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# SESSION 4 CORRELATION AND REGRESSION ANALYSIS

The correlation analysis will study the linear relationship between the length of service
(in days) and cost per days (in dollars) for 10 patients on a home health care program. To
visualize the relationship, scatter diagram is constructed and shown below.

As observed from the scatter diagram, it is expected that the correlation coefficient, r, is
negative. To formally test this assertion, correlation coefficient, r, is computed.
Correlations
Cost per Day Length of Service
(Y) (X)
Pearson
1 -.728 *
Correlation
Cost per Day (Y)
Sig. (2-tailed) .017
N 10 10
Length of Pearson -.728 * 1
Service (X) Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed) .017
N 10 10
*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

The previous table shows that the computed correlation coefficient is -0.728. That is,
there exists a negative correlation or relationship between length of service and cost per
day. It is expected that for shorter length of service, the daily cost to be incurred per
patient tends to be higher.

Since the correlation coefficient is negative, then it is also expected that b (slope
coefficient) is also negative. To justify the assertion that b (slope coefficient) is negative,
regression model equation will be fitted. This regression model will predict the cost per
day given the length of services. Thus, cost per day will be the dependent variable (Y) and
length of service will be the independent variable (X). The following table presents the
results of the regression analysis using SPSS.

Coefficients a
Model Unstandardized Standardize t Sig.
Coefficients d
Coefficients
B Std. Error Beta
(Constant) 110.035 14.881 7.394 .000
1 Length of Service
-.315 .105 -.728 -3.003 .017
(X)
a. Dependent Variable: Cost per Day (Y)

From the results above, the equation of the regression model is defined as:
Y^ i=110.0350.315 X i + i

## where Y^ i is the predicted cost per day (in dollars),

Xi is the actual length of service (in days)

## and i is the regression model error term

The regression model equation estimates that for every one day increase in length of
service, the expected daily cost is predicted to decrease by \$0.315.
Further, since the p-value of the t-test for slope coefficient is 0.017 (which is less than
0.05 level of significance, ), then it can be concluded that there is sufficient evidence
that the length of service significantly affects cost per day.
SESSION 6 ONE-WAY ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE (ANOVA)

## Workshop 1 Employee Data

Question 1: Is there a significant difference in the current salary of the employees when
grouped according to employment category?

Descriptives
Current Salary
N Mean Std. Std. Error 95% Confidence Interval Minimu Maximu
Deviation for Mean m m
Lower Upper
Bound Bound
\$27,838.5
Clerical 363 \$7,567.995 \$397.217 \$27,057.40 \$28,619.68 \$15,750 \$80,000
4
Custodia \$30,938.8
27 \$2,114.616 \$406.958 \$30,102.37 \$31,775.40 \$24,300 \$35,250
l 9
\$63,977.8 \$1,990.66
Manager 84 \$18,244.776 \$60,018.44 \$67,937.16 \$34,410 \$135,000
0 8
\$34,419.5
Total 474 \$17,075.661 \$784.311 \$32,878.40 \$35,960.73 \$15,750 \$135,000
7

ANOVA
Current Salary
Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
Between 89438483925.94 44719241962.9
2 434.481 .000
Groups 3 71
48478011510.39
Within Groups 471 102925714.459
7
137916495436.3
Total 473
40

As presented in the previous table, the results of one-way ANOVA indicate that the
employees current salary significantly differ depending on their employment categories,
F(2,471)=434.481, p<0.000. That is, employment category significantly affects employees
current salary.

## To determine further which among employment categories have significantly difference

on current salary, post-hoc analysis is performed using Scheffe Test on Pairwise
Comparison of Means and the results are present in the next table.

## (I) Employment (J) Employment Mean Difference Std. Error Sig.

Category Category (I-J)
Custodial -\$3,100.349 \$2,023.760 .310
Clerical *
Manager -\$36,139.258 \$1,228.352 .000
Clerical \$3,100.349 \$2,023.760 .310
Custodial *
Manager -\$33,038.909 \$2,244.409 .000
*
Clerical \$36,139.258 \$1,228.352 .000
Manager *
Custodial \$33,038.909 \$2,244.409 .000

As shown in the previous table, the p-values of t-tests are less than 0.05 level of
significance when comparing mean current salaries of clerical against manager (p<0.000)
and custodial against manager (p<0.000), while the p-value when comparing clerical and
custodial is not less than 0.05 (p=0.310). Therefore, it can be concluded that the mean
current salary of manager-level employees is significantly different (specifically, higher
than) from clerical and custodial employees. On the other hand, the mean current salaries
between clerical and custodial employees do not vary significantly.

Question 2: Is there a significant difference in the current salary of the employees when
grouped according to educational level?

Descriptives
Current Salary
N Mean Std. Std. Error 95% Confidence Interval Minimu Maximu
Deviation for Mean m m
Lower Upper
Bound Bound
\$24,399.0
8 53 \$5,190.482 \$712.968 \$22,968.38 \$25,829.73 \$15,750 \$34,500
6
\$25,887.1
12 190 \$5,559.764 \$403.348 \$25,091.52 \$26,682.80 \$16,200 \$59,400
6
\$31,625.0 \$2,363.92
14 6 \$5,790.402 \$25,548.35 \$37,701.65 \$25,950 \$39,900
0 2
\$31,685.0
15 116 \$8,401.571 \$780.066 \$30,139.84 \$33,230.16 \$18,750 \$80,000
0
\$48,225.9 \$2,269.21
16 59 \$17,430.129 \$43,683.62 \$52,768.25 \$23,100 \$103,750
3 0
\$59,527.2 \$5,966.77
17 11 \$19,789.560 \$46,232.47 \$72,822.08 \$27,000 \$82,500
7 7
\$65,127.7 \$4,487.29
18 9 \$13,461.876 \$54,780.06 \$75,475.49 \$43,950 \$86,250
8 2
\$72,520.3 \$3,903.94
19 27 \$20,285.484 \$64,495.70 \$80,545.04 \$36,000 \$135,000
7 3
\$64,312.5 \$4,937.50
20 2 \$6,982.679 \$1,575.61 \$127,049.39 \$59,375 \$69,250
0 0
\$65,000.0
21 1 . . . . \$65,000 \$65,000
0
\$34,419.5
Total 474 \$17,075.661 \$784.311 \$32,878.40 \$35,960.73 \$15,750 \$135,000
7

ANOVA
Current Salary
Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
Between
88653535061.984 9 9850392784.665 92.779 .000
Groups
Within Groups 49262960374.356 464 106170173.221
Total 137916495436.340 473

As shown above, the results of one-way ANOVA indicate that the employees current
salary significantly differ depending on their educational levels, F(9,464)=92.779, p<0.000.
That is, employees educational level significantly affects ones current salary.

(Additional) Looking closely on the mean current salary for each educational level (refer
to Descriptives table), it can be observed that employees having higher educational level
tends to have higher current salary. To formally test this assertion, linear regression
model analysis can also be performed to determine if there exists a linear relationship
between current salary and educational level of employees.

