.7 0.6224 0.5816 0.5461 0.6257 0.5841 0.5481 0.6301 0.5875 0.5508
6.8 0.6090 0.5692 0.5347 0.6119 0.5715 0.5365 0.6160 0.5747 0.5390 10.6 0.1519 0.1433 0.1358 0.1508 0.1385 0.1351 0.1501 0.1419 0.1346
6.9 0.5957 0.5570 0.5234 0.5982 0.5590 0.5250 0.6020 0.5620 0.5273 10.7 0.1408 0.1329 0.1260 0.1398 0.1322 0.1253 0.1391 0.1315 0.1248
7.0 0.5824 0.5448 0.5122 0.5847 0.5466 0.5135 0.5882 0.5493 0.5157 0.1298 0.1225 0.1131 0.1289 0.1218 0.1155 0.1281 0.1212 0.1150
10.8
10.9 0.1188 0.1122 0.1063 0.1179 0.1115 0.1058 0.1172 0.1109 0.1053
7.1 0.5693 0.5327 0.5010 0.5712 0.5343 0.5021 0.5745 0.5368 0.5041 11.0 0.1078 0.1018 0.0966 0.1070 0.1012 0.0960 0.1064 0.1007 0.0956
7.2 0.5562 0.5207 0.4898 0.5579 0.5221 0.4908 0.5609 0.5243 0.4927
7.3 0.5433 0.5088 0.4787 0.5447 0.5099 0.4796 0.5474 0.5120 0.4811 0.0969 0.0915 0.0868 0.0962 0.0910 0.0863 0.0956 0.0904 0.0859
11.1
7.4 0.5304 0.4969 0.4677 0.5315 0.4978 0.4684 0.5340 0.4997 0.4699 11.2 0.0860 0.0813 0.0771 0.0853 0.0807 0.0766 0.0848 0.0803 0.0762
7.5 0.5176 0.4851 0.4567 0.5185 0.4858 0.4572 0.5207 0.4875 0.4586 11.3 0.0752 0.0710 0.0673 0.0746 0.0705 0.067.0 0.0741 0.0701 0.0666
11.4 0.0648 0.0608 0.0577 0.0638 0.0604 0.0573 0.0634 0.0600 0.0570
7.6 0.5049 0.4733 0.4457 0.5056 0.4739 0.4461 0.5076 0.4754 0.4474 0.0535 0.0506 0.0480 0.0531 0.0502 0.0477 0.0527 0.0499 0.0474
11.5
7.7 0.4923 0.4616 0.4349 0.4928 0.4620 0.4351 0.4945 0.4634 0.4363
7.8 0.4797 0.4500 0.4240 0.4800 0.4503 0.4242 0.4816 0.4514 0.4252 0.0428 0.0404 0.0383 0.0424 0.0401 0.0381 0.0421 0.0399 0.0379
11.6
7.9 0.4673 0.4384 0.4132 0.4674 0.4385 0.4133 0.4687 0.4396 0.4141 11.7 0.0320 0.0303 0.0287 0.0317 0.0301 0.0285 0.0315 0.0298 0.0284
8.0 0.4549 0.4269 0.4025 0.4548 0.4269 0.4024 0.4560 0.4278 0.4032 0.0213 0.0201 0.0191 0.0211 0.0200 0.0190 0.0210 0.0198 0.0189
11.8
11.9 0.0106 0.0100 0.0095 0.0105 0.0100 0.0095 0.0104 0.0099 0.0094
8.1 0.4425 0.4155 0.3918 0.4423 0.4153 0.3916 0.4433 0.4161 0.3922
8.2 0.4303 0.4041 0.3811 0.4299 0.4038 0.3809 0.4307 0.4044 0.3814
8.3 0.4181 0.3927 0.3705 0.4176 0.3924 0.3702 0.4182 0.3928 0.3706
8.4 0.4059 0.3814 0.3599 0.4053 0.3810 0.3595 0.4058 0.3813 0.3598
8.5 0.3939 0.3702 0.3494 0.3931 0.3696 0.3489 0.3935 0.3698 0.3491

8.6 0.3818 0.3589 0.3389 0.3810 0.3583 0.3383 0.3812 0.3585 0.3385
8.7 0.3699 0.3478 0.3284 0.3690 0.3491 0.3278 0.3691 0.3471 0.3279
8.8 0.3579 0.3367 0.3180 0.3570 0.3359 0.3173 0.3570 0.3359 0.3173
8.9 0.3461 0.3256 0.3076 0.3451 0.3248 0.3069 0.3450 0.3247 0.3068
9.0 0.3343 0.3146 0.2972 0.3332 0.3137 0.2965 0.3330 o.:m5 0.2964
I Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering Dr A. A. Urayet I

TABLE 7.2

EXTENDED SUKKAR-CORNELL INTEGRAL

Pr(b)
J
z Ip
r 2 dp =
Pr(wh)
J
z Ip
r 2 dp +
O.OI875y L
g Eq 7.21-8
0.2 I + Bz 0.2 I + Bz T
2 2
Pr Pr

+i

AAU/GAS/GASFLOW.doc 25
TABLE C.2(a)
Extended Sukkar-Cornell.lntegral for Bottom-hole Pressure Calculation
Reduced Temperature for B = 0.00
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0
0.20 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
0.50 0.8387 0.8582 0.8719 0.8824 0.8897 0.8966 0.9017 0.9079 0.9082 0.9108 0.9147 0.9177 0.9194 0.9206 0.9218
1.00 1.3774 1.4440 1.4836 1.5129 1.5334 1.5514 1.5654 1.5781 1.5823 1.5889 1.5966 1.6059 1~111 1.6148 1.6184
1.50 1.6048 1.7373 1.8078 1.8565 1.8911 1.9192 1.9422 1.9609 1.9693 1.9798 1.9951 2.0063 2. 151 2.0211 2.0274
2.00
2.50
1.7149
1.7995
1.9116
2.0298
2.0157
2.1631
2.0642
2.2507
2.1331
2.3138
2.1709
2.3607
2.2023
2.3996
2.2273
2.4307
2.2397
2.4469
2.2536
2.4641
2.2744
2.4900
2.2893
2.5081
2.3013
2.5234
2.3100
2.5347
2.3104
2.5452 .,.
~
3.00 1.8750 2.1255 2.2778 2.3813 2.4570 2.5125 2.5583 2.5947 2.6148 2.6354 2.6654 2.6863 2.7050 2.7189 2.7134 Q

3.50 1.9473 2.2101 2.3746 2.4898 2.5762 2.6190 2.6909 2.7325 2.7561 2.7798 2.8138 2.8382 2.8589 2.8752 2.8896
4.00 2.0178 2.2882 2.4603 2.5945 2.6793 2.7480 2.8052 2.8515 2.8784 2.9050 2.9426 2.9699 2.9928 3.0114 3.0274 ti:
~
4.50 2.0689 2.3622 2.5390 2.6698 2.7715 2.8449 2.9065 2.9569 2.9867 3.0158 3.0571 3.0871 3.1119 3.1322 3.1496 ::::
5.00 2.1547 2.4330 2.6128 2.7484 2.8558 2.9330 2.9982 3.0523 3.0645 3.1158 3.1605 3.1930 3.2195 3.2413 3.2597 ~
5.50
6.00
2.2214
2.2872
2.5013
2.5677
2.6833
2.7512
2.8222
2.8926
2.9341
3.0079
3.0146
3.0911
3.0828
3.1616
3.1400
3.2215
3.1742
3.2575
3.2074
3.2924
3.2557
3.3428
3.2899
3.3795
3.3178
3.4085
3.3408
3.4325
3.3600
3.4524 $it'
6.50 2.3522 2.6329 2.8171 2.9603 3.0781 3.1635 3.2360 3.2980 3.3355 3.3720 3.4245 3.4629 3.4931 3.5176 3.5381
7.00 2.4165 2.6971 2.8814 3.0258 3.1452 3.2324 3.3065 3.3704 3.4092 3.4470 3.6012 3.5411 3.5722 3.5973 3.6181 ~
7.50 2.4802 2.7602 2.5442 3.0893 3.2100 3.2985 3.3740 3.4393 3.4792 3.5180 3.5738 3.6148 3.6467 3.6723 3.6934 ~
3.6847 3.7173 3.7432 3.7646

8.00 2.5432 2.8223 3.0058 3.1612 3.2727 3.3623 3.4367 3.5052 3.5460 3.5657 3.6486
3.7512 3.7844 3.8108 3.8323
ll
8.50 2.6057 2.8336 3.0864 3.2118 3.3338 3.4239 3.5012 3.5665 3.6101 3.6504 3.7144
9.00 2.6676 2.9441 3.1260 3.2713 3.3934 3.4838 3.5617 3.6297 3.6718 3.7126 3.7775 3.8148 3.8484 3.8750 3.8969
9.50 2.7289 3.0039 3.1847 3.3296 3.4516 3.5422 3.6204 3.6889 3.7315 3.7727 3.6382 3.8760 3.9099 3.9367 3.9588

e 10.00
10.50
11.00
11.50
2.7896
2.8499
2.9096
2.9690
3.0630
3.1215
3.1794
3.2369
3.2427
3.2999
3.3565
3.4126
3.3870
3.4436
3.4993
3.5543
3.5087
3.5647
3.6198
3.6741
3.5993
3.6552-
3.7100
3.7640
3.6776
3.7336
3.7883
3.8420
3.7465
3.8026
3.8573
3.9108
3.7894
3.8456
3.9004
3.9540
3.8308
3.8872
3.9421
3.9958
3.8969
3.9538
4.0090
4.0627
3.9350
3.9921
4.0473
4.1010
3.9690
4.0262
4.0814
4.1351
3.9961
2.0583
4.1086
4.1622
4.0182
4.0755
4.1309
4.1845
12.00 3.0280 3.2940 3.4681 3.6086 3.7277 3.8171 3.8948 3.9634 4.0065 4.0432 4.1150 4.1532 4.1872 4.2143 4.2366
12.50 3.0867 3.3506 3.5231 3.6523 3.7806 3.8694 3.9467 4.0150 4.0579 4.0994 4.1660 4.2041 4.2380 4.2650 -i.2872
13.00 3.1452 3.4068 3.5777 3.7154 3.8328 3.9211 3.9977 4.0557 4.1084 4.1495 4.2158 4.2567 4.2875 4.3144 4.3365
13.50 2.2033 3.4627 3.6319 3.7880 3.8644 3.9721 4.o480 4.1155 4.1580 4.1989 4.2645 4.3021 4.3357 4.3625 4.3846
14.00 3.2612 3.5183 3.6857 3.8200 3.9354 4.0224 4.0977 4.1547 4.2067 4.2472 4.3122 4.3494 4.3829 4.4095 4.4316

