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Australian Codes: Steel Design per AS 4100-1998 Page 1 of 28

International Design Codes

1B. Australian Codes - Steel Design per AS 4100 - 1998


STAAD.Pro is capable of performing steel design based on the Australian code AS 4100-1998
Standards Australia - Steel Structural Design, including Amendment 1 (2012).

Design of members per AS 4100 - 1998 requires the STAAD CAN/AUS/SA Design Codes
SELECT Code Pack.

1B.1 General

1B.2 Analysis Methodology

1B.3 Member Property Specifications

1B.4 Built-in Steel Section Library

1B.5 Section Classification

1B.6 Material Properties

1B.7 Member Resistances

1B.8 Design Parameters

1B.9 Code Checking

1B.10 Member Selection

1B.11 Tabulated Results of Steel Design

1B.12 Physical Member Design

International Design Codes

Australian Codes - Steel Design per AS 4100 - 1998


1B.1 General

The design philosophy embodied in this specification is based on the concept of limit state design.
Structures are designed and proportioned taking into consideration the limit states at which they
would become unfit for their intended use. Two major categories of limit-state are recognized -
ultimate and serviceability. The primary considerations in ultimate limit state design are strength
and stability, while that in serviceability is deflection. Appropriate load and resistance factors are
used so that a uniform reliability is achieved for all steel structures under various loading
conditions and at the same time the chances of limits being surpassed are acceptably remote.

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In the STAAD implementation, members are proportioned to resist the design loads without
exceeding the limit states of strength, stability, and serviceability. Accordingly, the most economic
section is selected on the basis of the least weight criteria as augmented by the designer in
specification of allowable member depths, desired section type, or other such parameters. The
code checking portion of the program checks whether code requirements for each selected section
are met and identifies the governing criteria.

The following sections describe the salient features of the STAAD implementation of AS 4100. A
detailed description of the design process along with its underlying concepts and assumptions is
available in the specification document.

1B.1.1 Strength Limit States

Strength design capacities (Ru) are calculated and compared to user-defined design action effects
(S*), so as to ensure that S* Ru in accordance with AS 4100 3.4. Details for design capacity
calculations are outlined in the sections that follow.

1B.1.2 Deflection Limit States

STAAD.Pros AS 4100 implementation does not generally check deflections. It is left to the user
to check that both local member and frame deflections are within acceptable limits.

Local member deflections parallel to the local member y-axis can be checked against a user-
defined maximum span / deflection ratio. This can be performed using the DFF, DJ1, and DJ2
design parameters, however this is only available for MEMBER Design. Details are provided in the
sections that follow.

1B.1.3 Eccentric Beam Reactions

STAAD.Pro does not automatically account for minimum eccentricity distances for beam
reactions being transferred to columns as per AS 4100 4.3.4. However member offsets can be used
to model these eccentricities.

Refer to Section 5.25 of the Technical Reference manual for further information on the Member
Offset feature.

1B.1.4 Limit States Not Considered

The following limit states are not directly considered in STAAD.Pros implementation of AS
4100.

Table 1B.1-Limit States Not


Considered in STAAD.Pro AS 4100
Design
Code
Limit State
Reference
Stability AS 4100 3.3
Serviceability AS 4100 3.5
Brittle Fracture AS 4100 3.7
Fire AS 4100 3.9
AS 4100 3.11

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Code
Limit State
Reference
Other Design
Requirements

1B.1.5 Connection Design

STAAD.Pro and Bentleys RAM Connection program currently do not support design of
connections in accordance with AS 4100. In some cases connection design may govern the size of
members. Such considerations are not considered in STAAD.Pros AS 4100 and should be
checked by separately.

1B.1.6 Bolts and Welds

Bolt holes and welds are not generally considered in STAAD.Pros AS 4100 member design.

NSC and NSF design parameters are used to manually specify a reduction in net section area for
compression or tension capacity calculations. These can be used to account for bolt hole area
reductions. Further details are provided in the sections that follow.

International Design Codes

Australian Codes - Steel Design per AS 4100 - 1998


1B.2 Analysis Methodology

Either the elastic or dynamic analysis methods may be used to obtain the forces and moments for
design as per AS 4100 section 4.4. Analysis is done for the specified primary and repeat loading
conditions. Therefore, it is your responsibility to enter all necessary loads and load combination
factors for design in accordance with the AS/NZS 1170 Series or other relevant design codes. You
are allowed complete flexibility in providing loading specifications and using appropriate load
factors to create necessary loading situations. Depending upon the analysis requirements, regular
stiffness analysis or P-Delta analysis may be specified. Dynamic analysis may also be performed
and the results combined with static analysis results.

Plastic analysis and design in accordance with AS 4100 section 4.5 is not implemented in
STAAD.Pro.

1B.2.1 Elastic Analysis

Two types of elastic analysis can be performed using STAAD.Pro in accordance with AS 4100:

i. First Order Linear, Elastic Analysis - used to perform a regular elastic stiffness analysis as
per AS 4100 4.4.2.1. Refer to Section 5.37.1 of the Technical Reference Manual for
additional details on this feature.

ii. Second Order PDelta Linear, Elastic Analysis - Depending on the type of structure, a PDelta
analysis may be required in order to capture second-order effects as per AS 4100 4.4.1.2.
Second-order effects can be captured in STAAD.Pro by performing a PDelta second-order

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elastic analysis as per AS 4100 Appendix E. Refer to Section 5.37.2 of the Technical
Reference Manual for additional details on this feature.

Moment amplification as per AS 4100 clause 4.4.2 is not considered.

In order to correctly capture second-order effects for combination load cases using a PDelta
Analysis, the Repeat Load feature must be used. Second-order effects will not be correctly
evaluated if the Load Combination feature is used. Load Combinations are combinations of
results where Repeat Loads instruct the program to perform the analysis on the combined
load actions. Refer to Section 5.32.11 of the Technical Reference Manual for additional
details on using Repeat Loads.