Coefficients a
Model Unstandardized Standardize t Sig.
Coefficients d
Coefficients
B Std. Error Beta
1 (Constant) -18331.178 2821.912 -6.496 .000
Educational Level (years) 3909.907 204.547 .661 19.115 .000
a. Dependent Variable: Current Salary

The results of the regression analysis clearly indicates that employees educational level
significantly increase ones current salary. That is, for each one level higher educational
level, employees current salary is expected to increase, on the average, by \$3909.907.

Workshop 2

## General Happiness and Race

Descriptives
General Happiness
N Mean Std. Std. 95% Confidence Interval Minimu Maximu
Deviation Error for Mean m m
Lower Upper
Bound Bound
White 1256 1.77 .604 .017 1.73 1.80 1 3
Black 201 1.97 .651 .046 1.87 2.06 1 3
Other 47 1.94 .673 .098 1.74 2.13 1 3
Total 1504 1.80 .617 .016 1.77 1.83 1 3

ANOVA
General Happiness
Sum of Squares df Mean F Sig.
Square
Between Groups 7.680 2 3.840 10.225 .000
Within Groups 563.679 1501 .376
Total 571.359 1503

As presented in the previous table, the results of one-way ANOVA indicate that general
happiness level significantly differ depending on race, F(2,1501)=10.225, p<0.000. That is,
race significantly affects general happiness level.

To determine whether white race is happier than black, post-hoc analysis is performed
using Scheffe Test on Pairwise Comparison of Means and the results are present in the
next table.

## (I) Race of (J) Race of Mean Std. Sig.

Respondent Respondent Difference Error
(I-J)
Black -.198* .047 .000
White
Other -.169 .091 .180
*
White .198 .047 .000
Black
Other .029 .099 .958
White .169 .091 .180
Other
Black -.029 .099 .958

As shown in the previous table, the p-value of the t-test when comparing mean general
happiness level between white and black is less than 0.05 level of significance (p<0.000).
Therefore, it can be concluded that the general happiness level of white race is
significantly different from black race. Further, as shown in the Descriptives table, the
mean general happiness level of white race is 1.77 which is lower than the mean general
happiness level of black (1.97). Thus, it can also be concluded that white race is happier
than black race.

## (Note: Lower General Happiness Level implies Happier Perception)

Life Excitement and Race

Descriptives
Is Life Exciting or Dull
N Mean Std. Std. 95% Confidence Interval Minimu Maximu
Deviation Error for Mean m m
Lower Upper
Bound Bound
White 818 1.59 .571 .020 1.55 1.63 1 3
Black 126 1.64 .572 .051 1.54 1.74 1 3
Other 36 1.69 .525 .087 1.52 1.87 1 3
Total 980 1.60 .569 .018 1.56 1.63 1 3

ANOVA
Is Life Exciting or Dull
Sum of df Mean F Sig.
Squares Square
Between Groups .669 2 .334 1.032 .357
Within Groups 316.730 977 .324
Total 317.399 979

As shown above, the results of one-way ANOVA indicate that life excitement level do not
differ significantly between white and black race, F(2,977)=10.225, p=0.357. That is, race
do not significantly affects life excitement level.

## General Happiness and Regional Location

Descriptives
General Happiness
N Mean Std. Std. 95% Confidence Interval Minimu Maximu
Deviation Error for Mean m m
Lower Upper
Bound Bound
North
673 1.84 .602 .023 1.79 1.88 1 3
East
South
411 1.75 .645 .032 1.69 1.81 1 3
East
West 420 1.78 .609 .030 1.72 1.84 1 3
Total 1504 1.80 .617 .016 1.77 1.83 1 3

ANOVA
General Happiness
Sum of Squares df Mean F Sig.
Square
Between
2.043 2 1.022 2.694 .068
Groups
Within Groups 569.316 1501 .379
Total 571.359 1503

As shown above, the results of one-way ANOVA indicate that general happiness level do
not differ significantly when grouped according to regional location, F(2,1501)=2.694,
p=0.068. That is, regional location do not significantly affects general happiness.

## Life Excitement and Regional Location

Descriptives
Is Life Exciting or Dull
N Mean Std. Std. 95% Confidence Interval Minimu Maximu
Deviation Error for Mean m m
Lower Upper
Bound Bound
North
433 1.61 .570 .027 1.56 1.67 1 3
East
South
267 1.64 .566 .035 1.58 1.71 1 3
East
West 280 1.53 .567 .034 1.47 1.60 1 3
Total 980 1.60 .569 .018 1.56 1.63 1 3

ANOVA
Is Life Exciting or Dull
Sum of df Mean F Sig.
Squares Square
Between
1.899 2 .949 2.940 .053
Groups
Within Groups 315.500 977 .323
Total 317.399 979

As shown above, the results of one-way ANOVA indicate that life excitement level do not
differ significantly when grouped according to regional location, F(2,977)=2.940, p=0.053.
That is, regional location do not significantly affects life excitement.

## General Happiness and Number of Children

Descriptives
General Happiness
N Mean Std. Std. 95% Confidence Interval Minimu Maximu
Deviation Error for Mean m m
Lower Upper
Bound Bound
0 417 1.80 .572 .028 1.75 1.86 1 3
1 254 1.78 .589 .037 1.71 1.85 1 3
2 371 1.78 .655 .034 1.72 1.85 1 3
3 212 1.81 .640 .044 1.72 1.90 1 3
4 127 1.79 .625 .055 1.68 1.90 1 3
5 53 1.79 .661 .091 1.61 1.97 1 3
6 24 1.92 .584 .119 1.67 2.16 1 3
7 22 2.09 .750 .160 1.76 2.42 1 3
Eight or
17 1.59 .618 .150 1.27 1.91 1 3
More
Total 1497 1.80 .617 .016 1.77 1.83 1 3

ANOVA
General Happiness
Sum of df Mean F Sig.
Squares Square
Between
3.194 8 .399 1.049 .397
Groups
Within Groups 566.477 1488 .381
Total 569.671 1496

As presented in the previous table, the results of one-way ANOVA indicate that general
happiness level does not significantly differ depending on the number of children,
F(8,1488)=1.049, p=0.397. That is, the number of children does not affect significantly the
general happiness level.

## Life Excitement and Number of Children

Descriptives
Is Life Exciting or Dull
N Mean Std. Std. 95% Confidence Interval Minimu Maximu
Deviation Error for Mean m m
Lower Upper
Bound Bound
0 291 1.51 .559 .033 1.45 1.58 1 3
1 160 1.63 .558 .044 1.54 1.71 1 3
2 235 1.62 .575 .037 1.55 1.70 1 3
3 128 1.63 .575 .051 1.52 1.73 1 3
4 82 1.71 .598 .066 1.58 1.84 1 3
5 40 1.73 .506 .080 1.56 1.89 1 3
6 14 1.50 .519 .139 1.20 1.80 1 2
7 14 1.57 .646 .173 1.20 1.94 1 3
Eight or
12 1.58 .669 .193 1.16 2.01 1 3
More
Total 976 1.60 .570 .018 1.56 1.63 1 3

ANOVA
Is Life Exciting or Dull
Sum of df Mean F Sig.
Squares Square
Between Groups 4.260 8 .533 1.649 .107
Within Groups 312.297 967 .323
Total 316.557 975

As presented in the previous table, the results of one-way ANOVA indicate that the life
excitement level does not significantly differ depending on the number of children,
F(8,967)=1.649, p=0.107. That is, the number of children does not affect significantly the
life excitement level.