,.__ ._,,..~;,_,;,:,r.;..,:....:....:=-.=;'"""'-.~"-::.'="-~~~ ........"-"'"~-''""'".... ~ ..-:r."........ ~---"'-'""':;;;.:'";=..;...=--= -=~-==o:::::w

14.50 3.3189 3.5735 3.7391 3.8716 3.9859 4.0722 4.1480 4.2131 4.2546 4.2947 4.3589 4.3957 4.4289 4.4555 -1 ..m5
15.00 3.3763 3.6285 3.7922 3.9228 4.0359 4.1215 4.1950 4.2609 4.3018 4.3414 4.4047 4.4410 4.4741 4.5005 -1.6224
15.50 3.4335 3.6832 3.8450 3.9736 4.0866 4.1702 4.2428 4.8080 4.3483 4.3874 4.4497 4.4855 4.5183 4.5446 4.5663
16.00 3.4906 3.7376 3.8974 4.0240 4.1346 4.2185 4.2900 4.3546 4.3942 4.4327 4.4939 4.5291 4.5617 4.5878 4.6094
16.50 3.5474 3.7919 4.9497 4.0740 4.1833 4.2663 4.3368 4.4007 4.4395 4.4773 4.5374 4.5720 4.6042 4.6302 -1.6518
17.00 3.6041 3.8459 4.0016 4.1237 4.2316 4.3138 4.3830 4.4462 4.4843 4.5213 4.5802 4.6141 4.6461 4.6719 4.6933
17.50 3.6606 3.8996 4.0533 4.1731 4.2795 4.3608 4.4289 4.4913
18.00 . 3.7170
4.5285 4.5648 ~6223 4.6555 4.5872 4.7129 4.7341
3.9532 4.1048 4.2221 4.3271 4.4075 4.4743 4.5359 4.5722 4.6077 .6638 4.6963 4.7276 4.7532 -1.7743
18.50 3.7732 4.0066 4.1560 4.2709 4.3744 4.4538 4.5193 4.5801 4.6154 4.6501 4.7048 4.7365 4.7675 4.7928 -!8138 ;;;l
e 19.00 3.8293
19.50 3.8853
20.00 3.9411
4.0599
4.1129
4.1658
4.2071
4.2579
4.3086
4.3195
4.3678
4.4158
4.4214
4.4681
4.5145
4.6998
4.5455
4.5909
4.5640
4.6053
4.6239
4.6574
4.6582
4.7006
4.6921
4.7335
4.7451
4.7850
5.7761
4.8151
4.8067
4.8454
4.8319 -1.8527
4.870-l 4.8911
~

~
20.50 3.9969
21.00 4.0525
4.2186
4.2712
4.3590
4.4094
4.4636
4.5112
4.5606
4.6065
4.6360
4.6808
4.6522
4.6959
4.7392
4.7104
4.7531
4.7955
4.7425
-4.7841
4.8253
4.7746
4.8152
4.8554
4.8244
4.8633
4.9017
4.8536
4.8916
4.9291
4.8835
4.9211
4.9582
4.9083 -1.9288
4.9457 -1.9661
4.9827 5.0029
.~
I
:::
21.50 4.1080 4.3237 4.4595 4.5586 4.6522 4.7254 4.7822 4.8376 Q,
4.8662 4.8953 4.9397 4.9662 4.9969 5.0192 5.0392
22.00 4.1634 4.3760 4.5095 4.6058
22.50 4.2187 4.4282 4.5594 4.6528
4.6976
4.7428
4.7697 4.8250 4.8794 4.9068 4.9348 4.9774 5.0027 5.0311 5.0552 5.0751 ~
4.8138 4.8675 4.9209 4.9470 4.9739 ,5.0146 5.0391 5.0670 5.0908 5.1105 :i~
23.00 4.2739 4.4803 4.6091 4.6996 4.7879 4.8577 4.9098 4.9621
23.50 4.3291
-l.9869 5.0128 5.0514 5.0750 5.1024 5.1260 5.1455 :::::
4.5323 4.6587 4.7463 4.8327 4.9014 4.9518 5.0031
~
5.0265 5.0513 5.0879 5.1104 5.137-l 5.1808 5.1802
24.00 4.3841 4.5842 4.7081 4.7928 4.8773 4.9449 4.9935 5.0438 5.0659 5.0895 5.1241 5.1455 5.1720 5.1953 5.2144 :;.
24.50 4.4391 4.6360 4.7575 4.8391 4.9217 4.9882 5.0351 5.0843 5.1050 5.1275 5.1599 5.1803 5.2083 5.229-1 5.2483 Q
25.00 4.4940 4.6877 4.8067 4.8853 4.9660 5.0312 5.0764
Q,
5.1245 5.1438 5.1651 5.1955 5.2147 5.2403 5.2631 5.2819
25.50 4.5488
26.00 4.6036
4.7392 4.8558 4.9314 5.0101 5.0741 5.1176 5.1646 5.1824 5.2025 5.2307 4.2488 5.2739 5.2965 5.3151 .,.
4.7907 4.9048 4.9772 5.0541 5.1169 5.1585 5.2044 5.2208 5.2397 5.2656 5.2826 5.3073 5.3296 5.3480
~
.....
26.50 4.6583 4.8421 4.9536 5.0230 5.0979 5.1594 5.1993 5.2440 5.2589 5.2766 5.3003 5.3162 5.3403 5.362-1 5.3806
27.00 4.7129 4.8934 5.0024 5.0686 5.1415 5.2019 5.2398 5.2634 5.2968 5.3132 5.3347 5.3494 5.3780 5.3950 5.4129
27.50 4.7675 4.9447 5.0511 5.1142 5.1850 5.2441 5.2802 5.3227 5.3345 5.3497 5.3688 5.3823 5.405-l 5.4272 5.4-160
28.00 4.8220 4.9958 5.0997 5.1595 5.2284 5.2862 5.3204 5.3617 5.3720 5.3859 5.4027 4.4150 5.4376 5.4591 5.4767
28.50 4.8764 5.0469 5.1482 5.2048 5.2716 5.3282 5.3605 5.4006 5.4096 5.4219 5.4363 5.4475 5.4695 5.4903 5.5082
29.00 4.9308 5.0979 5.1966 5.2500 5.3147 5.3700 5.4004 5.4393 5.4465 5.4577 5.4697 5.4796 5.5012 5.5223 5.5394
29.50 4.9851 . 5.1488 5.2450 5.2950 5.3577 5.4117 5.4401 5.4779 5.4834 5.4933 5.5029 5.5116 5.5326 5.5935 5.5704
30.00 5.0394 5.1997 5.2932 5.3400 5.4005 5.4532 5.4797 5.5163 5.5202 5.5287 5.5369 5.5433 5.5638 5.5844 5.6011
TABLE C.2(b)
Extended Sukkar-Cornell Integral for Bottom-hole Pressure Calculation

P, Reduced Temperature for 8 = 5.0


1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0

0.20 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
0.50 0.0226 0.0220 0.0216 0.0214 0.0212 0.0210 0.0209 0.0207 0.0207 0.0205 0.0205 0.0206 0.0204 0.0204 0.0204
0.0983 0.0954 0.0934 0.0921 0.0909 0.0901 0.0894 0.0890 0.0886 0.0881 0.0877 0.0874 0.0871 0.0869
1.00 0.1036
0.1995 0.1954 0.1924 0.1901 0.1882 0.1868 0.1859 0.1850 0.1938 0.1829 0.1822 0.1816 0.1811
1.50 0.2121 0.2052
2.00 0.3002 0.3125 0.3102 0.366 0.3034 0.3007 0.2983 0.2965 0.2954 0.2943 0.2926 0.2914 0.2904 0.2896 0.2889
2.50 0.3741 0.4046 0.4126 0.4133 0.4124 0.4107 0.4090 0.4076 0.4066 0.4056 0.4048 0.4030 0.4020 0.4012 0.4005
3.00 0.4419 0.4854 0.5032 0.5105 0.5137 0.5144 0.5143 0.5140 0.5138 0.5134 0.5125 0.5118 0.5112 0.5108 0.5103
0.6156
"'"
-..J
N
3.50 0.5074 0.5594 0.5847 0.5983 0.6065 0.6101 0.6123 0.6138 0.6147 0.6152 0.6154 0.6155 0.6155 0.6157
0.6291 0.6594 0.6785 0.6915 0.6982 0.7029 0.7064 0.7087 0.7104 0:7121 0.7133 0.7140 0.7149 0.7154 t:l:I
4.00 0.5715 C;)
4.50 0.6346
5.00 0.6966
0.6957
0.7601
0.7294
0.7960
0.7530
0.8229
0.7702
0.8440
0.7797
0.8560
0.7868
0.8653
0.7927
0.8734
0.7964
0.8785
0.7994
0.8827
0.8027
0.8879
0.8051
0.8916
0.8068
0.8941
0.8084
0.8965
0.8094
0.8980 s
5.50 0.7579 0.8225 0.8601 0.8895 0.9138 0.9280 0.9393 0.9493 0.9558 0.9611
1.0354
0.9682
1.0441
0.9732
1.0504
0.9765
1.0544
0.9795
1.0580
0.9315
1.0604
=
~
6.00 0.8185 0.8836 0.9222 0.9536 0.9803 0.9965 1.0095 1.0213 1.0289 ;;;-
0.9437 0.9829 1.0156 1.0442 1.0620 1.0764 1.0896 1.0984 1.1060 1.1162 1.1236 1.1284 1.1324 1.1351
6.50 0.8784
7.00 0.9378 1.0030 1.0423 1.0758 1.1058 1.1249 1.1406 1.1552 1.1649 1.1734 1.1848 1.1932 1.1987 1.2031
1.2704
1.2060
1.2737
...4'
7.50 0.9967 1.0614 1.1005 1.1346 1.1656 1.1857 1.2024 1.2182 1.2286 1.2379 1.2504 1.2597 1.2657 1ll
c:
1.2999 1.3167 1.3234 1.3299 1.3349 1.3383
8.00 1.0551
8.50 1.1131
1.1191
1.1761
1.1578
1.2142
1.1921
1.2486
1.2237
1.2805
1.2447
1.3020
1.2621
1.3201
1.2788
1.3374
1.2900
1.3492 1.3596 1.3773 1.3845 1.3914 1.3967 1.4003 ~
1.2325 1.2698 1.3041 1.3361 1.3579 1.3764 1.3943 1.4066 1.4173 1.4357 1.4434 1.4506 1.4561 1.4599
9.00 1.1706