1B.2.2 Dynamic Analysis

Dynamic analysis may also be performed and the results combined with static analysis results.
Refer Section 5.32.10 of the Technical Reference Manual for further information on Dynamic
Loading and Analysis features.

International Design Codes

Australian Codes - Steel Design per AS 4100 - 1998


1B.3 Member Property Specifications

For specification of member properties, either the steel section library available in STAAD or the
User Table facility may be used. The next section describes the syntax of commands used to
assign properties from the built-in steel table. For more information on these facilities, refer to
Section 1.7 the STAAD Technical Reference Manual.

International Design Codes

Australian Codes - Steel Design per AS 4100 - 1998


1B.4 Built-in Steel Section Library

The following information is provided for use when the built-in steel tables are to be referenced
for member property specification. These properties are stored in a database file. If called for, the
properties are also used for member design. Since the shear areas are built into these tables, shear
deformation is always considered during the analysis of these members. An example of the
member property specification in an input file is provided at the end of this section.

A complete listing of the sections available in the built-in steel section library may be obtained by
using the tools of the graphical user interface.

Refer to Section 1.7.2 of the Technical Reference Manual for additional information.

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Table 1B.2-Available Australian Sections for STAAD.Pro AS 4100 Design


General Profile Type Australian Sections Description
WB, WC Welded beams and columns
I-SECTION
UB, UC Universal beams and columns
T-SECTION BT, CT Tees cut from universal beams and columns
CHANNEL PFC Parallel flange channels
ANGLE EA, UA Equal and unequal angles
TUBE SHS, RHS Square and rectangular hollow sections
PIPE CHS Circular hollow sections

STAAD.Pro will not design the following section types to AS 4100: Double Profiles (D),
Composite Sections (C), Top Cover Plates (TC), Bottom Cover Plates (BC), and Top & Bottom
Cover Plates (TB), Double Channels (D, BA, & FR) and Double Angles (LD & SD). Refer to
Section Profile Tables in the Graphical Environment for these options.

When adding and assigning sections using the built-in steel section library through the Graphical
Environment, STAAD.Pros default tables are American. To change the default tables to
Australian, select File > Configuration from the STAAD.Pro Start page (no input file open). Set
the Default Profile Table to Australian on the Configure Program dialog Section Profile Table.

Following are the descriptions of different types of sections.

1B.4.1 UB Shapes

These shapes are designated in the following way.

20 TO 30 TA ST UB150X14.0

36 TO 46 TA ST UB180X16.1

1B.4.2 UC Shapes

The designation for the UC shapes is similar to that for the UB shapes.

25 TO 35 TA ST UC100X14.8

23 56 TA ST UC310X96.8

1B.4.3 Welded Beams

Welded Beams are designated in the following way.

25 TO 35 TA ST WB700X115

23 56 TA ST WB1200X455

1B.4.4 Welded Columns

Welded Columns are designated in the following way.

25 TO 35 TA ST WC400X114

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23 56 TA ST WC400X303

1B.4.5 Parallel Flange Channels

Shown below is the syntax for assigning names of channel sections.

1 TO 5 TA ST PFC75

6 TO 10 TA ST PFC380

1B.4.6 Double Channels

Back-to-back double channels, with or without a spacing between them, are available. The letter D
in front of the section name will specify a double channel.

11 TA D PFC230

17 TA D C230X75X25 SP 0.5

In the above set of commands, member 11 is a back-to-back double channel PFC230 with no
spacing in between. Member 17 is a double channel PFC300 with a spacing of 0.5 length units
between the channels.

1B.4.7 Angles

Two types of specification may be used to describe an angle. The standard angle section is
specified as follows:

16 20 TA ST A30X30X6

The above section signifies an angle with legs of length 30 mm and a leg thickness of 6 mm. This
specification may be used when the local Z axis corresponds to the z-z axis specified in Chapter 2.
If the local Y axis corresponds to the z-z axis, type specification "RA" (reverse angle) may be
used.

17 21 TA RA A150X150X16

Single angles must be specified with an RA (Single Angle w/Reverse Y-Z Axis) in order to be
designed to AS 4100. This is to ensure that the major and minor principal axes align with the local
member z and y axes respectively, similar to other section profiles.

1B.4.8 Double Angles

Short leg back-to-back or long leg back-to-back double angles can be specified by means of input
of the words SD or LD, respectively, in front of the angle size. In case of an equal angle, either SD
or LD will serve the purpose.

33 35 TA SD A65X50X5 SP 0.6

37 39 TA LD A75X50X6

43 TO 47 TA LD A100X75X10 SP 0.75

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1B.4.9 Tubes (Rectangular or Square Hollow Sections)

Tubes can be assigned in 2 ways. In the first method, the designation for the tube is as shown
below. This method is meant for tubes whose property name is available in the steel table. In these
examples, members 1 to 5 consist of a 2X2X0.5 inch size tube section, and members 6 to 10
consist of 10X5X0.1875 inch size tube section. The name is obtained as 10 times the depth, 10
times the width, and 16 times the thickness.

1 TO 5 TA ST TUB20202.5

6 TO 10 TA ST TUB100503.0

In the second method, tubes are specified by their dimensions. For example,

6 TA ST TUBE DT 8.0 WT 6.0 TH 0.5

is a tube that has a height of 8 length units, width of 6 length units, and a wall thickness of 0.5
length units. Only code checking, no member selection, will be performed for TUBE sections
specified in this latter manner.

1B.4.10 Pipes (Circular Hollow Sections)

Pipes can be assigned in 2 ways. In the first method, the designation for the pipe is as shown
below. This method is meant for pipes whose property name is available in the steel table.