## General Happiness and Occupational Category

Descriptives
General Happiness
N Mean Std. Std. 95% Confidence Interval Minimum Maximu
Deviation Error for Mean m
Lower Bound Upper Bound
Managerial and
337 1.70 .624 .034 1.63 1.77 1 3
Professional Specialty
Technical, Sales, and
Administrative 452 1.79 .601 .028 1.73 1.85 1 3
Support
Service 203 1.84 .628 .044 1.75 1.92 1 3
Farming, Forest, and
36 1.75 .500 .083 1.58 1.92 1 3
Fishing
Precision Production,
162 1.77 .574 .045 1.68 1.85 1 3
Craft, and Repair
Operation,
Fabrication, and 217 1.93 .634 .043 1.84 2.01 1 3
General Labor
Total 1407 1.79 .614 .016 1.76 1.82 1 3

ANOVA
General Happiness
Sum of df Mean F Sig.
Squares Square
Between Groups 7.345 5 1.469 3.942 .001
Within Groups 522.055 1401 .373
Total 529.400 1406

As presented in the previous table, the results of one-way ANOVA indicate that general
happiness level differ significantly when grouped according to occupational category,
F(5,1401)=3.942, p=0.001. That is, occupational category of employees significantly
affects general happiness level.

## To determine further which among occupational categories have significantly difference

on general happiness level, post-hoc analysis is performed using Scheffe Test on Pairwise
Comparison of Means and the results are present in the next table.

## (I) Occupational Category (J) Occupational Category Mean Std. Sig.

Difference (I- Error
J)
Technical, Sales, and
-.090 .044 .528
Service -.137 .054 .270
Managerial and Professional Farming, Forest, and Fishing -.050 .107 .999
Specialty Precision Production, Craft, and
-.065 .058 .940
Repair
Operation, Fabrication, and
-.226* .053 .003
General Labor
Managerial and Professional
.090 .044 .528
Specialty
Service -.048 .052 .974
Technical, Sales, and Farming, Forest, and Fishing .040 .106 1.000
Administrative Support Precision Production, Craft, and
.024 .056 .999
Repair
Operation, Fabrication, and
-.136 .050 .198
General Labor
Managerial and Professional
.137 .054 .270
Specialty
Technical, Sales, and
.048 .052 .974
Service Farming, Forest, and Fishing .087 .110 .987
Precision Production, Craft, and
.072 .064 .940
Repair
Operation, Fabrication, and
-.089 .060 .818
General Labor
Managerial and Professional
.050 .107 .999
Specialty
Technical, Sales, and
-.040 .106 1.000
Farming, Forest, and Fishing Service -.087 .110 .987
Precision Production, Craft, and
-.015 .112 1.000
Repair
Operation, Fabrication, and
-.176 .110 .765
General Labor
Managerial and Professional
.065 .058 .940
Specialty
Technical, Sales, and
-.024 .056 .999
and Repair Service -.072 .064 .940
Farming, Forest, and Fishing .015 .112 1.000
Operation, Fabrication, and
-.161 .063 .266
General Labor
Operation, Fabrication, and Managerial and Professional
.226* .053 .003
General Labor Specialty
Technical, Sales, and
.136 .050 .198
Service .089 .060 .818
Farming, Forest, and Fishing .176 .110 .765
Precision Production, Craft, and
.161 .063 .266
Repair

As shown in the previous table, the t-tests having p-value less than 0.05 level of
significance is only observed when comparing general happiness level of managerial and
general level (p=0.003). Therefore, it can be concluded that the general happiness level of
employees under the managerial category is significantly different from employees under
general labor category. Further, as shown in the Descriptives table, the mean general
happiness level of employees under the managerial category is 1.70 which is lower than
the employees under the general labor category (1.93). Thus, it can also be concluded
that employees under the managerial category is significantly happier than those
employees under the general labor category.

## Life Excitement and Occupational Category

Descriptives
Is Life Exciting or Dull
N Mean Std. Std. 95% Confidence Interval Minimum Maximu
Deviation Error for Mean m
Lower Bound Upper Bound
Managerial and
210 1.40 .519 .036 1.33 1.47 1 3
Professional Specialty
Technical, Sales, and
Administrative 294 1.62 .570 .033 1.55 1.68 1 3
Support
Service 135 1.63 .570 .049 1.53 1.73 1 3
Farming, Forest, and
25 1.36 .490 .098 1.16 1.56 1 2
Fishing
Precision Production,
109 1.71 .566 .054 1.60 1.81 1 3
Craft, and Repair
Operation,
Fabrication, and 135 1.72 .555 .048 1.62 1.81 1 3
General Labor
Total 908 1.59 .565 .019 1.55 1.62 1 3

ANOVA
Is Life Exciting or Dull
Sum of df Mean F Sig.
Squares Square
Between Groups 13.068 5 2.614 8.514 .000
Within Groups 276.884 902 .307
Total 289.952 907

As presented in the previous table, the results of one-way ANOVA indicate that the life
excitement level differ significantly when grouped according to occupational category,
F(5,902)=8.514, p<0.000. That is, occupational category of employees significantly affects
life excitement level.

## To determine further which among occupational categories have significantly difference

on general happiness level, post-hoc analysis is performed using Scheffe Test on Pairwise
Comparison of Means and the results are present in the next table.

## (I) Occupational Category (J) Occupational Category Mean Std. Sig.

Difference (I- Error
J)
Technical, Sales, and
-.219* .050 .002
Service -.230* .061 .015
Managerial and Professional Farming, Forest, and Fishing .040 .117 1.000
Specialty Precision Production, Craft, and
-.306* .065 .001
Repair
Operation, Fabrication, and
-.319* .061 .000
General Labor
Technical, Sales, and Managerial and Professional .219* .050 .002
Service -.011 .058 1.000
Farming, Forest, and Fishing .259 .115 .412
Precision Production, Craft, and
-.087 .062 .852
Repair
Operation, Fabrication, and
-.099 .058 .703
General Labor
Managerial and Professional
.230* .061 .015
Specialty
Technical, Sales, and
.011 .058 1.000
Service Farming, Forest, and Fishing .270 .121 .417
Precision Production, Craft, and
-.077 .071 .949
Repair
Operation, Fabrication, and
-.089 .067 .884
General Labor
Managerial and Professional
-.040 .117 1.000
Specialty
Technical, Sales, and
-.259 .115 .412
Farming, Forest, and Fishing Service -.270 .121 .417
Precision Production, Craft, and
-.346 .123 .160
Repair
Operation, Fabrication, and
-.359 .121 .117
General Labor
Managerial and Professional
.306* .065 .001
Specialty
Technical, Sales, and
.087 .062 .852
and Repair Service .077 .071 .949
Farming, Forest, and Fishing .346 .123 .160
Operation, Fabrication, and
-.012 .071 1.000
General Labor
Operation, Fabrication, and Managerial and Professional
.319* .061 .000
General Labor Specialty
Technical, Sales, and
.099 .058 .703
Service .089 .067 .884
Farming, Forest, and Fishing .359 .121 .117
Precision Production, Craft, and
.012 .071 1.000
Repair

As shown in the previous table, the t-tests having p-values less than 0.05 level of
significance are observed when comparing the following pairs of occupational categories:

## (1) Managerial versus Technical-Sales-Admin Support

(2) Managerial versus Service
(3) Managerial versus Production, Craft and Repair
(4) Managerial versus General Labor

Further, as shown in the Descriptives table, the mean life excitement level of employees
under the managerial category is 1.40 which is lower than the mean life excitement level
of employees under technical-sales-admin support (1.62), service (1.63), production, craft
and repair (1.71) and general labor (1.72). Therefore, it can be concluded that the life
excitement level of employees under the managerial category is significantly lower from
employees under the four stated categories, which then implies that that employees under
the managerial category is significantly more excited to life than those employees under
the four stated categories.