. 9.50 1.2275
10.00 2.2841
1.2883
1.3435
1.3248
1.3791
1.3687
1.4126
1.3907
1.4443
1.4125
1.4661
1.4313
1.4851
1.4497
1.5037
1.4623
1.5165
1.4733
1.5278
1.4922
1.5472
1.5003
1.5555
1.6090
1.5077
1.5630
1.5167
1.5135
1.5689
1.6226
1.5174
1.5729
1.6267

e 10.50 1.3403 1.3983 1.4328 1.4658 1.4970 1.5187 1.5377 1.5564 1.5694 1.5808 1.6006
1.4526 1.4860 1.5182 1.5490 1.5705 1.5894 1.6081 1.6211 1.6326 1.6526 1.6611 1.6687 1.6747 1.6789
'1.00 1.3961
1.5065 1.5387 1.5701 1.6002 1.6214 1.6401 1.6587 1.6718 1.6833 1.7034 1.7118 1.7195 1.7254 1.7296
11.50 1.4515
1.5910 1.6214 1.6509 1.6717 1.6901 1.7085 1.7215 1.7330 1.7530 1.7613 1.7689 1.7749 1.7790
12.00 1.5067 1.5601
1.6721 1.7010 1.7213 1.7393 1.7575 1.7704 1.7817 1.8015 1.8097 1.8172 1.8231 1.8271
12.50 1.5616 1.6133 1.6429
1.6944 1.7224 1.7505 1.7704 1.7879 1.8067 1.8184 1.8295 1.8489 1.8569 1.8644 1.8701 1.8742
13.00 1.6163 1.6662
1.7456 1.7722 1.7995 1.8188 1.8358 1.8532 1.8656 1.8765 1.8954 1.9032 1.9105 1.9161 1.9201
13.50 1.6708 1.7188
1.7711 1.7965 1.8216 1.8480 1.8667 1.8830 1.9001 1.9121 1.9227 1.9410 1.9485 1.9556 1.9612 1.9651
14.00 1.7250
1.8470 1.8706 1.8960 1.9142 1.9298 1.9463 1.9580 1.9681 1.9858 1.9927 1.9998 2.0053 2.0091
14.50 1.7791 1.8212

... .' ~ -.> ................ .- ~ ---- '" .


--=,.~~:..:.~...:..:-~.;;~;,,-::~,;='"'"'"~""~--=--'-""""''""'"""''~-....-= .....,.._,...._.~.,_,.,.,-.:...,.:,;., ...,.<'l"""'--r--..,._.......,..__....,.

15.l)(j 1.8330 1.8750 1.8973 1.9192 1.9436 1.9612 1.9760 1.9920 2.0032 2.0128 2.0298 2.0364 2.0432 2.0485 2.0523
15.50 1.8867 1.9266 1.9472 1.9675 1.9909 2.0077 2.0217 2.0372 2.0478 2.0570 2.0730 2.0792 2.0857 2.0910 2.0946
16.00 1.9402 1.9780 1.9970 2.0154 2.0377 2.0538 2.0669 2.0818 2.0918 2.1005 2.1155 2.1212 2.1275 2.1326 2.1362
16.."ll 1.9936 2.0292 2.0465 2.0631 2.0842 2.0996 2.1117 2.1260 2. ~53 2.1434 2.1574 2.1626 2.1686 2.1736 2.1770
17.00 2.0469 2.0802 2.0958 2.1104 2.1303 2.1450 2.1561 2.1697 2.1783 2.1858 2.1987 2.2032 2.7090 2.2138 2.2172
17.5j 2.1000 2.1311 2.1449 2.1575 2.1762 2.1900 2.2000 2.2131 2.2209 2.2276 2.2394 2.2433 2.2488 2.2535 2.2567
18.011 2.1530 2.1817 2.1937 2.2043 2.2217 2.2347 2.2437 2.2560 2.2630 2.2690 2.2795 2.2828 2.2880 2.2925 2.2956
1850 . 2.2059 2.2323 2.2424 2.2509 2.2670 2.2791 2.2869 2.2965 2.3046 2.3100 2.3191 2.3217 2.3266 2.3309 2.3339
19.00 2.2587 2.2826 2.2909 2.2973 2.3120 2.3233 2.3299 2.3407 2.3459 2.3505

e ...~
2j582 2.3600 2.3646 2.3688 2.3717
19 50 2.3113 2.3329 2.3393 2.3434 2.3567 2.3671 2.3725 2.3825 2.3868 2.3906 2. 969 2.3979 2.4022 2.4062 2.4089
20.00 2.3639 2.3830 2.3875 2.3893 2.4012

..,.,"':>:-:>:-
2.4107 2.4148 2.4241 2.4273 2.4303 2.4350 2.4353 2.4392 2.4431 2.4456 c:
20.50 2.H64 2.4329 2.4355 2.4350 2.4455 2.4541 2.4568 2.4653 2.4675 2.4696 2.4728 2.4723 2.4758 2.4795 2.4819
21.00 2A688 2..4828 2.4834 2.4306 2.4895 2.4972 2.4986 2.5062 2.5074
21.50 2.5210 2.5325 2.5311 2.5259 2.5333 2.5400 2.5401 2.5468 2.5470
2.5086
2.5472
2.5101
2.5471
2.5088
2.5449
2.5119
2.5477
2.5155
2.5510
2.5177
2.5531
..,
::::i
22.00 2.5733 2.5822 2.5788 2.5711 2.5770 2.5827 2.5814 2.5872 2.5862 2.5855 2.5837 2.5806 2.5830 2.5861 2.5881 Cl.
22.50 2.6254
23.00 2.6774
2.6317 2.6263 2.6161 2.6204 2.6252 2.6224 2.6273 2.6252 2.6235 2.6199 2.6159 2.6179 2.6209 2.6226 g
2.6811 2.6736 2.6610 2.6637
23.50 2.7294 2.7304
2.6674 2.6632 2.6672 2.6639 2.6612 2.6558 2.6508 2.6524 2.6552 2.6568 i:l
...:::::
2.7209 2.7057 2.7068 2.7095 2.7038 2.7068 2.7023 2.6986 2.6913 2.6854 2.5866
24.00 2.7813 2.6892 2.6906
2.7796 2.7680 2.7503 2.7497 2. 7514 2.7441
24.50 2.8332 2.8288 2.8151 2.7047 2.7924 2.7931 2.7843
2.7462
2.7854
2.7405
2.7784
2.7357
2.7726
2.7266
2.7615
2.7197
2.7536
2.7204
2.7540
2.7229
2.7562
2.7241
2.7573
~
:;;.
25.00 2.8849 2.8778 2.8620 2.8390 2.8351 2.8346 2.8243 2.8244 2.8161 2.8092 2.7961 2.7872 2.7872 2.7892 2.7901 ~
25.50 2.9367 2.9268 2.9088 2.8832 2.8775 2.8760 2.8640
Cl.
2.8532 2.8536 2.8456 2.8305 2.8206 2.8200 2.8192 2.8226
26 0() 2.9883 2.9757 2.9556 2.9272 2.9198 2.9172 2.9037 2.9018 2.8908 2.8818 2.8646 2.8536 2.8526 2.8543 2.8548
26.5(1 3.0399
27.((1 3.0915
3.0245
3.0733
3.0022
3.0488
2.9711 2.9620 2.9583 2.9431 2.9402 2.9279 2.9177 2.8985 2.8864 2.8850 2.8864 2.6867 "'"
-..J
(;.>
3.0149 3.0040 2.9993 2.9824 2.9785 2.9648 2.9534 2.9320 2.9189 2.9170 2.9182 2.9184
27.50 3.1429 3.1220 3.0953 3.0586 3.0459 3.0400 3.0215 3.0165 3.0014 2.9889 2.9654 2.9512 2.9488 2.9498 2.9497
28.00 3.1944 3.1706 3.1417 3.1022 3.0877 3.0807 3.0604 3.0544 3.0379 3.0242 2.9985 2.9832 2.9803 2.9811 2.9809
28.50 3.2458 3.2191 3.1880 3.1457 3.1294 3.1212 3.0992 3.0922 3.0742 3.0593 3.0314 3.0149 3.0116 3.0122 3.0117
29.()(1 3 2971 3.2676 3.2343 3.1891 3.1710 3.1616 3.1379 3.1297 3.1103 3.0942 3.0641 3.0465 3.0426 3.0430 3.0424
29.50 3.3484 3.3160 3 2804 3.2324 3.2124 3.2019 3.1764 3.1672 3.1463 3.1289 3.0966 3.0778 3.0735 3.0736 3.0728
30.(\1) 3.3997 3.3644 3.3265 3.2756 3.2537 3.2421 3.2148 3.2045 3.1821 3.1635 3.1288 3.1089 3.1040 3.1040 3.1029
TABLE C.2(c)
Extended Sukkar-Cornell Integral for Bottom-hole Pressure Calculation
P, Reduced Temperature for 8 = 10.0
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0