1 TO 5 TA ST PIP180X5

6 TO 10 TA ST PIP273X6.5

In the second method, pipe sections may be provided by specifying the word PIPE followed by the
outside and inside diameters of the section. For example,

1 TO 9 TA ST PIPE OD 25.0 ID 20.0

specifies a pipe with outside diameter of 25 length units and inside diameter of 20 length units.
Only code checking, no member selection, will be performed on pipes specified in this latter
manner.

1B.4.11 Sample File Containing Australian Shapes

STAAD SPACE

UNIT METER KN

JOINT COORD

1 0 0 0 11 100 0 0

MEMB INCI

1 1 2 10

UNIT CM

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MEMBER PROPERTIES AUSTRALIAN

* UB SHAPES

1 TA ST UB200X25.4

* UC SHAPES

2 TA ST UC250X89.5

* CHANNELS

3 TA ST PFC125

* DOUBLE CHANNELS

4 TA D PFC200

* ANGLES

5 TA ST A30X30X6

* REVERSE ANGLES

6 TA RA A150X150X16

* DOUBLE ANGLES - SHORT LEGS BACK TO BACK

7 TA SD A65X50X5 SP 0.6

* DOUBLE ANGLES - LONG LEGS BACK TO BACK

8 TA LD A100X75X10 SP 0.75

* TUBES (RECTANGULAR OR SQUARE HOLLOW SECTIONS)

9 TA ST TUBE DT 8.0 WT 6.0 TH 0.5

* PIPES (CIRCULAR HOLLOW SECTIONS)

10 TA ST PIPE OD 25.0 ID 20.0

PRINT MEMB PROP

FINISH

International Design Codes

Australian Codes - Steel Design per AS 4100 - 1998


1B.5 Section Classification

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The AS 4100 specification allows inelastic deformation of section elements. Thus, local buckling
becomes an important criterion. Steel sections are classified as compact, noncompact, or slender;
depending upon their local buckling characteristics. This classification is a function of the
geometric properties of the section. The design procedures are different depending on the section
class. STAAD determines the section classification for the standard shapes and user specified
shapes. Design is performed for all three categories of section described above.

International Design Codes

Australian Codes - Steel Design per AS 4100 - 1998


1B.6 Material Properties

For specification of material properties, the user can use either:

a. built-in material constants


b. user-defined materials

Refer Section 5.26.2 of the Technical Reference Manual for further information on the Built-in
Material Constants feature.

Refer Section 2.26.1 of the Technical Reference Manual for further information on the Define
Material feature.

1B.6.1 Youngs Modulus of Elasticity (E)

STAAD.Pros default steel materials E value is 205,000 MPa. However AS 4100 section 1.4
states that the modulus of elasticity should be taken as 200,000 MPa. There are a number of
options to change this value:

change the steel material through the input file or GUI for each file created
define a new steel material for each file created

change the default STAAD.Pro metric E value in the file C:/Windows/StaadPro20070.ini,


going to the [Material-Metric] section, and changing E1=205.0e6 to E1=200.0e6. Restart
STAAD.Pro for this to take effect.

Virtualization features of Windows Vista and Windows 7 may require additional files to be
modified. Contact Bentley Technical Support for assistance.

International Design Codes

Australian Codes - Steel Design per AS 4100 - 1998


1B.7 Member Resistances

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The member resistance is calculated in STAAD according to the procedures outlined in AS 4100.
Calculated design capacities are compared to corresponding axial, bending moment, and shear
forces determined from the STAAD.Pro analysis. These are used to report the fail or pass status
for the members designed.

Two types of design checks are typically performed per AS 4100:

Nominal section checks


Nominal member checks

The nominal section capacity refers to the capacity of a cross-section to resists applied loads, and
accounts for cross-section yielding and local buckling effects. The nominal member capacity on
the other hand refers to the capacity of a member to resist applied loads, and includes checks for
global member buckling effects including Euler buckling, lateral-torsional buckling, etc.

1B.7.1 Axial Tension

The criteria governing the capacity of tension members are based on two limit states per AS 4100
Section 7. The limit state of yielding of the gross section is intended to prevent excessive
elongation of the member.

The second limit state involves fracture at the section with the minimum effective net area Nt
section axial tension capacities are calculated (Cl.7.2). Through the use of the NSF parameter (see
Table 1B.1), you may specify the net section area. STAAD calculates the tension capacity of a
member based on these two limit states per Cl.7.1 and Cl.7.2 respectively of AS 4100. Eccentric
end connections can be taken into account using the KT correction factor, perCl.7.3. The fy yield
stress is based on the minimum plate yield stress. Parameters FYLD, FU, and NSF are applicable for
these calculations.

1B.7.2 Axial Compression

The compressive strength of members is based on limit states per AS 4100 Section 6. It is taken as
the lesser of nominal section capacity and nominal member capacity. Nominal section capacity,
Ns, is a function of form factor (Cl.6.2.2), net area of the cross section, and yield stress of the
material. Through the use of the NSC parameter (see Table 1B.1), you may specify the net section
area. Note that this parameter is different from that corresponding to tension. The program
automatically calculates the form factor. The kf form factors are calculated based on effective
plate widths per Cl.6.2.4, and the fy yield stress is based on the minimum plate yield stress.

Nominal member capacity, Nc, is a function of nominal section capacity and member slenderness
reduction factor (Cl.6.3.3). This value is calculated about both principal x and y axes. Here, you
are required to supply the value of b (Cl.6.3.3) through the ALB parameter (see Table 1B.1). The
effective length for the calculation of compressive strength may be provided through the use of the
parameters KY, KZ, LY, and LZ (see Table 1B.1).

1B.7.3 Bending

Bending capacities are calculated to AS 4100 Section 5. The allowable bending moment of
members is determined as the lesser of nominal section capacity and nominal member capacity
(ref. Cl.5.1).