## (Note: Lower General Happiness Level implies Happier Perception)

On the other hand, there is no significant difference on life excitement level between
employees under the managerial category and those belonging to farming, forest and
fishing category.

## General Happiness and Highest Year of School Completed

Descriptives
General Happiness
N Mean Std. Std. 95% Confidence Interval Minimu Maximu
Deviation Error for Mean m m
Lower Upper
Bound Bound
0 2 1.50 .707 .500 -4.85 7.85 1 2
3 5 1.40 .548 .245 .72 2.08 1 2
4 5 2.40 .548 .245 1.72 3.08 2 3
5 6 2.00 .632 .258 1.34 2.66 1 3
6 11 1.91 .701 .211 1.44 2.38 1 3
7 25 1.84 .688 .138 1.56 2.12 1 3
8 68 1.91 .592 .072 1.77 2.06 1 3
9 56 2.00 .632 .085 1.83 2.17 1 3
10 71 1.83 .632 .075 1.68 1.98 1 3
11 82 1.95 .627 .069 1.81 2.09 1 3
12 460 1.82 .615 .029 1.77 1.88 1 3
13 130 1.89 .600 .053 1.79 2.00 1 3
14 175 1.68 .616 .047 1.59 1.77 1 3
15 72 1.75 .599 .071 1.61 1.89 1 3
16 193 1.74 .566 .041 1.66 1.82 1 3
17 42 1.55 .633 .098 1.35 1.74 1 3
18 44 1.64 .574 .087 1.46 1.81 1 3
19 22 1.59 .734 .157 1.27 1.92 1 3
20 29 1.69 .604 .112 1.46 1.92 1 3
Total 1498 1.80 .617 .016 1.77 1.83 1 3

ANOVA
General Happiness
Sum of df Mean F Sig.
Squares Square
Between
18.206 18 1.011 2.712 .000
Groups
Within Groups 551.506 1479 .373
Total 569.712 1497

As presented in the previous table, the results of one-way ANOVA indicate that general
happiness level differ significantly when grouped according to the respondents highest
year of school completed, F(18,1479)=2.712, p<0.000. That is, respondents highest year
of school completed significantly affects general happiness level.
To determine further which among educational attainment levels have significantly
difference on general happiness level, post-hoc analysis is performed using Scheffe Test
on Pairwise Comparison of Means and the results are present in the next table.