0.20 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
0.50 0.0115 0.0112 0.0110 0.0108 0.0107 0.0107 0.0106 0.0105 0.0105 0.0105 0.0104 0.0104 0.0104 0.0103 0.0103
1.00 0.0561 0.0525 0.0507 0.0494 0.0486 0.0479 0.0474 0.0470 0.0468 0.0465 0.0462 0.0460 0.0458 0.0456 0.0455
1.50 0.1292 0.1187 0.1132 0.1098 0.1074 0.1056 0.1041 0.1031 0.1024 0.1018 0.1009 0.1003 0.0997 0.0994 0.0990
2.00 0.2028 0.1968 0.1891 0. i837 0.1797 0.1767 0.1743 0.1725 0.1713 0.1703 0.1687 0.1676 0.1667 0.1660 0.1653
o.~475 0.2461 0.2440 0.2426 0.2413 0.2403 0.2394
~
2.50 0.2684 0.2723 0.2677 0.2624 0.2578 0.2543 0.2513 0.2490
3.00 0.3300 0.3422 0.3427 0.3399 0.3364 0.3332 0.3302 0.3278 0.3263 0.3248 0.3225 0.3210 0.3195 0.3184 0.3174
3.50 0.3897 0.4080 0.4130 0.4135 0.4123 0.4102 0.4080 0.4061 OA047 0.4035 0.4014 0.3999 0.3985 0.3974 0.3964
4.00 0.4485 0.4708 0.4793 0.4832 0.4846 0.4841 0.4830 0.4820 0.4812 0.4803 0.4787 0.4776 0.4764 0.4755 0.4746 tli
c:.
4.50 0.5065 0.5315 0.5423 0.5492 0.5533 0.5545 0.5547 0.5549 0.5549 0.5546 0.5538 0.5532 0.5523 0.5517 0.5511 ;:

'
5.00 0.5638 0.5904 0.6029 0.6122 0.6189 0.6217 0.6233 0.6248 0.6256 0.6260 0.6262 0.6263 0.6258 0.6256 0.6252
0.6934 0.6946 0.6959 0.6967 0.6967 0.6968 0.6967
0.6617 0.6729
~
5.50 0.6204 0.6480 0.6818 0.6861 0.6891 0.6919
0.7190 0.7316 0.7424 0.7481 0.7522 0.7563 0.7586 0.7605 0.7629 0.7645 0.7650 0.7654 0.7655
6.00 0.6765 0.7045 ;-
6.50 0.7321 0.7602 0.7752 0.7808 0.8010 0.8079 0.8131 0.8182 0.8214 0.8240 0.8273 0.8297 0.8307 0.8314 0.8317
7.00 0.7873 0.8153 0.8304 0.6447 0.8580 0.8659 0.8720 0.8781 0.8819 0.8852 0.8895 0.8925 0.8940 0.8950 0.8955 ~
0.8846 0.8994 0.9134 0.9221 0.9290 0.9360 0.9404 0.9443 0.9494 0.9531 0.9550 0.9562 0.9566 ~
a=
7.50 0.8421 0.8697
8.00 0.8965 0.9236 0.9381 0.9531 0.9676 0.9770 0.9845 0.9921 0.9971 1.0015 1.0092 1.0115 1.0138 1.0152 1.0160
8.50 0.9506 0.9769 0.9909 1.0059 1.0207 1.0305 1.0385 1.0467 1.0522 1.0569 1.0653 1.0681 1.0706 1.0723 1.0732
9.00 1.0043 1.0296 1.0431 1.0580 1.0729 1.0829 1.0912 1.0999 1.1057 1.1108 1.1197 1.1228 1.1256 1.1275 1.1286
9.50 1.0575 1.0819 1.0947 1.1094 1.1242 1.1342 1.1428 1.1518 1.1579 1.1633 1.1726 1.1760 1.1790 1.1810 1.1822

e 10.00
10.50
11.00
1.1104
1.1630
1.2153
1.1338
1.1852
1.2363
1.1458 1.1601
1.1964 1.2102
1.2466 1.2598
1.1747
1.2245
1.2736
1.1847
1.2344
1.2834
1.1935
1.2432
1.2920
1.2027
1.2525
1.3013
1.2090
1.2689
1.3078
1.2145
1.2645
1.3135
1.2242
1.2746
1.3238
1.2278
1.2783
1.3275
1.2309
1.2814
1.3907
1.2331
1.2836
1.3329
1.2343
1.2850
1.3343
11.50 1.2674 1.2871 1.2964 1.3089 1.3222 1.3317 1.3402 1.3494 1.3559 1.3616 1.3719 1.3756 1.3788 1.3810 1.3824
12.00 1.3192 1.3376 1.3458 1.3574 1.3702 1.3794 1.3876 1.3967 J.4032 1.4088 1.4190 1.4227 1.4258 1.4280 1.4294
12.50 1.3708 1.3877 1.3949 1.4056 1.4178 1.4266 1.4345 1.4433 !A497 1.4552 1.4653 1.4688 1.4719 1.4740 1.4753
13.00 1.4222 1.4377 1.4437 1.4533 l.4649 1.4733 1.4807 1.4893 J.4955 1.5008 1.5106 1.5140 1.5169 1.5139 1.5202
13.50 1.4734 1.4873 1.4921 1.5006 1.5115 1.5194 1.5264 1.5346 1.5406 1.5457 1.5551 1.5582 1.5611 1.5630 1.5642
14.00 1.5244 1.5368 1.5403 1.5476 1.5511 1.5652 1.5716 1.5794 l.5S51 1.5899 1.5988 1.6016 1.6043 1.6062 1.6074

. ---~ .-.-~.. - - ~-'- ~. --- ...__. _ _ _ _ _ .,.,...,,,........._._ .<;~


---~="-~ ................... _,,....,__~------=.--

14.50 1.5753 1.5860 1.5883 1.5942 1.6035 1.6104 1.6163 1.6237 1.6290 1.6335 1.6417 1.6443 1.6468 1.6486 1.6497
15.00 l.6261 1.6351 1.6360 l.6405 1.6490 1.6553 1.6605 1.6575 1.6723 1.6764 1.6840 1.6862 1.6885 1.6902 1.6912
15.50 1.6767 1.6839 1.6835 1.6865 1.6941 1.6999 1.7043 1.7108 1.7151 1.7188 1.7256 1.7274 1.7296 1.7311 1.7320
16.00 1.7271 1.7326 1.7308 1.7323 1.7389 1.7440 1.7477 1.7537 1.7575 1.7607 1.7666 1.7679 1.7699 1.7713 1.7722
16.50 1.7775 1.7811 1.7778 1.7778 1.7834 1.7878 1.7906 1.7961 1.7993 1.8020 1.8070 1.8078 1.8096 1.8109 1.8116
17.00 1.8277 1.8294 1.8247 1.8230 1.8275 1.8314 1.8333 1.8382 1.8407 1.8429 1.8469 1.8472 1.8487 1.8499 1.8505
11.50 . 1.8778 1.8777 1.8714 1.8680 1.8714 1.8746 1.8756 1.8799 1.8818 '---i..8833 1.8862 1.8859 1.8872 1.8883 1.8888
18.00 1.9278 1.9257 l.9179 1.9127 1.9151 1.9175 1.9175 1.9212 1.9224 1.9232 1.9251 1.9242 1.9252 1.9261 I.9265

;;;l
18.50 1.9111 1.9737 1.9643 1.9573 1.9585 1.9602 1.9592 1.9622 1.9626 1.9628 1.9634 1.9619 1.9626 1.9634 1.9637
2.0002 2.0004
19.00 2.0276 2.0215 2.0105 2.0017 2.0016 2.0026 2.0005 2.0029 :.0025 2.0020 2.0013 1.9992 1.9996
"'
~
19.50 2.0773 2.0592 2.0566 2.0458 2.0446 2.0447 2.0416 2.0433 2.(1420 2.0408 2.0388 2.0359 2.0360 2.0365 2.0366 =
:0:-
20.00 2.1269
20.50 2.1765
2.1167
2.1642
2.1026
2.1484
2.0898
2.1336
2.0873
2.1298
2.0867
2.1284
2.0824
2.1229
2.0833
2.1232
:.OSl2 2.0792
2.1201 2.1173
:.1587 2.1551
2.0759
2.1126
2.1489
2.0723
2.1082
2.1438
2.0721
2.1077
2.1429
2.0724
2.1079
2.1429
2.0723
2.1077
2.1425
....
~
:::
21.00 2.2260 2.2116 2.1941 2.1773 2.1722 2.1699 2.1632 2.1627
Q,,
21.50 2.2754 2.2588 2.2396 2.2207 2.2143 2.2112 2.2033 2.2020 2.1970 2.1926 2.1848 2.1789 2.1777 2.1775 2.1770
22.00 2.3248 2.3060 2.2851 2.2641 2.2563 2.2523 2.2432 2.2411 :.2350 2.2298 2.2204 2.2137 2.2121 2.2118 2.2111 ~
22.50 2.3741 2.3531 2.3304 2.3073 2.2981 2.2932 2.2828 2.2799 2.2728 2.2667 2.2557 2.2461 2.2462 2.2457 2.2449 3
23.00 2.4233 2.4001 2.3757 2.3503 2.3397 2.3340 2.3222 2.3185 2.3103 2.3033 2.2906 2.2822 2.2799 2.2792 2.2783 ~
23.50 2.4725
2-l.OO 2.5216
2.4470 2.4208 2.3932 2.3812 2.3745 2.3615 2.3569 :.3476 2.3397 2.3253
2.3597
2.3160
2.3494
2.3133
2.3463
2.3124
2.3453
2.3133
2.3440
~
2.4938 2.4659 2.4360 2.4226 2.4149 2.4005 2.3951 2.38-17 2.3758 So
c:.
24.50 2.5706 2.5406 2.5108 2.4787 2.4637 2..\952 2.4394 2.4331 2.-1215 2.4117 2.3937 2.3826 2.3791 2.3779 2.3765 Q,,
25.00 2.6196 2.5873 2.5557 2.5212 2.5048 2.4953 2.4761 2.4709 2..J581 2.4473 2.4275 2.4155 2.4115 2.4102 2.4086
2.4481 2.4437 2.4422 2.4404
25.50 2.6685
26.00 2.7174
2.6339
2.6805
2.6005
2.6452
2.5637
2.6060
2.5457
2.5865
2.5353
2.5751
2.5166
2.5550
2.5085
2.5459
2..\946 2.4827
:.5308 2.5179
2.4611
2.4944 2.4804 2.4756 2.4739 2.4719 ""'
-.:i
!JI