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The nominal section moment capacity, Ms, is calculated about both principal x and y axes and is
the capacity to resist cross-section yielding or local buckling and is expressed as the product of the
yield stress of the material and the effective section modulus (ref. Cl.5.2). The effective section
modulus is a function of section type (i.e., compact, noncompact, or slender) and minimum plate
yield stress fy. The nominal member capacity depends on overall flexural-torsional buckling of the
member (ref.Cl.5.3).

For sections where the web and flange yield stresses (fy,web and fy.flange respectively) are different,
the lower of the two yield stresses is applied to both the web and flange to determine the
slenderness of these elements.

Member moment capacity, Mb, is calculated about the principal x axis only (ref. Cl.5.6). Critical
flange effective cross-section restraints and corresponding design segment and sub-segments are
used as the basis for calculating capacities.

1B.7.4 Interaction of Axial Force and Bending

Combined section bending and shear capacities are calculated using the shear and bending
interaction method as per Cl.5.12.3.

This check is only carried out where Vv section web shear capacities are calculated. Refer Table
1B.6-1 for details.

The member strength for sections subjected to axial compression and uniaxial or biaxial bending
is obtained through the use of interaction equations. Here, the adequacy of a member is also
examined against both section (ref. Cl.8.3.4) and member capacity (ref.Cl.8.4.5). These account
for both in-plane and out-of-plane failures. If the summation of the left hand side of the equations,
addressed by the above clauses, exceeds 1.0 or the allowable value provided using the RATIO
parameter (see Table 1B.1), the member is considered to have FAILed under the loading
condition.

1B.7.5 Shear

Section web shear capacity, Vv, is calculated per Cl.5.11, including both shear yield and shear
buckling capacities. Once the capacity is obtained, the ratio of the shear force acting on the cross
section to the shear capacity of the section is calculated. If any of the ratios (for both local Y &
Z-axes) exceed 1.0 or the allowable value provided using the RATIO parameter (see Table 1B.1),
the section is considered to have failed under shear.

Table 1B.6-1 below highlights which shear capacities are calculated for different profile types.

Table 1B.3-Section Type Shear Checks


Australian
General Profile Type Shear Checks
Section

I-SECTION
WB, WC, UB,
(i.e., parallel to minor Calculated for web only
UC
principal y-axis)

T-SECTION BT, CT
CHANNEL PFC

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Australian
General Profile Type Shear Checks
Section
ANGLE EA, UA No checks performed
Calculated parallel to both x & y
TUBE SHS, RHS
principal axes
PIPE CHS Per AS 4100 5.11.4

Only unstiffened web capacities are calculated. Stiffened webs are not considered. Bearing
capacities are not considered.

1B.7.6 Torsion

STAAD.Pro does not design sections or members for torsion for AS 4100.

International Design Codes

Australian Codes - Steel Design per AS 4100 - 1998


1B.8 Design Parameters

The design parameters outlined in Table 1B.1 are used to control the design procedure. These
parameters communicate design decisions from the engineer to the program and thus allow the
engineer to control the design process to suit an application's specific needs. The design scope
indicates whether design parameters are applicable for MEMBER Design, PMEMBER Design, or both.

The default parameter values have been selected such that they are frequently used numbers for
conventional design. Depending on the particular design requirements, some or all of these
parameter values may be changed to exactly model the physical structure.

Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number until it is specified again.
This is the way STAAD works for all codes.

Table 1B.4- Australian Steel Design Parameters


Parameter Design
Default Value Description
Name Scope

Must be specified as
AUSTRALIAN to invoke design
per AS 4100 - 1998.
CODE -
Design Code to follow. See
section 5.48.1 of the Technical
Reference Manual.

ALB 2.0 Member section constant (refer


cl. 6.3.3)

If ALB is 2.0, it is automatically


calculated based on TABLE

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Parameter Design
Default Value Description
Name Scope
6.3.3(1), 6.3.3(2); otherwise
the input value is used.

Moment modification factor


(refer cl. 5.6.1.1)

ALM 0.0 If ALM is 0.0, it is automatically


calculated based cl.5.6.1.1;
otherwise the input value is
used.

0.0 = design only for end


moments and those at locations
specified by SECTION
BEAM 0.0 command.

1.0 = Perform design for


moments at twelfth points
along the beam.

Deflection Length/
None (Mandatory for
DFF Maximum Allowable local
deflection check)
deflection.

Analytical Joint No. denoting start point


DJ1 Start Joint of member members for calculation of deflection
only length

Joint No. denoting end point


DJ2 End Joint of member for calculation of deflection
length

Maximum allowable depth


DMAX 45.0 [in.] (Applicable for member
selection)

Minimum required depth


DMIN 0.0 [in.] (Applicable for member
selection)

FU 500.0 [MPa] Ultimate strength of steel.

FYLD 250.0 [MPa] Yield strength of steel.

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Parameter Design
Default Value Description
Name Scope

Steel type - 1 - SR, 2 - HR, 3 -


IST 1 CF, 4 - LW, 5 - HW

See p.47 of AS 4100-1998.

Correction factor for


KT 1.0 distribution of forces (refer cl.
7.2)

K value for general column


flexural buckling about the
KY 1.0
local Y-axis. Used to calculate
slenderness ratio.

K value for general column


flexural buckling about the
KZ 1.0
local Z-axis. Used to calculate
slenderness ratio.

Load height position as


described in Table 5.6.3(2) of
Physical AS 4100:1998
LHT 0 members
only 0 = at Shear center

1 = At top flange

Length for general column


flexural buckling about the
LY Member Length
local Y-axis. Used to calculate
slenderness ratio.

Length for general column


flexural buckling about the
LZ Member Length
local Z-axis. Used to calculate
slenderness ratio.

MAIN 0.0 A value of either 0.0 or 1.0


suppresses the slenderness
ratio check. checks are not
explicitly required per AS
4100.