Multiple Comparisons
Dependent Variable: General Happiness
Scheffe
(I) Highest Year of (J) Highest Year of Mean Std. Sig. 95% Confidence Interval
School Completed School Completed Difference Error Lower Upper
(I-J) Bound Bound
3 .100 .511 1.000 -2.65 2.85
4 -.900 .511 1.000 -3.65 1.85
5 -.500 .499 1.000 -3.18 2.18
6 -.409 .469 1.000 -2.94 2.12
7 -.340 .449 1.000 -2.76 2.08
8 -.412 .438 1.000 -2.77 1.95
9 -.500 .439 1.000 -2.87 1.87
10 -.331 .438 1.000 -2.69 2.03
11 -.451 .437 1.000 -2.80 1.90
0
12 -.322 .433 1.000 -2.65 2.01
13 -.392 .435 1.000 -2.74 1.95
14 -.180 .434 1.000 -2.52 2.16
15 -.250 .438 1.000 -2.61 2.11
16 -.236 .434 1.000 -2.57 2.10
17 -.048 .442 1.000 -2.43 2.33
18 -.136 .441 1.000 -2.51 2.24
19 -.091 .451 1.000 -2.52 2.34
20 -.190 .446 1.000 -2.59 2.21
3 0 -.100 .511 1.000 -2.85 2.65
4 -1.000 .386 .992 -3.08 1.08
5 -.600 .370 1.000 -2.59 1.39
6 -.509 .329 1.000 -2.28 1.26
7 -.440 .299 1.000 -2.05 1.17
8 -.512 .283 1.000 -2.04 1.01
9 -.600 .285 .999 -2.13 .93
10 -.431 .283 1.000 -1.95 1.09
11 -.551 .281 1.000 -2.07 .96
12 -.422 .275 1.000 -1.90 1.06
13 -.492 .278 1.000 -1.99 1.01
14 -.280 .277 1.000 -1.77 1.21
15 -.350 .282 1.000 -1.87 1.17
16 -.336 .277 1.000 -1.83 1.15
17 -.148 .289 1.000 -1.70 1.41
18 -.236 .288 1.000 -1.79 1.32
19 -.191 .303 1.000 -1.82 1.44
20 -.290 .296 1.000 -1.88 1.30
0 .900 .511 1.000 -1.85 3.65
3 1.000 .386 .992 -1.08 3.08
5 .400 .370 1.000 -1.59 2.39
6 .491 .329 1.000 -1.28 2.26
7 .560 .299 1.000 -1.05 2.17
8 .488 .283 1.000 -1.04 2.01
9 .400 .285 1.000 -1.13 1.93
10 .569 .283 1.000 -.95 2.09
11 .449 .281 1.000 -1.07 1.96
4
12 .578 .275 .999 -.90 2.06
13 .508 .278 1.000 -.99 2.01
14 .720 .277 .992 -.77 2.21
15 .650 .282 .998 -.87 2.17
16 .664 .277 .997 -.83 2.15
17 .852 .289 .966 -.70 2.41
18 .764 .288 .990 -.79 2.32
19 .809 .303 .989 -.82 2.44
20 .710 .296 .997 -.88 2.30
5 0 .500 .499 1.000 -2.18 3.18
3 .600 .370 1.000 -1.39 2.59
4 -.400 .370 1.000 -2.39 1.59
6 .091 .310 1.000 -1.58 1.76
7 .160 .278 1.000 -1.33 1.65
8 .088 .260 1.000 -1.31 1.49
9 .000 .262 1.000 -1.41 1.41
10 .169 .260 1.000 -1.23 1.57
11 .049 .258 1.000 -1.34 1.44
12 .178 .251 1.000 -1.17 1.53
13 .108 .255 1.000 -1.27 1.48
14 .320 .254 1.000 -1.05 1.69
15 .250 .259 1.000 -1.15 1.65
16 .264 .253 1.000 -1.10 1.63
17 .452 .267 1.000 -.98 1.89
18 .364 .266 1.000 -1.07 1.79
19 .409 .281 1.000 -1.11 1.92
20 .310 .274 1.000 -1.16 1.79
0 .409 .469 1.000 -2.12 2.94
3 .509 .329 1.000 -1.26 2.28
4 -.491 .329 1.000 -2.26 1.28
5 -.091 .310 1.000 -1.76 1.58
7 .069 .221 1.000 -1.12 1.26
8 -.003 .198 1.000 -1.07 1.07
9 -.091 .201 1.000 -1.18 .99
10 .078 .198 1.000 -.99 1.14
11 -.042 .196 1.000 -1.10 1.01
6
12 .087 .186 1.000 -.92 1.09
13 .017 .192 1.000 -1.02 1.05
14 .229 .190 1.000 -.79 1.25
15 .159 .198 1.000 -.91 1.22
16 .173 .189 1.000 -.85 1.19
17 .361 .207 1.000 -.75 1.48
18 .273 .206 1.000 -.84 1.38
19 .318 .225 1.000 -.90 1.53
20 .219 .216 1.000 -.94 1.38
7 0 .340 .449 1.000 -2.08 2.76
3 .440 .299 1.000 -1.17 2.05
4 -.560 .299 1.000 -2.17 1.05
5 -.160 .278 1.000 -1.65 1.33
6 -.069 .221 1.000 -1.26 1.12
8 -.072 .143 1.000 -.84 .70
9 -.160 .147 1.000 -.95 .63
10 .009 .142 1.000 -.76 .77
11 -.111 .140 1.000 -.86 .64
12 .018 .125 1.000 -.66 .69
13 -.052 .133 1.000 -.77 .67
14 .160 .131 1.000 -.54 .86
15 .090 .142 1.000 -.67 .85
16 .104 .130 1.000 -.59 .80
17 .292 .154 1.000 -.54 1.12
18 .204 .153 1.000 -.62 1.03
19 .249 .179 1.000 -.71 1.21
20 .150 .167 1.000 -.75 1.05
0 .412 .438 1.000 -1.95 2.77
3 .512 .283 1.000 -1.01 2.04
4 -.488 .283 1.000 -2.01 1.04
5 -.088 .260 1.000 -1.49 1.31
6 .003 .198 1.000 -1.07 1.07
7 .072 .143 1.000 -.70 .84
9 -.088 .110 1.000 -.68 .51
10 .081 .104 1.000 -.48 .64
11 -.039 .100 1.000 -.58 .50
8
12 .090 .079 1.000 -.34 .52
13 .019 .091 1.000 -.47 .51
14 .232 .087 .989 -.24 .70
15 .162 .103 1.000 -.39 .72
16 .176 .086 1.000 -.29 .64
17 .364 .120 .954 -.28 1.01
18 .275 .118 .998 -.36 .91
19 .321 .150 .999 -.49 1.13
20 .222 .135 1.000 -.51 .95
0 .500 .439 1.000 -1.87 2.87
3 .600 .285 .999 -.93 2.13
4 -.400 .285 1.000 -1.93 1.13
5 .000 .262 1.000 -1.41 1.41
6 .091 .201 1.000 -.99 1.18
7 .160 .147 1.000 -.63 .95
8 .088 .110 1.000 -.51 .68
10 .169 .109 1.000 -.42 .76
11 .049 .106 1.000 -.52 .62
9
12 .178 .086 1.000 -.29 .64
13 .108 .098 1.000 -.42 .63
14 .320 .094 .864 -.18 .82
15 .250 .109 .998 -.34 .84
16 .264 .093 .976 -.23 .76
17 .452 .125 .781 -.22 1.12
18 .364 .123 .965 -.30 1.03
19 .409 .154 .989 -.42 1.24
20 .310 .140 .999 -.44 1.06
10 0 .331 .438 1.000 -2.03 2.69
3 .431 .283 1.000 -1.09 1.95
4 -.569 .283 1.000 -2.09 .95
5 -.169 .260 1.000 -1.57 1.23
6 -.078 .198 1.000 -1.14 .99
7 -.009 .142 1.000 -.77 .76
8 -.081 .104 1.000 -.64 .48
9 -.169 .109 1.000 -.76 .42
11 -.120 .099 1.000 -.65 .41
12 .009 .078 1.000 -.41 .43
13 -.061 .090 1.000 -.55 .42
14 .151 .086 1.000 -.31 .61
15 .081 .102 1.000 -.47 .63
16 .095 .085 1.000 -.36 .55
17 .283 .119 .997 -.36 .92
18 .195 .117 1.000 -.44 .83
19 .240 .149 1.000 -.56 1.04
20 .141 .135 1.000 -.58 .87
0 .451 .437 1.000 -1.90 2.80
3 .551 .281 1.000 -.96 2.07
4 -.449 .281 1.000 -1.96 1.07