26.50 2.7663 2.7269 2.6898 2.6482 2.6272 2.6148 2.5932 2.5832 2.5668 2.5529 2.5275 2.5124 2.5073 2.5053 2.5032
27.00 2.8151 2.7734 2.7343 2.6904 2.6677 2.6543 2.6312 2.6203 :.6027 2.5877 2.5603 2.5443 2.5386 2.5365 2.5342
27.50 2.8638 2.8197 2.7788 2.7324 2.7082 2.6938 2.6691 2.6573 2.6384 2.6223 2.5929 2.5758 2.5698 2.5675 2.5650
28.00 2.9125 2.8660 2.8232 2.7743 2.7485 2.7331 2.7069 2.6941 2.6739 3.6567 2.6253 2.6072 2.6007 2.5982 2.5955
28.50 2.9612 2.9123 2.8675 2.8162 2.7887 2.7723 2.7446 2.7307 2.7092 2.6909 2.6575 2.6383 2.6314 2.6286 2.6258
29.00 3.0098 2.9585 2.9118 2.8579 2.8288 2.8114 2.7821 2.7673 2.7444 2.7250 2.6895 2.6692 2.6618 2.6589 2.6558
29.50 3.0584 3.0046 2.9560 2.8996 2.8689 2.8504 2.8194 2.8036 2.7794 2.7589 2.7212 2.6999 2.6970 2.6889 2.6857
30.00 3.1069 3.0507 3.0001 2.9412 2.9088 2.8892 2.8567 2.8399 2.01-13 2.7926 2.7528 2.7304 2.7221 2.7187 2.7153
~ ....... , . --- ..... .

TABLE C.2(d)
Extended Sukkar-Cornell Integral for Bottom-hole Pressure Calculation
P, Reduced Temperature for B = 15.0
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0

0.20 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
0.50 0.0077 0.0075 0.0074 0.0073 0.0072 0.0071 0.0071 0.0071 0.0070 0.0070 0.0070 0.0070 0.0069 0.0069 0.0069
1.00 0.0385 0.0359 0.0345 0.0336 0.0330 0.0325 0.0322 0.3119 0.0317 0.0316 0.0313 0.0311 0.0310 0.0309 0.0308
I.SO 0.0939 0.0838 0.0793 0.0765 0.0746 0.0732 0.0721 0.0713 0.0708 0.0703 0.0696 0.0692 0.0687 0.0685 0.0682
2.00 0.1571 0.1453 0.1371 0.1319 0.1282 0.1257 0.1236 0.1220 0.1211 0.1202 0.1189 0.1180 0.1172 0.1167 0.1161
2.50 0.2162 0.2093 0.2008 0.1943 0.1892 0.1857 0.1827 0.1804 0.1790 0.1777 0.1758 0.1745 0.1733 0.1724 0.1716 ~
-.I
3.00 0.2725 0.2710 0.2648 0.2587 0.2533 0.2493 0.2458 0.2431 0.2413 0.2397 0.2374 0.2357 0.2342 0.2331 0.2320 Q'\
3.50 0.3275 0.3302 0.3267 0.3222 0.3176 0.3138 0.3102 0.3074 0.3055 0.3038 0.3012 0.2994 0.2978 0.2964 0.2952
4.00
4.50
0.3818
0.4355
0.3874
0.4430
0.3862
o.~35
0.3837
0.4431
0.3805
0.4415
0.3774
0.4393
0.3743
0.4369
0.3717
0.4349
0.3699
0.4335
0.3683
0.4320
0.3657
0.4298
0.3679
0.4281
0.3622
0.4265
~.3608
0.4252
0.3596
0.4240 ..
~
~

~
5.00 0.4887 0.4975 0.4992 0.5004 0.5006 0.4994 0.4978 0.4966 0.4956 0.4945 0.4928 0.4914 0.4S'OO 0.4888
0.5512
0.4877
0.5503
~
~
5.50 0.5-113 0.5508 0.5535 0.5561 0.5579 0.5577 0.5570 0.5566 0.5561 0.5554 0.5543 0.5534 0.5522
6.00 0.5936 0.6034 0.6066 0.6103 0.6135 0.6143 0.6144 0.6149 0.6149 0.6147 0.6143 0.6138 0.6129 0.6121 0.6113 ;-
6.50 0.6454 0.6553 0.6590 0.6634 0.6676 0.6694 0.6703 0.6715 0.6720 0.6724 0.6726 0.6727 0.6721 0.6715 0.6708
7.00 0.6969 0.7068 0.7105 0.7155 0.7205 0.7230 0.7246 0.7256 0.7276 0.7284 0.7293 0.7299 0.7296 0.7291 0.7286 4'
7.50 0,7432 0.7577 0.7613 0.7666 0.7722 0.7754 0.7776 0.7802 0.7817 0.7829 0.7844 0.7854 0.7855 0.7852 0.7848 ~
8.00 0.7991 0.8082 0.8114 0.8170 0.8230 0.8266 0.8293 0.8360 0.8391 0.8395 0.8398 0.8397 0.8394 ~
0.8324 0.8344 ~
8.50 0.8-197 0.8582 0.8611 0.8666 0.8729 0.8768 0.8799 0.8835 0.8858 0.8878 0.8914 0.8920 0.8926 0.8927 0.8925
9.00 0.9000 0.9078 0.9102 0.9157 0.9220 0.9261 0.9295 0.9334 0.9360 0.9382 0.9423 0.'1432 0.9440 0.9442 0.9441
9.50 0.9500 0.9570 0.9588 0.9641 0.9704 0.9746 0.9782 0.9824 0.9852 0.9876 0.9920 0.9932 0.9941 0.9444 0.9944
10.00 0.9998 1.0059 1.0071 1.0121 1.0181 1.0223 1.0260 1.0304 l.0334 1.0359 1.0407 1.0420 1.0430 1.0434 1.0435

e 10.50
11.00
11.50
1.0492
1.0985
1.1475
1.0544
1.1026
1.1506
1.0549
1.1024
1.1496
1.0595
1.1065
1.1530
1.0653
l.1119
l.1580
1.0694
1.1159
1.1618
1.0731
1.1195
1.1653
1.0776
l.1239
l.1696
1.0806
1.1271
1.1728
1.0833
1.1298
1.1755
1.0883
1.1349
1.1807
1.0897
1.1364
1.1822
1.0908
1.1375
1.1832
1.0913
1.1380
1.1837
1.0914
1.1381
1.1839
12.00 1.1963 1.1983 1.1964 1.1992 1.2037 1.2072 1.2105 1.2147 1.2178 1.2205 1.2256 1.2270 1.2281 1.2285 1.2287
12.50 1.24-19 1.2458 1.2430 1.2449 1.2490 1.2522 1.2551 1.2592 1.2622 1.2648 1.2698 1.2711 1.2720 1.2724 1.2725
13.00 1.2934 1.2931 1.2893 1.2903 1.2939 1.2967 1.2993 1.3031 1.3060 1.3084 1.3131 1.3143 1.3152 1.3155 1.3156
13.50 1.3417 1.3402 1.3354 1.3354 1.3384 1.3408 1.3430 1.3465 1.3492 1.3514 1.3558 1.3567 1.3575 1.3578 1.3578
14.00 1.3899 1.3870 1.3812 1.3802 1.3825 1.3845 1.3862 1.3694 1.3918 1.3938 1.3977 1.3984 1.3991 1.3993 1.3992