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Parameter Design
Default Value Description
Name Scope
Any value greater than 1.0 is
used as the limit for
slenderness in compression.

Net section factor for


compression members = An /
NSC 1.0 Ag

(refer cl. 6.2.1)

Net section factor for tension


NSF 1.0
members.

Physical Refer to section 1B.11 for


PBRACE None members details on the PBRACE
only parameter.

PHI 0.9 Capacity reduction factor

Permissible ratio of actual load


RATIO 1.0
effect to the design strength.

Steel Grade. Refer to Note a


below.

0.0
SGR 0 = normal grade
1.0
= high strength grade
steel

A load height factor given in


SKL 1.0
Table 5.6.3(2)
A lateral rotation restraint
SKR 1.0
factor given in Table 5.6.3(3)
A twist restraint factor given in
SKT 1.0
Table 5.6.3(1)

TRACK 0.0 Output detail

0.0
= report only minimum
design results
1.0
= report design strengths
in addition to TRACK 0.0
output

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Parameter Design
Default Value Description
Name Scope
2.0
= provide full details of
design

Unsupported length in bending


compression of the bottom
flange for calculating moment
UNB Member Length
resistance.

Unsupported length in bending


compression of the top flange
UNT Member Length
for calculating moment
resistance.

1B.8.1 Notes

a. DFF, DJ1, and DJ2 Deflection calculations

Compute Delta = SQRT((DX2 - DX1)2 + (DY2 - DY1)2 + (DZ2 - DZ1)2)

Compute Length = distance between DJ1 & DJ2 or, between start node and end node, as the
case may be.

Deflection calculations are not applicable to PMEMBERs.

a. A straight line joining DJ1 and DJ2 is used as the reference line from which local
deflections are measured.

For example, refer to the figure below where a beam has been modeled using four
joints and three members. The Deflection Length for all three members will be
equal to the total length of the beam in this case. The parameters DJ1 and DJ2 should
be used to model this situation. Thus, for all three members here, DJ1 should be 1 and
DJ2 should be 4.

D = Maximum local deflection for members 1, 2, and 3.

PARAMETERS

DFF 300. ALL

DJ1 1 ALL

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DJ2 4 ALL

b. If DJ1 and DJ2 are not used, "Deflection Length" will default to the member length
and local deflections will be measured from original member line.

c. It is important to note that unless a DFF value is specified, STAAD will not perform a
deflection check. This is in accordance with the fact that there is no default value for
DFF.

b. LHT Parameter

If the shear force is constant within the segment, longitudinal position of the load is
assumed to be at the segment end.

If there is any variation of the shear force and the load is acting downward determined from
shear force variation and load height parameter indicates the load is acting on top flange
(flange at the positive local y axis) and restraints at the end of the segment is not FU (FRU)
or PU (PRU) Kl is assumed to be 1.4.

If there is any variation of the shear force and the load is acting upward determined from
shear force variation and load height parameter indicates the load is acting on top flange
(flange at the positive local y axis) and restraints at the end of the segment is not FU (FRU)
or PU (PRU) Kl is assumed to be 1.0 as the load acting at the top flange is contributing to
stabilize against local torsional buckling.

c. SGR Parameter

AS 4100 defines the values of steel grades that are used as either normal steel or high grade
steel. The following table explains the material values used when either option is specified
for a particular shape:

Table 1B.5-Steel Grades used for the SGR Parameter


Steel
Section Type SGR Value Grade
Used
WB, WC, Tee section cut from WB and WC 0 (Normal) 300
WB, WC, Tee section cut from WB and WC 1 (High) 400
UB, UC, Tee section cut from UB and UC, EA,
0 (Normal) 300
UA and all UPT sections UB, UC, Tee section
cut from UB and UC, EA, UA and all UPT
1 (High) 350
sections
Pipe, Tube, CHS, RHS, SHS Pipe, Tube, CHS, 0 (Normal) 250
RHS, SHS 1 (High) 350

If a value for the FYLD parameter has been specified, then that value will be used.
Otherwise, the SGR value will be used to determine the yeild strength and tensile strength
values for the steel. based on maximum thickness of the individual elements of the section.
Only for shear capacity calculation web thickness is used. Similarly, Tensile Strength is
determined either from FU parameter or from SGR parameter.

A check is introduced to see if yield stress is more than 450 MPa or not. If it is, a warning is
issued and the yield stress is set to 450 MPa.

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The following example uses the Member design facility in STAAD.Pro. However, it is strongly
recommended to use the Physical member design capabilities for AS 4100:

PARAMETER 1

CODE AUSTRALIAN

ALB 0.0 MEMBER ALL

ALM 1.13 MEMBER ALL

BEAM 1.0 MEMBER ALL

DFF 250.0 MEMBER ALL

DMAX 0.4 MEMBER ALL

DMIN 0.25 MEMBER ALL

FU 400.0 MEMBER ALL

FYLD 310.0 MEMBER ALL

IST 2.0 MEMBER ALL

KT 0.85 MEMBER ALL

KX 0.75 MEMBER ALL

KY 1.0 MEMBER ALL

LX 4.5 MEMBER ALL

LY 6.0 MEMBER ALL

MAIN 1.0 MEMBER ALL

NSC 0.9 MEMBER ALL

NSF 1.0 MEMBER ALL

PHI 0.9 MEMBER ALL

RATIO 0.9 MEMBER ALL

SGR 1.0 MEMBER ALL

SKT 1.0 MEMBER ALL

SKL 1.0 MEMBER ALL

SKR 1.0 MEMBER ALL

TRACK 2.0 MEMBER ALL

UNB 3.4 MEMBER ALL

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UNT 6.8 MEMBER ALL

CHECK CODE MEMBER ALL

International Design Codes

Australian Codes - Steel Design per AS 4100 - 1998


1B.9 Code Checking

The purpose of code checking is to evaluate whether the provided section properties of the
members are adequate for the specified loads as per AS 4100 requirements.