5 -.049 .258 1.000 -1.44 1.34
6 .042 .196 1.000 -1.01 1.10
7 .111 .140 1.000 -.64 .86
8 .039 .100 1.000 -.50 .58
9 -.049 .106 1.000 -.62 .52
10 .120 .099 1.000 -.41 .65
11
12 .129 .073 1.000 -.26 .52
13 .059 .086 1.000 -.40 .52
14 .271 .082 .893 -.17 .71
15 .201 .099 1.000 -.33 .73
16 .215 .080 .988 -.22 .65
17 .404 .116 .839 -.22 1.03
18 .315 .114 .984 -.30 .93
19 .360 .147 .996 -.43 1.15
20 .262 .132 1.000 -.45 .97
12 0 .322 .433 1.000 -2.01 2.65
3 .422 .275 1.000 -1.06 1.90
4 -.578 .275 .999 -2.06 .90
5 -.178 .251 1.000 -1.53 1.17
6 -.087 .186 1.000 -1.09 .92
7 -.018 .125 1.000 -.69 .66
8 -.090 .079 1.000 -.52 .34
9 -.178 .086 1.000 -.64 .29
10 -.009 .078 1.000 -.43 .41
11 -.129 .073 1.000 -.52 .26
13 -.071 .061 1.000 -.40 .26
14 .142 .054 .991 -.15 .43
15 .072 .077 1.000 -.34 .49
16 .086 .052 1.000 -.20 .37
17 .274 .098 .982 -.26 .80
18 .185 .096 1.000 -.33 .70
19 .231 .133 1.000 -.49 .95
20 .132 .117 1.000 -.50 .76
0 .392 .435 1.000 -1.95 2.74
3 .492 .278 1.000 -1.01 1.99
4 -.508 .278 1.000 -2.01 .99
5 -.108 .255 1.000 -1.48 1.27
6 -.017 .192 1.000 -1.05 1.02
7 .052 .133 1.000 -.67 .77
8 -.019 .091 1.000 -.51 .47
9 -.108 .098 1.000 -.63 .42
10 .061 .090 1.000 -.42 .55
13
11 -.059 .086 1.000 -.52 .40
12 .071 .061 1.000 -.26 .40
14 .212 .071 .959 -.17 .59
15 .142 .090 1.000 -.34 .63
16 .157 .069 .999 -.22 .53
17 .345 .108 .927 -.24 .93
18 .256 .107 .997 -.32 .83
19 .301 .141 .999 -.46 1.06
20 .203 .125 1.000 -.47 .88
14 0 .180 .434 1.000 -2.16 2.52
3 .280 .277 1.000 -1.21 1.77
4 -.720 .277 .992 -2.21 .77
5 -.320 .254 1.000 -1.69 1.05
6 -.229 .190 1.000 -1.25 .79
7 -.160 .131 1.000 -.86 .54
8 -.232 .087 .989 -.70 .24
9 -.320 .094 .864 -.82 .18
10 -.151 .086 1.000 -.61 .31
11 -.271 .082 .893 -.71 .17
12 -.142 .054 .991 -.43 .15
13 -.212 .071 .959 -.59 .17
15 -.070 .085 1.000 -.53 .39
16 -.056 .064 1.000 -.40 .29
17 .132 .105 1.000 -.43 .70
18 .044 .103 1.000 -.51 .60
19 .089 .138 1.000 -.65 .83
20 -.010 .122 1.000 -.67 .65
0 .250 .438 1.000 -2.11 2.61
3 .350 .282 1.000 -1.17 1.87
4 -.650 .282 .998 -2.17 .87
5 -.250 .259 1.000 -1.65 1.15
6 -.159 .198 1.000 -1.22 .91
7 -.090 .142 1.000 -.85 .67
8 -.162 .103 1.000 -.72 .39
9 -.250 .109 .998 -.84 .34
10 -.081 .102 1.000 -.63 .47
15
11 -.201 .099 1.000 -.73 .33
12 -.072 .077 1.000 -.49 .34
13 -.142 .090 1.000 -.63 .34
14 .070 .085 1.000 -.39 .53
16 .014 .084 1.000 -.44 .47
17 .202 .119 1.000 -.44 .84
18 .114 .117 1.000 -.52 .74
19 .159 .149 1.000 -.64 .96
20 .060 .134 1.000 -.66 .78
16 0 .236 .434 1.000 -2.10 2.57
3 .336 .277 1.000 -1.15 1.83
4 -.664 .277 .997 -2.15 .83
5 -.264 .253 1.000 -1.63 1.10
6 -.173 .189 1.000 -1.19 .85
7 -.104 .130 1.000 -.80 .59
8 -.176 .086 1.000 -.64 .29
9 -.264 .093 .976 -.76 .23
10 -.095 .085 1.000 -.55 .36
11 -.215 .080 .988 -.65 .22
12 -.086 .052 1.000 -.37 .20
13 -.157 .069 .999 -.53 .22
14 .056 .064 1.000 -.29 .40
15 -.014 .084 1.000 -.47 .44
17 .188 .104 1.000 -.37 .75
18 .099 .102 1.000 -.45 .65
19 .145 .137 1.000 -.60 .88
20 .046 .122 1.000 -.61 .70
0 .048 .442 1.000 -2.33 2.43
3 .148 .289 1.000 -1.41 1.70
4 -.852 .289 .966 -2.41 .70
5 -.452 .267 1.000 -1.89 .98
6 -.361 .207 1.000 -1.48 .75
7 -.292 .154 1.000 -1.12 .54
8 -.364 .120 .954 -1.01 .28
9 -.452 .125 .781 -1.12 .22
10 -.283 .119 .997 -.92 .36
17
11 -.404 .116 .839 -1.03 .22
12 -.274 .098 .982 -.80 .26
13 -.345 .108 .927 -.93 .24
14 -.132 .105 1.000 -.70 .43
15 -.202 .119 1.000 -.84 .44
16 -.188 .104 1.000 -.75 .37
18 -.089 .132 1.000 -.80 .62
19 -.043 .161 1.000 -.91 .82
20 -.142 .147 1.000 -.94 .65
18 0 .136 .441 1.000 -2.24 2.51
3 .236 .288 1.000 -1.32 1.79
4 -.764 .288 .990 -2.32 .79
5 -.364 .266 1.000 -1.79 1.07
6 -.273 .206 1.000 -1.38 .84
7 -.204 .153 1.000 -1.03 .62
8 -.275 .118 .998 -.91 .36
9 -.364 .123 .965 -1.03 .30
10 -.195 .117 1.000 -.83 .44
11 -.315 .114 .984 -.93 .30
12 -.185 .096 1.000 -.70 .33
13 -.256 .107 .997 -.83 .32
14 -.044 .103 1.000 -.60 .51
15 -.114 .117 1.000 -.74 .52
16 -.099 .102 1.000 -.65 .45
17 .089 .132 1.000 -.62 .80
19 .045 .159 1.000 -.81 .90
20 -.053 .146 1.000 -.84 .73
0 .091 .451 1.000 -2.34 2.52
3 .191 .303 1.000 -1.44 1.82
4 -.809 .303 .989 -2.44 .82
5 -.409 .281 1.000 -1.92 1.11
6 -.318 .225 1.000 -1.53 .90
7 -.249 .179 1.000 -1.21 .71
8 -.321 .150 .999 -1.13 .49
9 -.409 .154 .989 -1.24 .42
10 -.240 .149 1.000 -1.04 .56
19
11 -.360 .147 .996 -1.15 .43
12 -.231 .133 1.000 -.95 .49
13 -.301 .141 .999 -1.06 .46
14 -.089 .138 1.000 -.83 .65
15 -.159 .149 1.000 -.96 .64
16 -.145 .137 1.000 -.88 .60
17 .043 .161 1.000 -.82 .91
18 -.045 .159 1.000 -.90 .81
20 -.099 .173 1.000 -1.03 .83
20 0 .190 .446 1.000 -2.21 2.59
3 .290 .296 1.000 -1.30 1.88
4 -.710 .296 .997 -2.30 .88
5 -.310 .274 1.000 -1.79 1.16
6 -.219 .216 1.000 -1.38 .94
7 -.150 .167 1.000 -1.05 .75
8 -.222 .135 1.000 -.95 .51
9 -.310 .140 .999 -1.06 .44
10 -.141 .135 1.000 -.87 .58
11 -.262 .132 1.000 -.97 .45
12 -.132 .117 1.000 -.76 .50
13 -.203 .125 1.000 -.88 .47
14 .010 .122 1.000 -.65 .67
15 -.060 .134 1.000 -.78 .66
16 -.046 .122 1.000 -.70 .61
17 .142 .147 1.000 -.65 .94
18 .053 .146 1.000 -.73 .84
19 .099 .173 1.000 -.83 1.03