1-1.50 1.4380 1.4337 l..t268 1.4247 1.4263 1.4278 1.4290 1.4319 1.4339 1.4356 1.4390 1.4395 1.4400 1.4401 1.4400
15.00 1.4860 1.-1803 1.-1722 1.4689 1.4698 1.4708 1.4714 1.4739 1.4756 1.4769 1.4797 1.-1798 1.4802 1.4802 1.4800
15.50 1.5338 1.5266 1.5174 1.5129 1.5130 1.5135 1.5134 1.5155 1.5168 1.5177 1.5198 1.5196 1.5197 1.5197 1.5194
16.00 1.5815 1.5728 1.5625 1.5566 1.5559 1.5558 1.5551 1.5567 1.5575 1.5580 1.5594 1.5587 1.5587 1.5585 1.5582
16.50 1.6291 1.6189 1.6073 1.6001 1.5985 1.5979 1.5964 1.5976 1.5978 1.5979 1.5984 1.5973 1.5971 1.5968 1.5964
17.00 1.6766 1.6649 1.6520 1.6434 1.6409 1.6397 1.6374 l.638k...._ 1.6378 1.6373 1.6370 1.6354 1.6350 1.6346 1.6341
17.50 1.72-11 1.7107 1.6966 1.6865 1.6830 1.6812 1.6781 1.6783 1.6773 1.6764 1.6750 1.6730 1.6723 1.6718 1.6712
18.00 1.7714 1.7564 1.7-110 I. 7293 1.7249 1.7225 1.7186 1.7181 1.7166 1.7150 1.7127 1.7100 1.7091 1.7085 1.7078
.18.50 1.8187 1.8020 1.7853 1.7720 1.7666 1.7635 1.7587 1.7577 1.7554 1.7533 1.7499 1.7466 1.7455 1.7447 1.7439 ;!
19.00 1.8659 1.8-175 1.8294 1.8146 1.8081 1.8043 1.7986 1.7970 1.7940 1.7912 1.7866 1.7828 1.7814 1.7805 1.7796 <I>
19.50 !. 9130 1.8929 1.8734 1.8569 1.8158 1.8148 !:Ii
1.8493 1.8449 1.8382 1.8360 1.8322 1.8288 1.8230 1.8186 1.8169 c:
20.00
20.50
1.9600
2.0070
1.9382
1.983-1
1.9173
1.9611
1.8991
1.9412
1.8904
1.9314
1.8853
1.9255
1.8776
1.9168
.1.8747
1.9132
1.8702
1.9079
1.8661
1.9031
1.8590
1.8947
1.8540
1.8889
1.8519
1.8866
1.8508
1.8853
1.8496
1.8840 ..~
21.00
21.50
2.0539
2.1007
2.0285
2.0736
2.0048
2.0-184
1.9831
2.0248
1.9721
2.0127
1.9655
2.0054
1.9557
1.9944
1.9515
1.9895
1.9453
1.9824
1.9397
1.9761
1.9300
1.9650
1.9236
1.9578
1.9209
1.9549
1.9195
1.9532
1.9180
1.9517
"'Cl.
=
22.00 2.1475 2.1185 2.0918 2.0665 2.0531 2.0450 2.0330 2.0273 2.0193 2.0122 1.9997 1.9917 1.9884 1.9867 1.9850 g
22.50 2.19-13 :.1634 2.1352 2.1080 2.0934 2.0845 2.0713 2.0649 2.0560 2.0481 2.0341 2.0253 2.0217 2.0148 2.0179 =i
23.00 2.2410 2.2082 2.1785 2.1494 2.1335 2.1239 2.1095 2.1024 2.0924 2.0837 2.0681 2.0586 2.0546 2.0525 2.0506 ~
23.50
24.00
2.2876
2.3342
2.2529
2.2976
2.2217
2.26-18
2.1906
2.2318
2.1735
2.2134
2.1631
2.2021
2.1475
2.1853
2.1346
2.1766
2.1286
2.1646
2.1191
2.1542
2.1019
2. 1355
2.0916
2.12-12
2.0872
2.1196
2.0850
2.1171
2.0829
2.1149 ~
:;.
24.50 2.3807 :.3422 2.3079 2.2728 2.2531 2.2410 2.2229 2.2135 2.2005 2.1891 2.1687 2.1567 2.1516 2.1490 2.1466 Q
Cl.
25.00 2.-1272 2.3867 2.3509 2.3138 2.2927 2.2798 2.2604 2.2502 2.2361 2.2238 2.2017 2.1888 2.1834 2.1806 2.1780
25.50 2.4736 2.-1312 2.3937 2.3546 2.3322 2.3184 2.2978 2.2867 2.2715 2.2583 2.2345 2.2207 2.2149 2.2119 2.2092 ~
-.I
26.00 2.5200 1.-1756 2 ..B66 2.3953 2.3716 2.3569 2.3550 2.3230 2.3067 2.2927 2.2671 2.2523 2.2461 2.2430 2.2-101 -:i
26.50 2.5664 2.5200 2.-1793 2.4360 2.4109 2.3953 2.3720 2.3592 2.3418 2.3268 2.2994 2.2837 2.2771 2.2738 2.2707
27.00 2.6127 :.5643 2.5220 2.4766 2.4501 2.4336 2.4089 2.3953 2.3767 2.3607 2.3315 2.3149 2.3078 2.3044 2.3011
27.50 2.6590 2.6036 2.5646 2.5170 2.4891 2.4718 2.4457 2.4312 2.4115 2.3944 2.3634 2.3458 2.3384 2.3347 2.3313
28.00 2.7053 2.6520 2.6072 2.5574 2.5281 2.5098 2.4824 2.4670 2.4460 2.4280 2.3951 2.3765 2.3687 2.3648 2.3612
28.50 2.7515 2.6969 2.6-197 2.5977 2.5669 2.5478 2.5189 2.5026 2.4805 2.4614 2.4266 2.4070 2.3987 2.3947 2.3909
29.00 2. 7977 2.7-110 2.6921 2.6380 2.6057 2.5856 2.5553 2.5382 2.5148 2.4947 2.4579 2.-1373 2.4286 2.4244 2.4205
29.50 2.8-138 2.7851 2.i3-15 2.6781 2.6444 2.6234 2.5916 2.5736 2.5489 2.5278 2.4890 2.4674 2.4583 2.4538 2.4497
30.00 2.8899 2.8291 2.i769 2. 7182 2.6830 2.6610 2.6278 2.6088 2.5829 2.5607 2.5200 2.-1974 2.4878 2.4831 2.4788
TABLE C.2(e)
Extended Sukkar-Cornell Integral for Bottom-hole Pressure Calculation
P, Reduced Temperature for 8 = 20.0
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0
0.20 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
0.50 0.0058 0.0056 0.0055 0.0055 0.0054 0.0054 0.0053 0.0053 0.0053 0.0053 0.0052 0.0052 0.0052 0.0052 0.0052
1.00 0.0294 0.0272 0.0262 0.0255 0.0250 0.0246 0.0243 0.0241 0.0240 0.0239 0.0237 0.0236 0.0235 0.0234 0.0233
1.50 0.0740 0.0649 0.0610 0.0587 0.0572 0.0561 0.0561 0.0545 0.0541 0.0537 0.0532 0.0528 0.0525 0.0522 0.0520
2.00 0.1295 0.1156 0.1077 0.1030 0.0998 0.0976 0.0958 0.0945 0.0937 0.0930 0.0918 0.0911 0.0905 0.0900 0.0895
2.50 0.1832 0.1712 0.1614 0.1547 0.1498 0.1465 0.1438 0.1417 0.1404 0.1393 0.1376 0.1364 0.1354 0.1346 0.1339
3.00 0.2350 0.2264 0.2172 0.2099 0.2040 0.1999 0.1964 0.1937 0.1920 0.1904 0.1882 0.1867 0.1853 0.1842 0.1832 ""'
Qi!
3.50 0.2860 0.2801 0.2725 0.2657 0.2597 0.2553 0.2514 0.2484 0.2463 0.2445 0.2419 0.2401 0.2384 0.2371 0.2359
4.00
4.50
0.3365
0.3865
0.3326
0.3841
0.3264
0.3790
0.3208
0.3747
0.3154
0.3703
0.3111
0.3664
0.3073
0.3629
0.3041
0.3599
0.3020
0.3578
0.3000
0.3559
0.2972
0.3531
0.2952
0.3510
0.2934
0.3492
0.2919
0.3476
0.2906
0.3462 =
<:)

5.00
5.50
0.4360
0.4852
0.4346
0.4843
0.4305
0.4809
0.4273
0.4787
0.4240
0.4765
0.4208
0.4740
0.4177
0.4714
0.4151 0.4132
0.4678
0.4114
0.4662
0.4088
0.4639
0.4068
0.4622
0.4050
0.4604
0.4034
0.4589
0.4021
0.4577
~
~
0.4594
6.00 0.5341 0.5335 0.5305 0.5291 0.5279 0.5261 0.5241 0.5226 0.5213 0.5201 0.5182 0.5167 0.5151 0.5137 0.5125
1;"
6.50 0.5827 0.5821 0.5794 0.5786 0.5783 0.5771 0.5756 0.5747 0.5738 0.5729 0.5714 0.5703 0.5689 0.5676 0.5665

a~~
7.00 0.6310 0.6304 0.6277 0.6274 0.6276 0.6270 0.6261 0.6257 0.6252 0.6246 0.6236 0.6228 0.6216 0.6205 0.6194
7.50 0.6791 0.6782 0.6755 0.6754 0.6761 0.6760 0.6755 0.6756 0.6754 0.6752 0.6746 0.6741 0.6732 0.6722 0.6712
8.00 0.7269 0.7257 0.7227 0.7228 0.7238 0.7241 0.7240 0.7245 0.7247 0.7247 0.7251 0.7244 0.7237 0.7227 0.7219
~
8.50 0.7745 0.7728 0.7695 0.7696 0.7708 0.7714 0.7716 0.7725 0.7729 0.7732 0.7740 0.7735 0.7730 0.7722 0.7714 "'
9.00 0.8219 0.8196 0.8159 0.8160 0.8172 0.8179 0.8184 0.8195 0.8202 0.8207 0.8218 0.8216 0.8212 0.8205 0.8198
9.50 0.8690 0.8661 0.8620 0.8618 0.8631 0.8638 0.8644 0.8658 0.8666 0.8673 0.8687 0.8687 0.8684 0.8678 0.8672

e
.
10.00
.10.50
11.00
0.9159
0.9626
1.0091
0.9123
0.9582
1.0089
0.9077
0.9530
0.9981
0.9073
0.9523
0.9969
0.9083
0.9531
0.9975
0.9091
0.9538
0.9980
0.9098
0.9545
0.9987
0.9113
0.9561
1.0002
0.9123
0.9571
1.0014
0.9131
0.9580
1.0023
0.9147
0.9599
1.0043
0.9148
0.9601
1.0045
0.9146
0.9599
1.0043
0.9141
0.9595
1.0039
0.9135
0.9589
1.0034
11.50 1.0554 1.0494 1.0429 1.0412 1.0414 1.0418 1.0423 1.0438 1.0450 1.0459 1.0479 1.0481 1.0479 1.0475 1.0470
12.00 1.1016 1.0946 1.0874 1.0851 1.0849 1.0851 1.0855 1.0868 1.0879 1.0688 1.0908 1.0909 1.0908 1.0903 1.0698
12.50 1.1476 1.1397 1.1317 1.1288 1.1282 1.1280 1.1282 1.1294 1.1304 1.1312 1.1331 1.1331 1.1328 1.1323 1.1318
13.00 1.1935 1.1846 1.1758 1.1721 1.1710 1.1706 1.1704 1.1714 1.1723 1.1730 1.1746 1.1745 1.1742 1.1736 1.1731
13.50 1.2392 1.2293 1.2197 1.2151 1.2136 1.2128 1.2122 1.2130 1.2137 1.2142 1.2156 1.2153 1.2149 1.2143 1.2136
14.00 l.2849 1.2739 1.2833 1.2579 1.2558 1.2547 1.2537 1.2542 1.2547 2.2549 1.2559 1.2564 1.2549 1.2542 1.2535