The member selection facility can be used to instruct the program to select a different section if
the specified section is found to be inadequate.

Code checking for an analytical member is done using forces and moments at every twelfth point
along the beam. The code checking output labels the members as PASSed or FAILed. In addition,
the critical condition, governing load case, location (distance from the start joint) and magnitudes
of the governing forces and moments are also printed. The extent of detail of the output can be
controlled by using the TRACK parameter.

Refer to Section 2.5 of the Technical Reference Manual for general information on Code
Checking. Refer to Section 5.48.2 of the Technical Reference Manual for details the specification
of the Code Checking command.

Code checking cannot be performed on composite and prismatic sections.

Example of commands for code checking:

UNIT NEWTON METER

PARAMETER

CODE AUSTRALIAN

FYLD 330E6 MEMB 3 4

NSF 0.85 ALL

KY 1.2 MEMB 3 4

RATIO 0.9 ALL

CHECK CODE MEMB 3 4

1B.9.1 Physical Members

For physical members (PMEMBERs), code checks are performed at section stations positioned at
1/12th points along each analytical member included in the PMEMBER. It is up to you to determine if
these locations cover critical sections for design, and adjust as necessary. The number of stations

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for PMEMBER Design cannot be altered, however the analytical members can be split so that in
effect more stations are checked for a PMEMBER.

For each section station along a PMEMBER, section capacity checks are carried for design actions at
that station location. Member capacity checks are also carried out for each station. For these the
program searches each side of the station to find adjacent effective restraints and design forces and
moments. This allows the program to determine the segment / sub-segment that the section station
resides in, and then proceeds to calculate the member capacities. Enough section stations should
be included to capture all segments / sub-segments for checking.

When checking combined actions for the section capacities, the design actions at the section
station are used. However when checking combined actions for the member capacities, the
maximum forces from anywhere along the segment / sub-segment being considered are used. This
is as stipulated in AS 4100 8.2.

The output reports whether the member has PASSed or FAILed the design checks, as well as the
critical condition, critical load case, magnitudes of design actions for the most critical cross-
section location (distance from the start joint), and complete calculations for design. The TRACK
design parameter can be used to control the level of detail provided in the output. Color-coded
results can also be viewed in the GUIs Post Processing Beam | Unity Check page.

In some cases some of the output will report N/A values. This occurs where a calculation does
not apply to a member. For example if a member never goes into tension then no values can be
reported in the tension capacity output sections.

As per AS 4100 1.4, the TRACK 2.0 detailed level of output for PMEMBER Design uses x and y
subscripts to refer to major and minor principal axes respectively. These differ to STAAD.Pro
local member axes, where z and y refer to major and minor principal axes.

International Design Codes

Australian Codes - Steel Design per AS 4100 - 1998


1B.10 Member Selection

This process incrementally checks increasing section profile sizes until a size is found that is AS
4100 compliant, or the largest section has been checked. Only section profiles of the same type as
modeled are incrementally checked, with the increasing sizes based on a least weight per unit
length criteria.

For example, a member specified initially as a channel will have a channel selected for it.
Selection of members whose properties are originally provided from a user table will be limited to
sections in the user table.

Refer to Section 2.6 of the Technical Reference Manual for general information on Member
Selection. Refer to Section 5.48.3 of the Technical Reference Manual for details the specification
of the Member Selection command.

The design calculations for Member Selection are the same as for Code Checking.

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A Fixed Group command is also available, and can be used to force all members within a user-
defined group to take the same section size based on the most critical governing design criteria for
all members within that group. This is particularly useful when you want to use the Member
Selection feature, but want a group of elements to have the same size. Refer to Section 5.49 of the
Technical Reference Manual for information on using this feature.

Member Selection will change member sizes, and hence will change the structures stiffness
matrix. In order to correctly account for this, a subsequent analysis and Code Check should be
performed to ensure that the final structure is acceptable. This may need to be carried out over
several iterations.

Composite and prismatic sections cannot be selected.

Example of commands for member selection:

UNIT NEWTON METER

PARAMETER

FYLD 330E6 MEMB 3 4

NSF 0.85 ALL

KY 1.2 MEMB 3 4

RATIO 0.9 ALL

SELECT MEMB 3 4

International Design Codes

Australian Codes - Steel Design per AS 4100 - 1998


1B.11 Tabulated Results of Steel Design

Results of code checking and member selection are presented in a tabular format. The term
CRITICAL COND refers to the section of the AS 4100 specification which governs the design.

International Design Codes

Australian Codes - Steel Design per AS 4100 - 1998


1B.12 Physical Member Design

There are two methods available in STAAD.Pro for checking members against the requirements
of AS 4100:

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a. Analytical member method


b. Physical member method

Herein these are referred to as MEMBER Design and PMEMBER Design respectively.

This feature requires STAAD.Pro V8i (SELECTseries 2) build 2007.07 or higher.

Traditionally STAAD.Pro performed code checks based on single analytical members (i.e., single
members between two nodes). This implementation remains in place as shown in the example in
Section 1B.8. Physical Member (PMEMBER) Design on the other hand allows you to group single or
multiple analytical members into a single physical design member for the purposes of design to
AS 4100.

PMEMBER Design also has additional features, including:

automated steel grades based on section type;


automated tensile stress (fu) and yield stress (fy) values based on plate thicknesses;
automated segment / sub-segment design;
improved detailed design calculation output; and

Thus, it is strongly recommended that PMEMBER Design be used, even for the design of single
analytical members.