Unfortunately, all pairwise Scheffes tests comparison of means fail to determine which
pairs exhibit significant differences. This is expected to occur since the independent
variable, highest year of school completed, consists of 19 levels.

## Life Excitement Level and Highest Year of School Completed

Descriptives
Is Life Exciting or Dull
N Mean Std. Std. 95% Confidence Interval Minimu Maximu
Deviation Error for Mean m m
Lower Upper
Bound Bound
0 2 2.50 .707 .500 -3.85 8.85 2 3
3 3 1.67 .577 .333 .23 3.10 1 2
4 3 1.67 .577 .333 .23 3.10 1 2
5 6 1.67 .816 .333 .81 2.52 1 3
6 8 2.00 .756 .267 1.37 2.63 1 3
7 16 1.88 .719 .180 1.49 2.26 1 3
8 40 1.73 .640 .101 1.52 1.93 1 3
9 36 1.72 .659 .110 1.50 1.95 1 3
10 49 1.67 .555 .079 1.51 1.83 1 3
11 53 1.75 .551 .076 1.60 1.91 1 3
12 301 1.72 .545 .031 1.66 1.78 1 3
13 85 1.60 .539 .058 1.48 1.72 1 3
14 105 1.50 .539 .053 1.39 1.60 1 3
15 55 1.40 .494 .067 1.27 1.53 1 2
16 121 1.45 .532 .048 1.35 1.54 1 3
17 28 1.43 .573 .108 1.21 1.65 1 3
18 32 1.22 .420 .074 1.07 1.37 1 2
19 13 1.38 .506 .140 1.08 1.69 1 2
20 21 1.24 .436 .095 1.04 1.44 1 2
Total 977 1.60 .570 .018 1.56 1.63 1 3
ANOVA
Is Life Exciting or Dull
Sum of df Mean F Sig.
Squares Square
Between Groups 26.060 18 1.448 4.772 .000
Within Groups 290.658 958 .303
Total 316.719 976

As presented in the previous table, the results of one-way ANOVA indicate that life
excitement level differ significantly when grouped according to the respondents highest
year of school completed, F(18,958)=4.772, p<0.000. That is, respondents highest year of
school completed significantly affects life excitement level.

## To determine further which among educational attainment levels have significantly

difference on life excitement level, post-hoc analysis is performed using Scheffe Test on
Pairwise Comparison of Means and the results are present in the next table.

Multiple Comparisons
Dependent Variable: Is Life Exciting or Dull
Scheffe
(I) Highest Year of (J) Highest Year of Mean Std. Sig.
School Completed School Completed Difference Error
(I-J)
0 3 .833 .503 1.000
4 .833 .503 1.000
5 .833 .450 1.000
6 .500 .435 1.000
7 .625 .413 1.000
8 .775 .399 1.000
9 .778 .400 1.000
10 .827 .397 1.000
11 .745 .397 1.000
12 .782 .391 1.000
13 .900 .394 .998
14 1.005 .393 .993
15 1.100 .397 .982
16 1.054 .393 .988
17 1.071 .403 .989
18 1.281 .401 .925
19 1.115 .418 .989
20 1.262 .408 .944
0 -.833 .503 1.000
4 .000 .450 1.000
5 .000 .389 1.000
6 -.333 .373 1.000
7 -.208 .347 1.000
8 -.058 .330 1.000
9 -.056 .331 1.000
10 -.007 .328 1.000
11 -.088 .327 1.000
3
12 -.051 .320 1.000
13 .067 .324 1.000
14 .171 .323 1.000
15 .267 .327 1.000
16 .220 .322 1.000
17 .238 .335 1.000
18 .448 .333 1.000
19 .282 .353 1.000
20 .429 .340 1.000
4 0 -.833 .503 1.000
3 .000 .450 1.000
5 .000 .389 1.000
6 -.333 .373 1.000
7 -.208 .347 1.000
8 -.058 .330 1.000
9 -.056 .331 1.000
10 -.007 .328 1.000
11 -.088 .327 1.000
12 -.051 .320 1.000
13 .067 .324 1.000
14 .171 .323 1.000
15 .267 .327 1.000
16 .220 .322 1.000
17 .238 .335 1.000
18 .448 .333 1.000
19 .282 .353 1.000
20 .429 .340 1.000
0 -.833 .450 1.000
3 .000 .389 1.000
4 .000 .389 1.000
6 -.333 .297 1.000
7 -.208 .264 1.000
8 -.058 .241 1.000
9 -.056 .243 1.000
10 -.007 .238 1.000
11 -.088 .237 1.000
5
12 -.051 .227 1.000
13 .067 .233 1.000
14 .171 .231 1.000
15 .267 .237 1.000
16 .220 .230 1.000
17 .238 .248 1.000
18 .448 .245 1.000
19 .282 .272 1.000
20 .429 .255 1.000
0 -.500 .435 1.000
3 .333 .373 1.000
4 .333 .373 1.000
5 .333 .297 1.000
7 .125 .239 1.000
8 .275 .213 1.000
9 .278 .215 1.000
10 .327 .210 1.000
11 .245 .209 1.000
6
12 .282 .197 1.000
13 .400 .204 1.000
14 .505 .202 .995
15 .600 .208 .973
16 .554 .201 .984
17 .571 .221 .992
18 .781 .218 .798
19 .615 .248 .995
20 .762 .229 .890
7 0 -.625 .413 1.000
3 .208 .347 1.000
4 .208 .347 1.000
5 .208 .264 1.000
6 -.125 .239 1.000
8 .150 .163 1.000
9 .153 .166 1.000
10 .202 .159 1.000
11 .120 .157 1.000
12 .157 .141 1.000
13 .275 .150 1.000
14 .380 .148 .993
15 .475 .156 .954
16 .429 .147 .968
17 .446 .173 .992
18 .656 .169 .652
19 .490 .206 .997
20 .637 .183 .839
0 -.775 .399 1.000
3 .058 .330 1.000
4 .058 .330 1.000
5 .058 .241 1.000
6 -.275 .213 1.000
7 -.150 .163 1.000
9 .003 .127 1.000
10 .052 .117 1.000
11 -.030 .115 1.000
8
12 .007 .093 1.000
13 .125 .106 1.000
14 .230 .102 .999
15 .325 .114 .977
16 .279 .100 .982
17 .296 .136 .999
18 .506 .131 .660
19 .340 .176 1.000
20 .487 .148 .903
9 0 -.778 .400 1.000
3 .056 .331 1.000
4 .056 .331 1.000
5 .056 .243 1.000
6 -.278 .215 1.000
7 -.153 .166 1.000
8 -.003 .127 1.000
10 .049 .121 1.000
11 -.032 .119 1.000
12 .005 .097 1.000
13 .122 .110 1.000
14 .227 .106 .999
15 .322 .118 .985
16 .276 .105 .990
17 .294 .139 .999
18 .503 .134 .718
19 .338 .178 1.000
20 .484 .151 .923
0 -.827 .397 1.000
3 .007 .328 1.000
4 .007 .328 1.000
5 .007 .238 1.000
6 -.327 .210 1.000
7 -.202 .159 1.000
8 -.052 .117 1.000
9 -.049 .121 1.000
11 -.081 .109 1.000
10
12 -.044 .085 1.000
13 .073 .099 1.000
14 .178 .095 1.000
15 .273 .108 .994
16 .227 .093 .996
17 .245 .130 1.000
18 .455 .125 .779
19 .289 .172 1.000
20 .435 .144 .955
11 0 -.745 .397 1.000
3 .088 .327 1.000
4 .088 .327 1.000
5 .088 .237 1.000
6 -.245 .209 1.000
7 -.120 .157 1.000
8 .030 .115 1.000
9 .032 .119 1.000
10 .081 .109 1.000
12 .037 .082 1.000
13 .155 .096 1.000
14 .259 .093 .981
15 .355 .106 .885
16 .308 .091 .868
17 .326 .129 .994
18 .536 .123 .400
19 .370 .170 .999
20 .517 .142 .777
0 -.782 .391 1.000
3 .051 .320 1.000
4 .051 .320 1.000
5 .051 .227 1.000
6 -.282 .197 1.000
7 -.157 .141 1.000
8 -.007 .093 1.000
9 -.005 .097 1.000
10 .044 .085 1.000
12
11 -.037 .082 1.000
13 .118 .068 1.000
14 .222 .062 .809
15 .318 .081 .630
16 .271 .059 .285
17 .289 .109 .989
18 .499 .102 .167
19 .333 .156 .999
20 .480 .124 .670
13 0 -.900 .394 .998
3 -.067 .324 1.000
4 -.067 .324 1.000
5 -.067 .233 1.000
6 -.400 .204 1.000
7 -.275 .150 1.000
8 -.125 .106 1.000
9 -.122 .110 1.000
10 -.073 .099 1.000
11 -.155 .096 1.000
12 -.118 .068 1.000
14 .105 .080 1.000
15 .200 .095 1.000
16 .154 .078 1.000
17 .171 .120 1.000
18 .381 .114 .887
19 .215 .164 1.000
20 .362 .134 .987
0 -1.005 .393 .993
3 -.171 .323 1.000
4 -.171 .323 1.000
5 -.171 .231 1.000
6 -.505 .202 .995
7 -.380 .148 .993
8 -.230 .102 .999
9 -.227 .106 .999
10 -.178 .095 1.000
14
11 -.259 .093 .981
12 -.222 .062 .809
13 -.105 .080 1.000
15 .095 .092 1.000
16 .049 .073 1.000
17 .067 .117 1.000
18 .276 .111 .995
19 .111 .162 1.000
20 .257 .132 1.000
15 0 -1.100 .397 .982
3 -.267 .327 1.000
4 -.267 .327 1.000
5 -.267 .237 1.000
6 -.600 .208 .973
7 -.475 .156 .954
8 -.325 .114 .977
9 -.322 .118 .985
10 -.273 .108 .994
11 -.355 .106 .885
12 -.318 .081 .630
13 -.200 .095 1.000
14 -.095 .092 1.000
16 -.046 .090 1.000
17 -.029 .128 1.000
18 .181 .122 1.000
19 .015 .170 1.000
20 .162 .141 1.000
0 -1.054 .393 .988
3 -.220 .322 1.000
4 -.220 .322 1.000
5 -.220 .230 1.000
6 -.554 .201 .984
7 -.429 .147 .968
8 -.279 .100 .982
9 -.276 .105 .990
10 -.227 .093 .996
16
11 -.308 .091 .868
12 -.271 .059 .285
13 -.154 .078 1.000
14 -.049 .073 1.000
15 .046 .090 1.000
17 .018 .116 1.000
18 .228 .109 1.000
19 .062 .161 1.000
20 .208 .130 1.000
17 0 -1.071 .403 .989
3 -.238 .335 1.000
4 -.238 .335 1.000
5 -.238 .248 1.000
6 -.571 .221 .992
7 -.446 .173 .992
8 -.296 .136 .999
9 -.294 .139 .999
10 -.245 .130 1.000
11 -.326 .129 .994
12 -.289 .109 .989
13 -.171 .120 1.000
14 -.067 .117 1.000
15 .029 .128 1.000
16 -.018 .116 1.000
18 .210 .143 1.000
19 .044 .185 1.000
20 .190 .159 1.000
0 -1.281 .401 .925
3 -.448 .333 1.000
4 -.448 .333 1.000
5 -.448 .245 1.000
6 -.781 .218 .798
7 -.656 .169 .652
8 -.506 .131 .660
9 -.503 .134 .718
10 -.455 .125 .779
18
11 -.536 .123 .400
12 -.499 .102 .167
13 -.381 .114 .887
14 -.276 .111 .995
15 -.181 .122 1.000
16 -.228 .109 1.000
17 -.210 .143 1.000
19 -.166 .181 1.000
20 -.019 .155 1.000
0 -1.115 .418 .989
3 -.282 .353 1.000
4 -.282 .353 1.000
5 -.282 .272 1.000
6 -.615 .248 .995
7 -.490 .206 .997
8 -.340 .176 1.000
9 -.338 .178 1.000
10 -.289 .172 1.000
19
11 -.370 .170 .999
12 -.333 .156 .999
13 -.215 .164 1.000
14 -.111 .162 1.000
15 -.015 .170 1.000
16 -.062 .161 1.000
17 -.044 .185 1.000
18 .166 .181 1.000
20 .147 .194 1.000
20 0 -1.262 .408 .944
3 -.429 .340 1.000
4 -.429 .340 1.000
5 -.429 .255 1.000
6 -.762 .229 .890
7 -.637 .183 .839
8 -.487 .148 .903
9 -.484 .151 .923
10 -.435 .144 .955
11 -.517 .142 .777
12 -.480 .124 .670
13 -.362 .134 .987
14 -.257 .132 1.000
15 -.162 .141 1.000
16 -.208 .130 1.000
17 -.190 .159 1.000
18 .019 .155 1.000
19 -.147 .194 1.000