14.50 1.3304 1.3183 1.3068 1.3005 1.2977 1.2962 1.2948 1.2949 1.2952 1.2952 1.2957 1.2949 1.2463 1.2935 1.2928
15.00 1.3759 1.3625 1.3501 1.3428 1.3394 l'.3375 1.3355 1.3353 1.3352 1.3349 1.3349 1.3339 1.3331 1.3322 1.3315
15.50 1.4212 1.4067 1.3933 1.3849 1.3808 1.3784 1.3759 1.3754 1.3749 1.3743 1.3736 1.3723 1.3713 1.3704 1.3695
16.00 1.4665 1.4507 1A363 1.4267 1.4220 1.4191 1.4150 1.4151 1.4142 1.4132 1.4118 1.4101 1.4090 1.4080 1.4071
16.50 1.5116 1.4945 1.4792 1.4684 1.4629 1.4595 1.4558 1.4544 1.4531 1.4517 1.4496 1.4475 1.4462 1.4451 1.4441
17.00 1.5567 1.5383 1.5219 1.5099 1.5036 1.4997 1.4953 1.4935 1.4916 1.4898 1.4869 1.4844 1.4829 1.4817 1.4806
17.50 'l.6017 1.5820 1.5645 1.5512 1.5441 1.5397 1.5345 t.5323 1.5298 1.5275 1.5238 1.5208 1.5191 1.5178 1.5166
18.00 1.6467 1.6256 1.6069 1.5924 1.5844 1.5794 1.5735 1.5708 1.5678 1.5649 1.5603 1.5588 1.5549 1.5584 1.5522

e 18.50
19.00
19.50
20.00
1.6916
1.7364
1.7811
1.8258
1.6691
1.7125
1.7558
1.7990
1.6493
1.6915
1.7336.
1.7757
1.6334
1.6742
1.7149
1.7555
1.6245
1.6644
1.7042
1.7438
1.6190
1.6583
1.6975
1.7364
1.6123
1.6508
1.6891
1.7271
1.6090
1.6470
1.6847
1.7222
1.6054
1.6427
1.6797
1.7165
1.6020
1.6388
1.6752
1.711-l
1.5964
1.6321
1.6675
1.7025
1.5924
1.6275
1.6623
1.6967
1.5902
1.5252
1.6597
1.6938
1.5837
1.6235
1.6579
1.6919
1.5973
1.6220
1.6563
1.6902
~
"'
~
:ii:-
20.50 1.8705 1.8421 1.8176 1.7959 1.7832 1.7752 1.7650 1.7595 1.7530 1.7473 1.7372 1.7308 1.7276 1.7256 1.7238 .,"':ii:-
21.00 1.9150 1.7716 1.7645 1.7611 1.7589 1.7570
21.50 1.9596
1.8852
1.9282
1.8594
1.9012
1.8362
1.8763
1.8225
1.8616
1.8139
1.8523
1.8027
1.8401
1.7965
1.8334
1.7893
1.825-l
1.7829
1.8183 1.8056 1.7979 l.79-l2 1.7918 1.7898 "'
=
Q.
22.00 2.0041 1.9711 1.9429 1.9164 1.9006 1.8906 1.8774 1.8700 1.8612 1.8534 1.8394 1.8310 1.8270 1.8245 1.8223
~
22.50 2.0485 2.0140 1.9844 1.9563 1.9395 1.9288 1.9146 1.9065 1.8968 1.8882 1.8730 1.8638 1.8595 1.8568 1.8545 3
23.00
23.50
2.0929
2.1372
2.0568
2.0995
2.0259
2.0674
L9982
2.0359
1.9782 1.9668 1.9516 1.9428 1.9322 1.9229
1.9573
1.9062
1.9392
1.8963
1.9286
1.8916
1.9235
1.8889
1.9206
1.8864
1.9180
"'
::::::

~
2.0168 2.0047 1.968-l 1.9789 1.967-l
24.00 2.1815 2.1422 2.1087 2.0756 2.0553 2.0425 2.0250 2.0149 2.0025 1.9916 1.9719 1.9605 1.9551 1.9521 2.9493
1.9804 :::-
24.50 2.2258 2.1849 2.1500 2.1151 2.0937 2.0801 2.0615 2.0507 2.0373 2.0256 2.0044 1.9922 1.9865 1.9832 Q
~
25.00 2.2700 2.2274 2.1912 2.1546 2.1319 2.1176 2.0979 2.0863 2.0719 2.059-l 2.0367 2.0237 2.0176 2.0142 2.0112
25.50 2.3142 2.2700 2.2324 2.1939 2.1701 2.1550 2.1341 2.1218 2.1064 2.0980 2.0687 2.0549 2.0484 2.0449 2.0417
26.00 2.3584 2.3124 2.2735 2.2332 2.2002 2.1923 2.1702 2.1671 2.1408 2.1265 2.1005 2.0858 2.0790 2.0753 2.0720 """
---!
~
26.50 2.4025 2.3549 2.3145 2.2724 2.2461 2.2295 2.2062 2.1923 2.1749 2.1598 2.1321 2.1166 2.1094 2.1055 2.1020
27.00 2.4466 2.3973 2.3555 2.3115 2.2840 2.2665 2.2420 2.2274 2.2089 2.1929 2.1636 2.1471 2.1395 2.1355 2.1318
27.50 2.4907 2.4396 2.3964 2.3505 2.3218 2.3035 2.2778 2.2823 2.2428 2.2258 2.1968 2.1774 2.1695 2.1652 2.1614
28.00 2.5347 2.4819 2.4373 2.3895 2.3595 2.3404 2.3134 2.2971 2.2765 2.2586 2.2258 2.2075 2.1992 2.1948 2.1908
28.50 2.5787 2.5742 2.4781 2.4284 2.3971 2.3772 2.3-l09 2.3118 2.3100 2.2912 2.2566 2.2375 2.2287 2.2241 2.2220
29.00 2.6227 2.5664 2.5189 2.4672 2.4146 2.4119 2.3843 2.366-l 2.3435 2.3217 2.2873 2.2677 2.2540 2.2662 2.2480
29.50 2.6666 2.6085 2.5596 2.5060 2.4720 2.4504 2.4195 2.4008 2.3768 2.3560 2.3178 2.2967 2.2871 2.2822 2.2777
30.00 2.7106 2.6507 2.6003 2.5447 2.5094 2.4870 2.45.n 2.4352 2.4100 2.3882 2.3481 2.3261 2.3161 2.3109 2.3063
. TABLE C.2(f}
Extended Sukkar-Cornell Integral for Bottom-hole Pressure Calculation
P, Reduced Temperature for 8 = 25.0
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0

0.20 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
0.50 0.0047 0.0045 0.0044 0.0044 0.0043 0.0043 0.0043 0.0042 0.0042 0.0042 0.0042 0.0042 0.0042 0.0042 0.0042
1.00 0.0237 0.0219 0.0211 0.0205 0.0201 0.0198 0.0196 0.0194 0.0193 0.0192 0.0191 0.0189 0.0189 0.0198 0.0187
1.50 0.0611 0.0529 0.0496 0.0477 0.0464 0.0454 0.0446 0.0441 0.0438 0,0435 0.0430 0.0427 0.0424 0.0422 O.M20
2.00 0.1106 0.0961 0.0888 0.0846 0.0818 0.0798 0.0783 0.0771 0.0764 0.0758 0.0749 0.0742 0.0737 0.0733 0.0729
2.50 0.1598 0.1453 0.1352 0.1287 0.1241 0.1211 0.1186 0.1188 0.1156 0.1146 0.1131 0.1171 0.1111 0.1104 0.1098
0.1561 0.1547 0.1534 0.1524 0.1515 ;$
3.00
3.50
0.2079
0.2554
0.1952
0.2444
0.1846
0.2346
0.1769
0.2267
0.1711
0.2202
0.1670
0.2156
0.1637
0.2117
0.1612
0.2087
0.1596
0.2067
0.1581
0.2049 0.2024 0.2007 0.1991 0.1978 0.1967 =
4.00 0.3025 0.2930 0.2840 0.2766 0.2702 0.2654 0.2613 0.2579 0.2557 0.2537 0.2508 0.2488 0.2470 0.2455 0.2442 t::::s
Q
4.50 0.3492 0.3408 0.3325 0.3260 0.3200 0.3154 0.3112 0.3078 0.3055 0.3036 0.3004 0.2982 0.2962 0.2946 0.2932
5.00 0.3957 0.3879 0.3803 0.3745 0.3693 0.3650 0.3610 0.3578 0.3555 0.3536 0.3503 0.3481 0.3461 0.3444 0.3429 ~

~
5.50 0.4418 0.4345 0.4274 0.4223 0.4178 0.4139 0.4103 0.4073 0.4052 0.4031 0.4002 0.3980 0.3961 0.3943 0.3929
6.00 0.4878 0.4806 0.4739 0.4694 0.4656 0.4622 0.4589 0.4563 0.4543 0.4525 0.4498 0.4477 0.4450 0.4441 0.4428
6.50 0.5335 0.5263 0.5198 0.5158 0.5126 0.5097 0.5068 0.5045 0.5028 0.5012 0.4988 0.4969 0.4951 0.4935 0.4922 ~
7.00 0.5790 0.5718 0.5653 0.5616 0.5589 0.5564 0.5539 0.5520 0.5506 0.5492 0.5471 0.5454 0.5437 0.5422 0.5409 ::r
...
7.50 0.6243 0.6169 0.6104 0.6069 0.6045 0.6024 0.6003 0.5987 0.5975 0.5966 0.5946 0.5932 0.5917 0.5902 0.5690 [:l
8.00 0.6694 0.6618 0.6550 0.6516 0.6495 0.6477 0.6459 0.6447 0.6437 0.6428 0.6415 0.6401 0.6388
0.6850
0.6374
0.6837
0.6362
0.6826
=
....~
8.50 0.7143 0.7063 0.6993 0.6960 0.6940 0.6924 0.6908 0.6899 0.6892 0.6884 0.6874 0.6882
0.7315 0.7304 0.7292 0.7282

e
9.00 0.7591 0.7506 0.7433 0.7399 0.7380 0.7365 0.7351 0.7344 0.7338 0.7333 0.7325
9.50 0.8036 0.7946 0.7870 0.7834 0.7814 0.7800 0.7788 0.7783 0.7778 0.7774 0.7769 0.7760 0.7750 0.7739 0.7830
10.00 0.8480 0.8384 0.8303 0.8266 0.8245 0.8231 0.8219 0.8215 0.8212 0.8208 0.8205 0.8198 0.8189 0.8178 0.8169
10.50 0.8922 0.8520 0.8735 0.8695 0.8671 0.8657 0.8645 0.8641 0.8639 0.8636 0.8635 0.8628 0.8619 0.8609 0.8600
11.00 0.9362 0.9254 0.9163 0.9120 0.9094 0.9078 0.9056 0.9063 0.9061 0.9058 0.9058 0.9052 0.9043 0.9033 0.9024
11.50 0.9801 0.9686 0.9590 0.9542 0.9514 0.9496 0.9483 0.9679 0.9477 0.9475 0.9475 0.9468 0.9459 0.9449 0.9.i40
12.00 1.0239 1.0117 1.0014 0.9961 0.9930 0.9910 0.9896 0.9891 0.9889 0.9886 0.9885 0.9879 0.9864 0.9854 0.9850
12.50 1.0676 1.0545 1.0437 1.0378 1.0343 1.0321 1.0304 1.0298 1.0295 1.0292 1.0240 1.0283 1.0273 1.0262 1.0253
13.00 1.1111 1.0973 1.0857 1.0792 1.0753 1.0729 1.0709 1.0701 1.0698 1.0693 1.0689 1.0681 1.0670 1.0659 1.0650
13.50 1.1546 1.1398 1.1276 1.1204 1.1161 1.1134 1.1111 1.1101 1.1095 1.1089 1.1083 1.1073 1.1062 1.1050 1.1040
14.00 1.1979 1.1823 1.1693 1.1614 1.1566 1.1535 1.1509 1.1496 1.1489 1.1481 1.1472 1.1459 1.1447 1.1435 1.1425