1B.12.1 Modeling with Physical Members

Physical Members may be grouped by either of the following methods:

STAAD.Pro Editor - Directly specify physical members in the input file. Refer to Section
5.16.2 of the Technical Reference Manual for additional information.
Graphical Environment - Using the tools in the Steel Design toolbar, members can be
manually or automatically formed. Refer to Section 1.4 of the Graphical Environment
manual for additional information.

When creating PMEMBERs for AS 4100, this must be performed in STAAD.Pros Modeling
mode. Do not use the Steel Design mode.

1B.12.2 Segment and Sub-Segment Layout

For calculation of member bending capacities about the principal x-axis, the PMEMBER Design
uses the concept of segment / sub-segment design. By default PMEMBERs are automatically
broken up into design segments and sub-segments based on calculated effective restraints. User-
defined restraints assigned using the PBRACE design parameter are checked to see if they are
effective (i.e., if they are placed on the critical flange as per AS 4100 5.5). Restraints not applied
to the critical flange are ineffective and hence are completely ignored.

Refer to Section 1B.7 for further information on how user-defined restraints are applied using the
PBRACE design parameter, including available restraint types, and restraint layout rules.

Segment and sub-segment layouts for PMEMBERs may change for different load cases
considered for design. Some restraints may be effective for one particular load case as they are
found to apply to the critical flange, however for another load case may be found not to act on the
critical flange, and found to be ineffective. In other words the critical flange can change for each
load case considered.

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Typically the critical flange will be the compression flange, except for segments with a U
restraint at one end, in which case it will be the tension flange (as is the case for a cantilever).

The PMEMBER Design uses the following routine to determine effective cross-section restraints
for each load case considered:

i. first all user-defined restraints are checked to see if they are applied to the compression
flange, with those that arent ignored;
ii. next a check is made to see if a U type restraint is found at either end of the PMEMBER.
If this is the case then any adjacent L restraints up to the next F, FR, P or PR
restraint are also ignored, regardless of whether they are placed on the critical or non-critical
flange. Refer AS 4100 5.4.2.4.

The compression flange in step 1 of the routine above is calculated based on the bending moments
at the locations of the restraints being considered. If the bending moment is zero at the same
location as a restraint then the following method is used to determine which flange is critical at the
zero moment location:

a. If the zero moment is at the end of the PMEMBER, then the compression flange is based on
the bending moment at a small increment from then end;
b. If the zero moment is along the PMEMBER and is a peak value, then the compression
flange is based on the bending moment at a small increment from that location;
c. If neither 1 or 2 above is valid, then the stiffer of the restraints at that location is taken. The
stiffness of different restraint types from the most stiff to least stiff are taken as outlined in
Table 1B.9-3.

Table 1B.6-Assumed Order of


Restraint Stiffness for Zero Moment
Critical Flange
Stiffness Restraint Type
Most Stiff FR
F
PR
P
L
U
Least Stiff None

Once the effective restraints have been determined, the PMEMBER is divided into segments
bounded by F, P, FR, PR or U effective restraints. These segments are then further
divided into sub-segments by effective L restraints.

Sub-segment lengths are not automatically checked to determine if they provide full lateral
restraint as per AS 4100 5.3.2.4.

For design of cantilevers, the free tip should have user-defined U restraints applied to both top
and bottom flanges.

If the effective restraints for any load case consist of U or L restraints only, an error will be
reported.

1B.12.3 Physical Member Restraints Specification

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The PBRACE parameter is used to specify the restraint condition along the top and bottom flange of
a PMEMBER.

General Format

PBRACE { TOP | BOTTOM } f1 r1 f2 r2 f52 r52 (PMEMB pmember-list)

Where:

fn is a fraction of the PMEMBER length where restraint condition is being specified.


This value is any ratio between 0.0 and 1.0.

rn is one of the possible restraint condition as in the following:

Table 1B.7-Physical Member Restraint Types


Designation,
Restraint Type Description
r1
F Fully restrained
Partially
P
restrained
Laterally Cannot be specified at the ends of
L
restrained design members.

Can only be applied at the ends of


design members, and must be
applied to both flanges to be
U Unrestrained effective.

Both top and bottom flanges can not


be unrestrained at the same location
(as this is unstable).

Fully and
FR rotationally
restrained
Partially and
PR rotationally
restrained
The flange is assumed to be
continuously supported at that flange
Continuously up to next restraint location. For
C
restrained continuously supported flange
unbraced length is assumed to be
zero.

Example

PBRACE TOP 0.85 FR 0.33 PR 0.33 PR 0.25 F 0.75 L 0.5 PR 1.0 U 0.0 U

PBRACE BOTTOM 0.75 L 0.0 U 0.25 P 0.5 L -

1.0 U PMEMB 3 7

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Description

Refer to AS 4100 Section 5.5 for a full definition of the critical flange. Typically this will be the
compression flange, except for segments with U restraint at one end, then it will be the tension
flange (as is the case for cantilever portion at the end).

when gravity loads are dominant (i.e., negative local y-axis direction), the critical flange of
a segment shall be the top flange (i.e., tension).
when upward wind loads are dominant (i.e., positive local y-axis direction), the critical
flange shall be the bottom flange (i.e., tension).

Design physical members are divided into segments by F, P, FR, PR or U effective


section restraints. Segments are further broken down into sub-segments by L restraints, but only
if the L restraints are deemed to be effective. L restraints are only considered to be effective
when positioned on the critical flange between F, P, FR or FP restraints. If an L
restraint is positioned on the non-critical flange it shall be completely ignored. Further, if an L
restraint is positioned between a U and an F, P, FR or PR restraint, it shall be ignored
(regardless of whether it is on the critical or non-critical flange).

Design members must have either a F, P, FR, PR, or U restraint specified at both ends, for both
flanges.