Unfortunately, all pairwise Scheffes tests comparison of means fail to determine which
pairs exhibit significant differences. This is expected to occur since the independent
variable, highest year of school completed, consists of 19 levels.
SESSION 7 PAIRED SAMPLES T-TEST

## Paired Samples Statistics

Mean N Std. Std. Error
Deviation Mean
Oral
37.600 9 .4183 .1394
Temperature
Pair 1
Rectal
38.033 9 .6164 .2055
Temperature

## Paired Samples Correlations

N Correlatio Sig.
n
Oral Temperature &
Pair 1 9 .756 .018
Rectal Temperature

## Paired Samples Test

Paired Differences t df Sig. (2-
tailed)
Mean Std. Std. Error 95% Confidence
Deviation Mean Interval of the
Difference
Lower Upper
P
a
Oral Temperature -
i
Rectal -.4333 .4062 .1354 -.7456 -.1211 -3.200 8 .013
r
Temperature

As presented in the previous table, the results from the paired samples test indicates that
there is a significant mean difference in the recorded measurements between oral and
rectal temperature, t(df=8)=-3.200, p=0.013. Further, since the mean rectal temperature
(38.033 C) is higher than the mean oral temperature (37.600 C), then it can be concluded
the rectal temperature is significantly higher than the oral temperature.

## Paired Samples Statistics

Mean N Std. Std. Error
Deviation Mean
Observer
147.17 12 70.699 20.409
1
Pair 1
Observer
171.17 12 75.981 21.934
2

## Paired Samples Correlations

N Correlatio Sig.
n
Observer 1 &
Pair 1 12 .924 .000
Observer 2

## Paired Samples Test

Paired Differences t df Sig. (2-
tailed)
Mean Std. Std. Error 95% Confidence
Deviation Mean Interval of the
Difference
Lower Upper
Observer 1
Pair 1 - Observer -24.000 29.136 8.411 -42.512 -5.488 -2.853 11 .016
2
As presented in the previous table, the results from the paired samples test indicates that
there is a significant mean difference on bacterial colonies count between the two
observers, t(df=11)=-2.853, p=0.016. Further, bacterial colonies count detected by
Observer 2 is significantly more than the count detected by Observer 1.