)
.. -. . . . '" :",_
-~"''-'"'""'""- . . .---.=.,>..
,_.,,,.__~ ...,,,~ _
"---"'=-~--,..,.. _.""-'-~""'"'"""""-~.....,.~~-~

14.50 l.2412 1.2246 1.2109 1.2021 1.1968 1.1934 1.1904 1.1889 1.1879 1.1868 1.1855 1.1840 1.1827 1.1615 1.1604
15.00 1.2844 1.2668 1.2523 1.2427 1.2368 1.2331 1.2296 1.2278 1.2265 1.2252 1.2234 1.2217 1.2202 1.2189 1.2177
15.50 1.3275 1.3089 1.2936 1.2830 1.2766 1.2725 1.2685 1.2663 1.2647 1.2631 1.2608 1.2588 1.2572 1.2558 1.2546
16.00 1.3705 1.3509 1.3347 1.3232 1.3161 1.3116 1.3071 1.3046 1.3026 1.3007 1.2978 1.2954 1.2937 1.2922 1.2909
16.50 1.4135 1.3928 1.3757 1.3632 1.3555 1.3505 1.3455 1.3426 1.3402 1.3379 1.3343 1.3316 1.3298 1.3281 1.3268
17.00 1.4564 1.4346 1.4166 1.4031 1.3947 1.3892 1.3836 1.3803 1.3775 1.3748 1.3705 1.3674 1.3653 1.3637 1.3623

e 17.50
18.00
18.50
1.4992
1.5420
1.5847
1.4763
1.5180
1.5595
1.4574
1.4981
1.5387
1.4428
1.4823
1.5217
1.4336
1.4724
l.Slll
1.4278
1.4661
1.5042
1.4215
1.4591
1.4965
1.4178
1.4550
1.4920
1.4145
1.4512
1.4876
1.4114
1.4476
1.4835
1.4062
1.4617
1.4767
1.4028
1.4377
1.4728
1.4005
1.4353
1.4697
1.3987
1.4334
1.4677
1.3973
1.4318
1.4660
..;
19.00 1.6274 1.6010 1.5792 1.5610 1.5496 1.5422 1.5338 1.5287 1.5238 1.5192 1.5114 1.5065 1.5036 1.5015 1.4998
19.50 1.6700 1.6424 1.6196 1.6002 1.5879 1.5800 1.5708 1.5653 1.5597 1.5546 1.5458 1.5404 1.5373 1.5351 1.5332 ...:::'
20.00
20.50
1.7126
1.7551
1.6837
1.7250
1.6597
1.7001
1.6392
1.6781
1.6261
1.6641
1.6176
1.6551
1.6076
1.6443
1.6016
1.6377
1.5954
1.6308
1.5997
1.6246
1.5799
1.6137
1.5739
1.6071
1.5706
1.6035
1.5692
1.6011
1.5663
1.5990 ,..,..~
21.00 1.7975 1.7662 1.7403 1.7169 1.7020 1.6924 1.6808 1.6736 1.6660 1.6592 1.6472 1.6400 1.5362 1.6336 1.6614 :;
21.50
22.00
1.8400 1.8073 1.7803 1.7556 1.7398 1.7296 1.717! 1.7094 1.7011 1.6936 1.6804 1.6726 1.5685 1.6658
1.6977
1.6635
1.6953
"'
=
~
1.8824 1.8484 1.8203 1.7942 1.7775 1.7667 1.7532 1.7450 1.7359 1.7278 1.7134 1.7049 1.7005
22.50 1.9247 1.8895 1.8603 1.8327 1.8150 1.8036 1.7892 1.7804 1.7705 1.7617 1.7460 1.7370 1.7322 1.7243 1.7267 9
23.00 1.9670 1.9304 1.9001 1.8711 1.8524 1.8404 1.8251 1.8156 1.8049 1.7955 1.7785 1.7687 1.7637 1.7606 1.7579 :::!
23.50 2.0093 I. 9714 1.9399 1.9094 1.8898 1.8771 1.8608 1.8507 1.8392 1.8290 1.8107 1.8002 1.7949 1.7916 1.7889 ~
:;;.
24.00 2.0516 2.0122 1.9797 1.9477 1.9270 1.9136 1.8964 1.8856 1.8733 1.8623 1.8427 1.8315 1.8258 1.8224 1.8195 .....
24.50 2.0938 2.0531 2.0193 1.9858 1.9641 1.9501 1.9318 1.9204 1.9072 1.8955 1.8744 1.8625 1.8565 1.8530 1.8499 a.
25.00 2.1360 2.0938 2.0590 2.0239 2.0011 1.9864 1.9671 1.9550 1.9409 1.9285 1.9060 1.8933 1.8870 1.8833 1.8801 ~
~
25.50 2.1761 2.1346 2.0985 2.0618 2.0380 2.0226 2.0023 1.9895 1.9745 1.9613 1.9373 1.9238 1.9172 1.9133 1.9100
26.00
26.50
27.00
27.50
2.2202
2.2623
2.3044
2.3464
2.1753
2.2159
2.2566
2.2971
2.1380
2.1775
2.2169
2.2562
2.0998
2.1376
2.1754
2.2131
2.0749
2.1116
2.1403
2.1848
2.0588
2.0948
2.1307
2.1666
2.0373
2.0723
2.1071
2.1418
2.0239
2.0581
2.0923
2.1263
2.0079
2.0412
2.0744
2.1074
1.9939
2.0264
2.0587
2.0909
1.9684
1.9994
2.0301
2.0607
1.9542
1.9843
2.0142
2.0440
1.9472
1.9769
2.0065
2.0359
1.9431
1.9728
2.0022
2.0314
1.9397
1.9692
1.9964
2.0275
-
oe
"'""

28.00 2.3885 2.3377 2.2955 2.2507 2.2213 2.2024 2.1764 2.1601 2.1403 2.1229 2.0911 2.0735 2.0650 2.0603 2.0563
28.50 2.4305 2.3782 2.3348 2.2883 2.2578 2.2380 2.2110 2.1939 2.1730 2.1548 2.1213 2.1028 2.0940 2.0891 2.0849
29.00 2.4724 2.4186 2.3740 2.3258 2.2941 2.2736 2.2454 2.2276 2.2056 2.1865 2.1913 2.1320 2.1228 2.1178 2.1134
29.50 2.5144 2.4591 2.4132 2.3632 2.3304 2.3091 2.2797 2.2611 2.2331 2.2181 2.1812 2.1610 2.1514 2.1462 2.1417
30.00 2.5563 2.4995 2.4523 2.4006 2.3666 2.3446 2.3139 2.2946 2.2705 2.2496 2.2110 2.1898 2.1798 2.1744 2.1698
TABLE C.2(g)
Extended Sukkar-Cornell Integral for Bottom-hole Pressure Calculation
P, Reduced Temperature for 8 = 30.0
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0
0.20 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
0.50 0.0039 0.0038 0.0037 0.0037 0.0036 0.0036 0.0036 0.0035 0.0035 0.0035 0.0035 0.0035 0.0035 0.0035 0.0035
1.00 0.0199 0.0184 0.0176 0.0172 0.0168 0.0166 0.0164 0.0162 0.0162 0.0161 0.0169 0.0159 0.0158 0.0157 0.0157
1.50 0.0521 0.0447 0.0418 0.0401 0.0390 0.0382 0.0375 0.0371 0.0368 0.0365 0.0361 0.0358 0.0356 0.0355 0.0353
2.00 0.0967 0.0823 0.0755 0.0718 0.0692 0.0676 0.0672 0.0652 0.0646 0.0640 0.0632 0.0626 0.0621 0.0618 0.0615
2.50 0.1422 0.1264 0.1164 0.1103 0.1060 0.1033 0.1010 0.0993 0.0963 0.0974 0.0960 0.0951 0.0943 0.0937 0.0931
3.00 0.1870 0.1719 0.1608 0.1531 0.1474
3.50 0.2314 0.2174 0.2063 0.1980 0.1914
0.1436
0.1869
0.1404
0.1831
0.1381
0.1801
0.1366
0.1782
0.1353
0.1765
0.1334
0.1741
0.1321
0.1725
0.1309
0.1710
0.1300
0.1697
0.1292
0.1687
"'"
00
N
4.00 0.2756 0.2625 0.2519 0.2436 0.2367 0.2318 0.2275 0.2242 0.2219 0.2199 0.2172 0.2152 0.2135 0.2120 0.2108
4.50
5.00
0.3195
0.3632
0.3071
0.3513
0.2970
0.3416
0.2891
0.3343
0.2823
0.3278
0.2773
0.3229
0.2729
0.3186
0.2693
0.3149
0.2669
0.3124
0.2647
0.3101
0.2617
0.3069
0.2594
0.3046
0.2675
0.3025
0.2559
0.3008
0.2545