If UNL is not specified, segment length is used as UNL and used as L in effective length
calculation as per 5.6.3.
If ALM i.e., _m is not provided, automatic calculation of ALM is done based on moments
within the segment.
If SKR i.e., Kr is not provided, it is automatically calculated based on table 5.6.3(3)
considering restraint conditions are the end of the segment. If FR or PR is found at only one
of the end, Kr is assumed to be 0.85; if FR or PR is found at both the ends, 0.70 is used as
Kr.
If SKT i.e., Kt is not provided, it is automatically calculated based on Table 5.6.3(1)
considering end restraints of the segment and section geometric information and segment
length.
If SKL i.e., Kl is not provided, it is automatically calculated based on Table 5.6.3(2)
considering end restraints of the segment, Load Height Position parameter, LHT and shear
force variation within the segment.

Notes

a. If PMEMBER list is not provided, all the PMEMBERS are restrained by same
configuration.
b. It is not necessary to provide the restraint locations in sequence as the program sorts them
automatically.
c. Unless specified, PMEMBER ends are assumed to be Fully Restrained (F).
d. While designing any section of the member, effective restraints are searched on each side of
the section along the critical flange.

e. The types of restraints applied to the top and bottom flanges at each location determines the
effective section restraints. These are outlined in the table below:

Table 1B.8-Restraint Meanings in Critical and Noncritical Flanges

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Restraint on a Effective
Restraint on a
Case Flange Non-Critical Section
Critical Flange
Flange Restraint
I U U U
1 L Nothing L
II
2 Nothing L None
1 P or F Nothing or U F
III
2 Nothing or U P or F P
1 PR or FR Nothing or U FR
IV
2 Nothing or U PR or FR PR
1 L, P or F L, P, F, FR or PR F
V
2 FR or PR L, P, F, FR or PR FR

The critical flange can change for each load case considered.

1B.12.4 Automated PMEMBER Design Calculations

The AS 4100 PMEMBER Design automates many design calculations, including those required
for segment / sub-segment design.

Table 1B.9-Automated PMEMBER AS 4100 Design Parameters and


Calculations
PMEMBER
Automated Design
Design Comments
Calculations
Parameter
b compression member
section constant per AS ALB
4100 6.3.3.
Calculated based on moments
m moment modification
ALM distribution for individual
factor per AS 4100 5.6.1.1.
segments and sub-segments.
Based on nominal steel grade
fu tensile strength per AS
FU specified using SGR design
4100 2.1.2.
parameter and section type.
Based on nominal steel grade
fy yield stress per AS 4100
FYLD specified using SGR design
2.1.1.
parameter and section type.
residual stress category for
AS 4100 Table 5.2 and AS IST Based on section type.
4100 Table 6.2.4.
correction factor for Based on section type and
distribution of forces in a eccentric end connection
KT
tension member per AS specified using EEC design
4100 7.3. parameter.
Load height position for LHT
automated calculation of LHT is used for automating
the kl load height factor per calculation of kl load height
AS 4100 Table 5.6.3(2). factors for segments and sub-
segments, per AS 4100 Table
5.6.3(2).

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PMEMBER
Automated Design
Design Comments
Calculations
Parameter
See "Load Height Position" for
details.

Refer to the Segment and Sub-


Segment and sub-segment
PBRACE Segment Layout section above
layout.
for details.
Nominal steel grade. SGR Based on section types.
kt twist restraint factor as
Based on effective end restraints
per AS 4100 Table 5.6.3 SKT
for each segment / sub-segment.
(1).
Based on effective end restraints
kl load height factor as per for each segment / sub-segment,
SKL
AS 4100 Table 5.6.3(2). and LHT design parameter (refer
above).
Based on effective end restraints
kr lateral rotation restraint for each segment / sub-segment.
factor as per AS 4100 SKR This is where the distinction
Table 5.6.3(3). between F and FR, as well as
P and PR is used.

1B.12.5 Load Height Position

When LHT is set to 1.0 to specify a top flange load height position, STAAD.Pro takes the top to
be the positive local y-axis of the member.

This may not literally be the top flange for say a column or beam with a beta angle. The local
member axes can be viewed in the GUI by selecting Beam Orientation in the Diagrams Labels
dialog (or Ctrl+O keyboard shortcut).

To automate kl using AS 4100 Table 5.6.3(2), the longitudinal position of the load also needs to
be considered, i.e., as either within segment or at segment end.

To determine which of these applies, the shear forces at the ends of each design segment / sub-
segment is considered. If the shear force is found to have the same direction and magnitude at both
ends, it is assumed that loads act at the segment end.

If on the other hand the shear force at each end is found to have different directions or magnitudes,
loads are assumed to act within the segment.

The above method includes an allowance for the self-weight of the member to be considered, as
the self-weight always acts through the shear center.

The net sum of the end shears is also used to determine if the load is acting in the positive or
negative local member y-axis direction. If LHT is set to 1.0 for top flange loading, the net sum is
used to determine whether the top flange loading is acting to stabilise or destabilise the member
for lateral torsional buckling. Negative local y-axis net loads act to destabilise the segments / sub-
segments, whereas positive local y-axis net loads act to stabilise segments / sub-segments.

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1B.12.6 Example

PARAMETER 1

CODE AUSTRALIAN

DMAX 0.4 PMEMBER ALL

DMIN 0.25 PMEMBER ALL

KX 0.75 PMEMBER ALL

KY 1.0 PMEMBER ALL

LX 4.5 PMEMBER ALL

LY 6.0 PMEMBER ALL

LHT 0.0 PMEMBER ALL

NSC 0.9 PMEMBER ALL

NSF 1.0 PMEMBER ALL

PBRACE BOTTOM 0.0 F 1.0 F PMEMBER ALL

PBRACE TOP 0.0 P 0.5 L 1.0 P PMEMBER ALL

SGR 0.0 PMEMBER ALL

TRACK 2.0 PMEMBER ALL

CHECK CODE PMEMBER ALL

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