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Strokes are caused by disruption of the blood supply to the
1 Types of cardiovascular
2 265 824
brain. This may result from either blockage (ischaemic
stroke) or rupture of a blood vessel (haemorrhagic stroke).
disease Coronary heart disease
Risk factors High blood pressure, atrial fibrillation (a heart
rhythm disorder), high blood cholesterol, tobacco use,
disea y heart
se ki
All the knowledge I possess everyone else Disease of the blood vessels more
unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, diabetes, 7 mil than
can acquire, but my heart is all my own. li
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Deaths from cardiovascular diseases (CVD) supplying the heart muscle. and advancing age. each on people
The Sorrows of Young Werther 1774 Number of deaths globally per year Major risk factors High blood pressure, strok ar, and
from different types of CVD, nearl es k
The human heart is only the size
high blood cholesterol, tobacco use, y 6 m ill
by age Most ill
Highest numbers shown
1 868 339 unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, of th ion.
of a fist, but it is the strongest diabetes, advancing age, inherited d eaths ese
muscle in the human body. 2002 devel re in
(genetic) disposition. o
The heart starts to beat in the count ping
coronary heart disease Other risk factors Poverty, low educational ries.
uterus long before birth, usually status, poor mental health (depression),
by 21 to 28 days after conception. stroke
inflammation and blood clotting disorders.
The average heart beats about other cardiovascular diseases Aortic aneurysm and
100 000 times daily or about two hypertensive heart disease Rheumatic heart disease dissection
and a half billion times over a Damage to the heart muscle and heart Dilatation and rupture
70 year lifetime. inflammatory heart disease
valves from rheumatic fever, caused by of the aorta.
With every heartbeat, the heart rheumatic heart disease
streptococcal bacteria. Risk factors Advancing age, long-
pumps blood around the body. It standing high blood pressure,
beats approximately 70 times a Congenital heart disease Marfan syndrome,
minute, although this rate can 996 183
Malformations of heart structures congenital heart disorders,
double during exercise or at times existing at birth may be caused by syphilis, and other
of extreme emotion. genetic factors or by adverse infectious and
Blood is pumped out from the exposures during gestation. inflammatory
left chambers of the heart. It is Examples are holes in the disorders.
transported through arteries of heart, abnormal valves,
ever-decreasing size, finally and abnormal heart
reaching the capillaries in all the chambers.
tissues, such as the skin and other Risk factors
body organs. Having delivered its Maternal alcohol
oxygen and nutrients and having use, medicines
collected waste products, blood is 280 819
(for example
brought back to the right thalidomide, warfarin) used by the expectant
chambers of the heart through a Peripheral arterial disease
104 116
mother, maternal infections such as rubella, Disease of the arteries
system of ever-enlarging veins. poor maternal nutrition (low intake of folate),
66 542 supplying the arms and legs.
During the circulation through close blood relationship between parents
the liver, waste products are Risk factors As for
(consanguinity). coronary heart disease.
removed. 04 years 514 1529 3044 4559 6069 7079 80+ years
This remarkable system is Other cardiovascular diseases
vulnerable to breakdown and Deep venous thrombosis (DVT)
Global deaths from CVD Tumours of the heart; vascular tumours of the
assault from a variety of factors, millions
and pulmonary embolism
brain; disorders of heart muscle Blood clots in the leg veins,
many of which can be prevented 2002 inflammatory
total deaths: 16.7 million rheumatic
(cardiomyopathy); heart valve diseases; which can dislodge and move to the
and treated. Risk factors will be heart disease
disorders of the lining of the heart.
0.4m heart disease heart and lungs.
explored on pages 2443. 0.3m
hypertensive Risk factors Surgery, obesity, cancer,
heart disease Other factors that can damage previous episode of DVT, recent
other forms of
0.9m the heart and blood vessel system childbirth, use of oral contraceptive and
heart disease
stroke 2.4m Inflammation, drugs, high blood pressure, hormone replacement therapy, long
5.5m unhealthy diet, trauma, toxins and alcohol. periods of immobility,
for example while travelling, high
homocysteine levels in the blood.
coronary heart disease
18 19